Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Pathology
  • Anatomic Pathology

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Director, Surgical Pathology, Stanford University, School of Medicine - Pathology (1993 - Present)
  • Medical Director, Clinical Laboratories, Stanford University, School of Medicine - Pathology (2004 - 2008)
  • Associate Chair for Clinical Services, Stanford University School of Medicine - Pathology (2004 - 2008)

Professional Education


  • Residency:University of Chicago Hospitals (1974) IL
  • Fellowship:Stanford University School of Medicine (1975) CA
  • Board Certification: Anatomic Pathology, American Board of Pathology (1975)
  • Internship:University of Chicago Hospitals (1972) IL
  • Medical Education:University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (1971) TX
  • M.D., U of Texas, Southwestern, Medicine (1971)
  • B.S., University of North Dakota, Medicine (1969)
  • B.A, Concondia College, Moorhead, MN, Biology (1967)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Immunologic mechanism of rejection in humans and animal, models of organ transplantation; histological definition of clinical pathology studies of various renal disorders.

Clinical Trials


  • Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Following Lumpectomy for Breast Cancer Not Recruiting

    To determine whether an accelerated course of radiotherapy delivered to the lumpectomy cavity plus margin using IORT as a single dose, intracavitary brachytherapy with the MammoSite device over 5 days, partial breast 3-D CRT in 5 days, or stereotactic APBI over 4 days is a feasible and safe alternative to a six and a half week course of whole breast radiotherapy. The study will measure both short and long-term complications of radiation treatment, short and long-term breast cosmesis, local rates of in-breast cancer recurrence, regional recurrences, distant metastases, and overall survival.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Sally Bobo, (650) 736 - 1472.

    View full details

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Immunohistochemical staining of papillary breast lesions APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY Troxell, M. L., Masek, M., Sibley, R. K. 2007; 15 (2): 145-153

    Abstract

    The separation of ductal papilloma from intraductal papillary carcinoma of the breast on hematoxylin and eosin stained sections often presents diagnostic difficulty. Immunohistochemical staining is often employed in diagnosis, historically with smooth muscle actin (SMA). In this study, the staining characteristics of a panel of myoepithelial markers (calponin, p63, P-cadherin), were compared with SMA, and the epithelial expression of CD44s was assessed in 99 papillary lesions. SMA, calponin, and p63 demonstrated myoepithelial cells in 61%, 63%, and 65% of papillary lesions, respectively. However, specificity was quite variable. Calponin-stained stromal myofibroblasts (35% of cases), vessel pericytes (92%), and endothelial cells (69%), though each to a lesser degree than SMA. Calponin also showed cross reactivity with epithelium in 18% of cases. p63 was almost completely restricted to myoepithelial cell nuclei, and did not stain vascular smooth muscle or myofibroblasts. However, p63 stained the epithelial component in one papillary carcinoma, a basal layer of cells in 1 biphasic invasive carcinoma, and the cytoplasm in 1 case. P-cadherin stained both epithelial and myoepithelial cells. The epithelial expression of CD44s and did not distinguish papillomas from papillary carcinomas. Thus, P-cadherin and CD44s are not useful in the characterization of papillary lesions. Given increased specificity as compared with SMA, the combination of p63 and calponin is recommended for analysis of breast papillary lesions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246870200005

    View details for PubMedID 17525625

  • Intravenous Tamm-Horsfall protein polyps: report of a case in association with a hematoma that mimicked a renal neoplasm. American journal of kidney diseases Higgins, J. P., Huie, P., Rigaud, G., Sibley, R. K. 2006; 48 (5): e67-71

    Abstract

    Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) is a glycoprotein produced only in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. Its primary physiological function is unknown, but it may have a role in host defense against infectious organisms. THP is the primary scaffolding protein in all varieties of tubular casts. Under certain conditions, THP may be extruded from tubular lumens into the interstitium and lymphatic channels. It even may be found within lymph nodes sampled for staging of neoplastic conditions. THP deposits were described in lumens of large veins. The pathogenetic basis of this finding is not known, but obstruction of renal outflow was suggested, and several cases were associated with macroscopic hematuria. We report a case of intravenous THP polyposis in which, in addition to abundant hemorrhage, there was formation of a hematoma. This measured 12 cm in diameter and caused clinical concern for the possibility of renal cell carcinoma. Although the cause of the hematoma was not apparent, the association with striking intravenous polyps of THP is noteworthy because this represents the first association of intravenous THP polyps with a large intraparenchymal hematoma.

    View details for PubMedID 17059985

  • Clinical trial to evaluate omega-3 fatty acids and alternate day prednisone in patients with IgA nephropathy: Report from the southwest pediatric nephrology study group CLINICAL JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Hogg, R. J., Lee, J., Nardelli, N., Julian, B. A., Cattran, D., Waldo, B., Wyatt, R., Jennette, J. C., Sibley, R., Hyland, K., Fitzgibbons, L., Hirschman, G., Donadio, J. V., Holub, B. J. 2006; 1 (3): 467-474

    Abstract

    This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial evaluated the role of prednisone and omega 3 fatty acids (O3FA) in patients with IgA nephropathy. Entry criteria were (1) biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy, (2) estimated GFR > or = 50 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and (3) moderate to severe proteinuria. Thirty-three patients were randomly assigned to receive prednisone 60 mg/m2 every other day for 3 mo, then 40 mg/m2 every other day for 9 mo, then 30 mg/m2 every other day for 12 mo (prednisone group); 32 were randomly assigned to receive O3FA 4 g/d for 2 yr (1.88 g eicosapentaenoic acid, 1.48 g docosahexaenoic acid; O3FA group); and 31 were randomly assigned to receive placebo (placebo group). Most (73%) patients completed 2 yr of treatment. Randomly assigned patients who were hypertensive were given enalapril 2.5 to 40 mg/d. The primary end point was time to failure, defined as estimated GFR <60% of baseline. An overall significance level of 0.10 was used. The three groups were comparable at baseline except that the O3FA group had higher urine protein to creatinine (UP/C) ratios than the placebo group (P = 0.003). Neither treatment group showed benefit over the placebo group with respect to time to failure, with 14 patient failures overall (two in the prednisone group, eight in the O3FA group, and four in the placebo group). The primary factor associated with time to failure was higher baseline UP/C ratios (P = 0.009). Superiority of prednisone or O3FA over placebo in slowing progression of renal disease was not demonstrated in this study. However, the relatively short follow-up period, inequality of baseline UP/C ratios, and small numbers of patients precludes definitive conclusions.

    View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.01020905

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242172900020

    View details for PubMedID 17699247

  • Glomerular and tubular basement membrane calcinosis: Case report and literature review AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Troxell, M. L., Higgins, J. P., Sibley, R. K. 2006; 47 (2)

    Abstract

    Nephrocalcinosis most commonly manifests as renal calculi or deposition within the tubulointerstitial compartment. Conversely, calcium deposition within glomeruli is extremely rare. We present the case of a 50-year-old man with multiple medical problems, including hepatitis C, diabetes, hypertension, proteinuria, and chronic renal failure. Renal biopsy showed impressive calcium deposits along glomerular basement membranes and tubular basement membranes, within intracellular organelles, and in the interstitium in the setting of a normal serum calcium level. Seven months after biopsy, the patient is on hemodialysis therapy. Although serological and medical examination failed to show a treatable cause for this patient's glomerular calcinosis, individual case reports in the literature have described resolution of calcinosis-associated nephrotic syndrome with treatment of the primary cause of hypercalcemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.10.030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235189300026

    View details for PubMedID 16431246

  • A 69-year-old woman with a vulvar lesion. Phyllodes tumor of the vulva. Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine Mariappan, M. R., Lagera, J. E., Fadare, O., Sibley, R. K. 2006; 130 (1): e11-2

    View details for PubMedID 16390249

  • Renal juxtaglomerular apparatus hyperplasia NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION Troxell, M. L., Scandling, J. D., Sibley, R. K. 2005; 20 (10): 2282-2283

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ndt/gfh883

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232102800045

    View details for PubMedID 15941848

  • Keratin 8 and 18 mutations are risk factors for developing liver disease of multiple etiologies PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ku, N. O., Darling, J. M., Krams, S. M., Esquivel, C. O., Keeffe, E. B., Sibley, R. K., Lee, Y. M., Wright, T. L., Omary, M. B. 2003; 100 (10): 6063-6068

    Abstract

    Keratin 8 and 18 (K8K18) mutations are found in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis, but the role of keratin mutations in noncryptogenic cirrhosis and the incidence of keratin mutations in the general population are not known. We screened for K8K18 mutations in genomic DNA isolated from 314 liver explants of patients who primarily had noncryptogenic cirrhosis, and from 349 blood bank volunteers. Seven unique K8K18 mutations were found in 11 independent patients with biliary atresia, hepatitis BC, alcohol, primary biliary cirrhosis, and fulminant hepatitis. Seven of the 11 patients had mutations previously described in patients with cryptogenic cirrhosis: K8 Tyr-53 --> His, K8 Gly-61 --> Cys, and K18 His-127 --> Leu. The four remaining patients had mutations at one K8 and three other K18 new sites. Of the 349 blood bank control samples, only one contained the Tyr-53 --> His and one the Gly-61 --> Cys K8 mutations (P < 0.004 when comparing cirrhosis versus control groups). Two additional mutations were found in both the liver disease and blood bank groups and, hence, likely represent polymorphisms. Livers with keratin mutations had cytoplasmic filamentous deposits that were less frequent in livers without the mutations (P = 0.03). Therefore, K8K18 are likely susceptibility genes for developing cryptogenic and noncryptogenic forms of liver disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0936165100

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182939400089

    View details for PubMedID 12724528

  • Treatment of adjuvant arthritis with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and peptide derived from heat shock protein 65 CELLULAR IMMUNOLOGY Brendolan, A., Higuchi, M., Sibley, R., Strober, S. 2003; 221 (1): 6-14

    Abstract

    Adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats is induced by the subcutaneous injection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mineral oil, and the predominant T cell immune reactivity is against the heat shock protein 65 derived peptide 176-190. We treated Lewis rats with human recombinant G-CSF followed by (i.v) administration of peptide 176-190 after induction of adjuvant arthritis (AA), and observed decreased disease severity, joint destruction, new bone formation and joint ankylosis. Treatment with G-CSF alone was also effective, but to a lesser extent. In addition, we found that splenocytes from rats treated with G-CSF had reduced antigen presenting capacity compared with splenocytes from vehicle treated rats. Primed lymph node cells from G-CSF plus peptide treated rats showed a marked reduction in proliferation and secretion of IFN-gamma after stimulation with the heat shock protein peptide in vitro as compared to controls.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0008-8749(03)00045-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183060400002

    View details for PubMedID 12742377

  • Clinicopathologic correlates predict the outcome in children with steroid-resistant idiopathic nephrotic syndrome treated with pulse methylprednisolone therapy AMERICAN JOURNAL OF KIDNEY DISEASES Kirpekar, R., Yorgin, P. D., Tune, B. M., Kim, M. K., Sibley, R. K. 2002; 39 (6): 1143-1152

    Abstract

    Although pulse methylprednisolone therapy (PMT) has been used successfully in the management of children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the relationship between initial presenting findings and renal histological characteristics to the subsequent clinical response to PMT is unknown. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a study cohort of 42 children (30 boys, 12 girls; mean age, 7.4 +/- 4.7 years) with SRNS administered PMT between June 1976 and July 1994 at Stanford University (Stanford, CA). Four diagnostic categories were created: group I, minimal change disease with or without mesangial hypercellularity (n = 10); group II, mesangial proliferation (n = 7); group III, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) with or without mesangial hypercellularity (n = 10); and group IV, FSGS plus mesangial proliferation (n = 15). Primary variables analyzed were remission in response to PMT with or without alkylating agent therapy and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Remission rates were best in group I (90%) and worst in group IV (46%). With the exception of hematuria, presenting clinical features did not correlate with outcome. Segmental sclerosis, glomerular adhesion to Bowman's capsule, epithelial sloughing, corona (segmental scar surrounded by visceral epithelial cells), subepithelial deposits, inflammatory cells, and percentage of interstitium, immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and C3 deposition univariately correlated with ESRD in univariate analysis. In a multivariate logistic regression model, only segmental sclerosis (P = 0.008) correlated with ESRD. Histological analysis is important because it identifies features, including segmental sclerosis, that portend a poor prognosis in children with SRNS.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/ajkd.2002.33382

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176399600003

    View details for PubMedID 12046024

  • Long-term followup of patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation for lupus nephritis ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Genovese, M. C., Uhrin, Z., Bloch, D. A., Oehlert, J., Sibley, R. K., Myers, B., Strober, S. 2002; 46 (4): 1014-1018

    Abstract

    To describe the long-term survival, renal condition, and morbidity outcomes in patients who received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) for the treatment of lupus nephritis.Twenty-one patients with biopsy-proven, diffuse membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and significant proteinuria of >2.5 grams/day received TLI from 1980 to 1987 at Stanford University Medical Center. All patients had previously failed to respond to treatment with high-dose corticosteroids or therapy with corticosteroids plus immunosuppressive agents (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, or chlorambucil).The mean duration of followup since TLI was 10.7 years. Fifteen of 21 patients (71%) remained alive at the time of this assessment. Nine of the 21 patients (43%) survived without developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The probability of long-term survival without ESRD and without need for additional immunosuppressive agents after TLI was 19% (4 of 21). Factors predicting renal failure at the time of TLI included elevated creatinine levels, increased interstitial fibrosis on renal biopsy, and increased fractional excretion of immunoglobulin and albumin. Malignancies were found in 4 patients, and opportunistic infections occurred in 7 patients.Overall, patients with lupus nephritis treated with TLI do not appear to have better 10-year survival with lower incidence of ESRD compared with patients in published series treated with conventional immunosuppressive therapies. However, in this series of patients, treatment with conventional immunosuppressive therapies had been unsuccessful and given the limited number of adverse events and the efficacy seen in some patients, TLI appears to be a reasonable therapeutic option for the treatment of severe lupus nephritis among patients who fail to respond under standard cytotoxic regimens.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174946500022

    View details for PubMedID 11953979

  • Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with endothelial bcl-2 expression in transplant liver allografts TRANSPLANTATION Millan, M. T., Natkunam, Y., Clarke-Katzenberg, R., Desai, D., Prapong, W., So, S. K., Esquivel, C. O., Sibley, R., Ferran, C., Martinez, O. M. 2002; 73 (3): 465-469

    Abstract

    In liver transplant recipients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) disease, we reported a low rate of acute rejection after stopping or markedly lowering immunosuppression. This observation led to the hypothesis that EBV, as a means of viral persistence, induces expression of antiapoptotic factors and these factors, in turn, confer protection to the transplanted organ. Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic factor induced by EBV in various host cells, is not normally expressed in the liver. We questioned whether bcl-2 is expressed in the transplanted liver and whether its expression is modified by EBV.Retrospective liver biopsy specimen from liver transplant patients diagnosed with EBV (n=12) were examined for the presence of bcl-2 by immunohistochemistry and compared with EBV (-) transplant (n=15), and nontransplant (n=13) livers.The most significant finding was the presence of endothelial bcl-2 expression in the majority of EBV (+) transplant samples examined (67%) and its relative absence in the other two groups (P<0.005). There was also bcl-2 expression in the hepatocytes and lymphocytes of the majority of transplant liver samples, irrespective of EBV status.We have identified a strong association between EBV infection and endothelial bcl-2 expression in transplant livers. We also found that transplantation, in itself, was associated with bcl-2 expression in the hepatocytes and lymphocytes of liver allografts.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174115400023

    View details for PubMedID 11884946

  • Hepatocyte growth factor receptor in acute tubular necrosis JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Rabkin, R., Fervenza, F., Tsao, T., Sibley, R., Friedlaender, M., Hsu, F., Lassman, C., Hausmann, M., Huie, P., Schwall, R. H. 2001; 12 (3): 531-540

    Abstract

    In acute tubular necrosis, there are early transient increases in circulating and local bioactive hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) levels and renal HGF receptor (c-MET) gene expression. It has therefore been suggested that endogenous HGF may play a role in initiating renal repair. To test this hypothesis, changes in the levels, activity, and anatomic distribution of c-MET protein were characterized in relation to the onset and localization of DNA synthesis in kidneys of rats with ischemia-induced acute tubular necrosis. Whole-kidney c-MET protein levels were significantly increased in the injured kidneys 12 h after injury and rose to a maximum after 1 d, exceeding the control values by sevenfold. Eight days after injury, c-MET levels, although decreasing, were still elevated above control values. An increase in the levels of activated c-MET, i.e., tyrosine-phosphorylated c-MET, was also evident as early as 12 h after injury. Histologic analyses demonstrated that the increase in c-MET immunoreactivity was most marked in the most severely damaged nephron segments in the outer medulla. In injured proximal tubules, the receptor was redistributed from an apical location to an intracellular location. DNA synthesis was increased in the injured kidneys, especially in the outer medulla, where the increase in c-MET protein levels was most prominent. The increase in DNA synthesis was first detected 12 h after the initial increase in activated c-MET levels. It is concluded that the early increases in the levels of c-MET protein and activated receptor support the hypothesis that HGF participates in the initiation of renal regeneration. In addition, the persistent elevation of c-Met protein levels suggests that prolonged and even late treatment with HGF may be of therapeutic value

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167221400014

    View details for PubMedID 11181801

  • Expression of insulin-like growth factor-I and transforming growth factor-beta in hypokalemic nephropathy in the rat KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Tsao, T., Fawcett, J., Fervenza, F. C., Hsu, F. W., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., Rabkin, R. 2001; 59 (1): 96-105

    Abstract

    Potassium deficiency (KD) in the rat retards body growth but stimulates renal enlargement caused by cellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia, which is most marked in the outer medulla. If hypokalemia persists, interstitial infiltrates appear and eventually fibrosis. Since early in KD insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels in the kidney are elevated, suggesting that it may be an early mediator of the exaggerated renal growth, and as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) promotes cellular hypertrophy and fibrosis, we examined the renal expression of these growth factors in prolonged KD.Rats were given a K-deficient diet or were pair fed or ad libitum fed a K-replete diet for 21 days. Growth factor mRNA levels were measured in whole kidney and protein expression localized by immunohistochemistry.KD rats weighed less than pair-fed controls, while the kidneys were 49% larger. Their serum IGF-I and kidney IGF-I protein levels were depressed, as were their IGF-I mRNA levels in liver, kidney, and muscle. These changes can largely be attributed to decreased food intake. In contrast, kidney IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) mRNA and TGF-beta mRNA levels were increased significantly. Histology of outer medulla revealed marked hypertrophy and adenomatous hyperplasia of the collecting ducts and hypertrophy of the thick ascending limbs of Henle with cellular infiltrates in the interstitium. Both nephron segments immunostained strongly for IGF-I and IGFBP-1, but only the nonhyperplastic enlarged thick ascending Henle limb cells immunostained for TGF-beta, which was strongly positive. Prominent interstitial infiltrates with ED1 immunostained monocytes/macrophages were present.These findings are consistent with a sustained role for IGF-I in promoting the exaggerated renal growth of KD and appear to be mediated through local trapping of IGF-I by the overexpressed IGFBP-1, which together with IGF-I can promote renal growth. The selective localization of TGF-beta to hypertrophied nonhyperplastic nephron segments containing IGF-I raises the possibility that TGF-beta may be serving to convert the mitogenic action of IGF-I into a hypertrophic response in these segments. It is also conceivable that TGF-beta may be a cause of the tubulointerstitial infiltrate. Finally, the low circulating IGF-I levels likely contribute to the impaired body growth.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166294700012

    View details for PubMedID 11135062

  • Granulysin expression is a marker for acute rejection and steroid resistance in human renal transplantation HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY Sarwal, M. M., Jani, A., Chang, S., Huie, P., Wang, Z., Salvatierra, O., CLAYBERGER, C., Sibley, R., KRENSKY, A. M., Pavlakis, M. 2001; 62 (1): 21-31

    Abstract

    Differentiating etiologies of transplant dysfunction without biopsy and optimizing therapy for acute rejection by predicting steroid resistance will reduce patient morbidity. Granulysin is a cytolytic molecule released by CTL and NK cells and coexpressed with effectors of acute allograft rejection, like perforin and granzymes. Granulysin mRNA and protein expression were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL; n = 61 total, n = 10 with intercurrent infections) and biopsy tissue from adult and children renal transplant recipients (n = 97) by competitive quantitative-reverse transcriptase-PCR (QC-RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Differences in cell phenotypes were studied in steroid sensitive and resistant acute rejection biopsies. Granulysin was studied in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated cell lines (donor PBL and CD45RO(+) T cells) by FACS, Western blotting, and RT-PCR after pretreating with cyclosporine A (CSA), azathioprine, mycophenolic acid, and steroids. Granulysin mRNA was significantly increased in patient PBL and transplant biopsies during acute rejection (p < 0.0001) and infection (p < 0.001). Rejecting biopsies alone (n = 53) had mononuclear cell granulysin staining. Steroid resistant biopsies (n = 25) had denser granulysin staining (>2 cells/high power field) and CD45RO(+) lymphocytes, when compared with steroid sensitive (n = 28) rejecting tissue. Granulysin levels were unchanged after azathioprine and mycophenolic acid treatment, decreased after treating activated PBL with steroids and cyclosporine A (CSA), and paradoxically, increased (p < 0.05) after treating CD45RO(+) CTL with CSA. Elevated PBL granulysin is a peripheral marker for acute rejection and infection and dense granulysin staining a tissue marker for steroid resistance. Memory CTL abound in steroid resistant grafts and may have a markedly different response to CSA immunotherapy, suggesting a possible mechanism for steroid resistance.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167037400003

    View details for PubMedID 11165712

  • Reduction of aortic wall motion inhibits hypertension-mediated experimental atherosclerosis ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY Tropea, B. I., Schwarzacher, S. P., Chang, A., Asvar, C., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., Zarins, C. K. 2000; 20 (9): 2127-2133

    Abstract

    Hypertension is a well-known risk factor for coronary artery disease and carotid and lower extremity occlusive disease. Surgically induced hypertension in hypercholesterolemic animals results in increased aortic wall motion and increased plaque formation. We tested the hypothesis that reduction in aortic wall motion, despite continued hypertension, could reduce plaque formation. New Zealand White rabbits (n=26) underwent thoracic aortic banding to induce hypertension and were fed an atherogenic diet for 3 weeks. In 13 rabbits, a segment of aorta proximal to an aortic band was externally wrapped to reduce wall motion. All animals were fed an atherogenic diet for 3 weeks. Four groups were studied: 1, coarctation control (no wrap, n=7); 2, coarctation with loose wrap (n=6); 3, coarctation with firm wrap (n=7); and 4, control (noncoarcted, n=6). Wall motion, blood pressure, and pulse pressure were measured at standard reference sites proximal and distal to the coarctation by use of intravascular ultrasound. Quantitative morphometry was used to measure intimal plaque. Mean arterial pressure and cyclic aortic wall motion were equally increased proximal to the aortic coarctation in all 3 coarcted rabbit groups compared with the control group (P:<0.001). Wall motion in the segment of aorta under the loose and firm wraps was no different from the control value. The external wrap significantly reduced intimal thickening in the 4 groups by the following amounts: group 1, 0.30+/-0.03 mm(2); group 2, 0.06+/-0.02 mm(2); group 3, 0. 04+/-0.02 mm(2); and group 4, 0.01+/-0.01 mm(2) (P:<0.001). Localized inhibition of aortic wall motion in the lesion-prone hypertensive aorta resulted in significant reduction in intimal plaque formation. These data suggest that arterial wall cyclic motion may stimulate cellular proliferation and lipid uptake in experimental atherosclerosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089333600019

    View details for PubMedID 10978259

  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen as the cell cycle sensor for an HLA-derived peptide blocking T cell proliferation JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Ling, X. F., Kamangar, S., Boytim, M. L., Kelman, Z., Huie, P., Lyu, S. C., Sibley, R. K., Hurwitz, J., CLAYBERGER, C., KRENSKY, A. M. 2000; 164 (12): 6188-6192

    Abstract

    Synthetic peptides corresponding to structural regions of HLA molecules are novel immunosuppressive agents. A peptide corresponding to residues 65-79 of the alpha-chain of HLA-DQA03011 (DQ65-79) blocks cell cycle progression from early G1 to the G1 restriction point, which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase-2 activity and phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified proliferating cell nuclear Ag (PCNA) as a cellular ligand for this peptide, whose interaction with PCNA was further confirmed by in vitro biochemistry. Electron microscopy demonstrates that the DQ65-79 peptide enters the cell and colocalizes with PCNA in the T cell nucleus in vivo. Binding of the DQ65-79 peptide to PCNA did not block polymerase delta (pol delta)-dependent DNA replication in vitro. These findings support a key role for PCNA as a sensor of cell cycle progression and reveal an unanticipated function for conserved regions of HLA molecules.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087508500014

    View details for PubMedID 10843669

  • Comparison of chimeric and non-chimeric tolerance using posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation - Cytokine expression and chronic rejection TRANSPLANTATION Hayamizu, K., Lan, F. S., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., Strober, S. 1999; 68 (7): 1036-1044

    Abstract

    Previous studies showed that an intravenous infusion of donor blood cells facilitates tolerance to ACI heart allografts in Lewis rat hosts given posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG). The object of the current study was to compare tolerance induction using donor cells that do or do not induce chimerism.Normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized PBMC, and bone marrow (BM) cells from ACI donors were tested for their capacity to prolong ACI heart allograft survival in Lewis hosts. Chimerism, anti-donor cell reactivity, and cytokine gene expression in grafts were determined.Intravenous injections of equal numbers of all three donor cells markedly prolonged graft survival (median: >164 to >175 days) as compared to uninjected controls (median: 53 days). Chimerism among T and B cells in the blood was determined by immunofluorescent staining in hosts bearing long-term (> 150 days) grafts. Although no chimerism was detected in hosts given normal or G-CSF-mobilized PBMC, chimerism was detected at variable levels in all hosts given BM cells. Vigorous anti-donor reactivity in the mixed leukocyte reaction was present only in non-chimeric hosts. Long-term grafts from hosts given normal ACI PBMC developed chronic rejection, but those from hosts given ACI BM cells did not. The latter hosts showed the lowest levels of intragraft cytokine mRNA.Chimeric tolerance is more robust than non-chimeric tolerance in the model of posttransplant TLI, ATG, and donor cell infusion, and is associated with less chronic rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083163800023

    View details for PubMedID 10532547

  • The influence of combined trophic factors on the success of fetal pancreas grafts TRANSPLANTATION Desai, D. M., Adams, G. A., Wang, X. G., Alfrey, E. J., Sibley, R. K., Dafoe, D. C. 1999; 68 (4): 491-496

    Abstract

    Fetal pancreas (FP) has the capacity for abundant proliferation and beta cell differentiation. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes FP engraftment in the i.m. site and reversal of diabetes in a rodent model. However, reversal of diabetes by an FP transplant in rats under the influence of IGF-1 is still an inefficient process requiring multiple FP grafts and a prolonged latent period. Numerous other growth and differentiation factors, which include platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor, endothelial cell growth factor-alpha and pancreatic islet neogenesis-associated protein, have been implicated in beta cell neogenesis and proliferation. We have analyzed the in vivo role of these growth factors in FP engraftment and reversal of streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.IGF-1 alone or in combination with other trophic factors was locally administered to eight FP isografts in the thigh muscle of diabetic rats.Diabetes was reversed in a mean of 60+/-26 days in 11 of 11 animals treated with IGF-1. PDGF alone did not promote reversal of diabetes; however, PDGF + IGF-1 resulted in euglycemia in 6 of 6, with a mean of 36+/-14 days (P<0.05). Islet neogenesis-associated protein +IGF-1 resulted in reversal of diabetes in 6 of 6 rats with a mean interval of 50+/-10 days. Vascular endothelial growth factor or endothelial cell growth factor-alpha + IGF-1 provided no advantage compared with IGF-1 alone.These results demonstrate that IGF-1 is a potent trophic factor for transplanted FP and that PDGF acts synergistically with IGF-1 to promote reversal of diabetes by transplanting FP.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000082390200008

    View details for PubMedID 10480405

  • Bone marrow NK1.1(-) and NK1.1(+) T cells reciprocally regulate acute graft versus host disease JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Zeng, D. F., Lewis, D., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Lan, F. S., Garcia-Ojeda, M., Sibley, R., Strober, S. 1999; 189 (7): 1073-1081

    Abstract

    Sorted CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from the peripheral blood or bone marrow of donor C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice were tested for their capacity to induce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by injecting the cells, along with stringently T cell-depleted donor marrow cells, into lethally irradiated BALB/c (H-2(d)) host mice. The peripheral blood T cells were at least 30 times more potent than the marrow T cells in inducing lethal GVHD. As NK1.1(+) T cells represented <1% of all T cells in the blood and approximately 30% of T cells in the marrow, the capacity of sorted marrow NK1.1(-) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to induce GVHD was tested. The latter cells had markedly increased potency, and adding back marrow NK1.1(+) T cells suppressed GVHD. The marrow NK1.1(+) T cells secreted high levels of both interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), and the NK1.1(-) T cells secreted high levels of IFN-gamma with little IL-4. Marrow NK1.1(+) T cells obtained from IL-4(-/-) rather than wild-type C57BL/6 donors not only failed to prevent GVHD but actually increased its severity. Together, these results demonstrate that GVHD is reciprocally regulated by the NK1.1(-) and NK1.1(+) T cell subsets via their differential production of cytokines.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079648700008

    View details for PubMedID 10190898

  • Sodium reabsorption and distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase during postischemic injury to the renal allograft KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Kwon, O., Corrigan, G., Myers, B. D., Sibley, R., Scandling, J. D., Dafoe, D., Alfrey, E., NELSON, W. J. 1999; 55 (3): 963-975

    Abstract

    A loss of proximal tubule cell polarity is thought to activate tubuloglomerular feedback, thereby contributing to glomerular filtration rate depression in postischemic acute renal failure (ARF).We used immunomicroscopy to evaluate the segmental distribution of Na+/K+-ATPase in tubules of recipients of cadaveric renal allografts. Fractional excretion (FE) of sodium and lithium was determined simultaneously. Observations were made on two occasions: one to three hours after graft reperfusion (day 0) and again on post-transplant day 7. An inulin clearance below or above 25 ml/min on day 7 was used to divide subjects into groups with sustained (N = 15) or recovering (N = 16) ARF, respectively.In sustained ARF, the fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) was 40 +/- 6% and 11 +/- 5%, and the fractional excretion of lithium (FELi) was 76 +/- 5% and 70 +/- 2% on days 0 and 7, respectively. Corresponding findings in recovering ARF were 28 +/- 2% and 6 +/- 2% for the FENa and 77 +/- 4% and 55 +/- 3% (P < 0.05 vs. sustained) for FELi. Na+/K+-ATPase distribution in both groups was mainly basolateral in distal straight and convoluted tubule segments and collecting ducts. However, Na+/K+-ATPase was poorly retained in the basolateral membrane of proximal convoluted and straight tubule segments in sustained and recovering ARF on both days 0 and 7.We conclude that loss of proximal tubule cell polarity for Na+/K+-ATPase distribution is associated with enhanced delivery of filtered Na+ to the macula densa for seven days after allograft reperfusion. Whether an ensuing activation of tubuloglomerular feedback is an important cause of glomerular filtration rate depression in this form of ARF remains to be determined.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078682200019

    View details for PubMedID 10027933

  • Distribution of cell membrane-associated proteins along the human nephron JOURNAL OF HISTOCHEMISTRY & CYTOCHEMISTRY Kwon, O., Myers, B. D., Sibley, R., Dafoe, D., Alfrey, E., NELSON, W. J. 1998; 46 (12): 1423-1434

    Abstract

    Cytoskeletal proteins associate with specific cell adhesion complexes and membrane proteins and influence the structural and functional organization of polarized epithelial cells in the kidney. Among such proteins that have been studied in cultured cell lines and in animals are the tight junction complex (ZO-1 and occludin), the adherens cell-cell adhesion complex (alpha-, beta-catenin and plakoglobin), and Na+,K+-ATPase, with its associated membrane skeleton proteins ankyrin and fodrin. Although abnormal distribution of these proteins has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases, the relevance of these findings to corresponding disease of the human kidney remains to be established. As a first step towards elucidating a role for such proteins in human kidney disease, we undertook a histochemical analysis of the distribution of these proteins in biopsy specimens of human kidney taken from healthy kidney transplant donors. We found each protein to have a characteristic subcellular localization and an intensity of staining that varied among different segments of the nephron in a manner that is consistent with discrete, segmental nephron function.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077379000011

    View details for PubMedID 9815284

  • Monocyte-derived dendritic cell precursors facilitate tolerance to heart allografts after total lymphoid irradiation TRANSPLANTATION Hayamizu, K., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., Strober, S. 1998; 66 (10): 1285-1291

    Abstract

    Previous studies have shown that posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation, anti-thymocyte globulin, and an intravenous donor blood cell infusion induce tolerance to ACI heart allografts in Lewis rat hosts.In the current study, fresh ACI monocytes and dendritic cell precursors, derived from short-term culture of the latter cells in granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, were tested for their capacity to prolong heart allograft survival in this model.The experimental results show that significant prolongation of graft survival was achieved after injection of the fresh donor monocytes or 2-day or 6-day cultured cells. The 2-day cultured cells were most effective, and more than 60% of hosts maintained graft survival for more than 160 days. Ten-day cultured cells and fresh splenic dendritic cells failed to prolong graft survival. Studies of cell surface markers showed that the 2-day cultured cells had up-regulated class II major histocompatibility complex and CD80, but not CD86 molecules. On the other hand, the 10-day cultured cells and splenic dendritic cells showed intense expression of all three markers. The latter cells stimulated vigorous proliferative and cell-mediated lympholysis responses in the mixed leukocyte reaction, but the fresh and 2-day cultured cells were weak stimulators.The intravenous injection of donor dendritic cell precursors derived from blood monocytes facilitates long-term acceptance of heart allografts.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077336800004

    View details for PubMedID 9846510

  • Nature of glomerular dysfunction in pre-eclampsia KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Lafayette, R. A., Druzin, M., Sibley, R., Derby, G., Malik, T., Huie, P., Polhemus, C., Deen, W. M., Myers, B. D. 1998; 54 (4): 1240-1249

    Abstract

    Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension, proteinuria and edema. Simultaneous studies of kidney function and structure have not been reported. We wished to explore the degree and nature of glomerular dysfunction in pre-eclampsia.Physiologic techniques were used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow and afferent oncotic pressure immediately after delivery in consecutive patients with pre-eclampsia (PET; N = 13). Healthy mothers completing an uncomplicated pregnancy served as functional controls (N = 12). A morphometric analysis of glomeruli obtained by biopsy and mathematical modeling were used to estimate the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient (Kf). Glomeruli from healthy female kidney transplant donors served as structural controls (N = 8).The GFR in PET was depressed below the control level, 91 +/- 23 versus 149 +/- 34 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively (P < 0.0001). In contrast, renal plasma flow and oncotic pressure were similar in the two groups (P = NS). A reduction in the density and size of endothelial fenestrae and subendothelial accumulation of fibrinoid deposits lowered glomerular hydraulic permeability in PET compared to controls, 1.81 versus 2.58 x 10(-9) m/sec/PA. Mesangial cell interposition also curtailed effective filtration surface area. Together, these changes lowered the computed single nephron Kf in PET below control, 4.26 versus 6.78 nl/min x mm Hg, respectively.The proportionate (approximately 40%) depression of Kf for single nephrons and GFR suggests that hypofiltration in PET does not have a hemodynamic basis, but is a consequence of structural changes that lead to impairment of intrinsic glomerular ultrafiltration capacity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076096900022

    View details for PubMedID 9767540

  • Donor blood monocytes but not T or B cells facilitate long-term allograft survival after total lymphoid irradiation TRANSPLANTATION Hayamizu, K., Zeng, D., Huie, P., Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Bloch, D. A., Fong, L., Engleman, E. G., Sibley, R. K., Strober, S. 1998; 66 (5): 585-593

    Abstract

    Previous studies showed that a combination of posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG), and a single donor blood transfusion induced tolerance to ACI heart allografts in Lewis rats. All three modalities were required to achieve tolerance. The objective of the current study was to determine the subset(s) of cells in the donor blood that facilitated long-term allograft survival.Lewis hosts received TLI, ATG, and donor cell infusion after heart transplantation. Graft survival, mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR), and intragraft cytokine mRNA were studied.The intravenous injection of 25 x 10(6) ACI peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) significantly prolonged graft survival as compared with that of Lewis hosts given TLI and ATG alone. Injection of highly enriched blood T cells or splenic B cells adjusted for the number contained in 25 x 10(6) PBMC failed to induce significant graft prolongation. Unexpectedly, depletion of monocytes (CD11b+ cells) from PBMC resulted in the loss of graft prolongation activity. Enriched populations of monocytes obtained by plastic adherence were more efficient in prolonging graft survival than PBMC on a per cell basis. Hosts with long-term grafts (>100-day survival) showed evidence of immune deviation, because the MLR to ACI stimulator cells was vigorous, but secretion of interferon-gamma in the MLR was markedly reduced. In situ hybridization studies of long-term grafts showed markedly reduced levels of interferon-gamma mRNA as compared with rejecting grafts.Infusion of donor monocytes facilitated graft prolongation via immune deviation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075996500006

    View details for PubMedID 9753336

  • Mechanisms of progressive glomerular injury in membranous nephropathy JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Squarer, A., Lemley, K. V., Ambalavanan, S., Kristal, B., Deen, W. M., Sibley, R., Anderson, L., Myers, B. D. 1998; 9 (8): 1389-1398

    Abstract

    Glomerular function and structure were serially evaluated in 15 patients with membranous nephropathy who exhibited relapsing nephrosis and chronic depression of GFR. GFR declined from 56+/-8 (mean+/-SEM) at onset to 31+/-4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 after a 2- to 5-yr period of observation (P < 0.05). An analysis of filtration dynamics suggested persistent elevation of net ultrafiltration pressure. To examine a possible role for declining intrinsic glomerular filtration capacity as the basis for the observed hypofiltration, glomeruli in the baseline and a repeat biopsy (performed after a median of 28 mo) were subjected to morphometric analysis and mathematical modeling. Analysis of the baseline biopsy revealed a reduction in filtration slit frequency and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, lowering computed hydraulic permeability by 66% compared with normal kidney donors. In contrast, filtration surface area was increased by 37% as a result of glomerular hypertrophy. The repeat biopsy revealed persistent depression of hydraulic permeability, primarily owing to foot process broadening. An additional finding was a decrease in filtration surface area from baseline in patent glomeruli, possibly due to encroachment on the capillary lumen of an increasingly widened basement membrane. Also, a striking increase in the prevalence of global glomerulosclerosis from 7+/-2% to 23+/-4% was found between the two biopsies, suggesting a significant loss of functioning nephrons. It is concluded that hypofiltration in membranous nephropathy is the consequence of a biphasic loss of glomerular ultrafiltration capacity, initially owing to impaired hydraulic permeability that is later exacerbated by a superimposed loss of functioning glomeruli and of filtration surface area.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074970900005

    View details for PubMedID 9697660

  • Inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA levels in hip periprosthetic tissue: A preliminary study JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH Pearson, M. L., Goodman, S. B., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K. 1998; 40 (3): 419-424

    Abstract

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous molecule that has been associated with inflammation, arthritis, autoimmune disease, bone resorption, and other biological processes. Elucidating the role of NO at the bone-implant interface may further our understanding of the biological processes of osseointegration, loosening, and osteolysis. This study demonstrates the use of a molecular biological technique to investigate the possible role of NO in prosthetic loosening and periprosthetic bone resorption following total hip arthroplasty. Periprosthetic tissue from 12 patients undergoing revision hip arthroplasty was harvested and total ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted. In six of the 12 patients, multiple samples from different anatomic locations along the same interface were studied. To estimate the amount of NO present in the tissues in vivo, the level of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) messenger RNA (mRNA) was determined using a ribonuclease (RNase) protection assay. Inducible NOS mRNA was detected in every tissue sample: there was no correlation between iNOS mRNA levels and clinical loosening or osteolysis. Analysis of multiple tissue samples from the same prosthetic component revealed that the levels of iNOS mRNA vary greatly, confirming the heterogeneous nature of the interface.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073207100012

    View details for PubMedID 9570074

  • Backleak, light junctions, and cell-cell adhesion in postischemic injury to the renal allograft JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Kwon, O., NELSON, W. J., Sibley, R., Huie, P., Scandling, J. D., Dafoe, D., Alfrey, E., Myers, B. D. 1998; 101 (10): 2054-2064

    Abstract

    Postischemic injury in recipients of 3-7-d-old renal allografts was classified into sustained (n = 19) or recovering (n = 20) acute renal failure (ARF) according to the prevailing inulin clearance. Recipients of optimally functioning, long-standing allografts and living donors undergoing nephrectomy served as functional (n = 14) and structural controls (n = 10), respectively. Marked elevation above control of fractional clearance of dextrans of graded size was consistent with transtubular backleak of 57% of filtrate (inulin) in sustained ARF. No backleak was detected in recovering ARF. To explore a structural basis for backleak, allograft biopsies were taken intraoperatively, 1 h after reperfusion in all recipients, and again on day 7 after transplant in a subset (n = 10). Electron microscopy revealed disruption of both apical and basolateral membranes of proximal tubule cells in both sustained and recovering ARF, but cell exfoliation and tubule basement membrane denudation were negligible. Histochemical analysis of membrane-associated adhesion complexes confirmed an abnormality of proximal but not distal tubule cells, marked in sustained ARF but not in recovering ARF. Staining for the zonula occludens complex (ZO-1) and adherens complex (alpha, beta, and gamma catenins) revealed diminished intensity and redistribution of each cytoskeletal protein from the apico-lateral membrane boundary. We conclude that impaired integrity of tight junctions and cell-cell adhesion in the proximal tubule provides a paracellular pathway through which filtrate leaks back in sustained allograft ARF.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073808800004

    View details for PubMedID 9593761

  • Cellular profile and cytokine production at prosthetic interfaces - Study of tissues retrieved from revised hip and knee replacements JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-BRITISH VOLUME Goodman, S. B., Huie, P., Song, Y., Schurman, D., Maloney, W., Woolson, S., Sibley, R. 1998; 80B (3): 531-539

    Abstract

    The tissues surrounding 65 cemented and 36 cementless total joint replacements undergoing revision were characterised for cell types by immunohistochemistry and for cytokine expression by in situ hybridisation. We identified three distinct groups of revised implants: loose implants with ballooning radiological osteolysis, loose implants without osteolysis, and well-fixed implants. In the cemented series, osteolysis was associated with increased numbers of macrophages (p = 0.0006), T-lymphocyte subgroups (p = 0.03) and IL-1 (p = 0.02) and IL-6 (p = 0.0001) expression, and in the cementless series with increased numbers of T-lymphocyte subgroups (p = 0.005) and increased TNF alpha expression (p = 0.04). For cemented implants, the histological, histochemical and cytokine profiles of the interface correlated with the clinical and radiological grade of loosening and osteolysis. Our findings suggest that there are different biological mechanisms of loosening and osteolysis for cemented and cementless implants. T-lymphocyte modulation of macrophage function may be an important interaction at prosthetic interfaces.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073647500031

  • Subsets of transgenic T cells that recognize CD1 induce or prevent murine lupus: Role of cytokines JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Zeng, D. F., Dick, M., Cheng, L. R., Amano, M., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Huie, P., Sibley, R., Strober, S. 1998; 187 (4): 525-536

    Abstract

    T cells with T cell receptor (TCR) transgenes that recognized CD1 on syngeneic B cells stimulated B cells to secrete immunoglobulins in vitro. The CD4+, CD8+, or CD4-CD8- T cells from the spleen of the TCR transgenic BALB/c donors induced lupus with anti-double stranded DNA antibodies, proteinuria, and immune complex glomerulonephritis in irradiated BALB/c nude mice reconstituted with nude bone marrow. Injection of purified CD4-CD8- T cells from the marrow of transgenic donors prevented the induction of lupus by the transgenic T cells. Transgenic T cells that induced lupus secreted large amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and little interleukin (IL)-4, and those that prevented lupus secreted large amounts of IL-4 and little IFN-gamma or IL-10.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072160200009

    View details for PubMedID 9463403

  • Loosening and osteolysis of cemented joint arthroplasties - A biologic spectrum CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Goodman, S. B., Huie, P., Song, Y., Lee, K., Doshi, A., Rushdieh, B., Woolson, S., Maloney, W., Schurman, D., Sibley, R. 1997: 149-163

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the cell types (using immunohistochemistry) and cytokine expression (using in situ hybridization) of tissues surrounding well fixed and loose cemented prostheses undergoing revision. Clinical and radiographic data were gathered prospectively for a series of cemented total joint replacements undergoing revision. Three groups were identified: (1) loose implants with osteolysis (10 specimens), (2) loose implants without osteolysis (11 specimens), and (3) well fixed implants (7 specimens). At surgery, a specimen was harvested from the bone cement interface. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using monoclonal antibodies to identify macrophages and lymphocyte subgroups. Human antisense probes were selected to identify the mRNA for specific cytokines using in situ hybridization. The percentage of positively staining cells was determined for each antibody or probe using a grid counting technique. Tissues from loose cemented prostheses with osteolysis contained significantly greater numbers of macrophages and T lymphocytes compared with tissues from loose and well fixed cemented prostheses without osteolysis. The number of interleukin-1 and interleukin-6 positive cells was highest in specimens with osteolysis and lowest in specimens from well fixed prostheses. These cytokines modulate the growth and differentiation of cells in the immune system and the monocyte and macrophage system and mediate the remodeling of bone and mesenchymal tissues. Specific cell populations and cytokine profiles appear to be involved in periprosthetic osteolysis; this information may be useful in planning strategies for prevention and treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WT70700017

    View details for PubMedID 9137186

  • Osteoarthritis: differential expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 mRNA in nonfibrillated and fibrillated cartilage. J Orthop Res Tsuchiya K, Maloney WJ, Vu T, Hoffman AR, Huie P, Sibley R, Schurman DJ, Smith RL 1997; 15: 94-100
  • RANTES chemokine expression in transplant-associated accelerated atherosclerosis JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Pattison, J. M., Nelson, P. J., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., KRENSKY, A. M. 1996; 15 (12): 1194-1199

    Abstract

    The pathogenesis of transplantation-associated accelerated atherosclerosis is poorly understood, but it is likely to be an alloimmune response involving infiltration of the vessel wall by T lymphocytes and monocytes leading to smooth muscle cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition. RANTES is a chemokine that selectively chemoattracts T lymphocytes, NK cells, monocytes, and eosinophils. The expression of RANTES in accelerated atherosclerosis was investigated by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.Coronary arteries from six patients undergoing accelerated atherosclerosis were obtained at the time of retransplantation. Normal coronary arteries from two patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were used as controls. Messenger RNA for RANTES was localized with digoxigenin-labeled complementary DNA probes. RANTES protein was detected by use of a monoclonal antibody and a three-step horseradish peroxidase method.RANTES mRNA and protein were detected in the lymphocytes, macrophages, myofibroblasts, and endothelial cells of arteries undergoing accelerated atherosclerosis but not in normal coronary arteries.In view of its in vitro biologic activity and in vivo expression pattern, RANTES may be a pivotal mediator of the cellular infiltrate seen in graft atherosclerosis. This information may help in the design of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this increasingly important disease process.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996WA94600004

    View details for PubMedID 8981204

  • Coexistence of TH1- and TH2-type cytokine profiles in anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody-induced tolerance TRANSPLANTATION Krieger, N. R., Most, D., Bromberg, J. S., Holm, B., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., Dafoe, D. C., Alfrey, E. J. 1996; 62 (9): 1285-1292

    Abstract

    Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody OX34 has been shown to suppress immunity in rodents in vitro and in vivo. To evaluate the effects of OX34 on vascularized allografts, Lewis (RT1(1)) hearts were transplanted heterotopically into Wistar Furth (RT1(u)) rats. A single 5 mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of OX34 administered at transplantation induced indefinite graft survival (mean survival time >140.3+/-12.3 vs. 12.7+/-0.7 control, P=0.001). The mixed lymphocyte response was partially inhibited at 60 days after transplant, returning to normal at 100 days. Donor-specific tolerance was confirmed by acceptance of second donor (>100 days, n=2) and rejection of third-party (mean survival time: 7.5+/-0.5 days, n=2) hearts. Immunohistochemical staining of allograft tissue from tolerant animals demonstrated abundant CD2+, CD4+, and CD8+ graft-infiltrating cells. To elucidate further the nature of these cells, we compared the expression of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, and interferon (IFN)-gamma mRNA in allografted tissue from tolerant, acutely rejecting (AR), isografted, and naive animals using nonisotopic in situ hybridization. A significant increase in IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma mRNA was observed in graft-infiltrating cells of both tolerant and AR animals. IL-10 mRNA expression 4 days after transplant was significantly elevated in the OX34-treated compared to AR recipients. These data demonstrate that a single dose of OX34 at engraftment induces tolerance to vascularized allografts. Expression of both T helper 1 and T helper 2 cytokine mRNA profiles (IL-2/IFN-gamma and IL-4/ IL-10, respectively) are up-regulated locally in graft-infiltrating cells of AR and tolerant animal allografts.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VU11700019

    View details for PubMedID 8932273

  • Parenchymal cytokine expression precedes clinically observed ischemia in dorsal flaps in the rat PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Most, D., Hoyt, J., Sibley, R. K., Press, H. J. 1996; 98 (5): 856-861

    Abstract

    Cytokines have been implicated as pivotal mediators of the wound-healing process. An understanding of the production and interaction of cytokines may lead to a better appreciation of the complex mechanisms of flap ischemia. The potential would then exist for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to prevent and reverse damage to the endangered flap. The goal of this study was to determine the expression of parenchymal cytokines at various time points during flap ischemia. Punch biopsies were obtained from McFarlane dorsal flaps in the Sprague-Dawley murine model. We examined cytokine mRNA profiles for interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha), IL-2, IL-6, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), gamma-interferon (gamma IFN), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), and platelet-derived growth factor A chain (PDGF-alpha) using in situ hybridization. Samples were taken from 0 to 48 hours postoperatively, with n = 3 for each time point. Eight hours postoperatively there was an abrupt peak of parenchymal cytokine expression at the bases of the flaps. Clinically at this time the flaps appeared completely viable without evidence of ischemic change. Leukocyte cytokine production peaked at 16 hours, when distal flap ischemia was evident clinically. These findings demonstrate an early peak of cytokine expression prior to clinical evidence of ischemia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VK00600017

    View details for PubMedID 8823026

  • Mechanisms of tolerance to rat heart allografts using posttransplant TLI - Changes in cytokine expression TRANSPLANTATION Zeng, D. F., Ready, A., Hute, P., Hayamizu, K., Holm, B., Yin, D. P., Sibley, R. K., Strober, S. 1996; 62 (4): 510-517

    Abstract

    Lewis rats were rendered tolerant to ACI heart allografts using a regimen of posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), rabbit antithymocyte or antilymphocyte globulin (RATG or RALG), and a single donor blood transfusion. All three treatment modalities were required to induce tolerance. The mechanism of the maintenance of tolerance was investigated by comparing the secretion of cytokines in the MLR, and the expression of cytokine mRNA in the allografts of tolerant and nontolerant Lewis rats. Although, the 3H-thymidine incorporation and secretion of IL-2 was frequently comparable in the MLR from tolerant and nontolerant rats, the secretion of IFN-gamma was markedly reduced in the tolerant rats. This was reflected in a markedly reduced frequency of cells expressing IFN-gamma mRNA in the allografts of tolerant as compared with nontolerant hosts. The frequency of cells expressing IL-2 and IL-10 mRNA was also reduced, but no significant difference was observed for cells with IL-4 mRNA. Spleen cells from nontolerant rats rapidly rejected ACI allografts in irradiated adoptive hosts, but spleen cells from tolerant rats did not. Evaluation of the cytokine mRNA expression at early and late time points in the allografts of adoptive hosts showed a pattern similar to that of the primary hosts. Thus, the tolerant state was associated with a maintenance or elevation of IL-4 expression and a marked reduction of IFN-gamma expression. Previous reports have shown that TLI alone induced this shift in the early recovery phase after irradiation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VE75100014

    View details for PubMedID 8781618

  • Heterogeneity in cellular and cytokine profiles from multiple samples of tissue surrounding revised hip prostheses JOURNAL OF BIOMEDICAL MATERIALS RESEARCH Goodman, S. B., Knoblich, G., OConnor, M., Song, Y., Huie, P., Sibley, R. 1996; 31 (3): 421-428

    Abstract

    Previous studies have attempted to define the biologic properties of the bone-implant interface using a single specimen harvested from the periprosthetic tissues. The purpose of this study was to examine the heterogeneity in cellular and cytokine profiles of multiple samples taken from the tissues surrounding revised hip prostheses. Clinical and radiographic data for nine patients undergoing surgical revision was gathered prospectively. Three tissue samples were taken systematically from the acetabular and/or femoral bed. Morphologic characteristics of the tissues were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using monoclonal antibodies to identify macrophages (EMB11 and CD68); activated macrophages (Leu M3); total T lymphocytes (Leu 4 and T11); T-helper lymphocytes (Leu 3A and CD4); cytotoxic/suppressor T lymphocytes (Leu 2A and CD3); and fibroblasts (5B5). In situ hybridization was used to identify the mRNA for specific proteins: interleukin (IL)1 alpha and -beta, IL-2, IL-6, transforming growth factor beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGF alpha), and interferon gamma. A quantitative assessment was performed for each section by calculating the percentage of positively staining cells using a light microscope and grid-counting technique. A random effect analysis of variance was calculated to determine both the variance between samples within each patient and the variance between different patients. Standard deviations contributed by sampling variance and patient variance were calculated and an F test was applied. Tissue samples taken from different regions of the bone-prosthesis interface showed marked heterogeneity in cellular and cytokine profiles. Critical F values indicating a statistically significant degree of variance between different tissue samples were exceeded for macrophages, cytotoxic/suppressor T lymphocytes, and T-helper lymphocytes. The cytokine profile was significantly different for IL-2, PDGF alpha, and TNF alpha. This tissue heterogeneity may be due to different mechanical and biologic environments along the bone-prosthesis interface. Thus, caution must be exercised in defining the biologic properties of the tissue surrounding revised prostheses according to a single biopsy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UU78600017

    View details for PubMedID 8806069

  • Hypertension-enhanced monocyte adhesion in experimental atherosclerosis JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY Tropea, B. I., Huie, P., Cooke, J. P., Tsao, P. S., Sibley, R. K., Zarins, C. K. 1996; 23 (4): 596-605

    Abstract

    Hypertension is a known clinical risk factor for atherosclerosis. In experimental atherosclerosis, monocyte adhesion to the endothelial surface is enhanced and is considered to be an important early stage in plaque formation. We tested the hypothesis that hypertension enhances monocyte adhesion in experimental atherosclerosis.Twenty-two New Zealand White rabbits were fed an atherogenic diet for 3 weeks to induce plaque formation. Aortic coarctation was created in eight rabbits by wrapping a Dacron band around the midportion of the descending thoracic aorta (stenosis group), whereas six rabbits underwent banding without aortic constriction (no stenosis group). Eight rabbits served as nonoperated controls. Monocyte binding to the aortic endothelial surface was counted with epifluorescent microscopy on standard aortic segments proximal and distal to the band. Immunohistochemistry was performed for the following antibodies: VCAM-1, RAM11, CD11b, and factor VIII.Mean blood pressure was 89 +/- 3 mm Hg in the aorta proximal to the stenosis, compared with 64 +/- 4 mm Hg in the no stenosis group and 74 +/- 3 mm Hg in the control group (p < 0.01). The mean aortic blood pressure gradient across the stenosis was 16 +/- 2 mm Hg in the stenosis group, whereas the aortic blood pressure gradient was 0.2 +/- 0.6 mm Hg in the no stenosis group and -0.3 +/- 0.4 mm Hg in the control group (p < 0.001). Monocyte adhesion to the aortic endothelial surface proximal to the stenosis was increased twofold compared with adhesion to the aorta distal to the stenosis and compared with the proximal aorta in the control group (p < 0.02). The proximal-to-distal aortic ratio of monocyte binding was enhanced in the stenosis group (2.2) compared with the no stenosis (0.76) and control (0.83) groups (p < 0.01). The intima area of the aorta proximal to the stenosis was significantly increased compared with the proximal aortas in the no stenosis and control groups (p < 0.01). RAM11, CD11b, and endothelial VCAM-1 expression were enhanced in the hypertensive region proximal to the stenosis.In the hypertensive region in the aorta proximal to the stenosis, monocyte adhesion and endothelial VCAM-1 expression were increased, with intimal thickening and accumulation of macrophages. These findings suggest that hypertension may promote atherosclerotic plaque formation by enhancing monocyte adhesion.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UJ12600010

    View details for PubMedID 8627894

  • Differential localization of allograft nitric oxide synthesis: Comparison of liver and heart transplantation in the rat model IMMUNOLOGY Kuo, P. C., Alfrey, E. J., Krieger, N. R., Abe, K. Y., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., Dafoe, D. C. 1996; 87 (4): 647-653

    Abstract

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical with a diversity of cellular origins and potential functions. Within the realm of solid organ transplantation, NO has been the focus of much attention. Discordant reports have documented both suppression and potentiation of the alloimmune response. In addition to questions regarding its functional role, little is known of the cellular origins of NO in acute rejection of vascularized allografts. To address this question, acute rejection models of rat heterotopic heart and orthotopic liver transplantation were chosen. When compared with naive controls and isografted animals, acute rejection in both heart and liver transplantation was associated with elevated systemic levels of the NO metabolite, nitrite. This was accompanied by increased graft content of iNOS protein as determined by immunoblot analysis of protein extracts. Expression of iNOS mRNA was localized with in situ hybridization. In both heart and liver transplantation, iNOS mRNA was found in the inflammatory infiltrate accompanying acute rejection. In addition, hepatocytes also expressed iNOS mRNA in the rejecting liver allograft. In contrast, cardiac myocytes in the rejecting heart allograft did not stain for iNOS mRNA. These results indicate that organ-specific, differential cellular expression of iNOS occurs in the acutely rejecting allograft. Transcriptional regulation of iNOS may vary among various organs according to the local cellular milieu. In addition, there may be a variable allograft specific response to acute rejection which may modify the associated immunologic biology.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UD90500020

    View details for PubMedID 8675222

  • Mechanism of the antiproteinuric effect of cyclosporine in membranous nephropathy JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NEPHROLOGY Ambalavanan, S., Fauvel, J. P., Sibley, R. K., Myers, B. D. 1996; 7 (2): 290-298

    Abstract

    Forty-one patients with a nephrotic syndrome and biopsy-proven membranous nephropathy were administered a 3 to 6-month course of cyclosporine (CsA;4 to 5 mg/kg per day). Differential solute clearances were used to evaluate glomerular function, before and after therapy. CsA lowered median proteinuria by 56%, from 7.3 to 3.2 g/24 h (P < 0.0001). Corresponding mean increments in serum albumin, immunoglobulin G, and oncotic pressure values were 31, 32, and 26%, respectively (all P < 0.0001). Arterial pressure, GFR, and renal plasma flow remained constant, but CsA restored the dextran-sieving curve toward normal, lowering the computed fraction of shunt-like pores by 25% (P < 0.05). In 14 instances, a cross-over design was used to randomly assign patients to 3 months of CsA versus 3 months of enalapril (10 to 30 mg daily), separated by a 1-month washout interval. Although enalapril lowered arterial pressure by 8 mm Hg (P < 0.01), it had no effect on proteinuria, plasma protein composition, filtration dynamics, or dextran sieving (all P = not significant). CsA dependence of proteinuria, indicated by relapsing nephrosis after CsA withdrawal, required additional courses of CsA to maintain proteinuria subnephrotic in most patients. In six patients with declining GFR during prolonged CsA treatment, a repeat biopsy showed more prominent immune deposits and a thicker glomerular basement membrane than at baseline. It was concluded that: (1) CsA lowers proteinuria in MN in part, by enhancing barrier size-selectivity; (2) lack of comparable efficacy of enalapril suggests that the antiproteinuric effect of CsA is related to its immuno-suppressive rather than glomerulodepressor properties; but (3) judged by repeat biopsy, CsA does not prevent continuing autoantibody formation in this disorder.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TZ30600015

    View details for PubMedID 8785399

  • Double negative (CD4(-)CD8(-)alpha beta(+)) T cells which promote tolerance induction and regulate autoimmunity IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Strober, S., Cheng, L. R., Zeng, D. F., Palathumpat, R., DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Huie, P., Sibley, R. 1996; 149: 217-230

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UC52100010

    View details for PubMedID 9005216

  • RANTES chemokine expression in diseased and normal human tissues CYTOKINE VONLUETTICHAU, I., Nelson, P. J., Pattison, J. M., VANDERIJN, M., Huie, P., Warnke, R., Wiedermann, C. J., Stahl, R. A., Sibley, R. K., KRENSKY, A. M. 1996; 8 (1): 89-98

    Abstract

    RANTES is a member of a large family of cytokines, called chemokines, which are thought to play a regulatory role in inflammatory processes. We have made recombinant human RANTES protein which was used to generate a panel of anti-RANTES monoclonal antibodies. Following characterization, select anti-RANTES monoclonal antibodies were used for immunohistologic staining of a large panel of normal, diseased and fetal tissue sections. Diseased tissues included eleven lymphomas and eight renal tumors. Most tissues were also tested in parallel for RANTES mRNA by in situ hybridization using RANTES mRNA specific oligomeric probes. As expected, most normal adult tissues contain few, if any, RANTES positive cells. In contrast, RANTES expression dramatically increases in inflammatory sites. In addition, megakaryocytes, some tumours, and select fetal tissues express high levels of RANTES message and protein. These results indicate a wider expression of RANTES than previously appreciated and suggest multiple physiologic roles for this soluble factor.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TT98200012

    View details for PubMedID 8742071

  • EFFECT OF CYCLOSPORINE ON RENAL-FUNCTION IN KIDNEY-TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS - A 12-YEAR FOLLOW-UP CLINICAL TRANSPLANTATION Matas, A. J., Almond, P. S., Moss, A., Gillingham, K. J., Sibley, R., Payne, W. D., Dunn, D. L., Gruessner, R. W., Sutherland, D. E., MANIVEL, C., Najarian, J. S. 1995; 9 (6): 450-453

    Abstract

    Nephrotoxicity remains a concern for patients on long-term cyclosporine. We have previously reported on renal function in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients followed up to 10 years posttransplant. The current study extends the analysis to 12 years. We find no evidence of cyclosporine-induced renal failure.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TJ01700005

    View details for PubMedID 8645887

  • POSTISCHEMIC INJURY, DELAYED FUNCTION AND NA+/K+-ATPASE DISTRIBUTION IN THE TRANSPLANTED KIDNEY KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL ALEJANDRO, V. S., NELSON, W. J., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., Dafoe, D., Kuo, P., Scandling, J. D., Myers, B. D. 1995; 48 (4): 1308-1315

    Abstract

    We evaluated the postischemic renal injury in 22 patients undergoing renal transplantation. Renal tissue obtained 45 to 60 minutes after reperfusion of the allograft was stained with specific antibodies against the delta subunit of Na+/K(+)-ATPase, fodrin and ankyrin. The distribution of each cytoskeletal protein was analyzed by laser confocal microscopy. Subsequent allograft function was assessed on two occasions, 1 to 3 and 36 hours post-reperfusion, respectively. Recipients were divided into two groups: those who achieved a normal GFR on post-transplant day 3 (group 1, N = 12) and those with persistent hypofiltration (group 2, N = 10). Patients of both groups exhibited impaired sodium reabsorption and isosthenuria one to three hours postoperatively, but these abnormalities persisted on day 3 only in group 2 subjects with persistent hypofiltration. Abnormalities of Na+/K(+)-ATPase, ankyrin and fodrin were confined to proximal tubule cells and were marked only in the subjects of group 2. They consisted of redistribution of each cytoskeletal protein from the basolateral membrane to the cytoplasm. We conclude that postischemic injury to a renal allograft results in a loss of polarity of proximal tubule cells. We propose that ensuing impairment of proximal sodium reabsorption could activate tubuloglomerular feedback, thereby contributing to the protracted hypofiltration that characterizes this form of postischemic, acute renal failure.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RV92600045

    View details for PubMedID 8569093

  • ASSOCIATION OF DOWN-REGULATION OF CYTOKINE ACTIVITY WITH RAT HIND-LIMB ALLOGRAFT SURVIVAL TRANSPLANTATION FEALY, M. J., Most, D., Huie, P., Wolf, M., Sibley, R. K., Morris, R. E., PRESS, B. H. 1995; 59 (10): 1475-1480

    Abstract

    Cytokines are short-acting protein modulators of many physiologic processes including graft rejection. An understanding of the production, action, and interaction of cytokines may lead to better appreciation of the complex mechanism of graft rejection. The potential would then exist for more selective and less-toxic means of modulating the immune response. A rat hind limb allograft model with major immunohistoincompatibility was used to study the local mRNA expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-6, gamma interferon (gamma INF), platelet-derived growth factor-alpha (PDGF-alpha), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) during acute allograft rejection. A 14-day postoperative course of immunosuppressive therapy with FK506 or rapamycin was administered. In situ hybridization was performed on serial full-thickness skin punch biopsies of the untreated rejecting limb allograft and compared with tissue from treated allografts, isografts, and to normal limb tissue. A sequential pattern of cytokine mRNA expression was demonstrated which progressed in a time-dependent manner and paralleled observed clinical rejection. Maximal cytokine mRNA expression correlated with peak graft rejection. Cellular expression of IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-6, gamma-INF, FGF, and TGF-beta mRNA was suppressed with FK506 to below isograft levels, and clinical rejection was not observed with the doses, routes, and schedules used. Rapamycin was ineffective in suppressing cytokine expression, and allograft rejection was not prevented. Isografts demonstrated no evidence of rejection. The in situ hybridization technique demonstrates a time-dependent, selective expression of cytokines within rejecting allograft tissue, and the modification of this response with immunosuppressive therapy. Down-regulation of cytokine expression is associated with clinical allograft survival.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RB42900020

    View details for PubMedID 7539555

  • CARDIAC ALLOGRAFT VASCULAR-DISEASE - RELATIONSHIP TO MICROVASCULAR CELL-SURFACE MARKERS AND INFLAMMATORY CELL PHENOTYPES ON ENDOMYOCARDIAL BIOPSY CIRCULATION Deng, M. C., Bell, S., Huie, P., Pinto, F., Hunt, S. A., Stinson, E. B., Sibley, R., Hall, B. M., Valantine, H. A. 1995; 91 (6): 1647-1654

    Abstract

    Cardiac allograft vascular disease is characterized by accelerated and diffuse intimal proliferation involving both the microvasculature and epicardial vessels. Because in vivo documentation of this complication is now possible with intracoronary ultrasound imaging, we can examine the relationship of intimal proliferation to markers of immunity and endothelial activation. We hypothesize that alterations of microvascular cell surface markers likely mirror changes in the epicardial vessels that may be important in the pathophysiology of intimal proliferation.Forty-three heart transplant patients were examined by intracoronary ultrasound more than 1 year after transplantation, and these images were analyzed to obtain mean intimal thickness and intimal thickness class (I through IV), calculated from the mean thickness and circumferential involvement. Right ventricular endomyocardial biopsies obtained at the time of intracoronary ultrasound were examined by immunohistochemistry to detect microvascular expression of histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) classes I and II (HLA ABC, DR, DP, and DQ); endothelial-specific antigen detected by the monoclonal antibody E 1.5; intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1); CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and macrophages (CD 14+). Microvascular antigen expression was graded 1 through 5 on the basis of the diffuseness of positive staining. The number of each inflammatory cell phenotype present per high-power field was counted. By ANOVA, scores for HLA DR, HLA DQ, and E1.5 expression were lower in intimal thickness classes II, III, and IV compared with class I. This inverse relationship was significant by linear regression analysis of mean intimal thickness. Inflammatory cells were not significantly correlated with intimal thickening. Rejection incidence was higher, and time since transplantation longer, in intimal thickness classes II, III, and IV compared with class I.Transplant coronary artery intimal proliferation is associated with alteration of microvascular endothelial cell surface markers. These changes in cell surface antigen expression could provide the substrate for coronary artery intimal proliferation and narrowing.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QL45800006

    View details for PubMedID 7882470

  • MECHANISMS OF FILTRATION FAILURE DURING POSTISCHEMIC INJURY OF THE HUMAN KIDNEY - A STUDY OF THE REPERFUSED RENAL-ALLOGRAFT JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION ALEJANDRO, V., Scandling, J. D., Sibley, R. K., Dafoe, D., Alfrey, E., Deen, W., Myers, B. D. 1995; 95 (2): 820-831

    Abstract

    Postischemic filtration failure in experimental animals results primarily from depression of the transcapillary hydraulic pressure difference (delta P), a quantity that cannot be determined in humans. To circumvent this limitation we determined the GFR and each of its remaining determinants in transplanted kidneys. Findings in 12 allografts that exhibited subsequent normofiltration (group 1) were compared with those in 11 allografts that exhibited persistent hypofiltration (group 2). Determinations were made intraoperatively in the exposed graft after 1-3 h of reperfusion. GFR (6 +/- 2 vs 29 +/- 5 ml/min) and renal plasma flow by Doppler flow meter (140 +/- 30 vs 315 +/- 49 ml/min) were significantly lower in group 2 than group 1. Morphometric analysis of glomeruli obtained by biopsy and a structural hydrodynamic model of viscous flow revealed the glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient to be similar, averaging 3.5 +/- 0.6 and 3.1 +/- 0.2 ml/(min.mmHg) in group 2 vs 1, respectively. Corresponding values for plasma oncotic pressure were also similar, averaging 19 +/- 1 vs 21 +/- 1 mmHg. We next used a mathematical model of glomerular ultrafiltration and a sensitivity analysis to calculate the prevailing range for delta P from the foregoing measured quantities. This revealed delta P to vary from only 20-21 mmHg in group 2 vs 34-45 mmHg in group 1 (P < 0.001). Further morphometric analysis revealed the diameters of Bowman's space and tubular lumens, as well as the percentage of tubular cells that were necrotic or devoid of brush border, to be similar in the two groups. We thus conclude (a) that delta P depression is the predominant cause of hypofiltration in this form of postischemic injury; and (b) that afferent vasoconstriction rather than tubular obstruction is the proximate cause of the delta P depression.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QG20900052

    View details for PubMedID 7860766

  • VIRUS-ASSOCIATED HEMOPHAGOCYTIC SYNDROME CHARACTERIZED BY CLONAL EPSTEIN-BARR-VIRUS GENOME AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY DOLEZAL, M. V., Kamel, O. W., VANDERIJN, M., Cleary, M. L., Sibley, R. K., Warnke, R. A. 1995; 103 (2): 189-194

    Abstract

    Virus-associated hemophagocytic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which viral infection is associated with a proliferation of hemophagocytic histiocytes throughout the reticuloendothelial system. The authors report the case of a 24-year-old Vietnamese male who developed a hemophagocytic syndrome associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and who died following a rapidly progressive course. A proliferation of reactive-appearing lymphoid cells was associated with an extensive proliferation of erythrophagocytic histiocytes. Immunophenotypically, the lymphoid infiltrate consisted of CD56+ natural killer cells, predominantly CD8+ T-cells and rare B-cells (CD20+). Double-label immunohistochemical studies showed CD3+ T-cells and CD56+ natural killer cells to be distinct cell populations. Combined immunohistochemical-in situ hybridization studies localized EBV to CD43+, CD3-, CD68-, lymphoid-appearing cells, indicating the presence of EBV within natural killer cells. Southern hybridization analysis of EBV genomic termini revealed clonal EBV genome. However, there was no detectable immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. The findings indicate that this case of hemophagocytic syndrome represents a clonal proliferation of natural killer cells containing EBV and highlights the importance of the analysis of EBV genomic termini for determination of clonality in EBV-associated proliferations. It is possible that other cases of fulminant EBV-associated hemophagocytic syndromes represent clonal natural killer cell proliferations.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QF55100015

    View details for PubMedID 7856561

  • INTRAVENOUS METHYLPREDNISOLONE AND ORAL ALKYLATING AGENT THERAPY OF PREDNISONE-RESISTANT PEDIATRIC FOCAL SEGMENTAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS - A LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP CLINICAL NEPHROLOGY Tune, B. M., Kirpekar, R., Sibley, R. K., Reznik, V. M., Griswold, W. R., Mendoza, S. A. 1995; 43 (2): 84-88

    Abstract

    Prednisone-resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS) due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), the most common acquired disease requiring chronic dialysis and transplantation in children, has a low likelihood of response to alkylating agent therapy. This report summarizes the results of a 0.75-12.5 (average 6.33) year follow-up of 32 pediatric cases of prednisone-resistant FSGS treated with a regimen of high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (M-P) and alternate-day prednisone, plus an alkylating agent in 25/32. On last followup: 21/32 were in remission [urine protein-to-creatinine ratios (Pru/Cru) < or = 0.2]; 3/32 had mild proteinuria (Pru/Cru > 0.2-0.5); 2/32 had moderate proteinuria (Pru/Cru > 0.5-1.9); and 6/32 remained nephrotic (Pru/Cru > or = 2.0). Of the incomplete or nonresponders; 3/11 progressed to end-stage renal failure; 5/11 had decreased creatinine clearances (CrCl): and 3/11 had persistent proteinuria with normal CrCl. All of the persistently nephrotic children, but none of the complete responders, developed decreased CrCl. All of the complete responders were able to stop treatment; four relapsed but responded well to retreatment. Conclusions: This regimen of methylprednisolone and alternate-day prednisone, with or without an alkylating agent, is effective in achieving sustained remissions and preserving normal renal function in the great majority of children with FSGS and prednisone-resistant NS.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QK95300002

    View details for PubMedID 7736683

  • POSTTRANSPLANT LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS AND EPSTEIN-BARR-VIRUS PROPHYLAXIS TRANSPLANTATION Kuo, P. C., Dafoe, D. C., Alfrey, E. J., Sibley, R. K., Scandling, J. D. 1995; 59 (1): 135-138

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QB42700024

    View details for PubMedID 7839414

  • LIGHT-MICROSCOPIC AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL FEATURES IN SERIAL BIOPSIES OF EPIDERMAL VERSUS DERMAL ALLOGRAFTS ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Hoffman, D. K., Sibley, R. K., KORMAN, J. M., PRESS, B. H. 1994; 33 (3): 295-299

    Abstract

    The local immune response to allograft dermis and epidermis was studied in a rat skin-graft model. Biopsies taken at varying times after transplantation were analyzed using routine light microscopy and a panel of monoclonal antibodies. The dermis appeared to be spared by the rejection process, whereas the epithelium and adnexal elements of the dermis were destroyed. The persistence of dermis transplanted across major histoincompatibilities may allow it to be useful in reconstructing large skin losses.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PF49900011

    View details for PubMedID 7985966

  • RANTES CHEMOKINE EXPRESSION IN CELL-MEDIATED TRANSPLANT REJECTION OF THE KIDNEY LANCET Pattison, J., Nelson, P. J., Huie, P., VONLEUTTICHAU, I., Farshid, G., Sibley, R. K., KRENSKY, A. M. 1994; 343 (8891): 209-211

    Abstract

    RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) is a chemotactic cytokine (a chemokine) for memory T lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils. RANTES expression was studied in renal allograft biopsy specimens. Although RANTES was not expressed in samples taken one hour after transplantation, or in native renal biopsy specimens from patients with cyclosporin nephrotoxicity, it was expressed during cell-mediated transplant rejection. RANTES mRNA was detected in infiltrating mononuclear cells and renal tubular epithelium, and RANTES protein was localised to mononuclear cells, tubular epithelium, and vascular endothelium. This suggests RANTES has a role in allograft rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MT33200011

    View details for PubMedID 7507196

  • CYCLOSPORINE-A NEPHROPATHY - STANDARDIZATION OF THE EVALUATION OF KIDNEY BIOPSIES CLINICAL NEPHROLOGY Mihatsch, M. J., ANTONOVYCH, T., BOHMAN, S. O., Habib, R., Helmchen, U., Noel, L. H., Olsen, S., Sibley, R. K., KEMENY, E., Feutren, G. 1994; 41 (1): 23-32

    Abstract

    An advisory board of nephropathologists with personal experience in the evaluation of biopsies from patients treated with cyclosporin A (CyA) was set up to address the following problems: 1. Definition of CyA nephropathy as seen in patients with autoimmune diseases; 2. Evaluation of the reliability and reproducibility of the diagnostic criteria for the different morphological lesions seen in CyA nephropathy; 3. Classification of the morphological lesions according to their clinical relevance; 4. Estimation of the possible progression of CyA nephropathy with continuous CyA therapy. The most frequent lesions attributable to CyA therapy in patients with autoimmune diseases are tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and arteriolar hyalinosis. All other lesions are rare. The reproducibility and diagnostic reliability is high for tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, but low for arteriolar lesions even among experienced nephropathologists. The biopsies may be classified according to the severity of tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis and arteriolar hyalinosis with regard to their clinical relevance: In group I (within normal limits), CyA therapy can be continued; in group III (moderate-to-severe CyA-related lesions), CyA should be stopped if possible. Among group II biopsies (slight CyA-related abnormalities), no recommendation can be made in the absence of a second biopsy after a further year of CyA therapy. No clear-cut answer can be given concerning the progression of CyA-induced lesions. However, no significant progression has been found in the cases studied to date.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994MW52400004

    View details for PubMedID 8137566

  • MONOCYTE HAPTOTAXIS INDUCED BY THE RANTES CHEMOKINE CURRENT BIOLOGY Wiedermann, C. J., Kowald, E., Reinisch, N., Kaehler, C. M., VONLUETTICHAU, I., Pattison, J. M., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., Nelson, P. J., KRENSKY, A. M. 1993; 3 (11): 735-739

    Abstract

    Soluble mediators and inducible cell-surface molecules coordinate the ordered cascade of events giving rise to inflammation. The specific mechanisms underlying the attraction of antigen-specific cells into a site of inflammation remain sketchy, however. In particular, it is unclear how chemoattractants cause rapidly moving immune cells to adhere to the blood vessel wall and to enter inflamed tissues.Here we show that RANTES, a potent chemo-attractant for monocytes and T lymphocytes, is inducibly expressed within an inflamed organ, binds to endothelial cells, and promotes haptotaxis, the migration of cells induced by surface-bound gradients.These findings lead us to propose a model for the role of RANTES in the migration of antigen-specific immune cells into an inflammatory site.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MR82300002

    View details for PubMedID 15335836

  • ADENINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY WITH RENAL DEPOSITION OF 2,8-DIHYDROXYADENINE LEADING TO NEPHROLITHIASIS AND CHRONIC-RENAL-FAILURE ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Fye, K. H., Sahota, A., Hancock, D. C., Gelb, A. B., Chen, J., Sparks, J. W., Sibley, R. K., Tischfield, J. A. 1993; 153 (6): 767-770

    Abstract

    Homozygous adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency is a genetic defect that is associated with 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis. Since the prevalence of the heterozygous state is found in 0.4% to 1.2% of the population, it is surprising that more cases of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis have not been reported. Herein we describe a patient with complete adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency with 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis leading to chronic renal failure. Gene sequencing revealed that the patient is a compound heterozygote. One of the mutations (a T insertion between bases 346 and 347) has been encountered before, but the second (a G-to-A substitution at base 1356) has not been previously reported. Possible explanations for the unexpected rarity of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KR99600011

    View details for PubMedID 8447714

  • THE ROLE OF TRANSBRONCHIAL BIOPSIES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF LUNG-TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Sibley, R. K., Berry, G. J., Tazelaar, H. D., KRAEMER, M. R., Theodore, J., Marshall, S. E., Billingham, M. E., Starnes, V. A. 1993; 12 (2): 308-324

    Abstract

    We examined the utility of the transbronchial biopsy in the management of 53 lung transplant patients. One hundred thirty-three protocol biopsies were performed to ascertain the frequency and nature of abnormalities in clinically stable or asymptomatic patients; 128 diagnostic biopsies were performed in clinically ill patients to assess the morphologic abnormalities before the institution of therapy, and 105 biopsies were performed to assess the response to therapy. Histologic evidence of acute rejection was found in 24% of the protocol biopsies, and infection was found in 17%. Twenty-five patients with grade 1 or grade 2 perivascular infiltrates in protocol biopsies did not receive antirejection therapy. Follow-up biopsy in these patients showed spontaneous resolution of the infiltrates in 19% and increased infiltrates in 6. Only two of these patients became clinically ill, representing "progression" to clinical rejection in only 8% of the nontreated patients. Forty percent of the biopsies performed to rule out acute rejection or infection had histologic features of acute rejection, and another 23% had features of infection. Treatment of patients with clinical and histologic evidence of rejection was associated with rapid resolution of clinical symptoms in nearly 90% of the patients, but follow-up biopsies showed residual infiltrates compatible with ongoing or resolving rejection in 52%. Despite repeat antirejection therapy in some patients, these infiltrates persisted for an average of 30 days after the diagnostic biopsy. Follow-up biopsies also showed asymptomatic infection, usually cytomegalovirus pneumonitis, which often persisted for weeks despite the lack of symptoms. Perivascular infiltrates compatible with acute rejection were also found in 38% of biopsy specimens with evidence of infection. These perivascular infiltrates resolved with antibiotic treatment alone in nearly 50% of the patients with these features. Although perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates are the cardinal histologic feature of acute rejection, similar infiltrates occur in patients who apparently have infection alone and other patients who have both infection and rejection; infiltrates compatible with minimal, mild, and moderate acute rejection also occur in clinically asymptomatic patients. These histologic findings are a challenge to both the pathologists' and the clinicians' skills in the management of the lung transplant patient.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KW40400020

    View details for PubMedID 8476904

  • TOPOGRAPHICAL DISSOCIATION OF BCL-2 MESSENGER-RNA AND PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN HUMAN LYMPHOID-TISSUES BLOOD CHLEQDESCHAMPS, C. M., LeBrun, D. P., Huie, P., Besnier, D. P., Warnke, R. A., Sibley, R. K., Cleary, M. L. 1993; 81 (2): 293-298

    Abstract

    Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization with a synthetic oligonucleotide probe were used to compare the topographical distribution of BCL-2 proto-oncogenic protein with that of its messenger RNA (mRNA) in normal lymphoid tissues, follicular lymphomas, and lymphoma-derived cell lines. In normal lymph nodes, BCL-2 protein was most abundant in the small lymphocytes of primary lymphoid follicles and the mantle zones of secondary follicles, virtually absent within germinal centers, and of variable abundance in many interfollicular cells. In contrast, the distribution of BCL-2 mRNA was roughly reciprocal to that of the protein with intense hybridization signal in germinal centers and almost none in mantle zones. Discordant BCL-2 RNA and protein levels were also observed in tonsillar epithelial cells and cortical thymocytes. Concordant and abundant expression of BCL-2 mRNA and protein was detected in biopsy tissues and cell lines from t(14;18)-carrying lymphomas. The contrasting distributions of BCL-2 protein and RNA in normal lymphoid tissues suggest that translational and posttranslational control mechanisms play a significant role in regulating BCL-2 protein levels in germinal center cells, epithelial cells, and cortical thymocytes. Concordant BCL-2 mRNA and protein levels in follicular lymphomas suggest that translational control mechanisms may be disrupted as part of the sequence of genetic changes that transforms normal lymphoid cells into neoplastic follicular lymphoma cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KH51200003

    View details for PubMedID 8422456

  • EXTENT AND COURSE OF GLOMERULAR INJURY IN HUMAN MEMBRANOUS GLOMERULOPATHY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY Guasch, A., Sibley, R. K., Huie, P., Myers, B. D. 1992; 263 (6): F1034-F1043

    Abstract

    Glomerular permselectivity and dynamics were evaluated serially in 14 nephrotic patients with membranous glomerulopathy (MG). Analysis of transglomerular dextran sieving, before and again after proteinuria remitted, revealed persistent depression by 60-80% of glomerular pore density and the two-kidney ultrafiltration coefficient, Kf. The glomerular filtration rate was lowered by half on each occasion. Morphometric examination of glomeruli in a second group of 16 nephrotic patients with MG revealed a low prevalence of glomerulosclerosis (5 +/- 3%) and a twofold increase in filtration surface due to marked glomerular hypertrophy. Presumably, widening by threefold of the basement membrane and/or epithelial podocytes accounted for the computed reduction in ultrafiltration capacity. There was no correlation between glomerular structure and the subsequent course of MG over the ensuing 24-96 mo. Rather, a twofold expansion of the interstitial compartment predicted those who went on to exhibit progressive renal insufficiency. We conclude that increasing resistance to water flow by walls of patent and perfused glomerular capillaries is the proximate cause of progressive renal insufficiency in MG.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KF37700085

    View details for PubMedID 1282782

  • RENAL-INSUFFICIENCY SECONDARY TO 2,8-DIHYDROXYADENINE UROLITHIASIS HUMAN PATHOLOGY Gelb, A. B., Fye, K. H., Tischfield, J. A., Sahota, A. S., Sparks, J. W., Hancock, D. C., Sibley, R. K. 1992; 23 (9): 1081-1085

    Abstract

    A 48-year-old man with a history of recurrent urolithiasis and chronic renal failure underwent a nephrectomy for a renal mass. At surgery the mass proved to be a calculus impacted in a dilated calyx. Gross examination of the kidney revealed chalky white deposits in the deep medulla and papillary tips. Histologic examination revealed chronic interstitial nephritis with brown spicules within some tubular epithelial cells and larger deposits of brown crystals within tubular lumina, the interstitium of the medulla, and papillary tips. Polarization microscopy revealed individual crystals scattered throughout the renal parenchyma. Although the arrangement of the crystals was reminiscent of uric acid, and, in fact, a clinical diagnosis of gouty nephropathy was made, x-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated crystals of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine. Enzymatic studies confirmed the complete absence of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity in erythrocyte lysates.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JM79500018

    View details for PubMedID 1516930

  • RENAL-TRANSPLANT FUNCTION AFTER 10 YEARS OF CYCLOSPORINE TRANSPLANTATION Almond, P. S., Gillingham, K. J., Sibley, R., Moss, A., Melin, M., Leventhal, J., MANIVEL, C., KYRIAKIDES, P., Payne, W. D., Dunn, D. L., Sutherland, D. E., Gores, P. F., Najarian, J. S., Matas, A. J. 1992; 53 (2): 316-323

    Abstract

    Although the nephrotoxic side effects of cyclosporine are well known, the impact of long-term CsA on renal transplant function is uncertain. We studied 5-10-year renal function in 347 CsA-treated patients, and in 64 randomly selected non-CsA-treated patients who had a minimum of 55 months of graft function. Non-CsA patients had a lower creatinine (Cr) level at one year than CsA patients (P = .001), with no change in renal function over time (P = .6). In CsA-treated patients there was also no suggestion of progressive renal damage, as evidenced by no change in Cr or 1/Cr. Simple linear regression models of 1/Cr vs. time for the first 10 years posttransplant were fit to the data for each patient. Analysis of the Y-intercept estimates from these regressions showed that age (P = .001), sex (P = .001), cyclosporine toxicity (P = .024), and initial cyclosporine dosage (P = .016) significantly affected the one-year serum Cr. Variables not affecting one-year Cr included donor source, early rejection episodes, late rejection episodes, ATN, diabetes, transplant number, HLA ABDR mismatch (for cadaver transplants), maximum PRA, and PRA at transplant. Analysis of the slope estimates from the regressions revealed that only age (P = .001) and late rejection episodes (P = .001) significantly affected the rate of change in 1/Cr over time. We conclude that, in long-term renal transplant patients, there is no evidence of progressive deterioration in renal function due to CsA nephrotoxicity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HD76500012

  • The impact of cyclosporine and cyclosporine nephrotoxicity on long-term renal allograft function. Dial Transplant Almond PS, Gillingham K, Sibley R, Manivel C, Najarian JS, Matas AJ 1992; 21: 682-685
  • MICROVILLOUS INCLUSION DISEASE - THE IMPORTANCE OF ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY FOR DIAGNOSIS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Bell, S. W., Kerner, J. A., Sibley, R. K. 1991; 15 (12): 1157-1164

    Abstract

    We report two cases of microvillous inclusion disease (MID) occurring in a set of siblings. Although it is a rare disorder, MID appears to be a common cause of familial intractable secretory diarrhea. Diagnosis rests on the ultrastructural finding of intracytoplasmic inclusions that are lined by intact microvilli. These inclusions are present in the absorptive surface epithelial cells of the small and large intestine and are associated with poorly developed surface brush border microvilli. The prognosis of MID is poor and curative therapy is not currently available. Because MID appears to be a hereditary disorder, genetic counseling of affected families is essential.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GV11600006

    View details for PubMedID 1660676

  • HELICOBACTER-PYLORI INFECTION AND THE RISK OF GASTRIC-CARCINOMA NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Parsonnet, J., Friedman, G. D., Vandersteen, D. P., Chang, Y., Vogelman, J. H., Orentreich, N., Sibley, R. K. 1991; 325 (16): 1127-1131

    Abstract

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori has been linked with chronic atrophic gastritis, an inflammatory precursor of gastric adenocarcinoma. In a nested case-control study, we explored whether H. pylori infection increases the risk of gastric carcinoma.From a cohort of 128,992 persons followed since the mid-1960s at a health maintenance organization, 186 patients with gastric carcinoma were selected as case patients and were matched according to age, sex, and race with 186 control subjects without gastric carcinoma. Stored serum samples collected during the 1960s were tested for IgG antibodies to H. pylori by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data on cigarette use, blood group, ulcer disease, and gastric surgery were obtained from questionnaires administered at enrollment. Tissue sections and pathology reports were reviewed to confirm the histologic results.The mean time between serum collection and the diagnosis of gastric carcinoma was 14.2 years. Of the 109 patients with confirmed gastric adenocarcinoma (excluding tumors of the gastroesophageal junction), 84 percent had been infected previously with H. pylori, as compared with 61 percent of the matched control subjects (odds ratio, 3.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 7.3). Tumors of the gastroesophageal junction were not linked to H. pylori infection, nor were tumors in the gastric cardia. H. pylori was a particularly strong risk factor for stomach cancer in women (odds ratio, 18) and blacks (odds ratio, 9). A history of gastric surgery was independently associated with the development of cancer (odds ratio, 17; P = 0.03), but a history of peptic ulcer disease was negatively associated with subsequent gastric carcinoma (odds ratio, 0.2; P = 0.02). Neither blood group nor smoking history affected risk.Infection with H. pylori is associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and may be a cofactor in the pathogenesis of this malignant condition.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GK53800003

    View details for PubMedID 1891020

  • LYMPHOCYTE-T-SYNOVIAL FIBROBLAST INTERACTIONS INDUCED BY MYCOBACTERIAL PROTEINS IN RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Holoshitz, J., Kosek, J., Sibley, R., Brown, D. A., Strober, S. 1991; 34 (6): 679-686

    Abstract

    An in vitro system was established in which single-cell suspensions of lymphocytes and synovial cells from the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis were cultured and produced an outgrowth of an organized inflammatory tissue with an extracellular matrix and capsule. The tissue outgrowth, which had histologic features of pannus, required the addition of mycobacterial antigen and interleukin-2 to the tissue culture medium and was dependent upon the presence of T lymphocytes and their interaction with synovial fibroblasts.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FR47300006

    View details for PubMedID 1905130

  • GLOMERULAR DYSFUNCTION IN NEPHROTIC HUMANS WITH MINIMAL CHANGES OR FOCAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY Guasch, A., Hashimoto, H., Sibley, R. K., Deen, W. M., Myers, B. D. 1991; 260 (5): F728-F737

    Abstract

    Fractional clearances (theta) of uncharged dextrans (radii 28-60 A) were used to characterize glomerular dysfunction in 34 nephrotic humans with either minimal-change nephropathy (MCN) or focal, segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). A theoretical analysis of theta of dextran with a heteroporous membrane model revealed a similar alteration, more marked in FSGS than MCN. The number of restrictive pores perforating the major membrane component was reduced in parallel with the prevailing glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Parallel shuntlike pores in the remaining membrane component were more prominent, pointing to impaired size selectivity. However, the theta of large (60 A) dextrans attributable to these shunts exceeded control in FSGS only, suggesting that coexistent impairment of charge selectivity contributed importantly to the proteinuria in MCN. Membrane properties returned toward normal when MCN remitted. Glomerular morphometry revealed the frequency of epithelial filtration slits to vary with the extent of membrane dysfunction. Despite offsetting hypertrophy of remnant glomeruli in FSGS, a loss of filtration surface due to sclerosis likely contributed to the more marked reductions in pore number and GFR observed in this disorder than in MCN.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FM77800089

    View details for PubMedID 1709791

  • EXTENT OF GLOMERULAR INJURY IN ACTIVE AND RESOLVING LUPUS NEPHRITIS - A THEORETICAL-ANALYSIS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY Myers, B. D., Chagnac, A., GOLBETZ, H., Newton, L., Strober, S., Sibley, R. K. 1991; 260 (5): F717-F727

    Abstract

    Patients with diffuse, proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN) were subjected to differential solute clearances (n = 22) and serial renal biopsy (n = 11) before and again after 6-12 mo of immunosuppressive therapy. Glomerular sieving of dextrans of graded size was analyzed with a heteroporous membrane model. This revealed active DPLN to be associated with 1) a reduction of overall pore density accompanied by a 53% depression of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and 2) appearance of a subset of large, nondiscriminatory pores, which accounted for the observed nephrotic level of proteinuria. Morphometric analysis of biopsy tissue provided evidence of reduced filtration surface area due to global or segmental occlusion of capillary loops in glomerular tufts. Activity of DPLN resolved posttreatment. A computed increase in pore density was associated with a 24% increment in GFR; a marked reduction in the fraction of shuntlike pores was accompanied by a parallel reduction of proteinuria into a subnephrotic range. Repeat biopsy revealed diminished glomerular cellularity, fewer immune deposits, and an ensuing increase in the fraction of tuft area occupied by patent loops. Epithelial filtration slit frequency also increased. Neither functional nor structural recovery was complete, however. Residual pore density approximated only 23-35% of that in healthy controls, and corresponding shuntlike pores were threefold more prominent. We conclude that severe DPLN is only partially reversible by current modalities of treatment and that the ensuing residual injury is far more severe than suggested by conventional tests of renal function.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FM77800088

    View details for PubMedID 2035658

  • HELICOBACTER-PYLORI INFECTION IN INTESTINAL-TYPE AND DIFFUSE-TYPE GASTRIC ADENOCARCINOMAS JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE Parsonnet, J., Vandersteen, D., GOATES, J., Sibley, R. K., PRITIKIN, J., Chang, Y. 1991; 83 (9): 640-643

    Abstract

    Gastric cancer can be divided into two histologic types: intestinal and diffuse. To determine whether Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium linked with gastritis, was associated with either cancer type, we reviewed histologic sections from stomachs of patients who had undergone gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Of 37 of the sections with evidence of intestinal-type cancer, 33 (89.2%) contained H pylori in noncancerous tissue compared with 7 (31.8%) of 22 of the sections with evidence of diffuse-type cancer (odds ratio = 17.7; P less than .001). This association remained strong when controlled for age, sex, site, and number of sections reviewed. The prevalence of H pylori in intestinal-type gastric cancer far exceeded the prevalence of H pylori in diffuse disease and that described in the normal US population. This finding suggests that H pylori may be a cofactor in development of intestinal-type gastric cancer.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FH75900017

    View details for PubMedID 2023282

  • PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SERIAL PULMONARY-FUNCTION STUDIES AND TRANSBRONCHIAL BIOPSIES IN SINGLE-LUNG TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Marshall, S. E., LEWISTON, N. J., Kramer, M. R., Sibley, R. K., Berry, G., Rich, J. B., Theodore, J., Starnes, V. A. 1991; 23 (1): 1217-1219

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV39100122

    View details for PubMedID 1989192

  • POSTTRANSPLANTATION OUTCOME OF PATIENTS WITH HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROME - UPDATE PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY Hebert, D., Kim, E. M., Sibley, R. K., MAUER, M. S. 1991; 5 (1): 162-167

    Abstract

    The outcome of renal transplantation in patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is variable in reported cases. An update of the previously published series of patients from the University of Minnesota is reported. Seventeen patients with HUS received a renal transplant. Seven patients had recurrent HUS based on strict clinical and histological features and in 4 of these patients grafts were loss from recurrent HUS, with 1 patient losing three successive grafts. Three patients had histological features consistent with HUS but lacked some of the clinical features. Seven patients had no evidence of recurrent HUS post transplantation. The incidence of recurrence of HUS post transplantation in this updated report remains high (7/17 patients). There was no difference in the allografts used (living-related donor grafts were more common in all groups) or in the immunosuppression in the different groups of patients; only 1 patient with recurrent HUS received cyclosporine. The published cases of transplantation in patients with HUS show a variable recurrence rate of 0-25% in different centers with a poor graft outcome in patients with recurrence; a higher incidence of early chronic vascular rejection with decreased graft survival is also reported in patients without recurrence. Patients with HUS post renal transplant are at a variable risk of recurrence of HUS or decreased graft survival, and the factors responsible for this outcome are not known.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV92100039

    View details for PubMedID 2025529

  • A working formulation for the standardization of nomenclature in the diagnosis of heart and lung rejection: Lung Rejection Study Group. The International Society for Heart Transplantation. journal of heart transplantation Berry, G. J., Brunt, E. M., CHAMBERLAIN, D., Hruban, R. H., Sibley, R. K., Stewart, S., Tazelaar, H. D. 1990; 9 (6): 593-601

    View details for PubMedID 2277294

  • AN INCREASED INCIDENCE OF LATE ACUTE REJECTION EPISODES IN CADAVER RENAL-ALLOGRAFT RECIPIENTS GIVEN AZATHIOPRINE, CYCLOSPORINE, AND PREDNISONE TRANSPLANTATION Wrenshall, L. E., Matas, A. J., Canafax, D. M., Min, D. I., Sibley, R. J., Dunn, D. L., Payne, W. D., Sutherland, D. E., Najarian, J. S. 1990; 50 (2): 233-237

    Abstract

    We studied the incidence of biopsy-proven, acute rejection episodes occurring after 1 year posttransplant in cadaver renal allograft recipients. The 328 patients evaluated were given three immunosuppressive drug protocols. Group I (transplanted 9/80-6/84) (n = 75) received azathioprine, prednisone (P), and antilymphoblast globulin; group II (transplanted 9/80-6/84) (n = 83) received cyclosporine and P; group III (transplanted 7/84-12/86) (n = 170) received ALG, AZA, CsA, and P (sequential therapy). The incidence of first acute rejection episodes occurring up to 1 year posttransplant was 55% in group I and 35% in groups II and III. The incidence of late (greater than 1 year) acute rejection episodes was 6.5% in group I, 2.5% in group II, and 9.5% in group III (group II vs. III, P = 0.02). In group III, 50% of the late rejections were first, 44% second, and 6% third. The primary etiologies of this increased incidence of late acute rejection may have included subtherapeutic CsA levels and lower P doses. Sequential immunosuppressive therapy has been shown to be advantageous in the first posttransplant year. However, unless adequate immunosuppression is maintained, this approach can be associated with a significantly increased incidence of late acute rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DU71400012

    View details for PubMedID 2382291

  • ACUTE LUNG REJECTION AFTER HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANTATION - CORRELATION OF FINDINGS ON CHEST RADIOGRAPHS WITH LUNG-BIOPSY RESULTS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Bergin, C. J., Castellino, R. A., Blank, N., Berry, G. J., Sibley, R. K., Starnes, V. A. 1990; 155 (1): 23-27

    Abstract

    This retrospective study was performed to determine if the chest radiograph could serve as a predictor for acute lung rejection in heart-lung transplantation patients. The findings on chest radiographs were correlated with the results of transbronchial biopsies in 16 heart-lung transplantation patients. The chest radiographs immediately preceding 83 biopsies were evaluated for a variety of findings. The histopathologic results of the lung biopsies were divided into five categories: (1) acute lung rejection (n = 25); (2) suggestive, but not diagnostic, of acute lung rejection (n = 8); (3) nonspecific (n = 26); (4) infection (n = 17); and (5) normal lung (n = 9). Biopsies from two patients showed both acute lung rejection and cytomegalovirus infection and were included in both categories. These histopathologic results were then correlated with the radiologic observations. We found that the combination of septal lines and new or increasing pleural effusions, without concomitant increase in cardiac size or vascular pedicle width, or evidence of vascular redistribution, indicated acute lung rejection with a sensitivity of 68% (17/25), specificity of 90% (52/58), and overall accuracy of 83% (69/83). We conclude that the chest radiograph is a useful indicator of acute lung rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DK48700003

    View details for PubMedID 2112858

  • MANIFESTATIONS OF RENAL-ALLOGRAFT REJECTION IN SMALL CHILDREN RECEIVING ADULT KIDNEYS PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY Bunchman, T. E., FRYD, D. S., Sibley, R. K., Mauer, S. M. 1990; 4 (3): 255-258

    Abstract

    We were concerned that clinical manifestations of rejection (R) might be subtle in small children transplanted with adult kidneys. We retrospectively analyzed the first rejection episode (biopsy proven) in 22 children (R group) under age 4 years [mean age, 23.7 +/- 2.2 months (+/- SEM); mean weight, 9.4 +/- 0.4 kg] receiving an adult-related donor kidney. We matched these patients for age, date of transplant, donor source and immunosuppression with 36 children without R (control or C group). We compared both groups at similar intervals from transplantation, based on the time of R (5.38 +/- 1.2 months) in the R group and analyzed the immediate 8-week period prior to R and the corresponding interval in the C group. Hypertension occurred in 82% (18/22) of the R versus 8% (3/36) of the C group (P less than 0.01). Fever longer than 7 days occurred in 45% (10/22) of the R versus 0% (0/36) of the C group (P less than 0.01). Increased creatinine occurred in only 45% (10/22) of the R versus 3% (1/30) of the C group (P less than 0.01). Cyclosporine did not influence these manifestations of R. The clinical manifestations did not predict the R grades on biopsy, which were moderate to severe in 13 and mild in 9 of the R patients. Graft survival was higher at 3 years in the C (95%) than in the R patients (65%), (P less than 0.004). Thus, clinical manifestations of acute R can be subtle in small children with adult renal allografts. Renal biopsy should not be delayed until the creatinine is elevated in these patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DG73800012

    View details for PubMedID 2400654

  • DOPPLER EVALUATION OF RENAL-TRANSPLANTS IN CHILDREN - A PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS WITH HISTOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Drake, D. G., Day, D. L., Letourneau, J. G., Alford, B. A., Sibley, R. K., Mauer, S. M., Bunchman, T. E. 1990; 154 (4): 785-787

    Abstract

    Duplex Doppler sonography recently has been used to evaluate renal transplants. Some authors have stated that high resistive indexes (RIs) occur in the presence of acute renal transplant rejection. RIs less than 0.7 are considered as probably excluding acute transplant rejection. We performed a prospective study of duplex sonographic examinations of pediatric patients (mean age, 8 years; 13 boys, two girls) with renal allografts and clinically suspected transplant disease. The results of 22 duplex studies were correlated with histopathologic data obtained between July 1987 and June 1988. RIs of the arcuate arteries in patients with acute rejection (n = 14) averaged 0.62 (range, 0.50-0.80). The RI in patients with chronic rejection (n = 1) was 0.59. RIs in patients with acute tubular necrosis (n = 3) averaged 0.66 (range, 0.59-0.72). RIs in patients with cyclosporine A toxicity (n = 4) averaged 0.66 (range, 0.58-0.79). Tubulointerstitial rejection was predominant, with only two patients showing minimal acute vascular rejection. Thirteen of 14 pediatric patients with histologically proved renal transplant rejection had a resistive index of less than 0.70. This study refutes the concept that resistive indexes of less than 0.7 exclude acute rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CV60900019

    View details for PubMedID 2107677

  • PULMONARY-INFILTRATES AFTER HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANTATION - EVALUATION BY SERIAL TRANS-BRONCHIAL BIOPSIES JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Starnes, V. A., Theodore, J., Oyer, P. E., Stinson, E. B., MORENOCABRAL, C. E., Sibley, R., Barry, G., Shumway, N. E. 1989; 98 (5): 945-950

    Abstract

    Since January 1988, prospective serial transbronchial lung biopsies have been performed as a diagnostic procedure to facilitate the care of recipients of heart-lung transplants. Eighty-five cardiac and 70 transbronchial lung biopsies have been prospectively performed in 10 patients beginning within the first week of transplantation. Forty-eight percent (34/70) of the transbronchial lung biopsies and 16.5% (14/85) of the heart biopsies were positive for either rejection or infection. Pulmonary rejection was evident by a perivascular lymphocytic infiltrate that cleared with pulse steroid therapy. Pulmonary and cardiac rejection were present synchronously on six occasions and asynchronously on 16 occasions (nine pulmonary and seven cardiac). Four patients had early cytomegalovirus pneumonitis on biopsy specimen and were successfully treated with ganciclovir. Of the 40 clinically indicated biopsies, 29 (72.5%) were positive for rejection or infection and guided subsequent therapy. In summary, transbronchial lung biopsies have provided prompt (within 24 hours) serial diagnostic information that has guided successful treatment of infection (cytomegalovirus, aspergillosis, and Pneumocystis) and rejection. Asynchronous rejection of the heart and lungs has been conclusively demonstrated. With the early detection of rejection and infection, we are optimistic that chronic airway disease in patients with a heart-lung transplant may be reduced.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989CB65200022

    View details for PubMedID 2554070

  • EVALUATION OF HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS WITH PROSPECTIVE, SERIAL TRANS-BRONCHIAL BIOPSIES AND PULMONARY-FUNCTION STUDIES JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Starnes, V. A., Theodore, J., Oyer, P. E., Billingham, M. E., Sibley, R. K., Berry, G., Shumway, N. E., Stinson, E. B. 1989; 98 (5): 683-690

    Abstract

    The insidious development of obliterative bronchiolitis after heart-lung transplantation is thought to be due to rejection and possibly infection (cytomegalovirus). To evaluate further, we prospectively managed the last 16 consecutive heart-lung transplant recipients with serial transbronchial biopsies with lavage and pulmonary function studies as part of a surveillance protocol or as dictated by clinical presentation. A total of 123 transbronchial biopsies with lavage were performed, 77 for clinical indications (group I) and 46 for routine surveillance (group II). Results of 64 (83.1%) group I biopsies were positive for rejection or infection. Thirty-one of these biopsy specimens showed signs of rejection (29 in group I and two in group II), characterized by a perivascular mononuclear infiltrate, lymphocytic bronchiolitis, and occasionally alveolar septal mononuclear infiltrate. Forty-six serial pulmonary function tests were performed. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (percent predicted), forced expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity (percent predicted), and arterial oxygen tension (millimeters of mercury) were significantly reduced from baseline values during rejection episodes: forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 75.7% +/- 20.1% versus 52.7% +/- 18.3% (p less than or equal to 0.05); forced expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity, 97.6% +/- 30.5% versus 49.8% +/- 22.3% (p less than or equal to 0.05); and arterial oxygen tension, 92.1 +/- 8.8 mm Hg versus 71.4 +/- 18.8 mm Hg (p less than or equal to 0.05). The fall in pulmonary function was reversible with pulse methylprednisolone. Asynchronous heart and lung rejection was documented. Of the 29 episodes of pulmonary rejection, 18 (62%) occurred asynchronously. Ten of the 16 (62%) heart-lung recipients had at least one episode of cardiac rejection. Thirteen of 16 (81%) had at least one episode of lung rejection. Serial transbronchial biopsies with lavage, as dictated by pulmonary function tests and clinical status, have guided early and more specific therapy directed against rejection and infection. With early detection, small airway dysfunction has been reversible.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AZ79100004

    View details for PubMedID 2554067

  • OUTCOME OF THE ACUTE GLOMERULAR INJURY IN PROLIFERATIVE LUPUS NEPHRITIS JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Chagnac, A., Kiberd, B. A., Farinas, M. C., Strober, S., Sibley, R. K., Hoppe, R., Myers, B. D. 1989; 84 (3): 922-930

    Abstract

    Treatment with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and corticosteroids markedly reduced activity of systemic lupus erythematosis in 10 patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN) complicated by a nephrotic syndrome. Physiologic and morphometric techniques were used serially before, and 12 and 36 mo post-TLI to characterize the course of glomerular injury. Judged by a progressive reduction in the density of glomerular cells and immune deposits, glomerular inflammation subsided. A sustained reduction in the fractional clearance of albumin, IgG and uncharged dextrans of radius greater than 50 A, pointed to a parallel improvement in glomerular barrier size-selectivity. Corresponding changes in GFR were modest, however. A trend towards higher GFR at 12 mo was associated with a marked increase in the fraction of glomerular tuft area occupied by patent capillary loops as inflammatory changes receded. A late trend toward declining GFR beyond 12 mo was associated with progressive glomerulosclerosis, which affected 57% of all glomeruli globally by 36 mo post-TLI. Judged by a parallel increase in volume by 59%, remaining, patent glomeruli had undergone a process of adaptive enlargement. We propose that an increasing fraction of glomeruli continues to undergo progressive sclerosis after DPLN has become quiescent, and that the prevailing GFR depends on the extent to which hypertrophied remnant glomeruli can compensate for the ensuing loss of filtration surface area.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AN25900027

    View details for PubMedID 2760219

  • ACQUIRED IMMUNE TOLERANCE TO CADAVERIC RENAL-ALLOGRAFTS - A STUDY OF 3 PATIENTS TREATED WITH TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Strober, S., Dhillon, M., Schubert, M., Holm, B., Engleman, E., Benike, C., Hoppe, R., Sibley, R., Myburgh, J. A., Collins, G., Levin, B. 1989; 321 (1): 28-33
  • PATHOLOGY AND IMMUNOPATHOLOGY OF SOLID ORGAN GRAFT-REJECTION TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Sibley, R. K. 1989; 21 (1): 14-17

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U152300004

    View details for PubMedID 2650096

  • IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF LAMININ IN THE BASEMENT-MEMBRANES OF NORMAL, HYPERPLASTIC, AND NEOPLASTIC HUMAN-PROSTATE PROSTATE Sinha, A. A., Gleason, D. F., Wilson, M. J., STALEY, N. A., FURCHT, L. T., Palm, S. L., Reddy, P. K., Sibley, R. K., MARTINEZHERNANDEZ, A. 1989; 15 (4): 299-313

    Abstract

    We examined the effects of fixatives and antibody sources on the immunohistologic localization of laminin in normal and cancer-containing human prostates and studied the localization patterns in carcinomas of varying degrees of histologic differentiation. Two different polyclonal antibodies were localized in paraffin-embedded or cryostat sections of fixed (alcohol, formalin, and paraformaldehyde) or unfixed tissue, using the immunofluorescence (IF) or immunoperoxidase (IP) techniques, with positive and negative controls. We found that the IF reactions were more intense in unfixed or alcohol-fixed sections than in paraformaldehyde-fixed specimens. IP reactions were very weak or absent in fixed and paraffin-embedded sections, but pepsin treatment of these sections resulted in more intense and uniform IP reaction products, stronger than in unfixed or ethanol-fixed cryostat sections. With the IP technique, laminin localization was intense and uniform in the basement membranes (BM) of acini, blood vessels, smooth muscle, and nerve fibers in normal prostate, benign hyperplasia (BPH), and well-differentiated carcinomas. The BM of poorly differentiated carcinomas showed widespread absence of laminin reactivity. In normal BPH and well-differentiated tumors, occasional epithelial cells and their surface and acinar lumina had laminin reactivity. However, in higher grade tumors, numerous neoplastic cells had laminin reactivity in cytoplasm, their surface, and secretory material. Some macrophages and neutrophils also contained laminin reactivity, presumably of degraded laminin. In some moderately and poorly differentiated tumors, the BM of small capillaries did not contain laminin. The BM of larger vessels always had laminin reactivity, even in the higher grade tumors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989CF03600002

    View details for PubMedID 2687824

  • RECURRENCE OF DISEASE IN PANCREAS TRANSPLANTS DIABETES Sutherland, D. E., Goetz, F. C., Sibley, R. K. 1989; 38: 85-87

    Abstract

    In a series of 200 pancreas transplants with 6 mo to less than 9 yr of follow-up, recurrence of disease was identified as the cause of graft failure in 8 cases, all in non- or minimally immunosuppressed recipients of transplants from identical twin (n = 3) or HLA-identical sibling (n = 5) donors. Recurrence of disease was defined as selective loss of beta-cells; other endocrine cell types persisted and appeared normal within the islets of the graft. Isletitis was present in islets with residual beta-cells during the evolution of the process in all nonimmunosuppressed and in some immunosuppressed recipients, but isletitis resolved in all cases in which beta-cell destruction was complete and also resolved in some cases in which residual beta-cells were retained after the introduction of or an increase in immunosuppression. Recurrence of disease can be prevented by immunosuppression, and 2 recipients of identical twin grafts and 12 recipients of grafts from HLA-identical siblings had functioning grafts as of March 1988, the longest greater than 7 yr. The process has not been observed in patients in whom full-dose immunosuppression has been used, including HLA-identical siblings, and this may be the reason no cases of recurrence of disease have been identified in recipients of cadaveric grafts. Alternatively, the observations are consistent with, but not proof of, the hypothesis that recurrence of disease (autoimmune isletitis leading to diabetes) is a major histocompatibility complex-restricted phenomenon.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989R717700026

    View details for PubMedID 2642862

  • CHRONIC INJURY OF HUMAN RENAL MICROVESSELS WITH LOW-DOSE CYCLOSPORINE THERAPY TRANSPLANTATION Myers, B. D., Newton, L., BOSHKOS, C., Macoviak, J. A., Frist, W. H., Derby, G. C., Perlroth, M. G., Sibley, R. K. 1988; 46 (5): 694-703

    Abstract

    Physiologic and morphologic techniques were used to study kidneys of cardiac transplant recipients treated with either low-dose (low-CsA) or high-dose (high-CsA) cyclosporine. After 12 months both low-CsA (4.6 +/- 0.4) and high-CsA (6.3 +/- 0.3 mg/Kg/24 hr, p less than 0.01) were associated with azotemia and hypertension; GFR with each regimen was depressed below values in a third group treated without CsA (no-CsA) by 40-47%, while corresponding renal vascular resistance was elevated greater than 2-fold (P less than 0.01). Morphologic changes in both CsA groups included an obliterative arteriolopathy with downstream collapse or sclerosis of glomeruli. Determination of renal arcuate vein occlusion pressure revealed an increasing renal artery-to-peritubular capillary pressure gradient between 1 and 12 months of CsA therapy. Fractional clearances of dextrans of graded size were elevated at each time compared with the no-CsA group. Analysis of dextran transport with an isoporous membrane model indicates that transglomerular hydraulic pressure difference (delta P) approximated 39 with no-CsA, but was reduced with low-CsA therapy to about 30 at 1 month, and about 34 mmHg after 12 months. We conclude that chronic CsA therapy induces constriction and eventual occlusion of afferent arterioles, causing downstream glomerular damage that is irreversible. Low versus high dosage of CsA confers only marginal protection against this serious microvascular injury.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988R314600013

    View details for PubMedID 3057692

  • ANAPHYLACTOID PURPURA - CHARACTERISTICS OF 16 PATIENTS WHO PROGRESSED TO RENAL-FAILURE PEDIATRIC NEPHROLOGY Bunchman, T. E., Mauer, S. M., Sibley, R. K., Vernier, R. L. 1988; 2 (4): 393-397

    Abstract

    Renal insufficiency occurs in at least 1.5% of children with anaphylactoid purpura (AP). We reviewed the records of 16 children who developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD group) secondary to AP and matched them for age, era of onset, renal histology, and clinical severity at onset with 16 children who had AP but whose creatine clearance returned to and remained normal (recovery group). We reviewed creatinine clearances at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years after onset. A creatinine clearance greater than 70 ml/min per 1.73 m2 was present in 50% of the patients in the ESRD group at 3 years and in 25% at 5 years after onset. In contrast, all patients in the recovery group had a creatinine clearance greater than 70 ml/min per 1.73 m2 by 3 years (7 of 16 had a creatinine clearance greater than 125 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and all were normal 95-125 ml/min per 1.73 m2) by 5 years. Thus, the presence of an increased creatinine clearance (greater than 125 ml/min per 1.73 m2) at 3 years predicted recovery, while failure to reach a creatinine clearance of greater than 70 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at 3 years predicted progression to ESRD. There was no evidence of recurrent systemic AP or nephritis in the 14 patients who underwent renal allograft transplantation. We conclude that long-term evaluation of patients over many years is required to identify those who will progress to ESRD from AP and that recurrence of AP in the renal transplant is uncommon.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q563200003

    View details for PubMedID 3153049

  • COMPARISON OF CYCLOSPORIN-A AND CYCLOSPORIN-G WITH AND WITHOUT AZATHIOPRINE REGARDING IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFICACY, TOXICITY, AND PHARMACOKINETICS IN LEWIS RATS JOURNAL OF HEART TRANSPLANTATION Hagberg, R. C., Hoyt, E. G., Billingham, M. E., Sibley, R. K., Starnes, V. A., Baldwin, J. C. 1988; 7 (5): 359-369

    Abstract

    Cyclosporin A-associated nephrotoxicity has precipitated the need to develop new immunosuppressive protocols or agents that have a higher therapeutic index than cyclosporin A. A new immunosuppressive agent, cyclosporin G or norvaline (Nva-2) cyclosporine, has been shown to be potent. The rat heterotopic transplant model (ACI to Lewis) and Lewis rats that had no operation were used to compare cyclosporin G with cyclosporin A (5 mg/kg/day per gavage) with and without azathioprine (5 to 10 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) in terms of immunosuppressive efficacy (graft survival), toxicity (mortality, renal histopathology, and serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen values), and pharmacokinetics (trough whole blood cyclosporine levels as measured by radioimmunoassay on days 14 and 28 of treatment). In this model no statistically significant difference in immunosuppression was shown between the two cyclosporins both with and without azathioprine. Cyclosporin G, however, was associated with significantly less mortality when combination therapy with azathioprine was used. Both cyclosporins were associated with normal serum creatinine values and little histopathologic evidence of nephrotoxicity, except juxtaglomerular apparatus hyperplasia. Comparable cyclosporine levels were achieved when cyclosporin A or G was used as the sole immunosuppressive agent, but significantly higher cyclosporine levels were shown with cyclosporin A than with cyclosporin G when combination therapy with azathioprine was used. Further studies in humans are needed to evaluate whether cyclosporin G will be a clinically useful immunosuppressive agent either alone or combined with other immunosuppressive modalities.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q554200008

    View details for PubMedID 3058906

  • THE MITOCHONDRIAL RESPIRATORY TOXICITY OF CEPHALOSPORIN ANTIBIOTICS - AN INHIBITORY EFFECT ON SUBSTRATE UPTAKE JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS Tune, B. M., Sibley, R. K., Hsu, C. Y. 1988; 245 (3): 1054-1059

    Abstract

    Cephalosporin antibiotics can produce renal cortical mitochondrial respiratory toxicity after either in vitro or in vivo exposure. In vitro toxicity is immediate, nonselective among toxic and nontoxic cephalosporins and reversed by substrate excess. In vivo toxicity is delayed, specific to the nephrotoxic cephalosporins and not reversible. Both routes of exposure affect respiration with succinate (S) more than with glutamate plus malate as substrates. Because glutamate and malate gain access to the intramitochondrial electron transport chain proximal to S, this pattern suggests that the cephalosporins affect a mitochondrial function outside the respiratory chain. A model of respiratory toxicity incorporating all of these features proposes that all cephalosporins can fit the affected transporters for mitochondrial substrate uptake, but, in the intact kidney, this causes limited or transient respiratory inhibition with nontoxic cephalosporins; in vivo toxicity, which is seen after later isolation and washing of mitochondria exposed in situ, develops with the more sequestered and reactive (nephrotoxic) cephalosporins that acylate these transporters. As a test of this hypothesis, studies were done, using the method of sieve filtration, to evaluate the effects of in vivo and in vitro exposure to cephaloglycin (toxic) and cephalexin (nontoxic) on the uptake of S and ADP by rabbit renal cortical mitochondria. In vivo and in vitro exposure to cephaloglycin reduced the net uptake of S by 70% and had a considerably smaller and less consistent effect on ADP uptake; cephalexin inhibited S uptake only with in vitro exposure. The rate of S washout from cephaloglycin-intoxicated mitochondria was no greater than from controls, ruling out increased efflux as a cause of decreased net uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N892700045

    View details for PubMedID 3385637

  • THE LONG-TERM COURSE OF CYCLOSPORINE-ASSOCIATED CHRONIC NEPHROPATHY KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Myers, B. D., Sibley, R., Newton, L., Tomlanovich, S. J., BOSHKOS, C., STINSON, E., LUETSCHER, J. A., WHITNEY, D. J., Krasny, D., Coplon, N. S., Perlroth, M. G. 1988; 33 (2): 590-600

    Abstract

    We evaluated a chronic renal injury in 37 cardiac transplant recipients treated for 12 to 24 months with cyclosporine (CsA). Twenty-four cardiac transplant recipients treated with azathioprine for more than 24 months served as controls. Despite equivalent cardiac performance, GFR in those treated with CsA was depressed, 47 +/- 3 versus 94 +/- 4 ml/min/1.73 m2 (P less than 0.001). CsA therapy was also associated with significant elevation of renal vascular resistance (RVR), proteinuria, arterial hypertension, and impaired intrarenal conversion of inactive prorenin to active renin. Histopathological changes associated with CsA included an obliterative arteriolopathy with deposition of proteinaceous material in necrotic arteriolar walls, and associated tubulointerstitial damage. A minority of glomeruli exhibited either ischemic collapse or sclerosis. Area perimeter analysis revealed enlargement of the remaining glomeruli with significant expansion of the mesangium. Longitudinal examination over a 48 month period (N = 15) during which CsA was reduced in dosage or withdrawn revealed persistent hypofiltration, increasingly elevated RVR and heavier proteinuria. Further histopathological deterioration was observed when renal tissue was sampled a second time in six patients, and three members of the experimental group developed end-stage renal disease. We conclude that continuous CsA therapy for more than 12 months causes a chronic injury to renal microvessels that is rarely reversible and potentially progressive.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M031600014

    View details for PubMedID 3283402

  • RESOLUTION OF OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP-APNEA IN HURLER SYNDROME AFTER BONE-MARROW TRANSPLANTATION INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY MALONE, B. N., Whitley, C. B., Duvall, A. J., Belani, K., Sibley, R. K., Ramsay, N. K., Kersey, J. H., Krivit, W., Berlinger, N. T. 1988; 15 (1): 23-31

    Abstract

    Hurler syndrome, a lethal inborn error of lysosomal metabolism, results from the systemic accumulation of glycosaminoglycan. The progressive deposition of glycosaminoglycan in tissues of the upper aerodigestive tract has been suspected as the cause of airway obstruction, and many children have required tracheostomy. In a 3-year-old patient with Hurler syndrome, polysomnography confirmed the clinical impression of obstructive sleep apnea. Biopsy of an enlarged tonsil demonstrated that more than half the tissue volume resulted from abnormal lysosomal inclusions in macrophages. Three months after transplantation, repeat testing demonstrated resolution of airway obstruction, and 6 months after transplantation, tonsil biopsy showed complete absence of lysosomal inclusions. Bone marrow transplantation produces effective metabolic correction for Hurler syndrome and may be life-saving for patients with obstructive apnea.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N022000003

    View details for PubMedID 3131262

  • PRIMARY CEREBRAL NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS - NEURO-BLASTOMA, DIFFERENTIATED NEURO-BLASTOMA, AND COMPOSITE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR ULTRASTRUCTURAL PATHOLOGY DEHNER, L. P., ABENOZA, P., Sibley, R. K. 1988; 12 (5): 479-494

    Abstract

    Seven cases of primary cerebral neuroectodermal tumors with predominant neuroblastic features were studied ultrastructurally and five were evaluated immunohistochemically. The fine structural features were indicative of neuroblastic differentiation by the presence of elongated cytoplasmic processes, electron-dense neurosecretory granules, and neurotubules. Five of the seven cases had the morphologic findings of classic cerebral neuroblastoma, and the sixth case, originally diagnosed as an oligodendroglioma, had the features of a differentiated neuroblastoma. Desmoplastic and/or stromal foci were intermingled with neuronal-ganglionic cells and neuroblasts in the seventh case. In addition to strong immunoreactivity for S-100 protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the desmoplastic areas, the spindle cells had fibroblastic and Schwannian features by electron microscopy in the latter case. The neuroblastic cells and fibrillary network were immunoreactive for neuron-specific enolase and neurofilament in the five study cases. It is concluded that cerebral neuroectodermal tumors may express an range of phenotypic features from the exclusive neuroblastic stage to a neuronal and stromogenic phase analogous to the classic neuroblastoma of the sympathetic nervous system.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q291800003

    View details for PubMedID 3194993

  • CHARACTERIZATION AND CLONING OF ALLOREACTIVE LYMPHOCYTES-T FROM PANCREAS ALLOGRAFTS TRANSPLANTED INTO DIABETICS TRANSPLANTATION Binimelis, J., Sibley, R., Sutherland, D., Monroy, C., deLeiva, A., BARBOSA, J. 1987; 44 (3): 453-457

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K179400027

    View details for PubMedID 3114928

  • PANCREAS TRANSPLANTATION - AN IMMUNOHISTOLOGIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGIC EXAMINATION OF 100 GRAFTS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Sibley, R. K., Sutherland, D. E. 1987; 128 (1): 151-170

    Abstract

    The authors examined tissues obtained by biopsy, pancreatectomy, and autopsy from 100 pancreas grafts to determine the cause of dysfunction or failure of the graft. Immunohistologic examination of 42 tissues to determine the mononuclear cell phenotypes and Class I and II antigen expression was performed as well. Technical factors--infections, thrombosis, obstruction--accounted for a large number of graft losses, but immunologic-mediated mechanisms resulted in graft dysfunction and failure as well. Pleomorphic inflammatory infiltrates were present in grafts with acute rejection, as well as Silastic and Prolamine duct-obstructed grafts. Criteria useful in the identification of acute rejection from pancreatitis included a more intense, predominantly mononuclear cell infiltration of transformed lymphocytes in the exocrine pancreas and evidence of vascular rejection--endovasculitis or fibrinoid necrosis. Increased expression and/or induction of Class I and II antigens on pancreatic constituents occurred in grafts with evidence of acute rejection, but also with Silastic and prolamine duct-obstructed pancreatitis. An isletitis occurred in 25% of the grafts. Nine of the 25 grafts (36%) with isletitis also had selective loss of beta cells from the islets. Recurrent diabetes mellitus appeared to have developed in these cases, which accounted for loss of graft function.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J061000017

    View details for PubMedID 3037911

  • CARCINOID-TUMORS OF THE MIDDLE-EAR AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Stanley, M. W., Horwitz, C. A., Levinson, R. M., Sibley, R. K. 1987; 87 (5): 592-600

    Abstract

    Carcinoid tumors of the middle ear are rare, with only three previously reported cases. The authors report the light and electron microscopic and immunohistochemical features of two carcinoid tumors that occurred in a 34-year-old female and a 21-year-old male. Both presented with unilateral hearing loss. By light microscopic examination, both were characterized by trabecula of tall columnar cells with basal nuclei and no mitotic activity. Electron microscopic examination demonstrated large numbers of pleomorphic neurosecretory granules, perinuclear aggregates of intermediate filaments, cell junctions, and surface microvillous processes. Some cells contained intermediate filaments forming tonofilaments and lacked secretory granules. These cells stained for cytokeratin by immunoperoxidase and separated the neuroendocrine cells from the underlying basal lamina. The cells in this tumor stained for the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide. Cells in both tumors also stained for pancreatic polypeptide. Neither case stained for lysozyme, insulin, glucagon, somatastatin, gastrin, substance P, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, Met-enkephalin, Leu-enkephalin, neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, neurotensin, Bombesin, serotonin, neuron-specific enolose, glial and neural filaments, S-100 protein, cholecystokinin, beta-endorphin, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, luteinizing hormone/follicle-stimulating hormone, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, prolactin or calcitonin. Carcinoid tumor of the middle ear can be distinguished from paraganglioma and middle ear adenoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H085800005

    View details for PubMedID 3578133

  • EPITHELIOID SARCOMA - AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Manivel, J. C., WICK, M. R., DEHNER, L. P., Sibley, R. K. 1987; 87 (3): 319-326

    Abstract

    The immunohistochemical findings in 14 epithelioid sarcomas, neoplasms of uncertain histogenesis, indicate that they react with antibodies against cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and vimentin. All cases were nonreactive for leukocyte common antigen, myoglobin, and Factor VIII-related antigen. These results point to the fact that epithelioid sarcoma expresses phenotypic characteristics more often associated with epithelioid neoplasms, rather than the mesenchymal profile of most soft tissue sarcomas. One explanation for this observation is that epithelioid sarcoma is in fact a carcinoma originating in the deep soft tissues. On the other hand, the pluripotential mesoderm has a known embryonic capacity to differentiate into epithelium and, therefore, it is plausible that epithelioid sarcoma is a mesenchymally derived neoplasm. Aside from histogenetic considerations, epithelioid sarcoma may be confused with a number of other neoplastic and granulomatous processes. Differential immunohistochemical stains are useful in selected instances wherein light and electron microscopic findings are diagnostically equivocal.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G263700003

    View details for PubMedID 3548316

  • CURRENT RESULTS WITH TRIPLE THERAPY FOR HEART-TRANSPLANTATION TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Bolman, R. M., Olivari, M. T., Saffitz, J., Sibley, R., Spadaro, J., CANCE, C., ELICK, B. 1987; 19 (1): 2490-2491

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G101500238

    View details for PubMedID 3274544

  • A COMPARISON OF RENAL BIOPSIES IN CYCLOSPORINE AND CONVENTIONALLY IMMUNOSUPPRESSED RENAL-TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS SIMONTON, S. C., Sibley, R. K., FRYD, D. S. 1987; 19 (1): 1790-1790

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G101400329

    View details for PubMedID 3079038

  • ROLE OF PANCREAS GRAFT BIOPSIES IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF REJECTION AFTER PANCREAS TRANSPLANTATION TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Sutherland, D. E., Casanova, D., Sibley, R. K. 1987; 19 (1): 2329-2331

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G101500180

    View details for PubMedID 3274517

  • PHENOTYPES OF INVIVO-ACTIVATED LYMPHOCYTES-T FROM A PANCREAS ALLOGRAFT TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Binimelis, J., Sutherland, D., Sibley, R., deLeiva, A., BARBOSA, J. 1987; 19 (1): 403-403

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G101300114

    View details for PubMedID 3274794

  • COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE DRASH SYNDROME - A CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF 5 CASES OF A DYSONTOGENETIC-NEOPLASTIC COMPLEX HUMAN PATHOLOGY Manivel, J. C., Sibley, R. K., DEHNER, L. P. 1987; 18 (1): 80-89

    Abstract

    Drash syndrome is a complex disorder characterized by abnormal renal function, abnormal sexual differentiation with predisposition to developing gonadal neoplasms, and nephroblastoma. The authors report five cases with various manifestations of this syndrome. Dysgenetic gonads and abnormal sexual differentiation were present in all patients; two had unilateral and two bilateral gonadoblastomas; in addition, one of the latter had a juvenile granulosa cell tumor. Renal failure was present in all patients. One patient had bilateral Wilms' tumor, and one patient had a metanephric hamartoma. Each element of the triad in this syndrome is analyzed with regard to possible pathogenetic mechanisms and current models of carcinogenesis. Cases with complete forms of the syndrome reported in the literature are reviewed. Patients with incomplete forms of the syndrome must be followed carefully because other elements of this complex may become manifest.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987F723800015

    View details for PubMedID 3028928

  • FARBERS DISEASE - A FINE-STRUCTURAL STUDY ULTRASTRUCTURAL PATHOLOGY ABENOZA, P., Sibley, R. K. 1987; 11 (4): 397-403

    Abstract

    A 1-week-old baby boy presented with hepatosplenomegaly, coarse facial features, and cloudy corneas. A metabolic storage disease was considered and he underwent cutaneous and liver biopsy. By light microscopy the skin was normal. Kupffer cells were enlarged and had foamy cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination of skin and liver demonstrated features compatible with Farber's disease: curvilinear and "banana" bodies, zebra-like structures, and concentric lamellar bodies. A deficiency of lysosomal acid ceramidase was subsequently demonstrated in cultured fibroblasts and in liver tissue corroborating the ultrastructural findings.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J184600003

    View details for PubMedID 3113021

  • Hyperacute rejection of a human orthotopic liver allograft in a presensitized recipient. Clin Transplantation Hanto DW, Snover DC, Noreen HJ, Sibley RK, Gajl-Peczalska KJ, Simmons RL, Najarian JS, Ascher NL 1987; 1: 304-310
  • Granular cell myoma and schwannoma: fine structural and immunohistochemical study. Ultrastructural pathology ABENOZA, P., Sibley, R. K. 1987; 11 (1): 19-28

    Abstract

    We present the histological, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical findings of two granular cell tumors of different histogenesis: a mediastinal granular cell schwannoma, and an uterine granular cell leiomyoma. Ultrastructurally the mediastinal tumor showed granular cell changes of the Schwann cells which were reactive for S-100 protein and Leu 7 antigen, but not for actin, desmin, CEA, EMA, or cytokeratin. Ultrastructural study of the uterine lesion demonstrated smooth muscle cells with only a few "autophagic" facuoles to cells nearly replaced by lysosomes. Immunohistochemically this tumor showed reactivity for actin, desmin, and Leu 7 antigen, but was S-100 protein, CEA, EMA, and cytokeratin negative.

    View details for PubMedID 3824563

  • Metastasizing chordoma in early childhood: a pathological and immunohistochemical study with review of the literature. Pediatric pathology Sibley, R. K., Day, D. L., DEHNER, L. P., Trueworthy, R. C. 1987; 7 (3): 287-301

    Abstract

    A 2 1/2-year-old female with a sphenooccipital-vertebral chordoma presented with neck pain, torticollis, fever, a lytic lesion of C2 vertebra, and bilateral nodular infiltrates in the lung. The lung biopsy revealed multiple tumor emboli by an enigmatic epithelioid-appearing neoplasm with immunohistochemical staining for vimentin, cytokeratin, and epithelial membrane antigen. A thorough roentgenographic evaluation disclosed a destructive, prepontine mass in the region of the clivus, erosion of the odontoid process, and compression of the cervical spinal cord. The patient died after a clinical course of 3 months. We identified 16 additional cases of metastasizing chordomas in the pediatric-age population; this case is the first to our knowledge with pathologically documented pulmonary metastasis at presentation.

    View details for PubMedID 3684809

  • DUODENAL GANGLIOCYTIC PARAGANGLIOMAS - A STUDY OF 10 CASES WITH IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL NEUROENDOCRINE MARKERS HUMAN PATHOLOGY Hamid, Q. A., Bishop, A. E., Rode, J., Dhillon, A. P., ROSENBERG, B. F., Reed, R. J., Sibley, R. K., Polak, J. M. 1986; 17 (11): 1151-1157

    Abstract

    Ten cases of duodenal paraganglioma were studied by conventional histologic and immunocytochemical techniques at both light and electron microscopic levels. Histologically, mixtures of epithelial, ganglion, and spindle cells were seen. In all of the cases immunoreactivity for neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 was seen in each component. Pancreatic polypeptide immunoreactivity was detected in eight cases, mainly in epithelial cells. Somatostatin immunoreactivity was present in epithelial and ganglion cells in nine cases. In seven cases immunoreactivity for neurofilaments, a marker for neurons, was seen in ganglion and spindle cells. However, immunoreactivity for chromogranin, a protein found in endocrine storage granules, was found in only two cases, and the staining was confined to well-granulated epithelial cells. The spindle cells were immunostained only for neuronal markers, NSE and neurofilaments, and the glial marker S-100 protein.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E829100010

    View details for PubMedID 3533754

  • ADENOCARCINOMA WITH NEUROENDOCRINE DIFFERENTIATION OF THE URINARY-BLADDER - CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL, IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL, AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL-STUDY ARCHIVES OF PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE ABENOZA, P., MANIVEL, C., Sibley, R. K. 1986; 110 (11): 1062-1066

    Abstract

    We describe a primary mixed adenocarcinoma-neuroendocrine carcinoma of the urinary bladder of probable urachal origin. Neuroendocrine differentiation was confirmed by ultrastructural (neurosecretory granules) and immunohistochemical studies (chromogranin and neuron-specific enolase). Two local recurrences and multiple metastases consisted exclusively of the neuroendocrine component. The patient died 30 months after diagnosis with widely metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E615300019

    View details for PubMedID 3778122

  • PEANUT LECTIN BINDING IN BREAST-CARCINOMA - LACK OF CORRELATION WITH ESTROGEN-RECEPTOR CONTENT CANCER Stanley, M. W., Kiang, D. T., Sibley, R. K. 1986; 58 (9): 2046-2051

    Abstract

    Previous reports have shown binding of peanut agglutinin (PNA) by immunoperoxidase techniques in normal, benign proliferative, and malignant breast epithelia. Correlation of binding with maturity, secretory activity, hormonal milieu, and tissue hormone receptor content has been described. To investigate the relationship between PNA staining by the avidin-biotin complex technique and estrogen receptor (ER) content, 79 breast tumors of different types and known tissue ER content were studied. Thirty-eight of 50 ER-positive cases were PNA-positive. Twenty of 29 ER-negative cases were PNA-positive. Statistical analysis shows the two factors to be independent (0.5 less than P less than 0.9). The literature on blood group antigens in breast carcinoma and histochemical applications of PNA is reviewed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E493900014

    View details for PubMedID 2428465

  • PRIMARY NEUROENDOCRINE CARCINOMA AND SMALL-CELL MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMA OF THE SKIN - A DISCRIMINANT IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL COMPARISON JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY WICK, M. R., Kaye, V. N., Sibley, R. K., Tyler, R., Frizzera, G. 1986; 13 (5): 347-358

    Abstract

    In selected instances, primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (PCNEC) and small-cell malignant lymphoma (SCML) of the skin may display similar clinical presentations and microscopic appearances, leading to diagnostic uncertainty. We applied monoclonal antibodies to epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), Ia antigen, and leukocyte common antigen (LCA) to 31 cases of PCNEC and 12 of small-cell lymphoma cutis, using a combined PAP and ABC procedure, to determine whether or not such stains were capable of separating the two neoplasms. All cases of SCML were reactive for LCA, while this determinants was not seen in any example of PCNEC. Anti-Ia antigen labelled 11 of 12 cases of SCML, and also failed to stain neuroendocrine carcinomas. Lastly, EMA was observed in 25 of 31 cases of PCNEC, but it was found in one lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma as well. Bayes' univariate statistical analysis of these data indicates that anti-LCA, anti-EMA, and anti-Ia antigen are capable of discriminating between the tumors in question, with anti-LCA being the most effective.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E917000004

    View details for PubMedID 2946733

  • NEUROENDOCRINE DIFFERENTIATION IN MULLERIAN NEOPLASMS - AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF A PURE ENDOMETRIAL SMALL-CELL CARCINOMA AND A MIXED MULLERIAN TUMOR CONTAINING SMALL-CELL CARCINOMA AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY MANIVEL, C., WICK, M. R., Sibley, R. K. 1986; 86 (4): 438-443

    Abstract

    Two neoplasms of the endometrium exhibiting histologic features of small cell carcinoma (SCC) were studied immunohistochemically for the presence of antigens indicative of neuroendocrine differentiation. The first case, a pure SCC, was positive for neuron-specific enolase (NSE), Leu-7, and chromogranin. The second case, a mixed müllerian tumor, had an extensive SCC component; the latter element was reactive for NSE and Leu-7. The first patient has had an unexpectedly long survival, while the second patient died with multiple distant metastases, containing only SCC.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E374000004

    View details for PubMedID 3020961

  • ANALYSIS OF FIXATION EFFECTS ON IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF PROSTATIC SPECIFIC ANTIGEN IN HUMAN-PROSTATE JOURNAL OF UROLOGY Sinha, A. A., Hagen, K. A., Sibley, R. K., Wilson, M. J., Limas, C., Reddy, P. K., BLACKARD, C. E., Gleason, D. F. 1986; 136 (3): 722-727

    Abstract

    We studied human prostatic specific antigen (PSA) localization in human prostate to investigate the possibility that the previously reported variations in the intensity of antigen staining were due to fixation and embedding methods. We have evaluated the effects of physical and several chemical fixatives on prostate samples obtained immediately after prostatectomies and radical cystectomies. Our analysis of fixation effects and immunohistochemical staining of polyclonal antibody to PSA indicates that the formalin fixation and paraffin embedding methods used previously did provide optimum localization of the antigen and the variations in the intensity of PSA staining could not be attributed to the methodology. Although PSA staining was relatively uniform in the lower grade neoplastic tumors, the higher grade, moderately to poorly differentiated tumors showed intense-through-weak PSA localization or no PSA staining suggesting that PSA staining intensity was not uniformly related to tumor differentiation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D791800054

    View details for PubMedID 2426478

  • CARDIAC MYXOMA WITH GLANDLIKE STRUCTURES - AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY ARCHIVES OF PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE ABENOZA, P., Sibley, R. K. 1986; 110 (8): 736-739

    Abstract

    We report the case of a 14-year-old girl with a left atrial myxoma associated with atrial septal defect. Histopathologically, glandular structures were found at the base of the tumor. Immunohistochemical examination of the tumor revealed positive staining of the glands with cytokeratin, epithelial membrane antigen, and carcinoembryonic antigen. The positive staining for epithelial markers suggests that these structures are epithelial and could represent either endodermal heterotopia or multipotential mesoderm retaining the capacity for epithelial expression. The glands should not be confused with metastatic mucin-producing adenocarcinoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D364000017

    View details for PubMedID 3524507

  • RECURRENCE OF HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME IN RENAL-TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Hebert, D., Sibley, R. K., Mauer, S. M. 1986: S51-S58

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C995900011

    View details for PubMedID 3528626

  • RECURRENCE OF FOCAL SEGMENTAL SCLEROSIS IN CHILDREN FOLLOWING RENAL-TRANSPLANTATION KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Striegel, J. E., Sibley, R. K., FRYD, D. S., Mauer, S. M. 1986: S44-S50

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C995900010

    View details for PubMedID 3528625

  • CHORDOMA - AN IMMUNOHISTOLOGIC STUDY HUMAN PATHOLOGY ABENOZA, P., Sibley, R. K. 1986; 17 (7): 744-747

    Abstract

    Fourteen chordomas, five myxoid chondrosarcomas, and 15 chondroid tumors (four mesenchymal and 11 conventional chondrosarcomas) were stained for cytokeratin, S-100 protein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and vimentin. The epithelial markers stained 93 per cent of the chordomas, whereas none of the tumors of other types showed any staining. Sixty-four per cent of the chordomas, 20 per cent of the myxoid chondrosarcomas, and 87 per cent of the other chondroid tumors were positive for S-100 protein. All of the tumors were positive for vimentin. Three of the 14 chordomas were positive for CEA. The present study confirms the utility of these markers in the differential diagnosis of chordoma and tumors with similar histologic characteristics.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986D118400014

    View details for PubMedID 2424820

  • SUBTOTAL NEPHRECTOMY IN THE RABBIT - A MODEL OF CHRONIC HYPERCALCEMIA, NEPHROLITHIASIS, AND OBSTRUCTIVE NEPHROPATHY JOURNAL OF LABORATORY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE Eddy, A. A., Falk, R. J., Sibley, R. K., Hostetter, T. H. 1986; 107 (6): 508-516

    Abstract

    The association of a critical reduction in renal mass with the subsequent destruction of remaining nephrons has been observed in several species. We studied this process in experimental rabbits after 1 2/3 nephrectomy to define the course and its pathogenesis in this species. Control rabbits underwent sham operative procedures. After renal ablation, rabbits became increasingly cachectic and developed polyuria and hypertension. Despite food intake similar to that of controls (grams per kilogram per day), experimental rabbits developed severe hypercalcemia by 5 to 8 weeks after renal ablation, a change that persisted until death. During the study 17 experimental animals died of uremia 9 to 27 weeks after surgery, and the remaining seven experimental and 25 sham-operated rabbits were sacrificed at 5 to 7 months. At death, 19/24 experimental rabbits had severe obstruction of their collecting systems by concretions of gravel (n = 3) or large calcium carbonate stones (n = 16). Renal biopsy at 4 weeks revealed focal interstitial round cell infiltration progressing by 12 weeks to diffuse tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. Histologic evidence of obstruction was also evident at this time and became extensive on all subsequent examinations. By contrast, the glomeruli remained well preserved without evidence of sclerosis. We speculate that chronic hypercalcemia and, perhaps more significantly, urinary obstruction may have altered intrarenal hemodynamics and prevented the development of progressive sclerosis observed in the rat remnant kidney model. The present study describes an experimental model of chronic hypercalcemia and spontaneous calcium carbonate nephrolithiasis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986C648100005

    View details for PubMedID 3711720

  • LIMB ALLOTRANSPLANTATION IN THE RAT - EXTENDED SURVIVAL AND RETURN OF NERVE FUNCTION WITH CONTINUOUS CYCLOSPORINE PREDNISONE IMMUNOSUPPRESSION ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY PRESS, B. H., Sibley, R. K., Shons, A. R. 1986; 16 (4): 313-321

    Abstract

    We report the variability of the rejection process among the several tissues of a limb allograft. We used a rat hind limb allograft model transplanting across a well-defined minor histocompatibility barrier (Fischer RT-1(1v1)), donor animals, and Lewis (RT-1(1)) recipient animals. Continuous cyclosporin and prednisone immunosuppression was used. Four immunosuppressive regimens all produced extended limb survival. The rejection process was most severe and difficult to control in the skin. Nonskin tissues reverted to a nearly normal appearance after a period of cellular infiltration 2 to 3 weeks posttransplantation. Clinical and electromyographic evidence of nerve regeneration and end-organ reinnervation was demonstrated in long-term surviving animals.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986A844600006

    View details for PubMedID 3273049

  • ENDOMYOCARDIAL BIOPSY IN THE CARDIAC ALLOGRAFT RECIPIENT - A REVIEW OF 570 BIOPSIES ANNALS OF SURGERY Sibley, R. K., Olivari, M. T., Ring, W. S., Bolman, R. M. 1986; 203 (2): 177-187

    Abstract

    The morphologic abnormalities present in 570 endomyocardial biopsies from 39 cardiac allograft recipients and 16 autopsy hearts are described, and criteria pertinent to the diagnosis of rejection discussed. Entirely normal myocardium was apparent in 16% of the biopsies. Abnormalities related to biopsy of previous biopsy site occurred in 69%, and mononuclear infiltrates of varying intensity were present in 64% of the biopsies. Acute rejection was diagnosed in 17 (43.6%) patients in 32 (5.6%) of the biopsies and five hearts at autopsy. Seven of the biopsies with acute rejection were follow-up biopsies after a previous diagnosis of acute rejection and represented ongoing acute rejection. Similarly, three patients with rejection at autopsy died with ongoing rejection. The overall frequency of acute rejection was thus 0.70 episodes per patient. The most reliable histologic feature in the diagnosis of acute rejection in cyclosporine immunosuppressed recipients was a diffuse mononuclear infiltrate, apparent at low magnification. Myocyte necrosis, said to be critical in the diagnosis of rejection in cyclosporine-treated patients, was not a reliable indicator in the authors' experience.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986AZB3200012

    View details for PubMedID 3511868

  • Recurrence of diabetes mellitus in the pancreas transplant: a morphologic study. Pediatric and Adolescent Endocrinology Sibley RK, Sutherland DER, Goetz FC 1986; 15: 390-397
  • Reduction of infectious complications following heart transplantation with triple-drug immunotherapy. journal of heart transplantation ANDREONE, P. A., Olivari, M. T., ELICK, B., ARENTZEN, C. E., Sibley, R. K., Bolman, R. M., SIMMONS, R. L., Ring, W. S. 1986; 5 (1): 13-19

    Abstract

    Infection remains the major cause of mortality and is a significant source of morbidity following heart transplantation. Between March 1978 and March 1986, 62 orthotopic heart transplants were performed at the University of Minnesota. There were 56 clinically significant infectious episodes in 31 of the 58 patients surviving the perioperative period. The era I (1978-1982) experience with antilymphocyte globulin, prednisone, and azathioprine and the era II (1982-1983) experience with high-dose cyclosporine and prednisone were associated with a high incidence of cytomegalovirus and fungal infections. The conversion to low-dose triple-drug immunosuppression with cyclosporine, prednisone, and azathioprine in 1983 (era III) has markedly reduced infectious deaths and altered the spectrum of clinical infection by decreasing serious fungal and cytomegalovirus infections. This protocol has also significantly reduced the incidence of rejection. The reduction of infection and rejection complications with triple-drug immunosuppression has led to improved patient survival of 94% at 1 year and 87% at 2 years.

    View details for PubMedID 3302153

  • Renal histopathology in kidney transplant recipients immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A: results of an international workshop. Clin Nephrol Bergstrand A, Bohman SO, Farnsworth A, Gokel JM, Krause PH, Lang W, Mihatsch MJ, Oppedal B, Sell S, Sibley RK 1985; 24: 107-119
  • IMMUNOTACTOID GLOMERULOPATHY MEDICINE Korbet, S. M., Schwartz, M. M., ROSENBERG, B. F., Sibley, R. K., Lewis, E. J. 1985; 64 (4): 228-243

    Abstract

    We present 11 patients with immunotactoid glomerulopathy, a new syndrome characterized clinically by proteinuria (11/11), microscopic hematuria (9/11) and hypertension (9/11). The patients consisted of six females and five males, aged 25 to 59 years (mean, 44.6). Proteinuria was the presenting feature and the reason for renal biopsy in all patients. The diagnosis of immunotactoid glomerulopathy was established at renal biopsy by the presence of glomerular extracellular microtubules composed of immune reactants. All the biopsies studied by immunofluorescence (10 cases) had glomerular deposits of IgG and C3. In three biopsies studied with IgG subclass specific antisera, only one patient had monoclonal immunoglobulin deposits (IgG3 kappa). In six cases the glomerular deposits were analyzed for light chains. In three the deposits contained kappa only, and three consisted of both kappa and lambda. In two cases the immune aggregates were confined to the mesangium, and in the remaining eight cases, the deposits were present in the mesangium and the glomerular basement membranes. Electron-dense deposits composed of microtubules were present in the same distribution within the glomerulus as the immune reactants. The microtubules had a uniform diameter in each biopsy, but they varied in size from case to case. They were approximately the same size in eight cases (mean, 22.3 +/- 3 [SD] nm). Three cases had much larger microtubules: 34.2 nm, 35.4 nm, and 48.9 nm in diameter. Although the 22.3-nm microtubules resembled amyloid in their appearance, glomerular distribution and random orientation in the tissue, they were more than twice the diameter of amyloid (8.9 nm), and Congo red and thioflavin T stains for amyloid were negative. Similar microtubular structures have been described in patients with cryoglobulinemia, SLE and paraproteinemia, but these diseases were excluded in our patients on clinical, serologic and in some cases histologic grounds. More important, none of our patients had clinical or histochemical evidence of amyloidosis, an entity which may be confused with immunotactoid glomerulopathy on a morphologic basis. Follow-up, from 22 to 94 months (mean, 52.6) was obtained in all 11 patients, and 2 clinical courses were noted. Six patients had progressive deterioration of renal function, with five requiring dialysis. This group had severe hypertension (4/6) and nephrotic-range proteinuria (5/6) at some point in their course. The remaining five patients with stable renal function had proteinuria of less than 2.0 g/24 hr in most cases (4/5), and none had severe hypertension. This dichotomy correlated with the distribution of immunotactoids.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AMN5200003

    View details for PubMedID 4010500

  • Combined kidney and segmental pancreas allotransplantation in dogs. Trans Proc Florack G, Sutherland DER, Sibley RK, Najarian JS 1985; 17: 374-377
  • MORPHOLOGIC FINDINGS IN THE RENAL-ALLOGRAFT BIOPSY SEMINARS IN NEPHROLOGY Sibley, R. K., Payne, W. 1985; 5 (4): 294-306

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AVJ5800007

    View details for PubMedID 3916597

  • RECURRENT DIABETES-MELLITUS IN THE PANCREAS ISOGRAFT AND ALLOGRAFT - A LIGHT AND ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF 4 CASES LABORATORY INVESTIGATION Sibley, R. K., Sutherland, D. E., Goetz, F., MICHAEL, A. F. 1985; 53 (2): 132-144

    Abstract

    Four patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus received segmental pancreatic grafts. The donors were HLA-identical twins in three patients and an HLA-identical sibling in one. Each patient had normal glucose metabolism in the posttransplantation period but impaired graft function developed after 6 to 12 weeks. Complete loss of function developed in three patients. The fourth patient received immunosuppressive therapy but continues to require a low dose of insulin 15 months following transplantation. Pancreatic graft biopsy at the time of declining graft function in three patients revealed a mononuclear cell infiltrate centered upon islets consisting of variable numbers of T11 (pan T), OKT8 (suppressor-killer), OKT9 (transferrin receptor), OKT10 (activated), and HLA-DR-reactive mononuclear cells, as well as 63D3 and OKM1 reactive monocytes. Biopsies obtained following loss of graft function revealed resolution of the inflammatory process and selective destruction of all islet beta-cells in two patients, whereas graft biopsy in one patient demonstrated a mononuclear cell infiltrate in islets containing demonstrable beta-cells but no infiltrate in islets without beta-cells. Following immunosuppressive therapy the fourth patient showed resolution of the insulitis and destruction of beta-cells in 70% of the islets. The variable numbers of beta-cells observed in the remaining islets likely account for the relatively low amount of exogenous insulin required by this patient. There was no immunohistologic evidence of humoral mediated immune reaction in any of the biopsies. It is postulated that selective beta-cell destruction was a consequence of cell-mediated immunity leading to recurrent diabetes mellitus.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ANZ6000003

    View details for PubMedID 3894793

  • SECONDARY NEURO-ENDOCRINE CARCINOMAS OF THE SKIN JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF DERMATOLOGY WICK, M. R., Millns, J. L., Sibley, R. K., PITTELKOW, M. R., Winkelmann, R. K. 1985; 13 (1): 134-142

    Abstract

    Since the initial clinical presentation of visceral neuroendocrine carcinoma is occasionally a cutaneous metastasis, diagnostic confusion with primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin (Merkel cell carcinoma) may ensue. In this study, seven cases of secondary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma were immunohistochemically compared with twenty-one Merkel cell carcinomas for ten antigenic moieties that have been associated with endocrine tumors. Six of seven secondary tumors stained for bombesin, leucine enkephalin, methionine enkephalin, or beta-endorphin, none of which was detected in the primary cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinomas. These data suggest that immunohistochemical study may be useful in separating primary from secondary neuroendocrine tumors of the skin and may assist in directing clinical attention to the most probable site of visceral neoplasia.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ALL5100020

    View details for PubMedID 3161911

  • ROSETTE FORMATION IN MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMA AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Frizzera, G., GAJLPECZALSKA, K., Sibley, R. K., Rosai, J., Cherwitz, D., Hurd, D. D. 1985; 119 (3): 351-356

    Abstract

    Lymph node biopsies in a patient with follicular lymphoma showed rosette structures as seen in neuroepithelial neoplasms. These specimens were studied by histologic, immunoperoxidase (for immunoglobulins, intermediate filaments (IF), actin and neuron-specific enolase), immunofluorescence (for immunoglobulins, and with a panel of monoclonal antibodies), and electron-microscopic examination. The rosettes were formed by neoplastic lymphocytes arranged around eosinophilic fibrillary material. Ultrastructurally, this was composed of cytoplasmic processes, projecting from the lymphocytes and containing thin and intermediate filaments. Immunohistochemically, it stained for monoclonal IgM lambda, all other antigens present on the neoplastic cells, and weakly for vimentin and actin. Based on recent information about lymphocyte surface changes, it is speculated that the rosettes might represent an aggregation of neoplastic lymphocytes activated by a microenvironmental stimulus, perhaps antigen-antibody binding at the cell membrane. The practical implication of this hitherto unreported finding is that the presence of rosettes cannot be used to rule out a lymphoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AKL3400001

    View details for PubMedID 2409804

  • INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS ASSOCIATED WITH CYTOMEGALO-VIRUS INFECTION KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Platt, J. L., Sibley, R. K., MICHAEL, A. F. 1985; 28 (3): 550-552

    Abstract

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection may cause impairment of renal graft function and glomerular and interstitial injury. Whether renal lesions are the consequence of infection or of decreased graft tolerance is uncertain. We studied autogenous renal tissues obtained from two infants with CMV infection. Light and electron microscopy revealed interstitial nephritis, but not glomerulopathy. Analysis of frozen tissues using monoclonal antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence demonstrated that most infiltrating cells were T cells (OKT3+), the majority of which reacted with OKT8. In contrast, tissues obtained from one individual prior to CMV infection, from individuals with end-stage kidney disease, and from normal renal donors revealed either balanced proportions of OKT4+ and OKT8+ cells or a preponderance of the former. Thus, CMV infection may be associated with interstitial nephritis involving a characteristic subpopulation of T cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ASA1200015

    View details for PubMedID 2999499

  • PRIMARY NEURO-ENDOCRINE (MERKEL CELL) CARCINOMA OF THE SKIN .1. A CLINICOPATHOLOGIC AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL-STUDY OF 43 CASES AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Sibley, R. K., DEHNER, L. P., Rosai, J. 1985; 9 (2): 95-108

    Abstract

    The clinical and pathologic features of 43 cases of primary neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin are reported. These tumors arise in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues of elderly individuals. The head and neck are the most common primary sites followed by the lower and upper extremities and trunk. Characteristic histologic features include round cells with scanty amphophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei with multiple small nucleoli. The cells are arranged in sheets, solid nests, or anastomosing trabeculae. Collections of perinuclear intermediate filaments, cytoplasmic dense-core membrane-bound secretory granules, complex intercellular junctions, and cytoplasmic spinous processes are the principal fine structural features. These ultrastructural findings are similar to those of the normal cutaneous Merkel cell. The natural history of this neoplasm is characterized by local recurrence in 30% of cases, regional lymph node metastases in 65% of cases, and distant metastases in 40%. One-third of the patients were dead because of their tumors. Treatment of extensive local or distant metastatic disease with chemotherapy or radiotherapy resulted in only short-term palliative response.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ADE4600003

    View details for PubMedID 2579594

  • PRIMARY NEURO-ENDOCRINE (MERKEL CELL) CARCINOMA OF THE SKIN .2. AN IMMUNOCYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF 21 CASES AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Sibley, R. K., DAHL, D. 1985; 9 (2): 109-116

    Abstract

    Twenty-one examples of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin were examined by the unlabeled antibody enzyme method for several neural hormones and peptides, carcinoembryonic antigen, S-100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, and three intermediate filaments: neurofilament, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and cytokeratin. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide from two sources reacted with the neoplastic cells of four (18%) and seven (32%) of the cases, and pancreatic polypeptide reacted with scattered cells of one case. Neuron-specific enolase reactivity occurred in 50% of the cases. Neurofilament (70, 150, 200 kilodaltons) was strongly positive in 40% of the tumors whereas neurofilament (200 kilodaltons) was negative. Two monoclonal anticytokeratin antibodies of 54 kilodaltons and 44-54 kilodaltons reacted in 77% and 64% of the cases, respectively, in a distribution similar to the neurofilament. Sections reacted with antisera against cytokeratins of higher molecular weight were negative. The demonstration of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, pancreatic polypeptide, neurofilament, and neuron-specific enolase is evidence of the neuroendocrine nature of this neoplasm.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ADE4600004

    View details for PubMedID 2579592

  • CLEAR CELL-CHANGE IN PRIMARY THYROID-TUMORS - A STUDY OF 38 CASES AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Carcangiu, M. L., Sibley, R. K., Rosai, J. 1985; 9 (10): 705-722

    Abstract

    Thirty-eight primary thyroid neoplasms with extensive (greater than or equal to 50%) clear cell changes were studied. These were divided into four categories: 1) Hürthle cell tumors, 10 cases; 2) follicular tumors, 17 cases (two of them having a signet-ring or lipoblast-like appearance); 3) papillary carcinomas, seven cases; and 4) undifferentiated carcinomas, four cases. These were compared with eight cases of renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid. Factors resulting in the cytoplasmic clear cell changes were: 1) formation of medium-sized vesicles, many of apparent mitochondrial derivation; 2) accumulation of glycogen (with or without accompanying fat); and 3) deposition of intracellular thyroglobulin. Vesicle formation was the most common cause of clear cell change in Hürthle cell and follicular tumors; glycogen accumulation in papillary, undifferentiated, and metastatic tumors; and thyroglobulin deposition in the subgroup of follicular tumors with a signet-ring or lipoblast-like appearance. However, several exceptions were noted. The results of this study refute the commonly held belief that all thyroid tumors containing clear cells are malignant, and do not support the concept of "clear cell carcinoma" of the thyroid as a specific microscopic entity. We believe that the natural history of thyroid tumors containing clear cells is more dependent on their basic cytoarchitectural features than on the presence, amount, or type of clear cells, and we suggest for these tumors to be evaluated for carcinoma by using standard morphologic criteria for their respective types. The importance of thyroglobulin staining for the differential diagnosis with metastatic renal cell carcinoma is emphasized, but the pitfalls inherent to this technique are also pointed out.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AUD9900002

    View details for PubMedID 4061729

  • A CLINICOPATHOLOGIC STUDY OF 48 INFANTS WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Sibley, R. K., Mahan, J., Mauer, S. M., Vernier, R. L. 1985; 27 (3): 544-552

    Abstract

    The clinical and histopathologic features of 48 children presenting with the nephrotic syndrome during the first year of life were analyzed. Proteinuria was discovered soon after birth to 3 months of age in 39 infants (congenital nephrotic syndrome), and nine infants had an infantile onset presenting between 4 and 12 months of age. Neither histologic parameters--microglomeruli, epithelial, or mesangial proliferation, focal segmental or global sclerosis, fibrinoid necrosis, or tubular microcysts--nor histologic classification--microcystic disease, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, focal segmental glomerular sclerosis/hyalinosis-predicted the outcome. Rather, age at presentation was found to predict outcome: One of 39 infants with a congenital onset and seven of nine infants with an infantile onset underwent a complete remission (P less than 0.0001).

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AFW7800009

    View details for PubMedID 3999542

  • HEREDITARY RENAL-DISEASE AND PREAURICULAR PITS - REPORT OF A KINDRED JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Lachiewicz, A. M., Sibley, R., MICHAEL, A. F. 1985; 106 (6): 948-950

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AKC8000022

    View details for PubMedID 3998953

  • DUODENAL GANGLIOCYTIC PARAGANGLIOMA - AN IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL-STUDY AND A HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING ITS ORIGIN AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Perrone, T., Sibley, R. K., Rosai, J. 1985; 9 (1): 31-41

    Abstract

    We report the immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of three duodenal gangliocytic paragangliomas and compare them with duodenal carcinoid, extra-adrenal paraganglioma, pheochromocytoma, and ganglioneuroma. The gangliocytic paraganglioma is characterized by polygonal or columnar epithelial cells, ganglion cells, and spindle cells. The epithelial cells stained for neurofilament, neuron-specific enolase, pancreatic polypeptide, and somatostatin in three cases; leu-enkephalin, molluskan cardioexcitatory peptide, and vasoactive intestinal peptide in two; and glucagon and insulin in one case each. The ganglion cells were positive for leu-enkephalin, neurofilament, neuron-specific enolase, pancreatic polypeptide, and somatostatin in three cases, and glucagon in one. The spindle cells stained for neurofilament, neuron-specific enolase, and S-100 protein. Although there was some overlap in immunoreactivity between the gangliocytic paraganglioma and the other tumors examined, our data indicate that the gangliocytic paraganglioma is a distinctive lesion. We propose that it is a hyperplastic or neoplastic proliferation of 1) endodermally derived epithelial cells originating from the ventral primordium of the pancreas, 2) neuroectodermal ganglion cells, and 3) neuroectodermal spindle cells (Schwann cells).

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ABE9400004

    View details for PubMedID 2578747

  • RENAL TOXICITY OF MITOMYCIN-C AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY-CANCER CLINICAL TRIALS Ravikumar, T. S., Sibley, R., Reed, K., GRAGE, T. B. 1984; 7 (3): 279-285

    Abstract

    The clinical spectrum and the pathological findings of renal toxicity in four patients treated with mitomycin-C are described. Our experience and evidence in the literature indicates that the renal impairment appears to be total-dose-related, with most patients developing renal symptoms after receiving at least 60 mg of mitomycin-C. The renal morphologic changes reveal a glomerular and vascular process similar to that seen in a number of clinical situations associated with the hematologic findings of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. In patients with malignant disease, it may be that the use of mitomycin-C either alone or in combination with other drugs causes endothelial vascular damage with resultant activation of the coagulation system. There is evidence that early detection of the renal impairment and withdrawal of mitomycin-C might halt further progression of renal failure.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SS81200016

    View details for PubMedID 6428215

  • ORTHOTOPIC LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION - A PATHOLOGICAL-STUDY OF 63 SERIAL LIVER BIOPSIES FROM 17 PATIENTS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES AND NATURAL-HISTORY OF REJECTION HEPATOLOGY Snover, D. C., Sibley, R. K., Freese, D. K., Sharp, H. L., Bloomer, J. R., Najarian, J. S., Ascher, N. L. 1984; 4 (6): 1212-1222

    Abstract

    The histopathological features of orthotopic liver transplants were evaluated in 63 serial biopsy specimens from 17 patients. Biopsies were taken at the time of insertion of the liver (six biopsies), at the time of development of liver function abnormalities (11 biopsies) and as follow-up to previously abnormal biopsies (46 biopsies). The biopsies taken at the time of insertion all showed diffuse hepatocellular ballooning with confluent areas of necrosis in one case. Biopsies taken at the time of onset of rejection (nine cases) all showed a mixed portal inflammatory infiltrate, bile duct damage and central or portal vein endothelialitis (i.e., attachment of lymphocytes to the vein endothelium). Follow-up biopsies showed several patterns including: (i) resolution of changes of acute rejection with subsequent development of recurrent acute or chronic rejection (four cases); (ii) prolonged acute rejection simulating extrahepatic biliary obstruction (four cases); (iii) prolonged acute rejection with predominance of eosinophils simulating a drug reaction (one case); and (iv) rapidly progressive acute rejection leading to death (one case). Biopsy of the transplanted liver at the time of transplantation is useful to provide a baseline for comparison with later biopsies. Biopsy at the time of onset of changes in liver function is essential to confirm the presence of rejection prior to alteration of immunosuppression.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TW48500020

    View details for PubMedID 6094331

  • FIBROCHONDROGENESIS - LETHAL, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE CHONDRODYSPLASIA WITH DISTINCTIVE CARTILAGE HISTOPATHOLOGY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS Whitley, C. B., Langer, L. O., OPHOVEN, J., GILBERT, E. F., Gonzalez, C. H., Mammel, M., Coleman, M., Rosemberg, S., RODRIQUES, C. J., Sibley, R., Horton, W. A., Opitz, J. M., Gorlin, R. J. 1984; 19 (2): 265-275

    Abstract

    Fibrochondrogenesis is a rare, neonatally lethal rhizomelic chondrodysplasia distinguished from other forms of lethal dwarfism by broad long-bone metaphyses, pear-shaped vertebral bodies, and by microscopic changes of cartilage with unique interwoven fibrous septa and fibroblastic dysplasia of chondrocytes. We report the second and third well-documented cases of this apparently autosomal recessive disorder and discuss the differential diagnosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TQ13100008

    View details for PubMedID 6507478

  • NO EVIDENCE FOR A SPECIFIC ROLE OF IGM IN MESANGIAL PROLIFERATION OF IDIOPATHIC NEPHROTIC SYNDROME KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Yang, J. Y., Melvin, T., Sibley, R., MICHAEL, A. F. 1984; 25 (1): 100-106

    Abstract

    To define the relationship of mesangial IgM to various morphologic categories of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS), an analysis of 100 patients was carried out in which five morphologic subgroups were evaluated: group 1, minimal glomerular change (38 patients); group 2, minimal change with focal global sclerosis (18 patients); group 3, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis ( FSG ) (23 patients); group 4, mesangial proliferation (12 patients); group 5, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis with mesangial proliferation (9 patients). Immunohistochemical studies failed to demonstrate any differences between these five groups. The intensities of immunofluorescence and the percentage of tissue samples demonstrating IgM and/or C3 in the glomerular mesangium and subendothelial regions were similar. In addition, the presence or intensity of mesangial IgM did not predict the patients' current status or responsiveness to steroid therapy. Morphologic transitions were observed in patients who had more than one biopsy: one of five in group 2 and two of eight in group 3 developed mesangial proliferation; and nine of ten patients with mesangial proliferation in the first biopsy continued to show this finding in the second. In general, a complete response to steroid therapy and a favorable outcome is less likely in patients with this morphologic abnormality. In nine of the 27 repeat biopsies, there was lack of agreement between the first and second tissue samples with respect to the presence or absence of mesangial IgM. Although mesangial proliferation is a consistent feature of the morphology of certain patients with INS, these studies do not support a unique association with mesangial IgM.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SE65700014

    View details for PubMedID 6727121

  • BONE-MARROW TRANSPLANTATION IN THE MAROTEAUX-LAMY SYNDROME (MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS TYPE-VI) - BIOCHEMICAL AND CLINICAL STATUS 24 MONTHS AFTER TRANSPLANTATION NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Krivit, W., Pierpont, M. E., Ayaz, K., Tsai, M., Ramsay, N. K., Kersey, J. H., Weisdorf, S., Sibley, R., Snover, D., McGovern, M. M., Schwartz, M. F., Desnick, R. J. 1984; 311 (25): 1606-1611

    Abstract

    A 13-year-old girl with the severe form of the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI, arylsulfatase B deficiency) has had successful reconstitution with bone marrow from her HLA-MLC-matched sister who had normal arylsulfatase B activity. Full engraftment has been present for 24 months. The following biochemical and clinical changes have occurred: arylsulfatase B activity in peripheral lymphocytes and granulocytes increased to normal levels, and the activity in serial liver-biopsy specimens increased from about 3 per cent of the mean normal level 43 days after transplantation to about 16 per cent at 600 days. Urinary excretion of acid mucopolysaccharide decreased. Ultrastructural evidence of accumulated dermatan sulfate was no longer detectable in bone-marrow cells; in peripheral-blood lymphocytes, granulocytes, or platelets; or in Ito cells of liver. Twenty-four months after engraftment, hepatosplenomegaly was substantially decreased and cardiopulmonary function was normal. Visual acuity and joint mobility were also improved. The patient returned to school and continued to perform well in academic studies. Thus, bone-marrow transplantation provided a source of enzymatically normal cells, which have altered the metabolic and clinical course of the disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TW74000004

    View details for PubMedID 6150438

  • RENAL-ALLOGRAFT FAILURE DUE TO RECURRENT DENSE INTRAMEMBRANOUS DEPOSIT DISEASE CLINICAL NEPHROLOGY Eddy, A., Sibley, R., Mauer, S. M., Kim, Y. 1984; 21 (6): 305-313

    Abstract

    Dense intramembranous deposit disease (DIDD) almost universally recurs in renal allografts. However, the 29 previously reported cases suggest that recurrent DIDD rarely results in graft failure. We studied the clinical course and renal histology of the 6 patients with DIDD who have received renal allografts here since 1967. All patients had characteristic findings of DIDD in their native kidneys by light, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Seven grafts in 4 patients failed and histological evaluation showed that 5 of these allografts in 4 patients were lost due to recurrent disease. They all demonstrated marked mesangial proliferation with crescents but minimal acute interstitial or vascular changes of rejection. Patients with graft failure due to recurrent disease were male and developed recurrent nephrotic syndrome. The 2 patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) in their native kidneys lost the transplanted kidney due to recurrent disease within 1 year. This study suggests that recurrence of DIDD in renal allografts is a more serious problem than previously appreciated, especially in patients with RPGN.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SY77700001

    View details for PubMedID 6380848

  • CONGENITAL NEPHROTIC SYNDROME - EVOLUTION OF MEDICAL-MANAGEMENT AND RESULTS OF RENAL-TRANSPLANTATION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Mahan, J. D., Mauer, S. M., Sibley, R. K., Vernier, R. L. 1984; 105 (4): 549-557

    Abstract

    We analyzed the clinical course, pathologic findings, and results of aggressive medical management and renal transplantation in 41 infants with onset of nephrotic syndrome in the first 3 months of life. All but one infant with congenital onset failed to thrive and had progressive renal insufficiency; 17 were given steroids or cytotoxic drugs or both, without benefit. Severe bacterial infections occurred in 85% of the infants, pyloric stenosis in 12%, gastroesophageal reflux in 8%, and thrombotic events in 10%. All children prior to the era of renal transplantation died before 4 years of age. The last 24 infants received aggressive medical management, which allowed renal transplantation in 17. Two-year patient and graft survival rates were 82% and 71%, respectively. There was no recurrence of the nephrotic syndrome in the children who underwent transplantation. All but one surviving infants has had normal or accelerated growth, although mean height for the group is 3.1 SD below the mean. School and social performance has been normal in 80%. Thus intensive medical therapy combined with renal transplantation offers a very good opportunity for survival with an acceptable quality of life for infants with congenital nephrotic syndrome.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TM01000006

    View details for PubMedID 6384451

  • TWIN-TO-TWIN PANCREAS TRANSPLANTATION - REVERSAL AND REENACTMENT OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF TYPE-I DIABETES TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASSOCIATION OF AMERICAN PHYSICIANS Sutherland, D. E., Sibley, R., Xu, X. Z., Michael, A., Srikanta, S., Taub, F., Najarian, J., Goetz, F. C. 1984; 97: 80-87

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984AHS6200031

    View details for PubMedID 6398950

  • Cyclosporine toxicity in a canine model: Clinical, histologic and immunologic studies Trans Proc Aeder MI, Sutherland DER, Bowers LD, Sibley RK, Brady AMA, Rable ML, Heil JE, Najarian JS 1984; 15: 1632-1633
  • TRANS-LUMINAL ANGIOPLASTY EVALUATED BY ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY RADIOLOGY Zollikofer, C. L., Salomonowitz, E., Sibley, R., Chain, J., BRUEHLMANN, W. F., CASTANEDAZUNIGA, W. R., Amplatz, K. 1984; 153 (2): 369-374

    Abstract

    To gain more understanding about the changes that follow balloon angioplasty, an electron and light microscopic study was carried out in normal canine arteries. Thirty-five arterial segments were dilated with balloon catheters. Early changes consisted of denudation of the intima with widespread necrosis of myocytes and dehiscence of collagen fibers. After three days, myocytes had disappeared leaving empty spaces and edematous ground substance. After two weeks, reendothelization occurred and there was evidence of intimal hyperplasia persisting up to two months. Repair of the dilated arterial segments occurred by proliferation of myocytes, formation of intima, and proliferation of collagen. In two to three months, repair of the intima and media was completed. After six months, dilated segments were characterized by persistent intimal hyperplasia and increased collagen content in the media.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984TN69000016

    View details for PubMedID 6237385

  • THE PATHOLOGIC BASIS OF ANGIOPLASTY ANGIOLOGY CASTANEDAZUNIGA, W. R., Sibley, R., Amplatz, K. 1984; 35 (4): 195-205

    Abstract

    Traditionally it has been said that transluminal angioplasty increases lumen diameter by compression and remodeling of atheromatous material. Recently, a new concept explaining the mechanics of angioplasty was described which challenges the classic concept of Dotter. It was argued that arterial balloon dilatation is achieved by intimal disruption and overstretching of the arterial wall, not by remodeling of atheromatous material.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SN47100001

    View details for PubMedID 6231867

  • DENSE INTRAMEMBRANOUS DEPOSIT DISEASE - NEW PATHOLOGIC FEATURES KIDNEY INTERNATIONAL Sibley, R. K., Kim, Y. 1984; 25 (4): 660-670

    Abstract

    The pathologic and clinical features of 16 patients with dense intramembranous deposit disease are described. By light microscopy nine patients had membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, five had focal segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis with segmental epithelial crescents, four of whom also had a prominent tubulointerstitial nephritis, and two had focal segmental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis. The patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and one with focal segmental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis had easily recognizable dense intramembranous deposits by optical microscopy. The patients with focal segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis and one with focal segmental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis did not have recognizable peripheral loop dense intramembranous deposits even under oil immersion. In patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis ultrastructural examination revealed extensive capillary wall dense intramembranous deposits. Immunofluorescence revealed diffuse double linear staining along the capillary walls and "mesangial rings" of C3. In the patients with focal segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis and one with focal segmental mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis the immunofluorescence study suggested a diagnosis of dense intramembranous deposit disease because of the segmental double linear staining of the capillary walls and "mesangial rings" of C3, but the diagnosis was only established by fine structural analysis where occasional peripheral loop and prominent paramesangial basement membrane dense intramembranous deposits and mesangial nodular deposits were identified. Clinical features prior to biopsy included nephrotic syndrome in eight patients, an acute nephritic syndrome in six patients, and asymptomatic proteinuria and hematuria in two patients. Five of six patients with an acute nephritic presentation had focal segmental necrotizing glomerulonephritis. The acute renal insufficiency in these patients was transitory and appeared to be related to a prominent acute tubulointerstitial nephritis present in four of the biopsy specimens. Depressed serum C3 levels were present in patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis; patients with focal segmental lesions were normocomplementemic. Because of the "atypical" light microscopic features in six of our patients, we support the suggestion that membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, type II be replaced by the term 'dense intramembranous deposit disease' for this glomerulopathy with variable clinical and histologic features.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SX74700010

    View details for PubMedID 6482170

  • EARLY HISTOPATHOLOGIC CHANGES IN EXPERIMENTALLY REPLANTED EXTREMITIES JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME PRESS, B. H., Sibley, R. K., Shons, A. R. 1983; 8 (5): 549-552

    Abstract

    Early serial histologic changes in replanted extremities have not been well defined; their contribution to a suboptimal functional result is unknown. With the use of a rat hind limb replantation model to address this question, we studied tissues of the replanted legs by light microscopy from 1 to 60 days after replantation. Although early lesions were consistent with ischemic injury, the chronic preparations were remarkably normal, and the lesions were more consistent with denervation. Poor function in clinical replantations may be a reflection of more pronounced versions of these pathologic lesions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983RK51400006

    View details for PubMedID 6605374

  • Modification of experimental limb allograft rejection with cyclosporine and prednisone: A preliminary report. Trans Proc Press BJH, Sibley RK, Shons AR 1983; 15: 3057-3062
  • Morphology of cyclosporine nephrotoxicity and of rejection in cyclosporine-prednisone immunosuppressed renal allograft recipients Trans Proc Sibley RK, Ferguson RM, Sutherland DER, Simmons RL, Najarian JS 1983; 15: 2836-2841
  • MORPHOLOGY OF CYCLOSPORINE NEPHROTOXICITY AND ACUTE REJECTION IN PATIENTS IMMUNOSUPPRESSED WITH CYCLOSPORINE AND PREDNISONE SURGERY Sibley, R. K., RYNASIEWICZ, J., Ferguson, R. M., FRYD, D., Sutherland, D. E., SIMMONS, R. L., Najarian, J. S. 1983; 94 (2): 225-234

    Abstract

    Cyclosporine nephrotoxicity is a common and usually reversible cause of renal insufficiency in the renal allograft recipient. We examined 132 renal biopsy specimens of 54 patients with elevated serum creatinine concentrations in the posttransplant period in an attempt to characterize histologic features that would identify patients with cyclosporine nephrotoxicity as opposed to those with acute rejection. Nine histologic parameters were examined--vasculitis, interstitial edema, distribution and intensity of mononuclear cell interstitial infiltrate, mononuclear cell exudation within glomerular capillaries ("glomerulitis"), tubular ectasia, tubular necrosis, exudation of mononuclear cells within tubular epithelial cells ("tubulitis"), and the ratio of mononuclear cells in interstitial tissues and in the peritubular capillaries (I/C ratio). A clinical response to an increased dose of steroids or a reduced dose of cyclosporine was correlated with the histologic picture. Tubulo-interstitial nephritis was identified in all but one patient with cyclosporine nephrotoxicity and only the finding of vasculitis allowed the identification of rejection with any certainly. However, the linear logistic regression method identified four histologic parameters--vasculitis, edema, glomerulitis, and I/C ratio, which were useful in differentiating the nephritis of cyclosporine nephrotoxicity from that of acute rejection in 94% of the biopsies. Although it is possible to precisely predict clinical response to antirejection therapy or reduction in cyclosporine dose based on histologic criteria, it is possible that cyclosporine toxicity, alone or in combination with rejection, may lead to chronic interstitial fibrosis responsible for late graft loss.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983RC11700016

    View details for PubMedID 6348988

  • PRIMARY CARCINOID-TUMOR OF THE KIDNEY - A LIGHT AND ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC, AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY JOURNAL OF UROLOGY McDonald, E. C., Mukai, K., Burke, B. A., Sibley, R. K. 1983; 130 (2): 333-335

    Abstract

    We report a case of primary carcinoid of the kidney. The neoplasm had a trabecular growth pattern and was argyrophil positive and argentaffin negative. An extensive battery of immunohistochemical stains was negative for specific peptide products and keratin. Electron microscopy disclosed numerous cytoplasmic membrane-bound electron-dense core secretory granules and masses of intermediate microfilaments. A review of the pertinent medical literature revealed 5 previously reported cases.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983RC76100036

    View details for PubMedID 6192254

  • Benefit from circadian timing of cyclosporine revealed by delay of rejection of murine heart allograft Trans Proc Cavallini M, Magnus G, Hallberg F, Tao L, Field MY, Sibley RK, Najarian JS, Sutherland DER 1983; 15: 2960-2966
  • Experimental limb allograft transplantation. Modification of rejection with cyclosporine and prednisone. Surg Forum Press BJH, Sibley RK, Shons AR 1983; 34: 591-594
  • RENAL INTERSTITIAL CELL-POPULATIONS IN CYCLOSPORINE NEPHROTOXICITY - IDENTIFICATION USING MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES TRANSPLANTATION Platt, J. L., Ferguson, R. M., Sibley, R. K., GAJLPECZALSKA, K. J., MICHAEL, A. F. 1983; 36 (3): 343-346

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983RG90800025

    View details for PubMedID 6351377

  • THE VALUE OF NEEDLE RENAL-ALLOGRAFT BIOPSY .1. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF BIOPSIES PERFORMED DURING PUTATIVE REJECTION EPISODES ANNALS OF SURGERY Matas, A. J., Sibley, R., Mauer, M., Sutherland, D. E., SIMMONS, R. L., Najarian, J. S. 1983; 197 (2): 226-237

    Abstract

    Following renal transplantation, immunosuppression is usually increased to treat presumed rejection episodes. However, a) many conditions mimic rejection in the post-transplant period, and b) many rejection episodes are irreversible. As increased immunosuppressive therapy is associated with an increased risk of infection, it would be ideal to limit antirejection therapy to only the rejection episodes that are reversible. The role of percutaneous allograft biopsy was studied as an aid to decide which patients to treat for rejection, to limit unnecessary immunosuppression and to predict allograft survival. One hundred thirty-five patients with suspected rejection underwent 206 allograft biopsies without complication. Two hundred four biopsies were available for study. Biopsies were coded on a 1-4 scale (minimal, mild, moderate, severe) for acute and chronic tubulointerstitial infiltrate and vascular rejection, as well as no rejection (e.g., recurrence of original disease). Treatment decisions were made on the basis of the biopsy combined with clinical data. All patients have been followed two years and outcome correlated with biopsy findings (death, nephrectomy, and return to dialysis defined as kidney loss). The results were the following: 1) biopsies represented changes within the kidney. Of 16 kidneys removed within one month of biopsy, no nephrectomy specimen showed less rejection than that seen on biopsy. 2) Eighty-one biopsies (39.7%) led to tapering or not increasing immunosuppression (either no rejection, minimal rejection, or irreversible changes). 3) Kidneys having either severe acute or chronic vascular rejection (less than 30% function at three months) had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased survival three to 24 months postbiopsy than those with minimal or mild vascular rejection or tubulointerstitial infiltrate (83% function at three months). 4) Kidneys with moderate chronic vascular rejection and those with severe acute tubulointerstitial infiltrate had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased survival at six to 24 months. 5) Kidneys with moderate chronic vascular rejection (MCV) without an acute infiltrate (ATI) had significantly better survival than those having both MCV and ATI. 6) Similarly, kidneys having severe ATI alone had better survival than those with ATI plus vascular rejection. It was concluded that a) percutaneous allograft biopsy can be done without graft loss or infection; b) biopsy represents changes throughout the kidney; c) biopsy aids in deciding when to treat for rejection and in deciding when to withhold increased immunosuppression, and d) allograft biopsy predicts the outcome of treatment of a rejection episode.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QA35800017

    View details for PubMedID 6297416

  • DIFFUSE INTRA-PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AND GLOMERULONEPHRITIS UNRELATED TO ANTI-GLOMERULAR BASEMENT-MEMBRANE ANTIBODY AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Leatherman, J. W., Sibley, R. K., Davies, S. F. 1982; 72 (3): 401-410

    Abstract

    Nine patients with diffuse intrapulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis not due to anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody are described and similar previously reported cases are reviewed. Eight patients were seen during a four-year interval and represented 47 percent of the cases of pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis seen during this period. Diagnoses included systemic vasculitis of unspecified type in two patients with seropositive rhematoid arthritis, idiopathic crescentic glomerulonephritis with negative immunofluorescence in two, Wegener's granulomatosis in two, and polyarteritis nodosa, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and mixed connective tissue disease in one each. Differentiation from anti-GBM antibody-mediated pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis by clinical evaluation alone was frequently difficult, emphasizing the importance of both immunopathologic studies and evaluation of serum for anti-GBM antibody in all patients with pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. In eight of nine patients, significant episodes of pulmonary hemorrhage improved markedly within 24 to 72 hours following initiation of high-dose corticosteroid therapy. In contrast, renal function did not improve in the majority of patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NF45800007

    View details for PubMedID 7058837

  • RENAL VASCULAR-LESIONS AFTER CHEMOTHERAPY WITH VINBLASTINE, BLEOMYCIN, AND CISPLATIN AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Harrell, R. M., Sibley, R., Vogelzang, N. J. 1982; 73 (3): 429-433

    Abstract

    A 30 year old man with metastatic embryonal carcinoma became hypertensive during vinblastine, bleomycin, and cisplatin therapy. Three months after completion of therapy, accelerated hypertension occurred (blood pressure 210/140 mm Hg). Nitroprusside failed to control the hypertension, but captopril resulted in a prompt and sustained normalization of the blood pressure. The plasma renin activity was markedly elevated before therapy. Renal biopsy disclosed "onionskin" narrowing of the interlobular arteries and fibrin thrombosis of a majority of the afferent arterioles. A form of drug-induced renovascular hypertension is suggested.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PJ45700022

    View details for PubMedID 6181679

  • PRE-DISCHARGE, POST-TRANSPLANT KIDNEY BIOPSY DOES NOT PREDICT REJECTION JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH Matas, A. J., Sibley, R., Mauer, S. M., Kim, Y., Sutherland, D. E., SIMMONS, R. L., Najarian, J. S. 1982; 32 (3): 269-274

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NL08100013

    View details for PubMedID 7040806

  • ARGYROPHILIC BREAST CARCINOMAS - EVIDENCE OF LACTATIONAL DIFFERENTIATION AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Clayton, F., ORDONEZ, N. G., Sibley, R. K., HANSSEN, G. 1982; 6 (4): 323-333

    Abstract

    Twenty unselected breast carcinomas were examined for argyrophilia by the Sevier-Munger stain and for dense-core secretory granules by electron microscopy. All cases were examined for lactalbumin and five cases were also studied for gastrin, insulin, calcitonin, somatostatin, glucagon, ACTH, prolactin, and pancreatic polypeptide by an immunoperoxidase technique; two cases were further analyzed for lactalbumin by ultrastructural immunoperoxidase stain. Focal or diffuse argyrophilia was present in ten cases. Intracytoplasmic lactalbumin was present in seven of these cases, but immunoperoxidase staining for the neuroendocrine hormones was negative. Fine structural examination demonstrated varying numbers of 95 to 450-nm-diameter, round, membrane-bound, dense-core secretory granules in 13 cases. Nine of the granule-containing cases were also argyrophilic, and seven of these contained intracytoplasmic lactalbumin. Both the argyrophilia and the dense-core secretory granules thus correlated with the presence of intracytoplasmic lactalbumin. None of the 20 patients had clinical evidence of carcinoid syndrome or showed evidence of other hormone secretion. Argyrophilia and granular lactalbumin staining in a somewhat similar pattern was found in pregnant and lactating breast controls. Argyrophilia and ultrastructural dense-core granules are common in breast carcinomas and might represent lactational differentiation. These findings do not indicate the presence of a carcinoid tumor because in most of these tumors the secretory granules appear to contain milk protein secretory product rather than neuroendocrine polypeptides, and most argyrophilic tumors do not morphologically or clinically resemble carcinoid tumors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NV26900005

    View details for PubMedID 6180651

  • SMALL-CELL CARCINOMA OF THE ENDOMETRIUM - LIGHT MICROSCOPIC AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL-STUDY OF A CASE CANCER Olson, N., TWIGGS, L., Sibley, R. 1982; 50 (4): 760-765

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NZ72200022

    View details for PubMedID 6284342

  • INCIDENCE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF RECURRENT FOCAL SEGMENTAL GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS IN RENAL-ALLOGRAFT RECIPIENTS TRANSPLANTATION Maizel, S. E., Sibley, R. K., HORSTMAN, J. P., Kjellstrand, C. M., SIMMONS, R. L. 1981; 32 (6): 512-516

    Abstract

    Renal transplantation was performed in 25 patients for renal failure secondary to nephrotic syndrome and histologically proven segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). They received 33 allografts, 13 from cadaveric (CAD) and 20 from living related donors (LRD) including 6 HLA-identical siblings. All have been followed for at least 1 year with none lost to follow-up. Overall, functional graft survival of the 33 grafts was 68.7% at 12 months and 60.5% at 48 months, similar to controls matched for age, sex, time of transplant, and donor source. Recurrent FSGS was documented histologically in 9 (5 CAD and 4 LRD) of 33 grafts (27.3%) and resulted in loss of graft function in 3 (9.9%). The presence and extent of mesangial proliferation (MP) in conjunction with or preceding typical lesions of FSGS in native kidneys was predictive of recurrent disease. Age at onset, duration of disease, and donor source were not. Sixteen patients with only FSGS on multiple biopsies of native kidneys received 22 allografts and recurrent disease occurred in 4 (18%) but did not cause loss of graft function in any. Six patients with focal areas of MP as well as FSGS underwent eight transplants, in which recurrent FSGS developed in two (25%) and caused graft loss in one. All three grafts transplanted to the patients with diffuse MP and FSGS developed recurrent disease, this resulting in graft failure in two. This study demonstrates the importance of a thorough histological evaluation by multiple biopsies of all patients with steroid-nonresponsive nephrotic syndrome. Only in this manner does it appear possible to define that subgroup of patients with FSGS who are at greatest risk of clinically significant recurrent disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MU64300013

    View details for PubMedID 7041354

  • ULTRASOUND IN ACUTE RENAL-TRANSPLANT REJECTION RADIOLOGY Frick, M. P., FEINBERG, S. B., Sibley, R., IDSTROM, M. E. 1981; 138 (3): 657-660

    Abstract

    Gray-scale ultrasound and biopsy were compared in 63 patients with suspected acute kidney allograft rejection. Sonographic findings of increased size and decreased echogenicity of renal pyramide, focal zones of sonolucency in renal cortex, and patchy sonolucent areas involving both cortex and medulla with coalescence correlated well with biopsy in 46 out of 50 patients (92%) treated for acute rejection (sensitivity = 0.92). Abnormal perirenal fluid collection was encountered in three out of 60 patients (5%). Out of 63 sonographic studies, 10 (16%) gave either false positive (6) or false negative (4) results for an overall accuracy of 85%.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981LE80900020

    View details for PubMedID 7008077

  • MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTIC SYSTEM STIMULATION - PROTECTIVE ROLE FROM GLOMERULAR IMMUNE-COMPLEX DEPOSITION JOURNAL OF LABORATORY AND CLINICAL MEDICINE Raij, L., Sibley, R. K., Keane, W. F. 1981; 98 (4): 558-567

    Abstract

    Experimentally, glomerular deposition of circulating IC is increased when the MPS is saturated. Clinically, an association between glomerulonephritis and dysfunction of MPS-Fc receptor-mediated clearance of IC has recently been described in patients with certain forms of autoimmune diseases. Thus we hypothesized that stimulation of the MPS may be beneficial, by decreasing circulating IC and hence, reduce glomerular deposition of IC. To test this experimentally, we studied glomerular uptake and disappearance of AHIgG . 125I (macromolecular proteins biologically akin to IC) in normal control rats and in rats with ZY-stimulated MPS. ZY-treated and control rats were given 30 mg/100 gm body weight AHIgG . 125I and sacrificed at 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 24 hr after AHIgG . 125I injection. Glomerular AHIgG . 125I was measured in preparations of isolated glomeruli and compared to simultaneous liver, spleen, lung, and blood greater than 7S AHIgG . 125I. The blood t 1/2 of greater 7S AHIgG . 125I in ZY rats was 40% shorter than that in control rats. Blood greater than 7S AHIgG . 125I in ZY rats was 63% lower than in control rats at 4 hr and 73% lower at 8 hr after injection. At all time intervals, glomerular AHIgG . 125I was reduced in ZY rats proportionately to the decreased blood levels. By immunofluorescence microscopy, the intensity of staining for human IgG correlated with the quantitative determination of AHIgG . 125I in preparations of isolated glomeruli in control and ZY rats. The reduction in blood and glomerular AHIgG . 125I in ZY rats was a result of a marked increased in hepatic and splenic uptake of AHIgG . 125I. Serum complement depletion of ZY rats with CVF prior to AHIgG . 125I injection did not significantly alter the kinetics of AHIgG. 125I. This suggests that the increased MPS uptake of AHIgG . 125I in ZY rats was predominantly Fc-receptor-mediated. Thus ZY stimulation of the MPS increased the clearance of AHIgG . 125I and protected glomeruli from AHIgG . 125I deposition. Clinically, agents that would specifically stimulate the MPS may be useful in reducing IC-mediated glomerular injury.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MK23800011

    View details for PubMedID 7288269

  • RENAL-FAILURE AS A COMPLICATION OF ACUTE ANTIHYPERTENSIVE THERAPY PEDIATRICS Green, T. P., Nevins, T. E., HOUSER, M. T., Sibley, R., Fish, A. J., Sinaiko, A. R. 1981; 67 (6): 850-854

    Abstract

    Adult patients with long-standing hypertension have been reported to experience an impairment in renal function when treatment with potent vasodilating agents is initiated. To document that this sequence may occur in children as well, we report the case of a 4-year-old boy with renal disease in whom reduction of blood pressure to normal levels was accompanied on three occasions by oliguric renal failure. During each episode, the correlation between reduction in blood pressure and increase in serum creatinine level was significant (P less than .05); furthermore, the slope of the relationship was similar with each episode. This phenomenon suggests an impairment of renal autoregulation in this patient. Maintenance of normal blood pressure for several months was accompanied by a gradual return of renal function to pretreatment levels. This case suggests that particular attention should be paid to renal function during the initiation of antihypertensive therapy, particularly in patients with renal vascular damage. Present evidence does not appear to warrant modification of the current therapeutic philosophy of aggressive management in patients with severe hypertension.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981LT28000014

    View details for PubMedID 7232050

  • POLYMORPHIC DIFFUSE B-CELL HYPERPLASIAS AND LYMPHOMAS IN RENAL-TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS CANCER RESEARCH Frizzera, G., Hanto, D. W., GAJLPECZALSKA, K. J., Rosai, J., McKenna, R. W., Sibley, R. K., HOLAHAN, K. P., LINDQUIST, L. L. 1981; 41 (11): 4262-4279

    Abstract

    The lymphoproliferative processes that developed in five renal transplant recipients were studied in an attempt to characterize and classify them morphologically. Nine surgical specimens, hematological material on all patients, and autopsy specimens from three patients were available. Studies performed included: conventional histopathology; evaluation of cell markers (immunoglobulins and sheep erythrocyte, complement, and Fc receptors) and cytoplasmic immunoglobulins (peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique); ultrastructural examination; and karyotype analysis. The lymphoid lesions in our patients shared marked cytological polymorphism (small and large cells, of both follicular center and "medullary" type) and polyclonal B-cell features, which indicated a common reactive nonneoplastic origin. However, other features, such as morphological atypia of the immunoblasts, extensive necrosis, chromosomal aberrations, and an incipient monoclonal component suggested the development of lymphoma in some of these lesions. In contradistinction, the abundance of typical immunoblasts was a feature that seemed to correlate with the clinical activity of the disease rather than with the biological malignancy. The multiplicity of B-cell types and the presence of a follicular center cell component with diffuse distribution, as well as the extensive necrosis in the malignant forms, seem to differentiate morphologically the lymphoproliferative processes arising in transplant recipients from both the hyperplasias and the lymphomas developing in immunologically normal hosts. For the former, we propose the terms of "polymorphic diffuse B-cell hyperplasias" and "polymorphic B-cell lymphomas."

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MN48300010

    View details for PubMedID 7030473

  • Mechanics of angioplasty: An experimental approach Radiographics Castaneda-Zuniga WR, Laerum F, Sibley RK, Formanek A, Vlodaver Z, Amplatz K, Edwards JE 1981; 1: 1-6
  • THE ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC FEATURES OF SINUS HISTIOCYTOSIS WITH MASSIVE LYMPHADENOPATHY - A STUDY OF 11 CASES ULTRASTRUCTURAL PATHOLOGY Sanchez, R., Sibley, R. K., Rosai, J., Dorfman, R. F. 1981; 2 (2): 101-119

    Abstract

    Eleven cases of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) involving lymph nodes were studied electron microscopically. Histiocytes were the most conspicuous element of the infiltrate. They could be divided into small and large forms, although transitions were apparent among them. Most of the small histiocytes were located in the medullary cords. The large histiocytes were predominantly seen within sinuses and were subdivided into two types on the basis of their appearance. The most distinctive feature of these histiocytes was the presence of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and neutrophils within their cytoplasm. Other cells present in the infiltrate were lymphocytes, plasma cells, and occasional neutrophils and mast cells. Blood vessels were prominent throughout. Virus particles, bacteria, and Langerhans' granules were consistently absent. No morphologic clues were provided by this study as to the etiology of this disorder.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981LZ18800001

    View details for PubMedID 7268923

  • Malignant histiocytosis: A light- and electron-microscopic and histochemical study. American journal of surgical pathology RISDALL, R. J., Brunning, R. D., Sibley, R. K., DEHNER, L. P., McKenna, R. W. 1980; 4 (5): 439-450

    Abstract

    The light- and electron-microscopic features and histochemical characterization of three consecutive cases of malignant histiocytosis (MH) are reported. Each case demonstrated involvement of lymph nodes and bone marrow. In the lymph node, the characteristic destructive sinusoidal pattern of involvement by cytologically malignant cells was present. Phagocytosis by malignant cells was rare and most readily appreciated in the imprint preparations. The major problem in differential diagnosis related to defining the histiocytic nature of the malignant cells. This question was resolved by the demonstration of diffuse cytoplasmic staining with the nonspecific esterase and acid phosphatase reactions as well as the ultrastructural demonstration of histiocytes. Although benign, reactive histiocytes were positive, malignant histiocytes did not stain for lysozyme by an immunoperoxidase technique. In contrast to the uniform appearance of these cases, many reports of MH in the past have consisted of heterogeneous cases with variable histologic appearances from a proliferation of predominantly mature histiocytes with marked phagocytosis to cytologically malignant cells with little apparent functional activity. This variation in histologic appearance is due in part to inclusion of cases of reactive histiocytic proliferations, including the recently described virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome.

    View details for PubMedID 7001932

  • A case for the panel: anemone cell tumor. Ultrastructural pathology Sibley, R., Rosai, J., Froehlich, W. 1980; 1 (3): 449-453

    View details for PubMedID 7233597

  • PULMONARY ALVEOLAR PROTEINOSIS - UNCOMMON CAUSE OF CHRONIC NEONATAL RESPIRATORY-DISTRESS AMERICAN REVIEW OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE Coleman, M., DEHNER, L. P., Sibley, R. K., Burke, B. A., LHEUREUX, P. R., Thompson, T. R. 1980; 121 (3): 583-586

    Abstract

    A full-term newborn infant had the onset of respiratory distress immediately after birth. She required supplemental oxygen from birth, and had pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) documented by open lung biopsies at 6 and at 12 weeks of age. Light and electron microscopy showed dense, PAS-positive granular, homogeneous material within the alveolar spaces, diagnostic of PAP. No Pneumocystic carinii organisms were demonstrated on silver staining, and bacterial and viral cultures were negative. The infant died of progressive respiratory insufficiency at 1 yr or age. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis should considered a rare cause of chronic respiratory distress in the newborn infant.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980JK00100021

    View details for PubMedID 7416585

  • RENAL-ARTERY ANEURYSMS - AN ANGIOGRAPHIC SIGN OF TRANSPLANT REJECTION RADIOLOGY CASTANEDAZUNIGA, W., Sibley, R., Zollikofer, C., NATH, P. H., VALDEZDAVILA, O., Coleman, C., Amplatz, K. 1980; 136 (2): 333-335

    Abstract

    Intrarenal arterial aneurysm is an uncommon manifestation of allograft rejection. We present two cases of transplant rejection with aneurysm formations. One case simulated polyarteritis nodosa, while in the other, the aneurysm appeared similar to those seen in post-stenotic arterial dilatation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980KC22700012

    View details for PubMedID 6996031

  • NEUROENDOCRINE (MERKEL CELL) CARCINOMA OF THE SKIN - A HISTOLOGIC AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL-STUDY OF 2 CASES AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Sibley, R. K., Rosai, J., Foucar, E., DEHNER, L. P., Bosl, G. 1980; 4 (3): 211-221

    Abstract

    The clinical, histologic, and ultrastructural features of two cases of a primary cutaneous neuroendocrine neoplasm probably arising from Merkel cells are presented and compared with previously reported examples. This recently described tumor arises in the dermis of elderly individuals, is often locally aggressive, may metastasize to regional lymph nodes, and eventually may cause death. Microscopically, sheets of primitive cells fill and expand the dermis. Ultrastructural study of our cases revealed morphologic similarities to normal cutaneous Merkel cells, including peripherally situated dense-core neurosecretory-like granules, zonula adherens-type intercellular junctions, prominent Golgi apparatus, and varying numbers of mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum. This unusual tumor is readily confused with cutaneous lymphoma and various undifferentiated primary or metastatic neoplasms by conventional light microscopy. The definitive diagnosis can be made only by electron-microscopic examination.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980JV51800001

    View details for PubMedID 7396063

  • LUNG METASTASES FROM SYNOVIAL SARCOMA SIMULATING GRANULOMAS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Zollikofer, C., CASTANEDAZUNIGA, W., STENLUND, R., Sibley, R. 1980; 135 (1): 161-163

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980JX17900028

    View details for PubMedID 6249104

  • MALIGNANT SMALL CELL TUMOR OF THE THORACOPULMONARY REGION IN CHILDHOOD - DISTINCTIVE CLINICOPATHOLOGIC ENTITY OF UNCERTAIN HISTOGENESIS CANCER Askin, F. B., Rosai, J., Sibley, R. K., DEHNER, L. P., McAlister, W. H. 1979; 43 (6): 2438-2451

    Abstract

    This report describes a unique clinicopathologic entity characterized as a malignant small cell tumor of the thoracopulmonary region in 20 children and adolescents (average age 14.5 years). There was a female predilection (75%) for this tumor which appeared to originate in the soft tissues of the chest wall or the peripheral lung. The neoplasm tended to recur locally and did not seem to disseminate as widely as some of the other small cell tumors of childhood (rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, neuroblastoma and malignant lymphoma). However, the median survival was only 8 months. Electron microscopy of 3 cases suggested a neuroepithelial derivation, but, at the present, the histogeneis remains a subject for further investigation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979HE79500039

    View details for PubMedID 222426

  • WELL-DIFFERENTIATED PERIPHERAL CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA WITH AN UNUSUAL CLINICAL COURSE GASTROENTEROLOGY Foucar, E., KAPLAN, L. R., Gold, J. H., Kiang, D. T., Sibley, R. K., Bosl, G. 1979; 77 (2): 347-353

    Abstract

    A patient with an unresectable well-differentiated bile duct tumor who survived for 15 yr after biopsy diagnosis is presented. Histologic examination of the tumor revealed bland features of bile duct adenoma despite extensive spread within the liver. Over its subsequent course, the tumor progressively replaced the liver, achieving huge size, although there was no evidence of metastases until shortly before the patient's death. This clinical course was very unusual for either bile duct adenoma or cholangiocarcinoma, but would be more characteristic of another tumor of intrahepatic bile duct origin, the biliary cystadenoma. However, this latter diagnosis was excluded with both gross and microscopic pathologic criteria. Evidence is presented to support classification of this tumor as an unusual varient of peripheral cholangiocarcinoma which requires correlation of the clinical and pathologic findings for correst diagnosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979HE46100025

    View details for PubMedID 221305

  • RECURRENCE OF STEROID-RESPONSIVE NEPHROTIC SYNDROME AFTER RENAL-TRANSPLANTATION JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Mauer, S. M., Hellerstein, S., Cohn, R. A., Sibley, R. K., Vernier, R. L. 1979; 95 (2): 261-264

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979HE82300018

    View details for PubMedID 376811

  • CRESCENTIC GLOMERULONEPHRITIS AND RENAL-FAILURE ASSOCIATED WITH MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMA AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Petzel, R. A., Brown, D. C., STALEY, N. A., MCMILLEN, J. J., Sibley, R. K., Kjellstrand, C. M. 1979; 71 (6): 728-732

    Abstract

    Two cases of crescentic glomerulonephritis and renal failure associated with malignant lymphoma are reported. The relationship of the lymphoma to the immune-complex glomerulonephritis is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979HB62700020

    View details for PubMedID 453091

  • MALIGNANT MELANOTIC NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR OF INFANCY - CLINICAL, PATHOLOGIC, ULTRASTRUCTURAL AND TISSUE-CULTURE STUDY CANCER DEHNER, L. P., Sibley, R. K., Sauk, J. J., Vickers, R. A., Nesbit, M. E., Leonard, A. S., Waite, D. E., NEELEY, J. E., OPHOVEN, J. 1979; 43 (4): 1389-1410

    Abstract

    The melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is an uncommon neoplasm typically of early childhood which has a predilection for the head and neck region, particularly the maxilla. Except for one previous example in the literature, this tumor has consistently behaved in a benign fashion. This study documents the clinical course and pathologic findings of a tumor which began in the maxilla of a 4-month-old boy, followed by a local recurrence, metastasis to a cervical lymph node and finally, widespread dissemination and death at 18 months, 24 months and 38 months, respectively. The tumor was initially composed of nests consisting of melanin-containing cells and small dark cells. An elevated vanillylmandelic acid level was recorded during the course of the disease. At autopsy, the tumor in lymph nodes, liver, bone and soft tissues had a monotonous pattern of small dark cells similar to a conventional neuroblastoma. Previous ultrastructural studies indicate that the melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy is composed of melanocytes and neuroblast-like cells. Our case provided the unique opportunity to examine in sequence the ultrastructural and in vitro characteristics of a recurring and eventually metastasizing melanotic neuroectodermal tumor. Although the neuroblast-like cells were initially difficult to identify by electron microscopy, a melanin-producing cell line and a separate nonpigmented cell line were successfully isolated from various tumor explants. Various stages of melanosome development were identified in the pigmented cells from the local recurrences and in vitro. Dibutyryl cAMP accentuated the formation of pigment and dendritic development in the melanocytes and dendrites only in the small nonpigmented cells. Electron dense granules were observed in the cultured smaller cells and also in the lymph node and soft tissue metastases. Tyrosine hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in the neuroblast-like cells. In the final biopsy and autopsy material, only the neuroblast-like cells remained and the tumor resembled a conventional neuroblastoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979GU77900028

    View details for PubMedID 221089

  • MULTICENTRIC COLONIC LYMPHOMA COMPLICATING ULCERATIVE-COLITIS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DIGESTIVE DISEASES WAGONFELD, J. B., Platz, C. E., FISHMAN, F. L., Sibley, R. K., Kirsner, J. B. 1977; 22 (6): 502-508

    Abstract

    A 72-year-old female with ulcerative colitis of 30 years duration underwent total proctocolectomy for a cecal mass thought to be an adenocarcinoma. Pathologic examination of the colon revealed 22 tumors, all of which proved to be malignant lymphoma, histiocytic type. Thirteen cases of non-Hodgkins malignant lymphoma and 2 cases of Hodgkins disease of the colon arising in ulcerative colitis are reviewed and discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1977DK39000004

    View details for PubMedID 326035

  • ADULT LIPOID NEPHROSIS - CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATIONS ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Lim, V. S., Sibley, R., Spargo, B. 1974; 81 (3): 314-320

    View details for Web of Science ID A1974U112500005

    View details for PubMedID 4368384

Conference Proceedings


  • Cardiac allograft unresponsiveness using a posttransplant strategy: Characterization of the graft infiltrate Krieger, N. R., Quezada, V. R., Huie, P., Holm, B., Sibley, R. K., Dafoe, D. C., Alfrey, E. J. ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS. 1996: 86-92

    Abstract

    We evaluated a combined posttransplant strategy using antilymphocyte serum (ALS) at time of engraftment followed by low dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and donor bone marrow cell (BMC) inoculation administered either intrathymically (IT) or intravenously (IV) in the vigorously rejecting strain combination DA into Lew recipients. Allograft survival was significantly prolonged with administration of ALS in combination with TLI and IT (105 +/- 28.6 days) or IV (106.8 +/- 28.6 days) BMC compared to administration of ALS combined with either TLI (17.8 +/- 0.4 days) or BMC (9.0 +/- 0.0 days), or TLI combined with BMC (1 1.5 +/- 0.5 days) (P < 0.000 1, experimental vs control animals). There was no difference in survival between those animals who underwent IT or IV BMC inoculation. Third-party (WF) BMC inoculation did not significantly prolong allograft survival (10.0 +/- 1.0 days). A mild to moderate cellular infiltrate was present in allograft tissue after 100 days. To further characterize these cells, cytokine mRNA expression in allograft tissue (> 100 days posttransplant) was evaluated using nonisotopic in situ hybridization. A similar cytokine profile was demonstrated in allograft tissue compared to naive and isograft tissue, except for a slight increase in IL-2 (P < 0.02, control vs IV BMC; P = NS, other groups). In summary, unresponsiveness was induced in a high-responder strain combination using a combined posttransplant strategy of ALS, TLI, and donor antigen either IT or IV. The cytokine profile of the graft infiltrating cells was similar to that of normal tissue. Unresponsiveness may be the result of functional inactivation of these cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UU47100017

    View details for PubMedID 8661178

  • Cellular localization and effect of nitric oxide synthesis in a rat model of orthotopic liver transplantation Kuo, P. C., Alfrey, E. J., Abe, K. Y., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., Dafoe, D. C. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 1996: 305-312

    Abstract

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a multifunctional free radical with a variety of described biochemical and physiological roles. The immunologic relationships between organ transplantation and NO synthesis are unknown. While a number of in vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated an immunomodulatory role for NO, results suggest both an immunosuppressive and immunostimulatory function. In order to better delineate the role of NO in liver transplantation, the Kamada model of rat OLT with strain combinations simulating acute rejection and spontaneous hyporesponsiveness was chosen. In this setting, both acute rejection and spontaneous hyporesponsiveness were associated with increased levels of plasma NO metabolites and allograft expression of the enzyme, NO synthase (iNOS). The extent of expression was significantly greater with acute rejection. Using in situ hybridization, iNOS mRNA was localized to both infiltrating inflammatory cells and hepatocytes in the context of acute rejection. In contrast, iNOS mRNA expression was isolated to the hepatocytes in the hyporesponsive state. To specifically delineate the role of hepatocyte-derived NO, NO synthesis was ablated in the spontaneous hyporesponsiveness model and resulted in significant elevation of serum transaminase values with accompanying histologic evidence of increased periportal inflammatory infiltration. Our results suggest that the site of NO production varies according to the immunologic status of the liver allograft, and hepatocyte-derived NO may be protective in the hyporesponsive state.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TT97000024

    View details for PubMedID 8600641

  • INTERFERON-GAMMA AND INTERLEUKIN-10 MESSENGER-RNA ARE UP-REGULATED AFTER ORTHOTOPIC LIVER-TRANSPLANTATION IN TOLERANT RATS - EVIDENCE FOR CYTOKINE-MEDIATED IMMUNE DYSREGULATION Alfrey, E. J., Most, D., Wang, X. G., Lee, L. K., Holm, B., Krieger, N. R., Sibley, R. K., Huie, P., Dafoe, D. C. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 1995: 399-405

    Abstract

    Immune regulation requires antigen recognition, signaling, activation, secretion of cytokines, and effector function by lymphocytes. Although there is redundancy in the activation and function of the immune response, some cytokines simultaneously promote and suppress different pathways of immunity. In the experiments reported here we compare cytokine gene expression within liver allografts from tolerant rats with normal and isografted liver tissue. We also compare the secretion of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) in the supernatant from mixed lymphocyte cultures by using peripheral blood lymphocytes stimulated against donor antigen.Orthotopic liver transplantations were performed using the cuff technique without hepatic artery revascularization. Nonisotopic in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to detect and localize messenger RNA to specific cells within tissue. Antisense DNA probes were generated to interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-gamma. One-way mixed lymphocyte cultures were set up against irradiated donor splenocytes, and the supernatant was collected to measure IFN-gamma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 was up-regulated in tolerant animals versus normal or isografted liver (p = 0.0002 and 0.0001, IFN-gamma and IL-10, respectively). In situ hybridization localized the expression of messenger RNA predominantly to the cytoplasm of the hepatocytes. Levels of IFN-gamma were higher in the supernatant from proliferating peripheral lymphocytes against donor antigen from tolerant animals versus naive control animals.Expression of IFN-gamma and IL-10 is up-regulated in hepatocytes from allograft tissue after orthotopic liver transplantation. We believe that the up-regulation of IL-10 cross-regulates the effector function of IFN-gamma and supports cytokine-mediated immune dysregulation, which may be a mechanism of tolerance after orthotopic liver transplantation in rats.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RM96500038

    View details for PubMedID 7638757

  • CYTOKINES AS POTENTIAL MEDIATORS OF ACUTE ALLOGRAFT DIASTOLIC DYSFUNCTION IN CYCLOSPORINE-TREATED PATIENTS - A PILOT-STUDY USING IN-SITU HYBRIDIZATION Valantine, H., Johnson, F., Dong, C., Lewis, N., Tovey, D., Huie, P., Pratt, R., STINSON, E., Hunt, S., Sibley, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1994: 2852-2853

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PM60300142

    View details for PubMedID 7940898

  • CONGENITAL UNILATERAL HYDRONEPHROSIS IN A RAT MODEL - CONTINUOUS RENAL, PELVIC AND BLADDER PRESSURES Fichtner, J., BOINEAU, F. G., Lewy, J. E., Sibley, R. K., Vari, R. C., Shortliffe, L. M. WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 1994: 652-657

    Abstract

    We investigated a rat model with inbred unilateral congenital hydronephrosis. Simultaneous bladder and renal pelvic pressures were measured during different urinary flows, and during bladder filling and voiding in these congenitally hydronephrotic rats (approximately 45 days old) and normal nonhydronephrotic rats from the same colony. Differential pressures between pelvis and proximal ureter were determined. Upon termination of the experiment the urinary tract was removed and processed for histological examination. Hydronephrotic rats had significantly higher renal pelvic pressures throughout bladder filling at all urinary flow rates than normal rats. These elevated renal pelvic pressures exceeded bladder pressures at high flows (for example bladder pressure at 50% capacity was 8.9 +/- 3.1 cm. water and corresponding pelvic pressure was 20.8 +/- 2.1 [hydronephrosis] versus pelvic pressure 7.4 +/- 1.1 [control]). While pressures in the proximal ureter were higher than in the pelvis in normal rats the hydronephrotic rats showed significantly higher pressures in the pelvis, suggesting that the site of obstruction is the ureteropelvic junction. Histological evaluation of the excised kidneys revealed only minimal tubular changes. This study represents a unique animal model with unilateral hydronephrosis from a partially obstructing ureteropelvic junction. Moreover, the data indicate that partial urinary obstruction and the associated renal pelvic pressures should be defined with reference to bladder fullness and urinary flow rates.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NW33000018

    View details for PubMedID 8021990

  • MORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF CHRONIC REJECTION IN KIDNEY AND LESS COMMONLY TRANSPLANTED ORGANS Sibley, R. K. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 1994: 293-298

    Abstract

    Chronic rejection is characterized by morphological evidence of destruction of the transplanted organ. The injury to the organ is associated with collagenization of variable degree. The destruction and fibrosis of the organ is probably the result of 1) direct alloimmune cytotoxic injury (i.e., acute and/or ongoing rejection) of the organ tissue, and 2) end-organ ischemic injury secondary to fibroproliferative endarteritis (i.e., chronic vascular rejection). The cardinal morphological feature of chronic rejection in all allografts is fibroproliferative endarteritis, which is characterized by widening of the subendothelial space due to a cellular fibrosis which may have an onion-skin appearance with a PAS or silver stain. Macrophages with foamy cytoplasm and lymphocytes may be present in this fibrotic tissue. The smooth muscle wall may show foci of fibrosis as well, if involved by previous necrotizing rejection. These features are commonly found in needle core biopsies of kidney allografts and may involve the interlobular, arcuate, and interlobar arteries. They are less commonly found in pancreatic needle biopsies, and only rarely in hepatic and pulmonary allograft biopsies, rendering the diagnosis of chronic rejection often difficult to establish. Though the vascular lesions may not be apparent in biopsies, they are typically found in explanted organs where larger vessels can be examined. Thus, the diagnosis of chronic rejection may rest upon other and in some instances less specific abnormalities, usually ischemic in origin due to vascular lesions and consequent decreased perfusion of the graft.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NP07400003

    View details for PubMedID 8061371

  • THE DIAGNOSIS OF OBLITERATIVE BRONCHIOLITIS AFTER HEART-LUNG AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION - LOW-YIELD OF TRANSBRONCHIAL LUNG-BIOPSY Kramer, M. R., STOEHR, C., WHANG, J. L., Berry, G. J., Sibley, R., Marshall, S. E., PATTERSON, G. M., Starnes, V. A., Theodore, J. MOSBY-YEAR BOOK INC. 1993: 675-681

    Abstract

    Obliterative bronchiolitis is the most significant long-term complication of lung and heart-lung transplantation characterized by the rapid development of obstructive airway disease. It is thought to be a manifestation of chronic rejection and has been treated, with limited success, with augmentation of immunosuppression. Early detection of obliterative bronchiolitis and prompt initiation of therapy may result in an improved outcome. The role of transbronchial biopsy has been reported in the diagnosis of acute rejection and infection but not for obliterative bronchiolitis. To study this problem we retrospectively reviewed the transbronchial biopsy results of patients with advanced clinical obliterative bronchiolitis, as defined physiologically. Between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 1991, 46 "sets" of adequate transbronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from 16 patients (15 heart-lung recipients and one double lung recipient). Seven sets of transbronchial biopsy specimens (15.2%) showed obliterative bronchiolitis by pathologic study. In four patients with severe clinical obliterative bronchiolitis, only one transbronchial biopsy specimen of seven (14.3%) showed obliterative bronchiolitis. The pathologic diagnosis of obliterative bronchiolitis was confirmed in three of these patients at the time of autopsy or retransplantation. Twelve patients were still alive at the end of the study period, and all experienced further deterioration of lung function typical for obliterative bronchiolitis. We conclude that the sensitivity of transbronchial biopsy for obliterative bronchiolitis is poor. Possible explanations for these results are explored.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LP82800018

    View details for PubMedID 8369329

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