COVID-19 Resources

COVID-19 Q&A: Dr. Debra Kaysen on Individual and Collective Stress & Grief

The COVID-19 global pandemic is not the first event –good or bad -- to be shared by the entire world, but in this age of technology and social connection when information travels the earth at lightning speed, we are all living the full impact of this collective experience, in real time. The countless individual tragedies of the virus come together in a cumulative and mutual loss to which few of us are immune. In this Q&A, Dr. Debra Kaysen, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences with the Public Mental Health & Population Sciences Division, helps us better understand our communal grief and how to deal with the societal stress of COVID-19. Dr. Kaysen specializes in the treatment of trauma and PTSD and is the President of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS).

COVID-19 Q&A: Dr. Elias Aboujaoude on Technology Behaviors

Technology has been a lifeline during the COVID-19 pandemic. It’s given many the ability to work and learn from home, continue to get medical care, and share face-to-face time with family and friends despite physical distancing and stay-at-home orders…not to mention shopping, and a constant flow of information. While these have been enriching and, in some cases, life-saving aspects to our heightened connectivity during the pandemic, potentially problematic relationships with technology have also been brought into stark relief. Our expert on these matters when it comes to mental health is Dr. Elias Aboujaoude, Clinical Professor, Chief of the Anxiety Disorders Section, and Director of the OCD Clinic and the Impulse Control Disorders Clinic. One of his specialties is the intersection of technology and psychology.

COVID-19 Q&A: Dr. Elizabeth Reichert on Depression, Anxiety, Risk for Suicide

It’s no surprise that a global pandemic would exacerbate feelings of stress and fear. What is needed is understanding of how to manage those feelings, how to recognize symptoms of clinical depression and anxiety, as well as when, how, and where to get help. Dr. Elizabeth Reichert provides this expertise as clinical assistant professor of Stanford Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, and Director of the Pediatric Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Clinic.

COVID-19 Q&A: Dr. Kim Bullock on Therapy via Virtual Reality

With person-to-person gatherings suspended because of the Coronavirus pandemic, technology has become the lifeline for friends, family, businesses, and care providers. But even before telehealth was in the spotlight, some health professionals were utilizing the unique characteristics of Virtual Reality (VR) to deliver, and enhance, treatments. Dr. Kim Bullock, Clinical Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, is one of those pioneering doctors who embraced VR early on. In this Q&A, she elaborates on how it can offer particular relief for those suffering under the stress of COVID-19.

COVID-19 Q&A: Dr. Lawrence Fung on Impacts on the Neurodiverse Community

As scientists learn more about the novel Coronavirus, the consensus is that even with more effective treatments and possible vaccines, COVID-19 will likely be with us for a long time to come. New ways of working and learning will continue to evolve, and the many varieties of talents and skills will need to be accommodated for full inclusion. That includes the neurodiverse community. For this insight we turn to Dr. Lawrence Fung, Director of the Stanford Neurodiversity Project (SNP), and the Adult Neurodevelopment Clinic, as well as Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.

COVID-19 Q&A: Dr. Anna Lembke on Addiction

We’re seeing some signs that substance abuse and addiction is on the rise because of the stressors brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic. Dr. Anna Lembke, Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Medical Director of Addiction Medicine, is a national leader in the move to “bring addiction into the house of medicine” so it can be treated like any other disease. As Chief of the Stanford Addiction Medicine Dual Diagnosis Clinic, Dr. Lembke is uniquely experienced to discuss this social consequence of COVID-19.

COVID-19 Q&A: Dr. Rachel Manber on Sleep Disturbances

Stay-at-home orders have our daily routines in flux, and uncertainty and fear are constant companions in this global pandemic. As part of our COVID-19 Q&A series, Rachel Manber, Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Director of the Stanford Sleep Health and Insomnia Program (SHIP), discusses how these conditions can interfere with healthy sleep or exacerbate existing sleep condition, as well as ways to get help.

COVID-19 Q&A: Dr. Hans Steiner on Anger and Aggression

The Coronavirus pandemic, with its extreme disruption of normal daily life and uncertainty for the future, compounded by several other crises (economic distress, racial tension, social inequities, political and ideological conflicts) puts us all to the test: we find ourselves immersed in a pool of negative emotions: fear, sadness, contempt, and yes, anger. What do we do with this forceful emotion, calling us to act on our behalf? Can it be managed to limit disruption to our well-being, or harnessed for a positive outcome? This obviously depends on our age. But generally, the answer is an emphatic “yes”: Anger should be one of our adaptive tools to deal with the most difficult circumstances. Sometimes it becomes an obstacle to our struggles, especially when it derails into aggression and even violence. But far more often, it energizes and motivates us to fix what is broken.

COVID-19 Q&A: Dr. James Lock on Eating Disorders

Mental health conditions can be exacerbated because of the additional pressures brought on by the Coronavirus pandemic. In this COVID-19 Q&A with Dr. Lock, a Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Director of the Stanford Child and Adolescent Eating Disorder Program, we focus on how eating disorders may be further triggered by the conditions imposed by COVID-19 safety measures.

COVID-19 Q&A: Dr. Margo Thienemann on OCD

The prolonged uncertainty brought on by the Coronavirus pandemic has heightened the challenge of maintaining mental wellbeing, particularly for some with conditions that manifest in controlling outcomes, like Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, or OCD. As part of our COVID-19 Q&A series, Dr. Margo Thienemann, Clinical Professor in the Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences and Director of Psychiatric Services at the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) Clinic, shares how COVID-19 is impacting patients and ways to cope.

Scholarly Articles

  1. The impact of COVID-19 on patients with chronic pain seeking care at a tertiary pain clinic. Ziadni MS, You DS, Cramer EM, Anderson SR, Hettie G, Darnall BD, Mackey SC. Sci Rep. 2022 Apr 19;12(1):6435. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-10431-5. PMID: 35440688

  2. Digital markers of sleep architecture to characterize the impact of different lockdown regimens on sleep health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pépin JL, Bailly S, Mignot E, Gaucher J, Chouraki A, Cals-Maurette M, Ben Messaoud R, Tamisier R, Arnal PJ. Sleep. 2022 Apr 16:zsac074. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsac074.  PMID: 35429392 

  3. Did the acute impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on drinking or nicotine use persist? Evidence from a cohort of emerging adults followed for up to nine years. Pelham WE 3rd, Yuksel D, Tapert SF, Baker FC, Pohl KM, Thompson WK, Podhajsky S, Reuter C, Zhao Q, Eberson-Shumate SC, Clark DB, Goldston DB, Nooner KB, Brown SA. Addict Behav. 2022 Mar 25;131:107313. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2022.107313.   PMID: 35413486

  4. COVID-19 and substance use disorders: a review of international guidelines for frontline healthcare workers of addiction services. Ostinelli EG, Smith K, Zangani C, Ostacher MJ, Lingford-Hughes AR, Hong JSW, Macdonald O, Cipriani A. BMC Psychiatry. 2022 Mar 31;22(1):228. doi: 10.1186/s12888-022-03804-7. PMID: 35361184

  5. Sociodemographic and geographic disparities in excess fatal drug overdoses during the COVID-19 pandemic in California: A population-based study. Kiang MV, Acosta RJ, Chen YH, Matthay EC, Tsai AC, Basu S, Glymour MM, Bibbins-Domingo K, Humphreys K, Arthur KN.Lancet Reg Health Am. 2022 Jul;11:100237. doi: 10.1016/j.lana.2022.100237. Epub 2022 Mar 19. PMID: 35342895 

  6. Fear of COVID-19 and its association with mental health-related factors: systematic review and meta-analysis. Alimoradi Z, Ohayon MM, Griffiths MD, Lin CY, Pakpour AH. BJPsych Open. 2022 Mar 21;8(2):e73. doi: 10.1192/bjo.2022.26. PMID: 35307051 

  7. Association of Global Cognitive Function with Psychological Distress and Adherence to Public Health Recommendations during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Women's Health Initiative. Shadyab AH, Larson JC, Rapp SR, Shumaker SA, Kroenke CH, Meliker J, Saquib N, Ikramuddin F, Michael YL, Goveas JS, Garcia L, Wactawski-Wende J, Luo J, Hayden KM, Chen JC, Weitlauf J, Baker LD. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2022 Mar 2:glac053. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glac053.  PMID: 35235646

  8. Assessing the impact of COVID-19 on psychiatric clinical trials. Cannon JA, Strathman AR, Warner S, Flignor J, Beck NS. J Psychiatr Res. 2022 Jan 15;148:127-130. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2022.01.017. PMID: 35123324 

  9. Suicidal Ideation during the COVID-19 Pandemic among A Large-Scale Iranian Sample: The Roles of Generalized Trust, Insomnia, and Fear of COVID-19. Lin CY, Alimoradi Z, Ehsani N, Ohayon MM, Chen SH, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. Healthcare (Basel). 2022 Jan 4;10(1):93. doi: 10.3390/healthcare10010093. PMID: 35052258

  10. Viability of an Early Sleep Intervention to Mitigate Poor Sleep and Improve Well-being in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Protocol for a Feasibility Randomized Controlled Trial. O'Hora KP, Osorno RA, Sadeghi-Bahmani D, Lopez M, Morehouse A, Kim JP, Manber R, Goldstein-Piekarski AN. JMIR Res Protoc. 2021 Dec 18. doi: 10.2196/34409. PMID: 34995204

  11. Associations between changes in loneliness and social connections, and mental health during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Women's Health Initiative. Goveas JS, Ray RM, Woods NF, Manson JAE, Kroenke CH, Michael YL, Shadyab AH, Meliker JR, Chen JC, Johnson L, Mouton C, Saquib N, Weitlauf J, Wactawski-Wende J, Naughton M, Shumaker S, Anderson GL. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2021 Dec 16:glab371. doi: 10.1093/gerona/glab371. PMID: 34915558

  12. Development of RESTORE: an online intervention to improve mental health symptoms associated with COVID-19-related traumatic and extreme stressors. Trottier K, Monson CM, Kaysen D, Wagner AC, Pun C, Abbey SE. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2021 Nov 1;12(1):1984049. doi: 10.1080/20008198.2021.1984049. eCollection 2021. PMID: 34745446 

  13. Risk for depression tripled during the COVID-19 pandemic in emerging adults followed for the last 8 years. Alzueta E, Podhajsky S, Zhao Q, Tapert SF, Thompson WK, de Zambotti M, Yuksel D, Kiss O, Wang R, Volpe L, Prouty D, Colrain IM, Clark DB, Goldston DB, Nooner KB, De Bellis MD, Brown SA, Nagel BJ, Pfefferbaum A, Sullivan EV, Baker FC, Pohl KM. Psychol Med. 2021 Nov 2:1-8. doi: 10.1017/S0033291721004062. PMID: 34726149

  14. COVID-19 Pandemic: Mental Health in Girls With and Without Fragile X Syndrome. Jordan TL, Bartholomay KL, Lee CH, Miller JG, Lightbody AA, Reiss AL. J Pediatr Psychol. 2021 Oct 26:jsab106. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsab106. PMID: 34718672

  15. How Digital Technology Mediated the Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Mental Health: The Good, the Bad, and the Indifferent. Gega L, Aboujaoude E. Front Digit Health. 2021 Sep 14;3:733151. doi: 10.3389/fdgth.2021.733151. eCollection 2021. PMID: 34713202 

  16. Impacts of COVID-19 on Mental Health and Training in US Professional Endurance Athletes. Roche M, Sainani K, Noordsy D, Fredericson M. Clin J Sport Med. 2021 Oct 27. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000983. PMID: 34711711

  17. Clinician Delivery of Virtual Pivotal Response Treatment with Children with Autism during the COVID-19 Pandemic. White DM, Aufderheide-Palk C, Gengoux GW. Social Sciences. 2021; 10(11):414. doi: 10.3390/socsci10110414

  18. Coping Strategies, Neural Structure, and Depression and Anxiety During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Longitudinal Study in a Naturalistic Sample Spanning Clinical Diagnoses and Subclinical Symptoms. Holt-Gosselin B, Tozzi L, Ramirez CA, Gotlib IH, Williams LM. Biol Psychiatry Glob Open Sci. 2021 Jun 30. doi: 10.1016/j.bpsgos.2021.06.007.  PMID: 34604834 

  19. TMS and CBT-I for comorbid depression and insomnia. Exploring feasibility and tolerability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for comorbid major depressive disorder and insomnia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Norred MA, Haselden L, Sahlem GL, Wilkerson AK, Short EB, McTeague LM, George MS. Brain Stimul. 2021 Sep 23:S1935-861X(21)00238-2. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2021.09.007. PMID: 34563744

  20. Assessment of Allergic and Anaphylactic Reactions to mRNA COVID-19 Vaccines With Confirmatory Testing in a US Regional Health System. Warren CM, Snow TT, Lee AS, Shah MM, Heider A, Blomkalns A, Betts B, Buzzanco AS, Gonzalez J, Chinthrajah RS, Do E, Chang I, Dunham D, Lee G, O'Hara R, Park H, Shamji MH, Schilling L, Sindher SB, Sisodiya D, Smith E, Tsai M, Galli SJ, Akdis C, Nadeau KC. JAMA Netw Open. 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2125524. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.25524. PMID: 34533570

  21. Risk factors for elevations in substance use and consequences during the COVID-19 pandemic among sexual and gender minorities assigned female at birth. Dyar C, Morgan E, Kaysen D, Newcomb ME, Mustanski B. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2021 Sep 1;227:109015. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.109015. PMID: 34492556

  22. Obstructive sleep apnea and severe COVID-19 infection: is there a plausible link? Sahni A, Cao M. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021 Sep 2. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.9644. PMID: 34473047

  23. Resilience-Focused HIV Care to Promote Psychological Well-Being During COVID-19 and Other Catastrophes. Brown LL, Martin EG, Knudsen HK, Gotham HJ, Garner BR. Front Public Health. 2021 Aug 4;9:705573. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.705573. eCollection 2021.PMID: 34422749

  24. Economic distress, financial toxicity, and medical cost-coping in young adult cancer survivors during the COVID-19 pandemic: Findings from an online sample. Thom B, Benedict C, Friedman DN, Watson SE, Zeitler MS, Chino F. Cancer. 2021 Aug 5. doi: 10.1002/cncr.33823. PMID: 34351638

  25. Protecting patients and staff in residential treatment centers during exposure to COVID-19: commentary. Johnson KA, Keough C, Hills H, Vermeer W, Lengnick-Hall R, McNulty M, McGovern M, Brown H. Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2021 Jul 30;16(1):49. doi: 10.1186/s13722-021-00258-2. PMID: 34330335

  26. Supporting Indian and other South Asians facing COVID-19 and other serious illnesses. Trivedi R, Lorenz KA. J Pain Symptom Manage.  2021 Jul 13:S0885-3924(21)00423-1.  doi: 10. 1016/j. jpainsymman. 2021. 06. 024.  PMID: 34271145 

  27. Preparing for the long-haul: Autonomic complications of COVID-19. Larsen NW, Stiles LE, Miglis MG. Auton Neurosci.  2021 Jul 3;235:102841.  doi: 10. 1016/j. autneu. 2021. 102841.  PMID: 34265539

  28. Gender-specific estimates of sleep problems during the COVID-19 pandemic: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Alimoradi Z, Gozal D, Tsang HWH, Lin CY, Broström A, Ohayon MM, Pakpour AH. J Sleep Res.  2021 Jul 9:e13432.  doi: 10. 1111/jsr. 13432.  PMID: 34245055

  29. The Impact of COVID-19 on Adolescent Mental Health: Preliminary Findings From a Longitudinal Sample of Healthy and At-Risk Adolescents. Cohen ZP, Cosgrove KT, DeVille DC, Akeman E, Singh MK, White E, Stewart JL, Aupperle RL, Paulus MP, Kirlic N.Front Pediatr. 2021 Jun 8;9:622608. doi: 10.3389/fped.2021.622608. eCollection 2021.PMID: 34169046

  30. Sleep problems during COVID-19 pandemic and its' association to psychological distress: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Alimoradi Z, Broström A, Tsang HWH, Griffiths MD, Haghayegh S, Ohayon MM, Lin CY, Pakpour AH.EClinicalMedicine. 2021 Jun;36:100916. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100916. Epub 2021 Jun 10.PMID: 34131640

  31. Adaptations Made to Pediatric Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Service Delivery During the Early Months of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A North American Multisite Survey. Brahmbhatt K, Mournet AM, Malas N, DeSouza C, Greenblatt J, Afzal KI, Giles LL, Charoensook J, Feuer V, Raza H, Mooneyham GC, Pergjika A, Schlesinger A, Chapman A, Strain A, Gandhi B, Johnson K, Mroczkowski MM, Ibeziako P, Graham R, Yoon Y, Plioplys S, Fuchs C, Shaw RJ, Pao M.J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry. 2021 May 24:S2667-2960(21)00094-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jaclp.2021.05.003. PMID: 34033972

  32. Advancing Medical Education Through Innovations in Teaching During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Ho PA, Girgis C, Rustad JK, Noordsy D, Stern TA.Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2021 Feb 18;23(1):20nr02847. doi: 10.4088/PCC.20nr02847.PMID: 34000143

  33. Adapting and adopting highly specialized pediatric eating disorder treatment to virtual care: a protocol for an implementation study in the COVID-19 context. Couturier J, Pellegrini D, Miller C, Agar P, Webb C, Anderson K, Barwick M, Dimitropoulos G, Findlay S, Kimber M, McVey G, Lock J.Implement Sci Commun. 2021 Apr 8;2(1):38. doi: 10.1186/s43058-021-00143-8.PMID: 33832543

  34. Greatest changes in objective sleep architecture during COVID-19 lockdown in night-owls with increased REM sleep. Pépin JL, Bailly S, Mordret E, Gaucher J, Tamisier R, Ben Messaoud R, Arnal PJ, Mignot E. Sleep. 2021 Mar 26:zsab075. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsab075. PMID: 33769511

  35. COVID-19 Adaptations in the Care of Patients with Opioid Use Disorder: a Survey of California Primary Care Clinics. Caton L, Cheng H, Garneau HC, Fisher T, Harris-Mills B, Hurley B, Newman S, McGovern MP. J Gen Intern Med. 2021 Jan 28:1-8. doi: 10.1007/s11606-020-06436-3. PMID: 33511572 

  36. The retention challenge in remote therapy and learning seen through the lens of the COVID-19 pandemic. Aboujaoude E, Gega L, Saltarelli AJ. World Psychiatry. 2021 Feb;20(1):138-139. doi: 10.1002/wps.20828. PMID: 33432753

  37. International Prevalence and Correlates of Psychological Stress during the Global COVID-19 Pandemic. Adamson MM, Phillips A, Seenivasan S, Martinez J, Grewal H, Kang X, Coetzee J, Luttenbacher I, Jester A, Harris OA, Spiegel D. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Dec 10;17(24):E9248. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17249248. PMID: 33321950

  38. Training During a Pandemic: Successes, Challenges, and Practical Guidance From a Virtual Facilitated Learning Collaborative Training Program for Written Exposure Therapy. Worley CB, LoSavio ST, Aajmain S, Rosen C, Stirman SW, Sloan DM. J Trauma Stress. 2020 Oct 2. doi: 10.1002/jts.22589. PMID: 33007149

  39. Beyond the First Wave: Consequences of COVID-19 on High-Risk Infants and Families. Lemmon ME, Chapman I, Malcolm W, Kelley K, Shaw RJ, Milazzo A, Cotten CM, Hintz SR. Am J Perinatol. 2020 Sep 10. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1715839. PMID: 32911555

  40. Best Practices for Approaching Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Hagerty SL, Wielgosz J, Kraemer J, Nguyen HV, Loew D, Kaysen D. J Trauma Stress. 2020 Aug 31. doi: 10.1002/jts.22583. PMID: 32865850

  41. Academic Medicine in the Time of COVID-19. Roberts L. W. (2020). Academic medicine : journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges, 95(8), 1123–1124.

  42. COVID-19 Takes Adolescent Suicide Prevention to Less Charted Territory. Szlyk, H. S., Berk, M., Peralta, A. O., & Miranda, R. (2020). The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 67(2), 161–163. 

  43. Caring for Caregivers during COVID-19. Dang S, Penney LS, Trivedi R, Noel PH, Pugh MJ, Finley E, Pugh JA, Van Houtven CH, Leykum L. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2020 Jul 7. doi: 10.1111/jgs.16726.PMID: 32638348

  44. Coronavirus Disease 2019 Takes Adolescent Suicide Prevention to Less Charted Territory. Szlyk HS, Berk M, Peralta AO, Miranda R. J Adolesc Health. 2020 Jun 11. pii: S1054-139X(20)30302-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.05.046.

  45. Family-based treatment via videoconference: Clinical recommendations for treatment providers during COVID-19 and beyond. Matheson BE, Bohon C, Lock J. Int J Eat Disord. 2020 Jun 13. doi: 10.1002/eat.23326.

  46. Discussing substance use with clients during the COVID-19 pandemic: A motivational interviewing approach. Walker DD, Jaffe AE, Pierce AR, Walton TO, Kaysen DL. Psychol Trauma. 2020 Jun 11. doi: 10.1037/tra0000764.

  47. Mitigating and learning from the impact of COVID-19 infection on addictive disorders. Marsden J, Darke S, Hall W, Hickman M, Holmes J, Humphreys K, Neale J, Tucker J, West R. Addiction. 2020 Jun;115(6):1007-1010. doi: 10.1111/add.15080.

  48. How Support of Early Career Researchers Can Reset Science in the Post-COVID19 World. Gibson EM, Bennett FC, Gillespie SM, et al. Cell. 2020;S0092-8674(20)30678-4. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.045

  49. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder via Telehealth: Practical Considerations During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Moring JC, Dondanville KA, Fina BA, Hassija C, Chard K, Monson C, LoSavio ST, Wells SY, Morland LA, Kaysen D, Galovski TE, Resick PA. J Trauma Stress. 2020 May 13. doi: 10.1002/jts.22544.

  50. The impact of COVID-19 on mental health: The interactive roles of brain biotypes and human connection. Hagerty SL, Williams LM. Brain Behav Immun Health. 2020 May 7:100078. doi: 10.1016/j.bbih.2020.100078.PMID: 32382727

  51. Increased Risk of Suicide Due to Economic and Social Impacts of Social Distancing Measures to Address the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Forecast. Weems C, Carrion V, McCurdy B, Scozzafava M. (2020). 10.13140/RG.2.2.21601.45926.

  52. Chatbots in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. Miner AS, Laranjo L, Kocaballi AB. NPJ Digit Med. 2020 May 4;3:65. doi: 10.1038/s41746-020-0280-0. eCollection 2020. PMID: 32377576

  53. Understanding and Addressing Sources of Anxiety Among Health Care Professionals During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Shanafelt T, Ripp J, Trockel M. JAMA. 2020 Apr 7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.5893. PMID: 32259193

  54. Mitigating and learning from the impact of COVID-19 infection on addictive disorders. Marsden J, Darke S, Hall W, Hickman M, Holmes J, Humphreys K, Neale J, Tucker J, West R. Addiction. 2020 Apr 6. doi: 10.1111/add.15080. PMID: 32250482