Care & Treatment



What treatments do the laryngologists at Stanford offer?

  • Evaluation for and identifying the cause of hoarseness, airway and swallowing disorders.
  • Care for the professional voice.
  • Multidisciplinary management of voice disorders and laryngeal cancer.
  • Referrals for voice therapy or swallow therapy with a speech language pathologist when appropriate.

What are some symptoms I should bring to a laryngologist?

  • Change in voice including hoarseness, breathy voice, decreased loudness, loss of range, voice breaks, and vocal tremor.
  • Pain with talking or singing
  • Difficulty swallowing such as choking while eating or drinking, regurgitation of food, or food getting stuck in the throat when swallowing.
  • Pain with swallowing
  • Persistent throat pain
  • Difficulty breathing or noisy breathing
  • Chronic cough
  • Cancer of the throat

What are some problems commonly diagnosed and treated by the Stanford laryngologists?

Airway Stenosis

  • Glottic Stenosis
  • Subglottic Stenosis
  • Supraglottic Stenosis
  • Tracheal Stenosis

Disorders of the Esophagus

  • Cricopharyngeal Dysfunction
  • Esophageal stenosis
  • Radiation-related Swallowing Disorders
  • Zenker's Diverticulum

Neurologic Disorders

  • ALS
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Stroke

Vocal Fold (Vocal Cord) Lesions

  • Cancer of the Larynx
  • Cysts
  • Granulomas
  • Laryngitis
  • Leukoplakia
  • Nodules
  • Papilloma
  • Varices (Enlarged Blood Vessels)
  • Vocal Fold Hemorrhage
  • Vocal Fold Scarring

Other Voice Disorders

  • Age-related Voice Changes
  • Chronic Cough
  • Laryngopharyngeal Reflux
  • Laryngospasm
  • Paradoxical Vocal Fold Motion
  • Scarring and narrowing of the vocal folds and airway
  • Spasmodic Dysphonia
  • Vocal Fold Paresis/Paralysis

What procedures are available?

Procedures in our Clinic

  • In-office vocal fold injection augmentation for paralysis, paresis or bowing
  • Botox injections for selected laryngeal diseases such as spasmodic dysphonia
  • Transnasal esophagoscopy
  • Laser treatment of papillomas
  • Laser treatment of vocal fold lesions
  • In-office steroid injections of some laryngeal lesions or scarring
  • In-office laryngeal biopsy
  • Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing

Procedures in the Hospital

  • Phonomicrosurgery for vocal fold lesions requiring surgical treatment
  • Conservative surgery for laryngeal cancer: We offer endoscopic treatment for early stage disease with and without laser and larynx-preserving open partial laryngectomy for some later stage disease.
  • Arytenoid repositioning surgery for vocal fold paralysis
  • Medialization thyroplasty for vocal fold paralysis
  • Reinnervation of the paralyzed vocal fold
  • Dilation of airway stenosis
  • Laryngotracheal reconstruction
  • Tracheal resection
  • Cricotracheal resection
  • Endoscopic treatment of Zenker’s diverticulum
  • Transcervical treatment of Zenker’s diverticulum
  • Esophageal dilation
  • Endoscopic cricopharyngeal myotomy
  • Transcervical cricopharyngeal myotomy
  • Selective Laryngeal Adductor Dennervation and Reinnervation – The Berke Procedure for Spasmodic Dysphonia
  • Placement of tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) and prosthesis for tracheoesophageal speech after laryngectomy