At Stanford, we integrate many different simulation courses throughout residency, ranging from mannequin-based full team scenarios with debriefings to procedural skills training for hands-on practice, both anesthesia-only and with interprofessional teams.

We are privileged to have at Stanford the leadership of Dr. David Gaba, Associate Dean for Immersive & Simulation-based Learning and Dr. Steve Howard, Professor of Anesthesia, who first adapted CRM principles from aviation to simulation-based training in anesthesia in 1990 and authored the book “Crisis Management in Anesthesiology” published in 1994, with revised second edition 2015. In 2010, Stanford University School of Medicine opened a new state of the art facility for simulated and immersive learning at the Li KaShing Center (LKSC) for Learning and Knowledge. The LKSC has allowed us to further expand simulation education. The facility, with 28,000 square feet dedicated to immersive learning, encourages Stanford residents to not only fine tune their own skills, but also to help educate medical students in the simulated environment.

For more information on simulation at Stanford in general, visit