Facts and History
A Timeline of Cardiovascular Medicine's Achievements
This was the first explanation of a method, and its validation, for non-invasive measurement of LV stroke volume using ultrasound (M-mode) (Rich Popp, Don Harrison) Circulation 41:493, 1969.
This was a validation of the systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve as a mechanism of LV outflow obstruction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (Popp, Harrison).Circulation 40:905, 1969
The first description of a congenital anomaly that was very hard to recognize with invasive methods, thereby giving a new window of unusual cases of aortic stenosis. Popp and Harrison. Circulation 49:226-231, 1974
One of many articles from Stanford showing the ability of noninvasive two-dimensional ultrasound to image anatomic cardiac pathologies. Am J Cardiol 43:560-568, 1979. (Popp)
The primary demonstration of the non-invasive continuous wave Doppler method of measuring RV and PA pressure.(Yock and Popp) Circulation 70:657-662, 1984
Validated the noninvasive measurement of aortic valve gradient that has replaced invasive methods for this purpose.(Yock, Popp with Liv Hatle) Am J Cardiol 57:644-648, 1986.
Landmark paper describing the Doppler echocardiographic method for recognizing LV diastolic dysfunction and explaining the hemodynamic basis of the changes observed (Popp, Hatle), J Am Coll Cardiol 12:426-440, 1988.
After the invention and commercialization of IVUS, Stanford studies first to systematically use it to study atherosclerosis from the ‘inside’ and show that vascular remodeling occurs in a way that masks recognition of atheroma on angiography(Popp, Fitzgerald, Alderman, St.Goar, Pinto, Billingham)(Circulation 86:756-763, 1992)( J Am Coll Cardiol 18:952-958, 1991.)
Landmark report of real time interactive cardiac MRI (Yang, Hu)
Landmark report of real time coronary MRI (Yang, McConnell, Hu)
Video based artificial intelligence approaches for beat to beat assessment of cardiac function (Nature)(Ashley, Harrington, Liang, Heidenreich, David Oyang fellow)
First quantitative ECG criteria for screening young athletes (Perez, Wheeler, Ashley, Froelicher)
Stanford made substantial contributions to mapping human AF to guide ablation to localized drivers (2014), with Dr. Narayan's group first presenting this in 2011.
Stanford made seminal contributions to mapping and ablating localized drivers for human VF (2014). Dr. Sanjiv Narayan
Clarification of the role of early repolarization in prognosis (Froelicher, Myers, Perez)
Apple Heart Study, (Mintu Turakhia, Marco Perez, Ken Mahaffey)
Aortic valvotomy using hypothermia (Shumway)
A mechanical pump-oxygenator for successful cardiopulmonary by-pass (Shumway)
Rich Popp President of the ACC
First studies to apply multivariate techniques to demonstrate prognostic power of the exercise test is similar to imaging methods (Vic Froelicher, John Myers) PAVA
ADAPTABLE Trial launched – Largest EHR based RCT ever conducted - Harrington
EUCLID trial published. Largest dedicated PAD trial ever done – Mahaffey
Project Baseline study launched by Verily, Stanford and Duke (Mahaffey, Haddad, Maron, Assimes, Harrington)
Bob Harrington serves as AHA President
FDA approval of first drug to prevent progression of renal disease in T2DM in 20 years (canagliflozin) – Mahaffey
First adult human heart transplant in the United States, Norman Shumway successfully transplants a heart into 54-year-old steelworker Mike Kasperak, who survives for 14 days.
Introduction of distant heart procurement to enable the brain dead body of the donor NOT to be transferred to Stanford to be in the adjoining OR at the time of donation.
Introduction of endomycardial biospy for monitoring heart failure rejection with histological grading scheme (Philip Caves, Margaret Billingham, Sharon Hunt)
Introduction of cyclosporine into heart transplant immunosuppressive regimens (Sharon Hunt, efforts led by Phil Oyer, Norm Shumway)
First successful human combined heart/lung transplant in the world (fourth attempted worldwide), Mary Gohlke receives the world's first combined heart and lung transplant in a landmark operation led by surgeon Bruce Reitz.
Seminal clinical strategy for long term monitoring and care of cardiac transplant (Stinson, Hunt)
Seminal work on role of beta blockade in heart failure (Fowler, Valentine)
Sharon Hunt President of ISHLT
1,000th heart transplant performed at Stanford Hospital
Novel immunosuppressants for heart transplant
Biopsy grading of celluar rejection, revision
Development of the AlloMap test to diagnose transplant rejection, one of the first genomic diagnostic tests (Mike Pham, Hannah Valentine, Tom Quertermous)
First pilot demonstration of the development and utility of cell free DNA to monitor for heart transplant rejection (Khush, Valentine)(PNAS with Steve Quake)
First catheter based deactivation of a left ventricular assist device after myocardial recovery.
Role ot telomere shortening in cardiac failure in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Blau, Bernstein)
Clinical trial evidence that cell free DNA can be used to monitor for acute rejection post heart transplant (Khush, Valentine)
Circulating cell-free DNA enables non-invasive diagnosis of heart transplant rejection (Quake, Valantine, Bernstein, Khush)
Jeff Teuteberg President of ISHLT
Completed enrollment for the NIH-sponsored Donor Heart Study (2014-2020)—the first prospective study of potential cardiac organ donors (Khush)
Complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot (Shumway)
Discovery that insulin resistance is the principal physiologic characteristic of mild type-II diabetes and obesity, Researchers John Farquhar and Gerald Reaven discover the principal physiological characteristic of type-2 diabetes is insulin resistance.
First multicenter trial to demonstrate that lowering cholesterol levels prevents heart disease, John Farquhar and Peter Wood lead the first large clinical investigation that shows lowering cholesterol levels prevents heart disease.
First U.S. trial of community-wide mass media intervention with health education for preventing heart disease (Farquhar, Wood, Haskell, Maccoby and others). Lancet 1977;1(8023):1192-5.
First successful pediatric heart transplant (Shumway, Stinson)
Palo Alto VA faculty (Herb Hultgren) involved in VA Coop study which showed critical survival benefit of revascularization
Stanford faculty (Ed Alderman) played a critical role in the CASS (Coronary Artery Surgery Study), a randomized trial of CABG
One of the first successful infant heart transplants (Shumway, Stinson)
Stanford is one of founding members of Pediatric Heart Transplant Study
Initiated the ongoing Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS) – among the first to demonstrate prognostic power of cardiorespiratory fitness in clinical populations (Vic Froelicher, John Myers)
First successful long-term palliaton for severe neonatal Ebstein anomaly (Vaughn Starnes)
First demonstration of growth of the transplanted pediatric heart (Bernstein)
First demonstration that lifestyle changes and drug therapy decrease heart attack rates and slows progression of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries
Seminal work on vascular remodeling and molecular therapies for vascular disease (Dzau, Gibbons) (NEJM)
First gene knockout of adrenergic receptor genes (Drs. Brian Kobilka, Dan Bernstein and Gregory Barsh)
First multi-center study of long-term survival in pediatric heart transplantation (Bernstein)
Demonstration of adverse outcomes of older donor hearts in adolescent recipients (Chin, Bernstein)
Dan Bernstein serves as President of the Society for Pediatric Research
Total lymphoid radiation in pediatric heart transplant recipients (Chin/Robbins/Hunt/Reitz/Bernstein)
Resynchronization pacing for children with right ventricular failure (Dubin, Feinstein, Hanley, Rosenthal)
Foundation of the Stanford Cardiovascular Institute.
One of the first uses of whole transcriptome profiling (gene chips) in models of heart failure (Bernstein)
Establishment of lymphedema as an inflammatory disease that has provided pharmacological targets that have proceeded to positive human clinical trials (Rockson).
First stent valve implantation in an infant (Feinstein, Reddy, Perry)
10 and 20 year long-term survival in pediatric heart transplant recipients (Shumway, Robbins, Chin, Bernstein)
First multi-center study to demonstarte feasibility of heart transplant for patients with a failed Fontan (Bernstein)
COURAGE Trial. Among patients with stable coronary artery disease, PCI as an initial management strategy did not reduce the risk of death or myocardial infarction when added to optimal medical therapy. The medical therapy was modeled after SCRIP. (David Maron) N Engl J Med 2007;356:1503-1516.
One of the first reports of VAD use in pediatric heart failure patients (Rosenthal, Robbins, Reitz)
First use of whole genome seuqencing in clinical care (Euan Ashley led team)
First whole genome sequence molecular autopsy (Euan Ashley)
First study on INTERMACS-defined morbidity and mortality associated with pediatric ventricular assist device support (Rheinhartz, Robbins, Reitz, Chin, Bernstein, Rosenthal)
CARDIOGRAM study, largest genome wide association for coronary artery disease (Assimes, Knowles, Quertermous co-investigators)
Creation of IPSC biobank of iPSCs from patients with Mendelian diseases and complex diseases (Joe Wu, Quertermous)
Human iPSCs to study dilated & hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (Sci Tranl Med 2012; Cell Stem Cell 2013; Cell Stem Cell 2015; Joseph Wu)
Outcomes of combined heart and liver transplant for failing Fontan circulation
First demonstration of somatic cardiac mosaicism (Ashley, James Priest)
Large scale mapping of human coronary artery disease susceptibility loci (CARDIOGRAM+C4D)(Assimes, Quertermous, Knowles)
Fastest enrolling clinical study, MyHeart Counts a first-of-its-kind cardiovascular health investigation and tool. Powered by Apple's ResearchKit platform, the app enables users to track their physical activity, in context with other heart health-related parameters, such as blood pressure. (McConnell, Ashley, Yeung)
Created the first genome-wide expression map of the entire embryonic heart (Li G et al, Developmental Cell 2016) at single cell resolution. Sean Wu
First clinical long read whole genome sequencing (Ashley)
Critical role of CD47 in atherosclerosis (Kojima et al Nature) (Leeper, Quertermous)
Human iPSCs to study chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity (Nat Med 2016; Sci Transl Med 2017; Joseph Wu)
Million Veteran Program Lipids Paper in Nature Genetics (largest multi-ethnic population study of blood lipids).(Assimes, Tsao)
Phil Tsao named co-Principal Investigator of the Million Veteran Program with primary responsibility of genomic data generation through the VA Palo Alto Epidemiology and Informatics Center (ERIC) for Genomics (co-directed by Drs. Tsao and Assimes)
Undiagnosed disease network paper NEJM (Euan Ashley, Matt Wheeler)
Human iPSCs as autologous cancer vaccine (Cell Stem Cell 2018; Joseph Wu)
Joseph Wu elected to National Academy of Medicine
Led the cardiac effort of the Tabula Muris Consortium that identified the genome-wide expression map of single cells in the entire adult mouse, Sean Wu
Human iPSCs to study cardiolaminopathy (Nature 2019; Sci Transl Med 2020; Joseph Wu)
ISCHEMIA Trial. Among patients with stable coronary disease and moderate or severe ischemia, an initial invasive strategy did not significantly reduce the risk of ischemic cardiovascular events or death as compared with an initial conservative strategy. Patients with angina had a better quality of life with an invasive strategy. This trial had its roots in the SCRIP study led by Haskell and Alderman.(David Maron, Bob Harrington) N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1395-1407. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1408-1419.
ISCHEMIA-CKD Trial. Among patients with stable coronary disease, advanced chronic kidney disease, and moderate or severe ischemia, an initial invasive strategy did not significantly reduce the risk of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction or improve quality of life as compared with an initial conservative strategy. (David Maron) N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1608-1618. N Engl J Med. 2020;382:1619-1628.
Intravascular ultrasound developed (Paul Yock) out of work influenced during training at Stanford.
Rapid exchange angioplasy system (Paul Yock).
First "sheathless" coronary stent develped by Simon Stertzer, critical in vivo experiments at Stanford.
Stanford faculty including Mark Hlatky and Ed Alderman contributed significantly to the BARI trial (comparison of CABG vs angioplasty)
Derivation and subsequent validation of the index of microcirculatory resistance, a novel invasive method for assessing microvascular function that is now used widely in the cath lab (Fearon). (Circulation.2003;107:3129–3132)
First TAVR performed in Northern California (Yeung, Fearon)
First publication of a multicenter outcomes trial (FAME) demonstrating the role of fractional flow reserve for guiding percutaneous coronary intervention (Fearon)
Development and validation of intravascular lithotripsy system (Brinton)
Publication of FAME 2 trial (Fearon)
FDA approval of first IV short acting P2y12 inhibitor (cangrelor) in 2017 based on Champion trials – Harrington/Mahaffey