AAP Newborn Nursery Core Curriculum
Clinical Rotations for Residents
This is the nursery core curriculum adopted by the AAP. Residents are expected to be competent in all of the following areas of newborn care by the end of training. Because not all of these experiences come through the newborn nursery (prenatal visits and resuscitation, for example), attention must be paid to rounding out the "nursery" experience with those from the NICU and the outpatient clinics.
GOAL 1: Prenatal Visit
Understand the importance of and the approach to the prenatal office visit.
- Describe key history items to collect and why.
- Discuss basic needs and common issues for parents expecting their first child; and those expecting subsequent children.
- During the prenatal visit, assess and discuss:
- parental expectations and concerns
- medical risks
- social environmental risks and strengths
- discuss the office practice with attention to Tricare vs. Champus and giving emphasis to the importance of continuity
- address parental concern
- Prepare the family for the birth of the child:
- review the birth process and nursery/maternal-infant unit routines
- review rooming in, feeding choices, circumcisions, routine Hep B vaccination
- discuss infant safety
- discuss the impact on the parenting couple and siblings
- review the medical and genetic issues (newborn screen, eye prophylaxis, vit K, etc.)
GOAL 2: Newborn Resuscitation
Understand NRP protocol, initial evaluation of the newborn, and assigning Apgar scores.
- Discuss appropriate preparation and equipment required for adequate resuscitation
- Understand and demonstrate appropriate steps in newborn resuscitation per NRP guidelines
- Understand current recommendations for resuscitating infants with meconium
- Understand how to assign Apgar scores and their significance
**Provider and/or instructor certification in the NRP course will satisfy the above objectives**
GOAL 3: Transition
Understand the importance of the transition period and the red flags for significant illness
- Recognize the signs and symptoms of significant illness in the newborn and formulate a differential diagnosis of
- tachypnea, grunting, and/or cyanosis
- temperature instability and/or fever
- poor perfusion
- Understand appropriate management and referral of symptomatic infants
- Review approach to assessing and treating infants at risk for sepsis (maternal chorioamnionitis, GBS colonization, and prolonged rupture of membranes)
GOAL 4: Preventive medicine
Understand the rational for routine prophylaxis in the neonate.
- Describe the rationale and use of eye prophylaxis
- initial therapy
- evaluation and differential diagnosis of subsequent conjunctivitis
- proper treatment for opthalmia neonatorum
- Describe the rationale for vitamin K administration
- risk factors for hemorrhagic disease of the neonate
- IM vs. PO vitamin K
- Describe the rational for routine hepatitis B vaccination
- protocol for HBAg - mother
- protocol for HBAg + mother
- protocol for unknown maternal HBAg status
Initial Evaluation: Maternal Risk Factors and Physical Exam
GOAL 5: Blood Group Incompatibility and Jaundice
Understand the differential diagnosis for jaundice and the relative risks of kernicterus.
- Understand bilirubin metabolism in the neonate
- Identify conjugated vs. unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia and generate a differential for both
- Understand the pathophysiology of Rh incompatibility and the indications for therapy
- Understand the pathophysiology of ABO incompatibility and the indications for therapy
- Understand the relative risks of kernicterus and the indications for phototherapy and/or exchange transfusion
GOAL 6: Maternal VDRL/RPR
Understand the evaluation and treatment for infants of VDRL/RPR positive mothers.
- Describe the clinical findings in congenital syphilis
- Understand the management of infants born to VDRL+ mothers with documented adequate treatment
- Understand the management of infants born to VDRL+ mothers with inadequate treatment and/or a lack of decreasing titers
- Discuss the management of symptomatic infants
GOAL 7: Maternal HSV
Understand the management of infants at risk for neonatal HSV.
- Describe the clinical manifestations of neonatal HSV, including:
- cutaneous HSV
- ocular HSV
- CNS disease
- disseminated infection and DIC
- Understand the relative risks to and the management of infants born to mothers with a history of HSV, but no active lesions at the time of delivery
- Understand the relative risks to and the management of infants born to mothers with a prior history of HSV and active lesions at the time of delivery
- Understand the relative risks to and the management of infants born to mothers with no prior history of HSV and with active lesions at the time of delivery
- Discuss the work up and treatment of symptomatic infants regardless of maternal history
GOAL 8: Maternal HIV
Understand the necessary precautions, evaluation, and follow up required for infants born to HIV positive mothers.
- Discuss the relative risk of transmission to the infant and current therapies available to reduce that risk
- Discuss the routine labs required of these newborns
- Understand the necessary precautions for hospital staff
- Discuss anticipatory guidance issues including follow up laboratories, ID consultation, vaccinations, and contraindication for breast feeding
GOAL 9: Maternal TB/PPD Conversion
Understand the appropriate management of infants at risk for TB.
- Review the criteria for interpreting positive PPD’s
- Discuss management of infants with a mother or household member with a positive PPD and a normal CXR
- Discuss management when mother or other household member has active TB
- Discuss management when mother has disseminated TB
- Review anti-TB medications and compatibility with breast feeding
GOAL 10: Varicella
Understand the relative risks and management of neonates exposed to varicella
- Discuss the clinical findings in and the management of congenital varicella
- Understand the relative risks of neonatal varicella and the management when an infant is delivered to a mother with active varicella within 5 days prior to and 2 days following delivery
GOAL 11: Social Risk Factors
Understand red flags in the social history and their implications.
- Discuss the policy for obtaining DDS
- Review the clinical findings and prognosis associated with maternal drug use including:
- Discuss the management and follow up of infants born to teen mothers
- Discuss the management and follow up of infants when there is a positive history of domestic violence
GOAL 12: Physical Exam
Understand how to perform newborn exam.
- Perform a thorough newborn exam including:
- gestational age assessment
- general appearance
- skin (normal newborn exanthems)
- HEENT(caput, cephalohematoma, molding, RROU, nares, clefts)
- chest and breasts (fractured clavicle, maternal hormonal effect)
- heart (murmur evaluation)
- abdomen (including umbilical cord)
- femoral pulses
- hips (Ortolani and Barlow maneuvers)
- neuro (activity, tone, primitive reflexes, sacral lesions)
- extremities (Erb’s and Klumpke’s palsy)
GOAL 13: Hypoglycemia
Understand rationale for screening and management of hypoglycemic newborns.
- Discuss policy for routine glucometer screening
- Review definition of hypoglycemia (glucometer vs. serum glucose)
- Understand the management of hypoglycemic infants
- glucose <35mg% and >25mg%
- glucose <25mg%
- breast fed babies
- Understand protocol for follow up surveillance after initial stabilization of serum glucose
GOAL 14: Screening HCT
Understand normal parameters for newborn Hct and CBC.
- Understand the definition and differential diagnosis of anemia in the neonate
- Understand the definition and the indications for treatment of polycythemia
- Understand the definition and differential diagnosis of thrombocytopenia in the neonate
- Understand the normal parameters of a newborn CBC
- Understand indications for newborn CBC
Discharge Planning and Anticipatory Guidance
GOAL 15: Nutrition
Understand how to manage breast and bottle feeding in the newborn.
- Discuss parental expectations regarding feeding in the first few days of life
- Understand the parameters for accepted weight loss in the first week of life
- Discuss effective strategies for improving latch on and lactation
- Compare and contrast breast vs. formula feeding
GOAL 16: Voiding and Stooling
Understand normal time parameters for first void and stool and the medical implications when these parameters are exceeded.
- Discuss the concerns raised when an infant fails to void in the first 24 hours of life
- posterior urethral valves
- UPJ obstruction
- Understand proper management for congenital hydronephrosis
- Understand significance of urate crystals in diaper
- Discuss concerns raised by failure to have a stool within first 48 hours of life
- relative risk of Hirschsprungs
- meconium plug and relative risk of CF
GOAL 17: Circumcisions
Understand the risks, indications, and procedure for circumcision in newborns.
- Interview parents, explaining the risk/benefits of circumcision and obtain informed consent
- Discuss pros and cons of anesthesia and the methods of anesthesia available
- Become competent in delivering adequate dorsal penile nerve block
- Become competent in performing circumcisions using Gomcos and/or plastibells
- Instruct parents on adequate post circumcision care
GOAL 18: Newborn Screening
Understand the rationale for performing newborn screens.
- Review the following conditions which can be part of the newborn screen
- maple syrup urine disease
- CAH screening
- Understand the proper timing of screens and the importance of allowing a sufficient interval after the first feeding
- Understand the rationale and policy for universal hearing screening
GOAL 19: Discharge Planning
Understand criteria for early discharge and provide appropriate follow up.
- Review criteria for earl discharge eligibility
- Understand rationale for providing 2-3 day follow up for early discharges
- Provide parents with anticipatory guidance:
- feeding instructions
- cord and circumcision care
- signs and symptoms of acute illness
- hyperbilirubinemia precautions
- normal voiding and stooling patterns
- infant safety
GOAL 20: Common Conditions and Symptoms of the Newborn
Understand the importance and approach to the evaluation of infants who become symptomatic after the transition period or any other potential issue of parental importance.
- Understand role of first responder to issues of hypothermia, hyperthermia, hyperbilirubinemia, tachypnea, poor feeding, etc.
- Understand appropriate management and referral to NICU of symptomatic infants.
- Supervise care of infants in the Specialty Nursery. “Green Team”