From single cells to deep phenotypes in cancer
2012; 30 (7): 639-647
Extracting a cellular hierarchy from high-dimensional cytometry data with SPADE
2011; 29 (10): 886-U181
In recent years, major advances in single-cell measurement systems have included the introduction of high-throughput versions of traditional flow cytometry that are now capable of measuring intracellular network activity, the emergence of isotope labels that can enable the tracking of a greater variety of cell markers and the development of super-resolution microscopy techniques that allow measurement of RNA expression in single living cells. These technologies will facilitate our capacity to catalog and bring order to the inherent diversity present in cancer cell populations. Alongside these developments, new computational approaches that mine deep data sets are facilitating the visualization of the shape of the data and enabling the extraction of meaningful outputs. These applications have the potential to reveal new insights into cancer biology at the intersections of stem cell function, tumor-initiating cells and multilineage tumor development. In the clinic, they may also prove important not only in the development of new diagnostic modalities but also in understanding how the emergence of tumor cell clones harboring different sets of mutations predispose patients to relapse or disease progression.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.2283
View details for Web of Science ID 000306293400023
View details for PubMedID 22781693
Single-Cell Mass Cytometry of Differential Immune and Drug Responses Across a Human Hematopoietic Continuum
2011; 332 (6030): 687-696
The ability to analyze multiple single-cell parameters is critical for understanding cellular heterogeneity. Despite recent advances in measurement technology, methods for analyzing high-dimensional single-cell data are often subjective, labor intensive and require prior knowledge of the biological system. To objectively uncover cellular heterogeneity from single-cell measurements, we present a versatile computational approach, spanning-tree progression analysis of density-normalized events (SPADE). We applied SPADE to flow cytometry data of mouse bone marrow and to mass cytometry data of human bone marrow. In both cases, SPADE organized cells in a hierarchy of related phenotypes that partially recapitulated well-described patterns of hematopoiesis. We demonstrate that SPADE is robust to measurement noise and to the choice of cellular markers. SPADE facilitates the analysis of cellular heterogeneity, the identification of cell types and comparison of functional markers in response to perturbations.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.1991
View details for Web of Science ID 000296273000015
View details for PubMedID 21964415
IGF and FGF cooperatively establish the regulatory stem cell niche of pluripotent human cells in vitro
2007; 448 (7157): 1015-U3
Flow cytometry is an essential tool for dissecting the functional complexity of hematopoiesis. We used single-cell "mass cytometry" to examine healthy human bone marrow, measuring 34 parameters simultaneously in single cells (binding of 31 antibodies, viability, DNA content, and relative cell size). The signaling behavior of cell subsets spanning a defined hematopoietic hierarchy was monitored with 18 simultaneous markers of functional signaling states perturbed by a set of ex vivo stimuli and inhibitors. The data set allowed for an algorithmically driven assembly of related cell types defined by surface antigen expression, providing a superimposable map of cell signaling responses in combination with drug inhibition. Visualized in this manner, the analysis revealed previously unappreciated instances of both precise signaling responses that were bounded within conventionally defined cell subsets and more continuous phosphorylation responses that crossed cell population boundaries in unexpected manners yet tracked closely with cellular phenotype. Collectively, such single-cell analyses provide system-wide views of immune signaling in healthy human hematopoiesis, against which drug action and disease can be compared for mechanistic studies and pharmacologic intervention.
View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1198704
View details for Web of Science ID 000290265800035
View details for PubMedID 21551058
viSNE enables visualization of high dimensional single-cell data and reveals phenotypic heterogeneity of leukemia.
2013; 31 (6): 545-552
Distinctive properties of stem cells are not autonomously achieved, and recent evidence points to a level of external control from the microenvironment. Here, we demonstrate that self-renewal and pluripotent properties of human embryonic stem (ES) cells depend on a dynamic interplay between human ES cells and autologously derived human ES cell fibroblast-like cells (hdFs). Human ES cells and hdFs are uniquely defined by insulin-like growth factor (IGF)- and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-dependence. IGF 1 receptor (IGF1R) expression was exclusive to the human ES cells, whereas FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) expression was restricted to surrounding hdFs. Blocking the IGF-II/IGF1R pathway reduced survival and clonogenicity of human ES cells, whereas inhibition of the FGF pathway indirectly caused differentiation. IGF-II is expressed by hdFs in response to FGF, and alone was sufficient in maintaining human ES cell cultures. Our study demonstrates a direct role of the IGF-II/IGF1R axis on human ES cell physiology and establishes that hdFs produced by human ES cells themselves define the stem cell niche of pluripotent human stem cells.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature06027
View details for Web of Science ID 000249097600030
View details for PubMedID 17625568
The transcriptional landscape of aß T cell differentiation.
2013; 14 (6): 619-632
New high-dimensional, single-cell technologies offer unprecedented resolution in the analysis of heterogeneous tissues. However, because these technologies can measure dozens of parameters simultaneously in individual cells, data interpretation can be challenging. Here we present viSNE, a tool that allows one to map high-dimensional cytometry data onto two dimensions, yet conserve the high-dimensional structure of the data. viSNE plots individual cells in a visual similar to a scatter plot, while using all pairwise distances in high dimension to determine each cell's location in the plot. We integrated mass cytometry with viSNE to map healthy and cancerous bone marrow samples. Healthy bone marrow automatically maps into a consistent shape, whereas leukemia samples map into malformed shapes that are distinct from healthy bone marrow and from each other. We also use viSNE and mass cytometry to compare leukemia diagnosis and relapse samples, and to identify a rare leukemia population reminiscent of minimal residual disease. viSNE can be applied to any multi-dimensional single-cell technology.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.2594
View details for PubMedID 23685480
Normalization of mass cytometry data with bead standards.
Cytometry. Part A : the journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
2013; 83 (5): 483-494
The differentiation of ??T cells from thymic precursors is a complex process essential for adaptive immunity. Here we exploited the breadth of expression data sets from the Immunological Genome Project to analyze how the differentiation of thymic precursors gives rise to mature T cell transcriptomes. We found that early T cell commitment was driven by unexpectedly gradual changes. In contrast, transit through the CD4(+)CD8(+) stage involved a global shutdown of housekeeping genes that is rare among cells of the immune system and correlated tightly with expression of the transcription factor c-Myc. Selection driven by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules promoted a large-scale transcriptional reactivation. We identified distinct signatures that marked cells destined for positive selection versus apoptotic deletion. Differences in the expression of unexpectedly few genes accompanied commitment to the CD4(+) or CD8(+) lineage, a similarity that carried through to peripheral T cells and their activation, demonstrated by mass cytometry phosphoproteomics. The transcripts newly identified as encoding candidate mediators of key transitions help define the 'known unknowns' of thymocyte differentiation.
View details for DOI 10.1038/ni.2590
View details for PubMedID 23644507
Multiplexed mass cytometry profiling of cellular states perturbed by small-molecule regulators
2012; 30 (9): 858-U89
Mass cytometry uses atomic mass spectrometry combined with isotopically pure reporter elements to currently measure as many as 40 parameters per single cell. As with any quantitative technology, there is a fundamental need for quality assurance and normalization protocols. In the case of mass cytometry, the signal variation over time due to changes in instrument performance combined with intervals between scheduled maintenance must be accounted for and then normalized. Here, samples were mixed with polystyrene beads embedded with metal lanthanides, allowing monitoring of mass cytometry instrument performance over multiple days of data acquisition. The protocol described here includes simultaneous measurements of beads and cells on the mass cytometer, subsequent extraction of the bead-based signature, and the application of an algorithm enabling correction of both short- and long-term signal fluctuations. The variation in the intensity of the beads that remains after normalization may also be used to determine data quality. Application of the algorithm to a one-month longitudinal analysis of a human peripheral blood sample reduced the range of median signal fluctuation from 4.9-fold to 1.3-fold.
View details for DOI 10.1002/cyto.a.22271
View details for PubMedID 23512433
Single-cell mass cytometry adapted to measurements of the cell cycle
CYTOMETRY PART A
2012; 81A (7): 552-566
Mass cytometry facilitates high-dimensional, quantitative analysis of the effects of bioactive molecules on human samples at single-cell resolution, but instruments process only one sample at a time. Here we describe mass-tag cellular barcoding (MCB), which increases mass cytometry throughput by using n metal ion tags to multiplex up to 2n samples. We used seven tags to multiplex an entire 96-well plate, and applied MCB to characterize human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) signaling dynamics and cell-to-cell communication, signaling variability between PBMCs from eight human donors, and the effects of 27 inhibitors on this system. For each inhibitor, we measured 14 phosphorylation sites in 14 PBMC types at 96 conditions, resulting in 18,816 quantified phosphorylation levels from each multiplexed sample. This high-dimensional, systems-level inquiry allowed analysis across cell-type and signaling space, reclassified inhibitors and revealed off-target effects. High-content, high-throughput screening with MCB should be useful for drug discovery, preclinical testing and mechanistic investigation of human disease.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.2317
View details for Web of Science ID 000308705700020
View details for PubMedID 22902532
A deep profiler's guide to cytometry
TRENDS IN IMMUNOLOGY
2012; 33 (7): 323-332
Mass cytometry is a recently introduced technology that utilizes transition element isotope-tagged antibodies for protein detection on a single-cell basis. By circumventing the limitations of emission spectral overlap associated with fluorochromes utilized in traditional flow cytometry, mass cytometry currently allows measurement of up to 40 parameters per cell. Recently, a comprehensive mass cytometry analysis was described for the hematopoietic differentiation program in human bone marrow from a healthy donor. The current study describes approaches to delineate cell cycle stages utilizing 5-iodo-2-deoxyuridine (IdU) to mark cells in S phase, simultaneously with antibodies against cyclin B1, cyclin A, and phosphorylated histone H3 (S28) that characterize the other cell cycle phases. Protocols were developed in which an antibody against phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (Rb) at serines 807 and 811 was used to separate cells in G0 and G1 phases of the cell cycle. This mass cytometry method yielded cell cycle distributions of both normal and cancer cell populations that were equivalent to those obtained by traditional fluorescence cytometry techniques. We applied this to map the cell cycle phases of cells spanning the hematopoietic hierarchy in healthy human bone marrow as a prelude to later studies with cancers and other disorders of this lineage.
View details for DOI 10.1002/cyto.a.22075
View details for Web of Science ID 000305558700006
Cytometry by Time-of-Flight Shows Combinatorial Cytokine Expression and Virus-Specific Cell Niches within a Continuum of CD8(+) T Cell Phenotypes
2012; 36 (1): 142-152
In recent years, advances in technology have provided us with tools to quantify the expression of multiple genes in individual cells. The ability to measure simultaneously multiple genes in the same cell is necessary to resolve the great diversity of cell subsets, as well as to define their function in the host. Fluorescence-based flow cytometry is the benchmark for this; with it, we can quantify 18 proteins per cell, at >10 000 cells/s. Mass cytometry is a new technology that promises to extend these capabilities significantly. Immunophenotyping by mass spectrometry provides the ability to measure >36 proteins at a rate of 1000 cells/s. We review these cytometric technologies, capable of high-content, high-throughput single-cell assays.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.it.2012.02.010
View details for Web of Science ID 000306639500001
View details for PubMedID 22476049
Clonal tracking of hESCs reveals differential contribution to functional assays
2010; 7 (11): 917-U75
Cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes directly kill infected or aberrant cells and secrete proinflammatory cytokines. By using metal-labeled probes and mass spectrometric analysis (cytometry by time-of-flight, or CyTOF) of human CD8(+) T cells, we analyzed the expression of many more proteins than previously possible with fluorescent labels, including surface markers, cytokines, and antigen specificity with modified peptide-MHC tetramers. With 3-dimensional principal component analysis (3D-PCA) to display phenotypic diversity, we observed a relatively uniform pattern of variation in all subjects tested, highlighting the interrelatedness of previously described subsets and the continuous nature of CD8(+) T cell differentiation. These data also showed much greater complexity in the CD8(+) T cell compartment than previously appreciated, including a nearly combinatorial pattern of cytokine expression, with distinct niches occupied by virus-specific cells. This large degree of functional diversity even between cells with the same specificity gives CD8(+) T cells a remarkable degree of flexibility in responding to pathogens.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.01.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000299766000017
View details for PubMedID 22265676
A HUPO test sample study reveals common problems in mass spectrometry-based proteomics
2009; 6 (6): 423-U40
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have unique self-renewal and differentiation properties, which are experimentally measured using functional assays. hESC cultures are known to be heterogeneous, but whether subsets of cells contribute differently to functional assays has yet to be examined. Here, using clonal tracking by retroviral integration, we analyzed in situ the propensity of individual hESCs to contribute to different functional assays. We observed different clonal distributions in teratomas versus in vitro differentiation assays. Some hESC subsets apparently contributed substantially to lineage-specific embryoid body differentiation and lacked clonogenic capacity, although they had self-renewal ability. In contrast, other subsets of self-renewing hESCs with clonogenic ability contributed to teratoma formation but were less frequently observed after in vitro differentiation. Our study suggests that assays used to measure pluripotency may detect distinct subsets of hESCs. These findings have direct implications for hESC-based therapies that may be optimized based on such functional assays.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nmeth.1519
View details for Web of Science ID 000283586600014
View details for PubMedID 20953174
An Enhanced Mass Spectrometry Approach Reveals Human Embryonic Stem Cell Growth Factors in Culture
MOLECULAR & CELLULAR PROTEOMICS
2009; 8 (3): 421-432
We performed a test sample study to try to identify errors leading to irreproducibility, including incompleteness of peptide sampling, in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based proteomics. We distributed an equimolar test sample, comprising 20 highly purified recombinant human proteins, to 27 laboratories. Each protein contained one or more unique tryptic peptides of 1,250 Da to test for ion selection and sampling in the mass spectrometer. Of the 27 labs, members of only 7 labs initially reported all 20 proteins correctly, and members of only 1 lab reported all tryptic peptides of 1,250 Da. Centralized analysis of the raw data, however, revealed that all 20 proteins and most of the 1,250 Da peptides had been detected in all 27 labs. Our centralized analysis determined missed identifications (false negatives), environmental contamination, database matching and curation of protein identifications as sources of problems. Improved search engines and databases are needed for mass spectrometry-based proteomics.
View details for DOI 10.1038/NMETH.1333
View details for Web of Science ID 000266493300012
View details for PubMedID 19448641
Prevention of amino acid conversion in SILAC experiments with embryonic stem cells
MOLECULAR & CELLULAR PROTEOMICS
2008; 7 (9): 1587-1597
The derivation and long-term maintenance of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been established in culture formats that are both dependent and independent of support (feeder) cells. However, the factors responsible for preserving the viability of hESCs in a nascent state remain unknown. We describe a mass spectrometry-based method for probing the secretome of the hESC culture microenvironment to identify potential regulating protein factors that are in low abundance. Individual samples were analyzed several times, using successive mass (m/z) and retention time-directed exclusion, without sampling the same peptide ion twice. This iterative exclusion -mass spectrometry (IE-MS) approach more than doubled protein and peptide metrics in comparison to a simple repeat analysis method on the same instrument, even after extensive sample pre-fractionation. Furthermore, implementation of the IE-MS approach was shown to enhance the performance of an older quadrupole time of flight (Q-ToF) MS. The resulting number of identified peptides approached that of a parallel repeat analysis on a newer LTQ-Orbitrap MS. The combination of the results of both instruments proved to be superior to that achieved by a single instrument in the identification of additional proteins. Using the IE-MS strategy, combined with complementary gel- and solution-based fractionation methods, the hESC culture microenvironment was extensively probed. Over 10 to 12 times more extracellular proteins were observed compared with previously published surveys. The detection of previously undetectable growth factors, present at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-11) g/ml, highlights the depth of our profiling. The IE-MS approach provides a simple and reliable technique that greatly enhances instrument performance by increasing the effective depth of MS-based proteomic profiling. This approach should be widely applicable to any LC-MS/MS instrument platform or biological system.
View details for DOI 10.1074/mcp.M800190-MCP200
View details for Web of Science ID 000264240000003
View details for PubMedID 18936058
Deconstructing human embryonic stem cell cultures: niche regulation of self-renewal and pluripotency
JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR MEDICINE-JMM
2008; 86 (8): 875-886
Recent studies using stable isotope labeling with amino acids in culture (SILAC) in quantitative proteomics have made mention of the problematic conversion of isotope-coded arginine to proline in cells. The resulting converted proline peptide divides the heavy peptide ion signal causing inaccuracy when compared with the light peptide ion signal. This is of particular concern as it can effect up to half of all peptides in a proteomic experiment. Strategies to both compensate for and limit the inadvertent conversion have been demonstrated, but none have been shown to prevent it. Additionally, these methods combined with SILAC labeling in general have proven problematic in their large scale application to sensitive cell types including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from the mouse and human. Here, we show that by providing as little as 200 mg/liter L-proline in SILAC media, the conversion of arginine to proline can be rendered completely undetectable. At the same time, there was no compromise in labeling with isotope-coded arginine, indicating there is no observable back conversion from the proline supplement. As a result, when supplemented with proline, correct interpretation of "light" and "heavy" peptide ratios could be achieved even in the worst cases of conversion. By extending these principles to ESC culture protocols and reagents we were able to routinely SILAC label both mouse and human ESCs in the absence of feeder cells and without compromising the pluripotent phenotype. This study provides the simplest protocol to prevent proline artifacts in SILAC labeling experiments with arginine. Moreover, it presents a robust, feeder cell-free, protocol for performing SILAC experiments on ESCs from both the mouse and the human.
View details for DOI 10.1074/mcp.M800113-MCP200
View details for Web of Science ID 000259154800001
View details for PubMedID 18487603
Human embryonic stem cells: lessons from stem cell niches in vivo
2008; 3 (3): 365-376
The factors and signaling pathways controlling pluripotent human cell properties, both embryonic and induced, have not been fully investigated. Failure to account for functional heterogeneity within human embryonic stem cell (hESC) cultures has led to inconclusive results in previous work examining extrinsic influences governing hESC fate (self renewal vs. differentiation vs. death). Here, we attempt to reconcile these inconsistencies with recent reports demonstrating that an autologously produced in vitro niche regulates hESCs. Moreover, we focus on the reciprocal paracrine signals within the in vitro hESC niche allowing for the maintenance and/or expansion of the hESC colony-initiating cell (CIC). Based on this, it is clear that separation of hESC-CICs, apart from their differentiated derivatives, will be essential in future studies involving their molecular regulation. Understanding how extrinsic factors control hESC self-renewal and differentiation will allow us to culture and differentiate these pluripotent cells with higher efficiency. This knowledge will be essential for clinical applications using human pluripotent cells in regenerative medicine.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00109-008-0356-9
View details for Web of Science ID 000257945800003
View details for PubMedID 18521556
Proteomic analysis of pluripotent stem cells.
Current protocols in stem cell biology
2007; Chapter 1: Unit 1B 1-?
In vivo the stem cell niche is an essential component in controlling and maintaining the stem cells' ability to survive and respond to injury. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) appear to be an exception to this rule as they can be removed from their blastocytic microenvironment and maintained indefinitely in vitro. However, recent observations reveal the existence of an autonomously derived in vitro hESC niche. This provides a previously unappreciated mechanism to control hESC expansion and differentiation. Recognizing this, it may now be possible to take aspects of in vivo stem cell niches, namely extracellular matrices, paracrine signals and accessory cell types, and exploit them in order to gain fidelity in directed hESC differentiation. In doing so, routine customization of hESC lines and their application in regenerative therapies may be further enhanced using unique hESC niche-based approaches.
View details for DOI 10.2217/174607126.96.36.1995
View details for Web of Science ID 000257995200020
View details for PubMedID 18462059
Clonal isolation of hESCs reveals heterogeneity within the pluripotent stem cell compartment
2006; 3 (10): 807-815
Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has become one of the most powerful tools for identifying expressed proteins, providing quick insights into molecular and cellular biology. Traditionally, proteins isolated by either one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis are digested with a site specific protease. The resulting peptides are subject to one of two forms of analysis: (1) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS, where a "mass fingerprint" of all the peptides in a sample is generated, or (2) electrospray ionization tandem MS (ESI-MS/MS), where a mass fragmentation spectra is generated for each peptide in a sample. The resulting mass information is then compared to that of a theoretical database created with available genomic sequence information. This unit provides protocols for this type of assessment in embryonic stem cells (ESCs).
View details for DOI 10.1002/9780470151808.sc01b01s2
View details for PubMedID 18785159
Complement targeting of nonhuman sialic acid does not mediate cell death of human embryonic stem cells
2006; 12 (10): 1113-1114
Human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines are known to be morphologically and phenotypically heterogeneous. The functional nature and relationship of cells residing within hESC cultures, however, has not been evaluated because isolation of single hESCs is limited to drug or manual selection. Here we provide a quantitative method using flow cytometry to isolate and clonally expand hESCs based on undifferentiated markers, alone or in combination with a fluorescent reporter. This method allowed for isolation of stage-specific embryonic antigen-3-positive (SSEA-3+) and SSEA-3- cells from hESC cultures. Although both SSEA-3+ and SSEA-3- cells could initiate pluripotent hESC cultures, we show that they possess distinct cell-cycle properties, clonogenic capacity and expression of ESC transcription factors. Our study provides formal evidence for heterogeneity among self-renewing pluripotent hESCs, illustrating that this isolation technique will be instrumental in further dissecting the biology of hESC lines.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nmeth939
View details for Web of Science ID 000240942600015
View details for PubMedID 16990813