Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Anatomic/Clinical Pathology

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Residency:Stanford Hospital and Clinics (2013) CA
  • Fellowship:Stanford Hospital and Clinics (2012) CA
  • Residency:Stanford Hospital and Clinics (2011) CA
  • Fellowship:Friedrich-Wilhelms-University Bonn (2004) Germany
  • Medical Education:Medical University of Vienna (1999) Austria

Publications

Journal Articles


  • STAT5 Is Crucial to Maintain Leukemic Stem Cells in Acute Myelogenous Leukemias Induced by MOZ-TIF2 CANCER RESEARCH Tam, W. F., Haehnel, P. S., Schueler, A., Lee, B. H., Okabe, R., Zhu, N., Pante, S. V., Raffel, G., Mercher, T., Wernig, G., Bockamp, E., Sasca, D., Kreft, A., Robinson, G. W., Hennighausen, L., Gilliland, D. G., Kindler, T. 2013; 73 (1): 373-384

    Abstract

    MOZ-TIF2 is a leukemogenic fusion oncoprotein that confers self-renewal capability to hematopoietic progenitor cells and induces acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with long latency in bone marrow transplantation assays. Here, we report that FLT3-ITD transforms hematopoietic cells in cooperation with MOZ-TIF2 in vitro and in vivo. Coexpression of FLT3-ITD confers growth factor independent survival/proliferation, shortens disease latency, and results in an increase in the number of leukemic stem cells (LSC). We show that STAT5, a major effector of aberrant FLT3-ITD signal transduction, is both necessary and sufficient for this cooperative effect. In addition, STAT5 signaling is essential for MOZ-TIF2-induced leukemic transformation itself. Lack of STAT5 in fetal liver cells caused rapid differentiation and loss of replating capacity of MOZ-TIF2-transduced cells enriched for LSCs. Furthermore, mice serially transplanted with Stat5(-/-) MOZ-TIF2 leukemic cells develop AML with longer disease latency and finally incomplete penetrance when compared with mice transplanted with Stat5(+/+) MOZ-TIF2 leukemic cells. These data suggest that STAT5AB is required for the self-renewal of LSCs and represents a combined signaling node of FLT3-ITD and MOZ-TIF2 driven leukemogenesis. Therefore, targeting aberrantly activated STAT5 or rewired downstream signaling pathways may be a promising therapeutic option.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-12-0255

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313019800037

    View details for PubMedID 23149921

  • Anti-CD47 antibodies promote phagocytosis and inhibit the growth of human myeloma cells LEUKEMIA Kim, D., Wang, J., Willingham, S. B., Martin, R., Wernig, G., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 26 (12): 2538-2545

    Abstract

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm residing in bone marrow. Despite advances in myeloma therapies, novel therapies are required to improve patient outcomes. CD47 is highly expressed on myeloma cells and a potential therapeutic candidate for myeloma therapies. Flow cytometric analysis of patient bone marrow cells revealed that myeloma cells overexpress CD47 when compared with non-myeloma cells in 73% of patients (27/37). CD47 expression protects cells from phagocytosis by transmitting an inhibitory signal to macrophages. Here we show that blocking CD47 with an anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody increased phagocytosis of myeloma cells in vitro. In xenotransplantation models, anti-CD47 antibodies inhibited the growth of RPMI 8226 myeloma cells and led to tumor regression (42/57 mice), implicating the eradication of myeloma-initiating cells. Moreover, anti-CD47 antibodies retarded the growth of patient myeloma cells and alleviated bone resorption in human bone-bearing mice. Irradiation of mice before myeloma cell xenotransplantation abolished the therapeutic efficacy of anti-CD47 antibodies delivered 2 weeks after radiation, and coincided with a reduction of myelomonocytic cells in spleen, bone marrow and liver. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that anti-CD47 blocking antibodies inhibit myeloma growth, in part, by increasing phagocytosis of myeloma cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2012.141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312186000013

    View details for PubMedID 22648449

  • EXEL-8232, a small-molecule JAK2 inhibitor, effectively treats thrombocytosis and extramedullary hematopoiesis in a murine model of myeloproliferative neoplasm induced by MPLW515L LEUKEMIA Wernig, G., Kharas, M. G., Mullally, A., Leeman, D. S., Okabe, R., George, T., Clary, D. O., Gilliland, D. G. 2012; 26 (4): 720-727

    Abstract

    About 10% of patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) or myelofibrosis (MF) that lack mutations in JAK2 harbor an activating mutation in the thrombopoietin receptor, MPLW515L. Distinct from the JAK2V617F retroviral transplant model, the MPLW515L model recapitulates many features of ET and MF, including severe fibrosis and thrombocytosis. We have tested EXEL-8232, an experimental potent JAK2 inhibitor, for efficacy in suppression of thrombocytosis in vivo and for its ability to attenuate MPLW515L myeloproliferative disease. EXEL-8232 was administered for 28 days q12 h by oral gavage at doses of 30 or 100 mg/kg, prospectively. Animals treated with EXEL-8232 at 100 mg/kg had normalized high platelet counts, eliminated extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and eliminated bone marrow fibrosis, whereas the wild-type controls did not develop thrombocytopenia. Consistent with a clinical response in this model, we validated surrogate end points for response to treatment, including a reduction of endogenous colony growth and signaling inhibition in immature erythroid and myeloid primary cells both in vitro and upon treatment in vivo. We conclude that EXEL-8232 has efficacy in treatment of thrombocytosis in vivo in a murine model of ET and MF, and may be of therapeutic benefit for patients with MPL-mutant MPN.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2011.261

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302788300019

    View details for PubMedID 22005786

  • Physiological Jak2V617F Expression Causes a Lethal Myeloproliferative Neoplasm with Differential Effects on Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells CANCER CELL Mullally, A., Lane, S. W., Ball, B., Megerdichian, C., Okabe, R., Al-Shahrour, F., Paktinat, M., Haydu, J. E., Housman, E., Lord, A. M., Wernig, G., Kharas, M. G., Mercher, T., Kutok, J. L., Gilliland, D. G., Ebert, B. L. 2010; 17 (6): 584-596

    Abstract

    We report a Jak2V617F knockin mouse myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) model resembling human polycythemia vera (PV). The MPN is serially transplantable and we demonstrate that the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment has the unique capacity for disease initiation but does not have a significant selective competitive advantage over wild-type HSCs. In contrast, myeloid progenitor populations are expanded and skewed toward the erythroid lineage, but cannot transplant the disease. Treatment with a JAK2 kinase inhibitor ameliorated the MPN phenotype, but did not eliminate the disease-initiating population. These findings provide insights into the consequences of JAK2 activation on HSC differentiation and function and have the potential to inform therapeutic approaches to JAK2V617F-positive MPN.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2010.05.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278952300010

    View details for PubMedID 20541703

  • High-throughput sequence analysis of the tyrosine kinome in acute myeloid leukemia BLOOD Loriaux, M. M., Levine, R. L., Tyner, J. W., Froehling, S., Scholl, C., Stoffregen, E. P., Wernig, G., Erickson, H., Eide, C. A., Berger, R., Bernard, O. A., Griffin, J. D., Stone, R. M., Lee, B., Meyerson, M., Heinrich, M. C., Deininger, M. W., Gilliland, D. G., Druker, B. J. 2008; 111 (9): 4788-4796

    Abstract

    To determine whether aberrantly activated tyrosine kinases other than FLT3 and c-KIT contribute to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathogenesis, we used high-throughput (HT) DNA sequence ana-lysis to screen exons encoding the activation loop and juxtamembrane domains of 85 tyrosine kinase genes in 188 AML patients without FLT3 or c-KIT mutations. The screen identified 30 nonsynonymous sequence variations in 22 different kinases not previously reported in single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) databases. These included a novel FLT3 activating allele and a previously described activating mutation in MET (METT1010I). The majority of novel sequence variants were stably expressed in factor-dependent Ba/F3 cells. Apart from one FLT3 allele, none of the novel variants showed constitutive phosphorylation by immunoblot analysis and none transformed Ba/F3 cells to factor-independent growth. These findings indicate the majority of these alleles are not potent tyrosine kinase activators in this cellular context and that a significant proportion of nonsynonymous sequence variants identified in HT DNA sequencing screens may not have functional significance. Although some sequence variants may represent SNPs, these data are consistent with recent reports that a significant fraction of such sequence variants are "passenger" rather than "driver" alleles and underscore the importance of functional assessment of candidate disease alleles.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2007-07-101394

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255387400050

    View details for PubMedID 18252861

  • The Jak2V617F oncogene associated with myeloproliferative diseases requires a functional FERM domain for transformation and for expression of the Myc and Pim proto-oncogenes BLOOD Wernig, G., Gonneville, J. R., Crowley, B. J., Rodrigues, M. S., Reddy, M. M., Hudon, H. E., Walz, C., Reiter, A., Podar, K., Royer, Y., Constantinescu, S. N., Tomasson, M. H., Griffin, J. D., Gilliland, D. G., Sattler, M. 2008; 111 (7): 3751-3759

    Abstract

    The V617F activating point mutation in Jak2 is associated with a proportion of myeloproliferative disorders. In normal hematopoietic cells, Jak2 signals only when associated with a growth factor receptor, such as the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR). We sought to identify the molecular requirements for activation of Jak2V617F by introducing a point mutation in the FERM domain (Y114A), required for receptor binding. Whereas BaF3.EpoR cells are readily transformed by Jak2V617F to Epo independence, we found that the addition of the FERM domain mutation blocked transformation and the induction of reactive oxygen species. Further, while cells expressing Jak2V617F had constitutive activation of STAT5, cells expressing Jak2V617F/Y114A did not, suggesting that signaling is defective at a very proximal level. In addition, expression of the Myc and Pim proto-oncogenes by Jak2V617F was found to be FERM domain dependent. An inducible constitutively active STAT5 mutant expressed in BaF3 cells was sufficient to induce Myc and Pim. Finally, the FERM domain in Jak2V617F was also required for abnormal hematopoiesis in transduced primary murine fetal liver cells. Overall, our results suggest that constitutive activation of Jak2 requires an intact FERM domain for a transforming phenotype, and is necessary for activation of the major target of Jak2, STAT5.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2007-07-102186

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254569300064

    View details for PubMedID 18216297

  • Efficacy of TG101348, a selective JAK2 inhibitor, in treatment of a murine model of JAK2V617F-induced polycythemia vera CANCER CELL Werning, G., Kharas, M. G., Okabe, R., Moore, S. A., Leeman, D. S., Cullen, D. E., Gozo, M., McDowell, E. P., Levine, R. L., Doukas, J., Mak, C. C., Noronha, G., Martin, M., Ko, Y. D., Lee, B. H., Soll, R. M., Tefferi, A., Hood, J. D., Gilliland, D. G. 2008; 13 (4): 311-320

    Abstract

    We report that TG101348, a selective small-molecule inhibitor of JAK2 with an in vitro IC50 of approximately 3 nM, shows therapeutic efficacy in a murine model of myeloproliferative disease induced by the JAK2V617F mutation. In treated animals, there was a statistically significant reduction in hematocrit and leukocyte count, a dose-dependent reduction/elimination of extramedullary hematopoiesis, and, at least in some instances, evidence for attenuation of myelofibrosis. There were no apparent toxicities and no effect on T cell number. In vivo responses were correlated with surrogate endpoints, including reduction/elimination of JAK2V617F disease burden assessed by quantitative genomic PCR, suppression of endogenous erythroid colony formation, and in vivo inhibition of JAK-STAT signal transduction as assessed by flow cytometric measurement of phosphorylated Stat5.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2008.02.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254817400006

    View details for PubMedID 18394554

  • JAK2T875N is a novel activating mutation that results in myeloproliferative disease with features of megakaryoblastic leukemia in a murine bone marrow transplantation model BLOOD Mercher, T., Wernig, G., Moore, S. A., Levine, R. L., Gu, T., Frohling, S., Cullen, D., Polakiewicz, R. D., Bernard, O. A., Boggon, T. J., Lee, B. H., Gilliland, D. G. 2006; 108 (8): 2770-2779

    Abstract

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia associated with a poor prognosis. However, there are relatively few insights into the genetic etiology of AMKL. We developed a screening assay for mutations that cause AMKL, based on the hypothesis that constitutive activation of STAT5 would be a biochemical indicator of mutation in an upstream effector tyrosine kinase. We screened human AMKL cell lines for constitutive STAT5 activation, and then used an approach combining mass spectrometry identification of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins and growth inhibition in the presence of selective small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors that would inform DNA sequence analysis of candidate tyrosine kinases. Using this strategy, we identified a new JAK2T875N mutation in the AMKL cell line CHRF-288-11. JAK2T875N is a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase that activates downstream effectors including STAT5 in hematopoietic cells in vitro. In a murine transplant model, JAK2T875N induced a myeloproliferative disease characterized by features of AMKL, including megakaryocytic hyperplasia in the spleen; impaired megakaryocyte polyploidization; and increased reticulin fibrosis of the bone marrow and spleen. These findings provide new insights into pathways and therapeutic targets that contribute to the pathogenesis of AMKL.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2006-04-014712

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241131700046

    View details for PubMedID 16804112

  • MPLW515L is anovel somatic activating mutation in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia PLOS MEDICINE Pikman, Y., Lee, B. H., Mercher, T., McDowell, E., Ebert, B. L., Gozo, M., Cuker, A., Wernig, G., Moore, S., Galinsky, I., DeAngelo, D. J., Clark, J. J., Lee, S. J., Golub, T. R., Wadleigh, M., Gilliland, D. G., Levine, R. L. 2006; 3 (7): 1140-1151

    Abstract

    The JAK2V617F allele has recently been identified in patients with polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MF). Subsequent analysis has shown that constitutive activation of the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway is an important pathogenetic event in these patients, and that enzymatic inhibition of JAK2V617F may be of therapeutic benefit in this context. However, a significant proportion of patients with ET or MF are JAK2V617F-negative. We hypothesized that activation of the JAK-STAT pathway might also occur as a consequence of activating mutations in certain hematopoietic-specific cytokine receptors, including the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), or the granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor (GCSFR).DNA sequence analysis of the exons encoding the transmembrane and juxtamembrane domains of EPOR, MPL, and GCSFR, and comparison with germline DNA derived from buccal swabs, identified a somatic activating mutation in the transmembrane domain of MPL (W515L) in 9% (4/45) of JAKV617F-negative MF. Expression of MPLW515L in 32D, UT7, or Ba/F3 cells conferred cytokine-independent growth and thrombopoietin hypersensitivity, and resulted in constitutive phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, AKT, and ERK. Furthermore, a small molecule JAK kinase inhibitor inhibited MPLW515L-mediated proliferation and JAK-STAT signaling in vitro. In a murine bone marrow transplant assay, expression of MPLW515L, but not wild-type MPL, resulted in a fully penetrant myeloproliferative disorder characterized by marked thrombocytosis (Plt count 1.9-4.0 x 10(12)/L), marked splenomegaly due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, and increased reticulin fibrosis.Activation of JAK-STAT signaling via MPLW515L is an important pathogenetic event in patients with JAK2V617F-negative MF. The bone marrow transplant model of MPLW515L-mediated myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) exhibits certain features of human MF, including extramedullary hematopoiesis, splenomegaly, and megakaryocytic proliferation. Further analysis of positive and negative regulators of the JAK-STAT pathway is warranted in JAK2V617F-negative MPD.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030270

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239493300031

    View details for PubMedID 16834459

  • Expression of Jak2V617F causes a polycythemia vera-like disease with associated myelofibrosis in a murine bone marrow transplant model BLOOD Wernig, G., Mercher, T., Okabe, R., Levine, R. L., Lee, B. H., Gilliland, D. G. 2006; 107 (11): 4274-4281

    Abstract

    An acquired somatic mutation, Jak2V617F, was recently discovered in most patients with polycythemia vera (PV), chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis (CIMF), and essential thrombocythemia (ET). To investigate the role of this mutation in vivo, we transplanted bone marrow (BM) transduced with a retrovirus expressing either Jak2 wild-type (wt) or Jak2V617F into lethally irradiated syngeneic recipient mice. Expression of Jak2V617F, but not Jak2wt, resulted in clinicopathologic features that closely resembled PV in humans. These included striking elevation in hemoglobin level/hematocrit, leukocytosis, megakaryocyte hyperplasia, extramedullary hematopoiesis resulting in splenomegaly, and reticulin fibrosis in the bone marrow. Histopathologic and flow cytometric analyses showed an increase in maturing myeloid lineage progenitors, although megakaryocytes showed decreased polyploidization and staining for acetylcholinesterase. In vitro analysis of primary cells showed constitutive activation of Stat5 and cytokine-independent growth of erythroid colony-forming unit (CFU-E) and erythropoietin hypersensitivity, and Southern blot analysis for retroviral integration indicated that the disease was oligoclonal. Furthermore, we observed strain-specific differences in phenotype, with Balb/c mice demonstrating markedly elevated leukocyte counts, splenomegaly, and reticulin fibrosis compared with C57Bl/6 mice. We conclude that Jak2V617F expression in bone marrow progenitors results in a PV-like syndrome with myelofibrosis and that there are strain-specific modifiers that may in part explain phenotypic pleiotropy of Jak2V617F-associated myeloproliferative disease in humans.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237877300020

    View details for PubMedID 16478879

  • Role of JAK-STAT signaling in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative disorders. Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program Levine, R. L., Wernig, G. 2006: 233-?

    Abstract

    The identification of JAK2V617F mutations in polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocytosis (ET), and myelofibrosis (MF) represents an important advance in our understanding of these myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). Most, if not all, patients with PV and a significant number of patients with ET and MF are JAK2V617F positive, and the mutation likely arises in the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. JAK2V617F is a constitutively active tyrosine kinase that is able to activate JAK-STAT signaling most efficiently when co-expressed with the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR), the thrombopoietin receptor (MPL), or the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (GCSFR). Data from murine models supports the central role of JAK2V617F in the pathogenesis of MPD, as expression of JAK2V617F in a bone marrow transplantation assay results in polycythemia and myelofibrosis in recipient mice. Activation of JAK-STAT signaling by JAK2V617F in some, but not all MPD patients with ET and MF led to the identification of the constitutively active MPLW515L allele in ET and MF. Small molecule inhibitors of JAK-STAT signaling are currently being developed, which offer potential for molecularly targeted therapy for patients with PV, ET, and MF. Despite these advances, many questions remain regarding the role of a single disease allele in three phenotypically distinct MPD, the potential clinical efficacy of JAK2 inhibitors, and the identity of oncogenic alleles in JAK2V617F/MPLW515-negative MPD.

    View details for PubMedID 17124066

  • Expression of a homodimeric type I cytokine receptor is required for JAK2V617F-mediated transformation PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Lu, X. H., Levine, R., Tong, W., Wernig, G., Pikman, Y., Zarnegar, S., Gilliland, D. G., Lodish, H. 2005; 102 (52): 18962-18967

    Abstract

    A recurrent somatic activating mutation in the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase JAK2 (JAK2V617F) occurs in the majority of patients with the myeloproliferative disorders polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia, and, less commonly, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. We do not understand the basis for the specificity of the JAK2V617F mutation in clonal disorders of the myeloid, but not lymphoid, lineage, nor has the basis for the pleiotropic phenotype of JAK2V617F-associated myeloproliferative disorders been delineated. However, the presence of the identical mutation in patients with related, but clinicopathologically distinct, myeloid disorders suggests that interactions between the JAK2V617F kinase and other signaling molecules may influence the phenotype of hematopoietic progenitors expressing JAK2V617F. Here, we show that coexpression of the JAK2V617F mutant kinase with a homodimeric Type I cytokine receptor, the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR), the thrombopoietin receptor, or the granulocyte colony-stimulating-factor receptor, is necessary for transformation of hematopoietic cells to growth-factor independence and for hormone-independent activation of JAK-STAT signaling. Furthermore, EpoR mutations that impair erythropoietin-mediated JAK2 or STAT5 activation also impair transformation mediated by the JAK2V617F kinase, indicating that JAK2V617F requires a cytokine receptor scaffold for its transforming and signaling activities. Our results reveal the molecular basis for the prevalence of JAK2V617F in diseases of myeloid lineage cells that express these Type I cytokine receptors but not in lymphoid lineage cells that do not.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0509714102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234350000034

    View details for PubMedID 16365288

  • The vast majority of bone-marrow-derived cells integrated into mdx muscle fibers are silent despite long-term engraftment PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Wernig, G., Janzen, V., SCHAFER, R., Zweyer, M., Knauf, U., Hoegemeier, O., Mundegar, R. R., Garbe, S., Stier, S., Franz, T., Wernig, M., Wernig, A. 2005; 102 (33): 11852-11857

    Abstract

    Bone-marrow-derived cells can contribute nuclei to skeletal muscle fibers. However, serial sectioning of muscle in mdx mice implanted with GFP-labeled bone marrow reveals that only 20% of the donor nuclei chronically incorporated in muscle fibers show dystrophin (or GFP) expression, which is still higher than the expected frequency of "revertant" fibers, but there is no overall increase above controls over time. Obviously, the vast majority of incorporated nuclei either never or only temporarily turn on myogenic genes; also, incorporated nuclei eventually loose the activation of the beta-actin::GFP transgene. Consequently, we attempted to enhance the expression of dystrophin. In vivo application of the chromatin-modifying agents 5-azadeoxycytidine and phenylbutyrate as well as local damage by cardiotoxin injections caused a small increase in dystrophin-positive fibers without abolishing the appearance of "silent" nuclei. The results thus confirm that endogenous repair processes and epigenetic modifications on a small-scale lead to dystrophin expression from donor nuclei. Both effects, however, remain below functionally significant levels.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0502507102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231317000051

    View details for PubMedID 16085712

  • Activating mutation in the tyrosine kinase JAK2 in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis CANCER CELL Levine, R. L., Wadleigh, M., Cools, J., Ebert, B. L., Wernig, G., Huntly, B. J., Boggon, T. J., Wlodarska, L., Clark, J. J., Moore, S., Adelsperger, J., Koo, S., Lee, J. C., Gabriel, S., Mercher, T., D'Andrea, A., Frohling, S., Dohner, K., Marynen, P., Vandenberghe, P., Mesa, R. A., Tefferi, A., GRIFFIN, J. D., Eck, M. J., Sellers, W. R., Meyerson, M., Golub, T. R., Lee, S. J., Gilliland, D. G. 2005; 7 (4): 387-397

    Abstract

    Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis (MMM) are clonal disorders arising from hematopoietic progenitors. An internet-based protocol was used to collect clinical information and biological specimens from patients with these diseases. High-throughput DNA resequencing identified a recurrent somatic missense mutation JAK2V617F in granulocyte DNA samples of 121 of 164 PV patients, of which 41 had homozygous and 80 had heterozygous mutations. Molecular and cytogenetic analyses demonstrated that homozygous mutations were due to duplication of the mutant allele. JAK2V617F was also identified in granulocyte DNA samples from 37 of 115 ET and 16 of 46 MMM patients, but was not observed in 269 normal individuals. In vitro analysis demonstrated that JAK2V617F is a constitutively active tyrosine kinase.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2005.03.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228741700013

    View details for PubMedID 15837627

  • Correction of CFTR malfunction and stimulation of Ca2+- activated Cl- channels restore HCO3- secretion in cystic fibrosis bile ductular cells HEPATOLOGY Zsembery, A., Jessner, W., Sitter, G., Spirli, C., Strazzabosco, M., Graf, J. 2002; 35 (1): 95-104

    Abstract

    In view of the occurrence of hepatobiliary disorders in cystic fibrosis (CF) this study addresses the role of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in promoting HCO3- secretion in bile ductular cells. Human cholangiocytes were isolated from control livers and from 1 patient with CF (DeltaF508/G542X mutations). Single channel and whole cell currents were analyzed by patch clamp techniques, and HCO3- secretion was determined by fluorometric analysis of the rate of recovery of intracellular pH following alkaline loading. In control cholangiocytes, both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit, activated CFTR Cl(-) channels that exhibited a nonrectifying conductance of 8 pS and appeared in clusters. Activation of Cl(-) current by cAMP was associated with an increase in the rate of HCO3- secretion. The basal rate of HCO3- secretion was lower in CF than in control cholangiocytes. In both control and CF cholangiocytes, raising intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations with ionomycin led to a parallel activation of Cl(-) current and HCO3- secretion. Consistent with reports that premature stop codon mutations (class I; e.g., G542X) can be read over by treatment with aminoglycoside antibiotics, exposure of CF cholangiocytes to gentamicin restored activation by cAMP of Cl(-) current and HCO3- secretion. The observation that activation of Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels can substitute for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in supporting HCO3- secretion and the efficacy of gentamicin in restoring CFTR function and HCO3- secretion in class I mutations are of potential clinical interest.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/jhep.2002.30423

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172983300013

    View details for PubMedID 11786964

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