Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo is a type of vertigo that occurs only with certain head movements causing severe room spinning lasting less than a minute. It is most common in the elderly, people with vitamin D deficiency, osteoporosis or head trauma.
BPPV comes from small calcium carbonate (bony) crystals dislodging from their receptacles in the inner ear and becoming free floating in the inner ear. With head movement, the crystals move, sending incorrect signals to the brain, making the affected person feel like they are moving when they are not.
The crystals can be replaced with a series of movements known as Canalith Repositioning Maneuvers. These have names such as the Epley Maneuver, Semont Maneuver, BBQ Roll and Gufoni Maneuver. These are typically best performed with an experienced physical therapist or physician, though some patients can do them on their own when instructed accurately.