Center News

The latest scholarly articles and news mentions from our members

Do you have a publication or news mention you would like to add? Please email the link to: stanford_cscs@stanford.edu

  • Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience

    Pre-sleep affect predicts subsequent REM frontal theta in nonlinear fashion

    Pre-sleep affect is thought to influence sleep, but associations with both sleep architecture and the electroencephalographic (EEG) power spectrum are mixed. In this pre-registered study, we assessed negative valence and arousal 1 h pre-sleep in 52 adults drawn from the community, then recorded one night of polysomnography (PSG) in participants' own homes.

  • Behavioral Sleep Medicine

    Change in Insomnia and Depressive Symptoms During COVID-19: A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Iranian Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    There is some evidence that sleep patterns and psychological health have worsened in the general population as a result of the COVID-19-pandemic. Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) represent a particularly vulnerable population for COVID-19 infections and effects of restrictions. The present study investigated whether insomnia and depressive symptoms, as well as other MS-related symptoms (i.e. fatigue and paresthesia), changed from before to during the COVID-19-pandemic among persons with diagnosed MS.

  • Sleep

    Integrating technology to increase the reach of CBT-I: state of the science and challenges ahead

    In this Round Table Discussion, an international panel of experts discuss issues related to the use of technology in the delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), in order to increase its reach.

  • Consumer Reports

    How to Get a Great Night’s Sleep

    Consumer Reports shows you how to get a great night's sleep and shares expert advice and recommendations for mattresses, pillows, and more. Jamie Zeitzer, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, provides comment.

  • Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology

    Impact of PTSD and Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Cognition in Older Adult Veterans

    While PTSD and OSA did not have a synergistic detrimental impact on cognition, each independently predicted poorer cognitive functioning within certain domains, suggesting that older adults with these comorbid conditions may experience a wider array of cognitive difficulties.

  • NIH RePORTER

    New Funding: Circadian mechanisms of myelination

    Congratulations to Dr. Erin Gibson, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences in Sleep Medicine, on this new award from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke.

  • Current opinion in psychiatry

    Recent advances in sleep and depression

    There is increasing interest in the connection between sleep disturbances and mood disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate current research on the role of sleep disturbance in the development of depression, as well as to describe recent advances in treatments that improve both sleep and depression symptoms.

  • NY Times

    Why Does My Sleep Become Worse as I Age?

    Research has found that sleep quality does indeed get a little rusty as you grow older, but it’s not a fate you have to live with, experts say. Luis de Lecea, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, provides comment.

  • Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing

    Evaluation of patient state index, bispectral index, and entropy during drug induced sleep endoscopy with dexmedetomidine

    Multiple electroencephalographic (EEG) monitors and their associated EEG markers have been developed to aid in assessing the level of sedation in the operating room. While many studies have assessed the response of these markers to propofol sedation and anesthetic gases, few studies have compared these markers when using dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 agonist. Fifty-one patients underwent drug induced sleep endoscopy with dexmedetomidine sedation. Continuous EEG was captured using SedLine (Masimo, Inc), and a playback system was used to extract the bispectral index (BIS) (Medtronic Inc), the patient state index (PSI) (Masimo, Inc), the state and response Entropy (GE Healthcare), and calculate the spectral edge frequency 95% (SEF95). Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) scores were assessed continually throughout the procedure and in recovery. We assessed the correlation between EEG markers and constructed ordinal logistic regression models to predict the RASS score and compare EEG markers. All three commercial EEG metrics were significantly associated with the RASS score (p < 0.001 for all metrics) whereas SEF95 alone was insufficient at characterizing dexmedetomidine sedation. PSI and Entropy achieved higher accuracy at predicing deeper levels of sedation as compared to BIS (PSI: 58.3%, Entropy: 58.3%, BIS: 44.4%). Lightening secondary to RASS score assessment is significantly captured by all three commercial EEG metrics (p < 0.001). Commercial EEG monitors can capture changes in the brain state associated with the RASS score during dexmedetomidine sedation. PSI and Entropy were highly correlated and may be better suited for assessing deeper levels of sedation.

  • Neurotherapeutics

    Comparison of Solriamfetol and Modafinil on Arousal and Anxiety-Related Behaviors in Narcoleptic Mice

    Wake-promoting agents are used for the management of excessive daytime sleepiness caused by narcolepsy. Clinical and preclinical data suggests that solriamfetol, a novel dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is a promising therapeutic option for excessive daytime sleepiness. We provide the first head-to-head comparison of in vivo efficacy between modafinil and solriamfetol in narcoleptic mice. Both compounds induced potent wake-promoting effects in littermate wild-type and orexin-tTA; TetO-DTA mice when dosed at active and resting phases. However, neither modafinil nor solriamfetol alleviated cataplexy. Remarkably, modafinil significantly induced locomotor activity but solriamfetol had small effects. Awake electroencephalogram profiles revealed that modafinil augmented theta oscillation in a dose-dependent manner, but, on the contrary, the response to solriamfetol was blunted, reflecting the differences in their neurochemical properties and anxiogenic effects. Drug-induced anxiety-related behaviors were evaluated at equipotent wake-promoting doses in WT and DTA mice using the elevated plus maze and forced swim tests. Importantly, 100 mg/kg of modafinil significantly produced anxiety-related behaviors in WT mice, whereas 150 mg/kg of solriamfetol did not have anxiogenic effects. On the other hand, DTA mice exhibited trait anxiety and altered drug responses. Our results suggest that solriamfetol potently promotes wakefulness without psychomotor effects and without inducing anxiety-related behaviors.

  • Sleep Medicine

    Automatic scoring of drug-induced sleep endoscopy for obstructive sleep apnea using deep learning

    Background: Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea is crucial for long term health and reduced economic burden. For those considered for surgery, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) is a method to characterize location and pattern of sleep-related upper airway collapse. According to the VOTE classification system, four upper airway sites of collapse are characterized: velum (V), oropharynx (O), tongue (T), and epiglottis (E). The degree of obstruction per site is classified as 0 (no obstruction), 1 (partial obstruction), or 2 (complete obstruction). Here we propose a deep learning approach for automatic scoring of VOTE obstruction degrees from DISE videos. Methods: We included 281 DISE videos with varying durations (6 s-16 min) from two sleep clinics: Copenhagen University Hospital and Stanford University Hospital. Examinations were split into 5-s clips, each receiving annotations of 0, 1, 2, or X (site not visible) for each site (V, O, T, and E), which was used to train a deep learning model. Predicted VOTE obstruction degrees per examination was obtained by taking the highest predicted degree per site across 5-s clips, which was evaluated against VOTE degrees annotated by surgeons. Results: Mean F1 score of 70% was obtained across all DISE examinations (V: 85%, O: 72%, T: 57%, E: 65%). For each site, sensitivity was highest for degree 2 and lowest for degree 0. No bias in performance was observed between videos from different clinicians/hospitals. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that automating scoring of DISE examinations show high validity and feasibility in degree of upper airway collapse.

  • Biology (Basel)

    Optimizing Light Flash Sequence Duration to Shift Human Circadian Phase

    Unlike light input for forming images, non-image-forming retinal pathways are optimized to convey information about the total light environment, integrating this information over time and space. In a variety of species, discontinuous light sequences (flashes) can be effective stimuli, notably impacting circadian entrainment. In this study, we examined the extent to which this temporal integration can occur. A group of healthy, young (n = 20) individuals took part in a series of 16-day protocols in which we examined the impact of different lengths of light flash sequences on circadian timing. We find a significant phase change of -0.70 h in response to flashes that did not differ by duration; a 15-min sequence could engender as much change in circadian timing as 3.5-h sequences. Acute suppression of melatonin was also observed during short (15-min) exposures, but not in exposures over one hour in length. Our data are consistent with the theory that responses to light flashes are mediated by the extrinsic, rod/cone pathway, and saturate the response of this pathway within 15 min. Further excitation leads to no greater change in circadian timing and an inability to acutely suppress melatonin, indicating that this pathway may be in a refractory state following this brief light stimulation.

  • Journal of sleep research

    Objective and subjective sleep health in adolescence: Associations with puberty and affect

    Sleep health tends to worsen during adolescence, partially due to pubertal-related changes that, in combination with social and psychological factors, can lead to long-lasting impairments in sleep health and affective functioning. Discrepant findings between subjective and objective measures of sleep in relation to affect have been reported in studies of adults; however, few investigations have assessed both subjective and objective sleep quality in a single sample, and fewer have examined this in the context of pubertal development. We aimed to (1) characterise pubertal associations with subjective sleep satisfaction, objective sleep efficiency, and objective and subjective sleep duration in adolescents; (2) examine the longitudinal association between daily affect and sleep metrics; and (3) test whether pubertal stage moderated this association.

  • ZME Science

    How mindfulness training can help vulnerable children sleep better

    Children who learned how to cope with their stress by being more present slept much more and better. Ruth O'Hara, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at Stanford, is quoted

  • Yahoo News

    How Sleep Experts Get Through The Day When They're Sleep-Deprived

    Feeling exhausted today? Here's what the pros do after a night of little or no rest. Dr. Fiona Barwick, director of the sleep and circadian health program at Stanford Health Care, is quoted.

  • Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine

    Daytime napping and nighttime sleep in pregnant individuals with insomnia disorder

    Among pregnant individuals with insomnia in the second trimester, short napping duration was associated with higher self-reported sleep efficiency and quality; long napping duration was associated with shorter actigraphy-measured sleep duration. Additional research is needed to examine the interaction between nap duration and nap timing. In the future, these results may lead to more nuanced recommendations for daytime napping among pregnant individuals with insomnia disorder.

  • Washington Post

    Ask a Doctor: Why am I so grumpy after a nap?

    If you’re in a bad mood after a nap, it may be that that your nap was too short or too long. Rafael Pelayo, clinical professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, provides advice in this article.

  • Inverse

    Can you become a morning person? Sleep scientists say it is possible with these key tips

    Our circadian rhythm is the underlying mechanism that dictates when we start to feel sleepy at night and awake in the morning. And it's absolutely trainable. Jamie Zeitzer, professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences, provides comment.

  • Sleep

    Sleep architecture is associated with core symptom severity in autism spectrum disorder

    While caregiver-reported sleep disturbances are common in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), few studies have measured objective sleep in ASD compared to controls, and their findings are mixed. We investigated 1) differences in sleep architecture, specifically slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM), between ASD and typically developing controls (TD); and 2) if any observed differences in sleep were associated with core ASD symptoms.

  • Scientific Reports

    Influences of sleep and lifestyle factors on the risk for covid-19 infections, from internet survey of 10,000 Japanese business workers

    We conducted an internet survey to assess sociodemographic variables, lifestyle factors, sleep problems, and comorbidities for sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in COVID-19 and influenza (FLU) infections.