Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
  • Anatomic/Clinical Pathology

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Fellowship:Stanford University School of Medicine (1991) CA
  • Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine (1989) CA
  • Board Certification: Anatomic Pathology, American Board of Pathology (1989)
  • Internship:Ottawa General Hospital (1985)
  • Medical Education:University of Ottawa (1984) Canada

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Cardiopulmonary and pulmonary transplant medicine; diagnostic surgical pathology

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Pediatric plastic bronchitis: case report and retrospective comparative analysis of epidemiology and pathology. Case reports in pulmonology Kunder, R., Kunder, C., Sun, H. Y., Berry, G., Messner, A., Frankovich, J., Roth, S., Mark, J. 2013; 2013: 649365-?

    Abstract

    Plastic bronchitis (PB) is a pathologic condition in which airway casts develop in the tracheobronchial tree causing airway obstruction. There is no standard treatment strategy for this uncommon condition. We report an index patient treated using an emerging multimodal strategy of directly instilled and inhaled tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) as well as 13 other cases of PB at our institution between 2000 and 2012. The majority of cases (n = 8) occurred in patients with congenital heart disease. Clinical presentations, treatments used, histopathology of the casts, and patient outcomes are reviewed. Further discussion is focused on the epidemiology of plastic bronchitis and a systematic approach to the histologic classification of casts. Comorbid conditions identified in this study included congenital heart disease (8), pneumonia (3), and asthma (2). Our institutional prevalence rate was 6.8 per 100,000 patients, and our case fatality rate was 7%.

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2013/649365

    View details for PubMedID 23662235

  • Pathology of pulmonary antibody-mediated rejection: 2012 update from the Pathology Council of the ISHLT JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Berry, G., Burke, M., Andersen, C., Angelini, A., Bruneval, P., Calbrese, F., Fishbein, M. C., Goddard, M., Leone, O., Maleszewski, J., Marboe, C., Miller, D., Neil, D., Padera, R., Rassi, D., Revell, M., Rice, A., Stewart, S., Yousem, S. A. 2013; 32 (1): 14-21

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2012.11.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313223000003

    View details for PubMedID 23260701

  • Concordance Among Pathologists in the Second Cardiac Allograft Rejection Gene Expression Observational Study (CARGO II) TRANSPLANTATION Crespo-Leiro, M. G., Zuckermann, A., Bara, C., Mohacsi, P., Schulz, U., Boyle, A., Ross, H. J., Parameshwar, J., Zakliczynski, M., Fiocchi, R., Stypmann, J., Hoefer, D., Lehmkuhl, H., Deng, M. C., Leprince, P., Berry, G., Marboe, C. C., Stewart, S., Tazelaar, H. D., Baron, H. M., Coleman, I., Vanhaecke, J. 2012; 94 (11): 1172-1177

    Abstract

    There has been no large evaluation of the ISHLT 2004 acute cellular rejection grading scheme for heart graft endomyocardial biopsy specimens (EMBs).We evaluated agreement within the CARGO II pathology panel and between the panel (acting by majority) and the collaborating centers (treated as a single entity), regarding the ISHLT grades of 937 EMBs (with all grades ?2R merged because of small numbers).Overall all-grade agreement was almost 71% both within the panel and between the panel and the collaborating centers but, in both cases, was largely because of agreement on grade 0: for the average pair of pathologists, fewer than a third of the EMBs assigned grade ?2R by at least one were assigned this grade by both.The 2004 revision has done little to improve agreement on the higher ISHLT grades. An EMB grade ?2R is not by itself sufficient as a basis for clinical decisions or as a research criterion. Steps should be taken toward greater uniformity in EMB grading, and efforts should be made to replace the ISHLT classification with diagnostic criteria--EMB based or otherwise--that correspond better with the pathophysiology of the transplanted heart.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e31826e19e2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312072600021

    View details for PubMedID 23222738

  • Antibody-mediated rejection of the cardiac allograft: where do we stand in 2012? CURRENT OPINION IN ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION Berry, G. J. 2012; 17 (3): 303-308

    Abstract

    The review will discuss the current pathological criteria for the diagnosis and classification of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in the cardiac allograft.Until recently, the diagnosis of AMR required clinical dysfunction, presence of donor specific antibodies and pathological alterations. The concept of asymptomatic AMR and its adverse long-term outcomes created, in part the need to reevaluate diagnostic criteria. The results of a recent consensus meeting sponsored by International Society For Heart And Lung Transplantation are discussed.The diagnosis of AMR rests on histopathological and immunophenotypic findings. These provide the basis for a new grading scheme.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MOT.0b013e328353660f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303826900015

    View details for PubMedID 22498650

  • Cardiac Paraganglioma: Diagnostic and Surgical Challenges JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY Huo, J. L., Choi, J. C., DeLuna, A., Lee, D., Fleischmann, D., Berry, G. J., Deuse, T., Haddad, F. 2012; 27 (2): 178-182

    Abstract

    Primary cardiac paragangliomas are rare extra-adrenal tumors. Though they account for less than 1% of all primary cardiac tumors, they are considerable sources of morbidity and mortality. In this case review, we discuss the challenges associated with the diagnosis and management of cardiac paragangliomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1540-8191.2011.01378.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302172800009

    View details for PubMedID 22273468

  • miR-29b Participates in Early Aneurysm Development in Marfan Syndrome CIRCULATION RESEARCH Merk, D. R., Chin, J. T., Dake, B. A., Maegdefessel, L., Miller, M. O., Kimura, N., Tsao, P. S., Iosef, C., Berry, G. J., Mohr, F. W., Spin, J. M., Alvira, C. M., Robbins, R. C., Fischbein, M. P. 2012; 110 (2): 312-?

    Abstract

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic connective tissue disorder notable for the development of aortic root aneurysms and the subsequent life-threatening complications of aortic dissection and rupture. Underlying fibrillin-1 gene mutations cause increased transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling. Although TGF-? blockade prevents aneurysms in MFS mouse models, the mechanisms through which excessive TGF-? causes aneurysms remain ill-defined.We investigated the role of microRNA-29b (miR-29b) in aneurysm formation in MFS.Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we discovered that miR-29b, a microRNA regulating apoptosis and extracellular matrix synthesis/deposition genes, is increased in the ascending aorta of Marfan (Fbn1(C1039G/+)) mice. Increased apoptosis, assessed by increased cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-9, enhanced caspase-3 activity, and decreased levels of the antiapoptotic proteins, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, were found in the Fbn1(C1039G/+) aorta. Histological evidence of decreased and fragmented elastin was observed exclusively in the Fbn1(C1039G/+) ascending aorta in association with repressed elastin mRNA and increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression and activity, both targets of miR-29b. Evidence of decreased activation of nuclear factor ?B, a repressor of miR-29b, and a factor suppressed by TGF-?, was also observed in Fbn1(C1039G/+) aorta. Furthermore, administration of a nuclear factor ?B inhibitor increased miR-29b levels, whereas TGF-? blockade or losartan effectively decreased miR-29b levels in Fbn1(C1039G/+) mice. Finally, miR-29b blockade by locked nucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides prevented early aneurysm development, aortic wall apoptosis, and extracellular matrix deficiencies.We identify increased miR-29b expression as key to the pathogenesis of early aneurysm development in MFS by regulating aortic wall apoptosis and extracellular matrix abnormalities.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.253740

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299432600015

    View details for PubMedID 22116819

  • beta 2-adrenergic receptors mediate cardioprotection through crosstalk with mitochondrial cell death pathways JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR CARDIOLOGY Fajardo, G., Zhao, M., Berry, G., Wong, L., Mochly-Rosen, D., Bernstein, D. 2011; 51 (5): 781-789

    Abstract

    ?-adrenergic receptors (?-ARs) modulate cardiotoxicity/cardioprotection through crosstalk with multiple signaling pathways. We have previously shown that ?2-ARs are cardioprotective during exposure to oxidative stress induced by doxorubicin (DOX). DOX cardiotoxicity is mediated in part through a Ca(2+)-dependent opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), however the signals linking a cell surface receptor like the ?2-AR to regulators of mitochondrial function are not clear. The objective of this study was to assess mechanisms of crosstalk between ?2-ARs and mitochondrial cell death pathways. DOX administered to WT mice resulted in no acute mortality, however 85% of ?2-/- mice died within 30 min. Several pro- and anti-survival pathways were altered. The pro-survival kinase, ?PKC, was decreased by 64% in ?2-/- after DOX vs WT (p<0.01); the ?PKC activator ??RACK partially rescued these mice (47% reduction in mortality). Activity of the pro-survival kinase Akt decreased by 76% in ?2-/- after DOX vs WT (p<0.01). The ?1-antagonist prazosin restored Akt activity to normal and also partially reversed the mortality (45%). Deletion of the ?2-AR increased rate of Ca(2+) release by 75% and peak [Ca(2+)](i) by 20% respectively in isolated cardiomyocytes; the Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil also partially rescued the ?2-/- (26%). Mitochondrial architecture was disrupted and complex I and II activities decreased by 40.9% and 34.6% respectively after DOX only in ?2-/-. The MPT blocker cyclosporine reduced DOX mortality by 41% and prazosin plus cyclosporine acted synergistically to decrease mortality by 85%. ?2-ARs activate pro-survival kinases and attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction during oxidative stress; absence of ?2-ARs enhances cardiotoxicity via negative regulation of survival kinases and enhancement of intracellular Ca(2+), thus predisposing the mitochondria to opening of the MPT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2011.06.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295604500018

    View details for PubMedID 21756913

  • The ISHLT working formulation for pathologic diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection in heart transplantation: Evolution and current status (2005-2011) JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Berry, G. J., Angelini, A., Burke, M. M., Bruneval, P., Fishbein, M. C., Hammond, E., Miller, D., Neil, D., Revelo, M. P., Rodriguez, E. R., Stewart, S., Tan, C. D., Winters, G. L., Kobashigawa, J., Mehra, M. R. 2011; 30 (6): 601-611

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2011.02.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290834600001

    View details for PubMedID 21555100

  • Primary cervical tracheal monophasic synovial sarcoma confirmed by SYT-SSX gene rearrangement JOURNAL OF LARYNGOLOGY AND OTOLOGY Corrales, C. E., Berry, G., Damrose, E. J. 2011; 125 (6): 651-654

    Abstract

    To review the existing diagnostic modalities and treatment for primary tracheal synovial sarcoma, and to report a case of primary cervical synovial sarcoma arising in the trachea.Retrospective.Head and neck surgery unit at a tertiary university centre.One case of primary cervical tracheal monophasic synovial sarcoma diagnosed by SYT-SSX gene rearrangement.This patient underwent surgical resection of the synovial sarcoma, together with tracheal resection and primary anastomosis assisted by laryngeal-releasing manoeuvres, without complication.Clinical, radiographical, pathological and surgical information were collected.One year post-operatively, there was no evidence of recurrence.Synovial sarcoma arising in the trachea is very rare. Diagnosis is confirmed by demonstrating the SYT-SSX gene rearrangement. The first-line treatment is surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0022215110002975

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292101800023

    View details for PubMedID 21281530

  • Identification and Classification of Acute Cardiac Rejection by Intragraft Transcriptional Profiling CIRCULATION Holweg, C. T., Potena, L., Luikart, H., Yu, T., Berry, G. J., Cooke, J. P., Valantine, H. A., Mocarski, E. S. 2011; 123 (20): 2236-U154

    Abstract

    Treatment of acute rejection (AR) in heart transplantation relies on histopathological grading of endomyocardial biopsies according to International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines. Intragraft gene expression profiling may be a way to complement histological evaluation.Transcriptional profiling was performed on 26 endomyocardial biopsies, and expression patterns were compared with the 1990 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation AR grades. Importantly, transcriptional profiles from settings with an equivalent AR grade appeared the same. In addition, grade 0 profiles could not be distinguished from 1A profiles, and grade 3A profiles could not be distinguished from 3B profiles. Comparing the AR groupings (0+1A, 1B, and 3A+3B), 0+1A showed more striking differences from 1B than from 3A+3B. When these findings were extrapolated to the 2005 revised guidelines, the combination of 1A and 1B into a single category (1R) appears to have brought together endomyocardial biopsies with different underlying processes that are not evident from histological evaluation. Grade 1B was associated with upregulated immune response genes, as 1 categorical distinction from grade 1A. Although grade 1B was distinct from the clinically relevant AR grades 3A and 3B, all of these grades shared a small number of overlapping pathways consistent with common physiological underpinnings.The gene expression similarities and differences identified here in different AR settings have the potential to revise the clinical perspective on acute graft rejection, pending the results of larger studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.913921

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290852200018

    View details for PubMedID 21555702

  • Clinical usefulness of a novel C1q assay to detect immunoglobulin G antibodies capable of fixing complement in sensitized pediatric heart transplant patients JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Chin, C., Chen, G., Sequeria, F., Berry, G., Siehr, S., Bernstein, D., Rosenthal, D., Reinhartz, O., Tyan, D. 2011; 30 (2): 158-163

    Abstract

    Donor-specific antibodies (DSA) against human leukocyte antigens complicate transplantation with the potential for acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Complement-fixing antibodies are required to initiate the complement cascade. Not all DSAs, however, can fix complement.A novel C1q assay was developed to detect the sub-set of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies capable of fixing complement. Sera from 18 pediatric heart transplant patients were analyzed for DSAs using a Luminex platform (Luminex Inc, Austin, TX) and commercially available single-antigen bead assay kits. Biopsy specimens were assessed for AMR using histopathologic criteria and immunohistochemical staining.During the study period, 5 patients had AMR; of these, 2 were C1q virtual crossmatch positive (VXM+) and had persistent C1q DSAs after transplant, and 3 were C1q VXM- but antibody developed immediately after transplant. A positive C1q assay in the immediate post-transplant period had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 100%, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity (Fisher exact p = 0.001). Of 11 patients who were IgG VXM+, 5 had AMR; the IgG VXM had a PPV of 45% and NPV of 100%, with 100% sensitivity and 54% specificity (Fisher exact p = 0.101).The C1q assay can detect a sub-set of antibodies capable of fixing complement and predicts AMR early after transplant. Avoiding only the donor antigens that would be recognized by the C1q assay may accelerate time to transplant by expansion of the donor pool and potentially allows transplantation of previously "incompatible" organs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2010.08.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286545200008

    View details for PubMedID 20951058

  • Pathologic Interpretation of Transbronchial Biopsy for Acute Rejection of Lung Allograft Is Highly Variable AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Arcasoy, S. M., Berry, G., Marboe, C. C., Tazelaar, H. D., Zamora, M. R., Wolters, H. J., Fang, K. C., Keshavjee, S. 2011; 11 (2): 320-328

    Abstract

    Despite the standardization of pathologic grading of acute rejection in transbronchial lung biopsies following lung transplantation, the reproducibility of pathologic diagnosis has not been adequately evaluated. To determine the interobserver variability for pathologic grading of acute rejection, 1566 biopsies from 845 subjects in the Lung Allograft Rejection Gene Expression Observational study were regraded by a pathology panel blinded to the original diagnosis and compared to the grade of acute rejection assigned by individual center pathologists. The study panel confirmed 49.1% of center pathologists' A0 grades, but upgraded 5.7% to A1 and 2.7% to grade ? A2 rejection; 42.5% were regraded as AX. Of 268 grade A1 samples, 21.2% were confirmed by the pathology panel; 18.7% were upgraded to ? A2 and 35.8% were downgraded to A0 with 24.3% being regraded as AX. Lastly, 53.5% of ? A2 cases were confirmed, but 15.7% were downgraded to grade A0 and 18.4% cases to A1, while 12.4% were regraded as AX. The kappa value for interobserver agreement was 0.183 (95%CI 0.147-0.220, p < 0.001). The results for B grade interpretation were similar. Suboptimal sampling is common and a high degree of variability exists in the pathologic interpretation of acute rejection in transbronchial biopsies.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2010.03382.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286626700019

    View details for PubMedID 21219569

  • Marked Tumor Response and Fatal Hemoptysis During Radiation for Lung Cancer in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient Taking Nelfinavir JOURNAL OF THORACIC ONCOLOGY Chapman, C. H., Shen, J., Filion, E. J., Tran, P. T., Hara, W., Asuncion, A., Marko, D., Wakelee, H., Berry, G. J., Dimmick, K. W., Loo, B. W., Green, J. 2009; 4 (12): 1587-1589

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272095500025

    View details for PubMedID 20009915

  • Salivary Gland Anlage Tumor in a Neonate Presenting with Respiratory Distress: Radiographic and Pathologic Correlation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF NEURORADIOLOGY Mogensen, M. A., Lin, A. C., Chang, K. W., Berry, G. J., Barnes, P. D., Fischbein, N. J. 2009; 30 (5): 1022-1023

    Abstract

    We present a case of congenital salivary gland anlage tumor (SGAT) of the nasal septum in a 2-week-old infant who had difficulty breathing through her nose since birth. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a circumscribed mass within the nasal cavity that did not communicate with the intracranial compartment. Differential diagnosis and clinical significance of recognizing this rare lesion are reviewed.

    View details for DOI 10.3174/ajnr.A1364

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266133000027

    View details for PubMedID 19112069

  • Right Ventricular Dysfunction Predicts Poor Outcome Following Hemodynamically Compromising Rejection JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Haddad, F., Fisher, P., Pham, M., Berry, G., Weisshaar, D., Kuppahally, S., Vrtovec, B., Deuse, T., Virani, S., Fearon, W., Valantine, H., Hunt, S. 2009; 28 (4): 312-319

    Abstract

    Hemodynamically compromising rejection (HCR) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity after heart transplantation. Right ventricular (RV) function is a strong predictor of outcome in patients with heart failure and myocarditis. The objective of the current study is to determine whether RV dysfunction predicts event-free survival in patients with HCR.Medical records of 548 heart transplant patients followed at Stanford University between January 1998 and January 2007 were reviewed. HCR was defined as a rejection episode requiring hospitalization for heart failure. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify risk factors for death or retransplantation at 1 year.HCR occurred in 71 patients (12.9%). Death or retransplantation at 1 year occurred in 28 patients (39%). Univariate analysis identified non-cellular rejection (odds ratio [OR] = 3.20, p = 0.021), the need for inotropic support (OR = 4.80, p = 0.007), RV dysfunction (OR = 4.63, p = 0.006), left ventricular ejection fraction (OR = 0.941, p = 0.031) and acute renal failure (OR = 3.82, p = 0.010) as predictors of death or retransplantation at 1 year. Multivariate analysis identified RV dysfunction (OR = 4.80, p = 0.007) and the need for inotropic support (OR = 5.00, p = 0.009) as predictors of death or retransplantation at 1 year.In the modern era of immunosuppression, HCR remains a major complication after heart transplantation. RV dysfunction was identified as a novel risk factor for death or retransplantation following HCR.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2008.12.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265042300003

    View details for PubMedID 19332256

  • Active bacterial myocarditis: A case report and review of the literature JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Haddad, F., Berry, G., Doyle, R. L., Martineau, P., Leung, T., Racine, N. 2007; 26 (7): 745-749

    Abstract

    Bacterial myocarditis (BM) is an uncommon cause of infectious myocarditis. BM is usually seen in the context of overwhelming sepsis or as part of a specific bacterial syndrome. The definitive diagnosis of bacterial myocarditis requires biopsy or morphologically proven active myocarditis with evidence of bacterial invasion or positive tissue cultures. The management of bacterial myocarditis consists of aggressive and early antibiotic or anti-toxin treatment, appropriate hemodynamic support, and treatment of arrhythmias or mechanical complications. We present a case of acute Listeria monocytogenes myocarditis in an immunocompetent patient and highlight the challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of bacterial myocarditis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2007.04.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248195700014

    View details for PubMedID 17613408

  • Rapid aneurysmal degeneration of a Stanford type B aortic dissection in a patient with Loeys-Dietz syndrome JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Lee, R. S., Fazel, S., Schwarze, U., Fleischmann, D., Berry, G. J., Liang, D., Miller, D. C., Mitchell, R. S. 2007; 134 (1): 242-U32

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2007.03.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247595300041

    View details for PubMedID 17599521

  • Mast cell-derived TNF can promote Th17 cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment in ovalbumin-challenged OTII mice BLOOD Nakae, S., Suto, H., Berry, G. J., Galli, S. J. 2007; 109 (9): 3640-3648

    Abstract

    Both mast cells and IL-17 can contribute to host defense and pathology in part by orchestrating neutrophil recruitment, but the possible role of mast cells in IL-17-induced inflammation remains to be defined. We found that mast cells and IL-17, but neither IFN-gamma nor FcRgamma signaling, contributed significantly to the antigen (Ag)-dependent airway neutrophilia elicited in ovalbumin-specific T-cell receptor (TCR)-expressing C57BL/6-OTII mice, and that IFN-gamma significantly suppressed IL-17-dependent airway neutrophilia in this setting. IL-18, IL-1beta, and TNF each contributed significantly to the development of Ag- and T helper 17 (Th17 cell)-mediated airway neutrophilia. Moreover, IL-17 enhanced mast cell TNF production in vitro, and mast cell-associated TNF contributed significantly to Ag- and Th17 cell-mediated airway neutrophilia in vivo. By contrast, we detected no significant role for the candidate mediators histamine, PGD(2), LTB(4), CXCL10, or IL-16, each of which can be produced by mast cells and other cell types, in the neutrophil infiltration elicited in this model. These findings establish that mast cells and mast cell-derived TNF can significantly enhance, by FcRgamma-independent mechanisms, the Ag- and Th17 cell-dependent development of a neutrophil-rich inflammatory response at a site of Ag challenge.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2006-09-046128

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246091400014

    View details for PubMedID 17197430

  • Thrombin-activatable procarboxypeptidase B regulates activated complement C5a in vivo BLOOD Nishimura, T., Myles, T., Piliposky, A. M., Kao, P. N., Berry, G. J., Leung, L. L. 2007; 109 (5): 1992-1997

    Abstract

    Plasma procarboxypeptidase B (proCPB) is activated by the endothelial thrombin-thrombomodulin [corrected] complex. Activated proCPB [corrected] (CPB) functions as a fibrinolysis inhibitor, but it may play a broader role by inactivating inflammatory mediators. To test this hypothesis, C5a-induced alveolitis was studied in wild-type (WT) and proCPB-deficient mice (proCPB-/-). C5a-induced alveolitis, as measured by cell counts and total protein contents in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, was markedly enhanced in the proCPB-/- mice. E229K thrombin, a thrombin mutant with minimal clotting activity but retaining its ability to activate protein C and proCPB, attenuated C5a-induced alveolitis in WT but not in proCPB-/- mice, indicating that its beneficial effect is mediated primarily by its activation of proCPB. Lung tissue histology confirmed these cellular inflammatory responses. Delayed administration of E229K thrombin after the C5a instillation was ineffective in reducing alveolitis in WT mice, suggesting that the beneficial effect of E229K thrombin is due to the direct inhibition of C5a by CPB. Our studies show that thrombin-activatable proCPB, in addition to its role in fibrinolysis, has intrinsic anti-inflammatory functions. Its activation, along with protein C, by the endothelial thrombin-TM complex represents a homeostatic response to counteract the inflammatory mediators generated at the site of vascular injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2006-03-012567

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244641100036

    View details for PubMedID 17105819

  • Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma: Diagnostic pitfalls with emphasis on differential diagnosis ADVANCES IN ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY Sangoi, A. R., Berry, G. 2007; 14 (1): 11-16

    Abstract

    In the upper aerodigestive tract, respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH) is described as a polypoid proliferation of glands lined by ciliated respiratory epithelium that seem to invaginate downward into the submucosa while maintaining direct continuity with the surface mucosa. The lesion can be confused with a variety of benign and malignant entities, including inflammatory polyp, inverted schneiderian papilloma, and low-grade sinonasal adenocarcinoma. In reviewing the historical, clinical, gross, and histopathologic features of REAH and its subtypes, we elucidate how the distinction of REAH with florid mucinous metaplasia from low-grade adenocarcinoma can be challenging particularly in the setting of small biopsy samples. Diagnostic criteria are reviewed with emphasis on key distinguishing characteristics. The significance of this distinction is paramount in preventing unwarranted surgery and untoward consequences for the patient.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243573000002

    View details for PubMedID 17198306

  • Janus kinase 3 inhibition with CP-690,550 prevents allograft vasculopathy TRANSPLANT INTERNATIONAL Rousvoal, G., Si, M., Lau, M., Zhang, S., Berry, G. J., Flores, M. G., Changelian, P. S., Reitz, B. A., Borie, D. C. 2006; 19 (12): 1014-1021

    Abstract

    Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) mediates signal transduction from cytokine receptors using the common gamma chain. The rationally designed inhibitor of JAK3, CP-690,550, prevents acute allograft rejection in rodents and in nonhuman primates. Here we investigated the ability of CP-690,550, to prevent allograft vasculopathy in a rodent model of aorta transplantation. Aortas from AxC Irish (RT1(a)) or Lewis (RT1(l)) rats were heterotopically transplanted into the infra-renal aorta of Lewis recipients and harvested at 28 or 56 days. Treated recipients received CP-690,550 by osmotic pumps (mean drug exposure of 110 +/- 38 ng/ml). Significant intimal hyperplasia was demonstrated in untreated allografts when compared with isografts at 28 days (2.08 +/- 0.85% vs. 0.43 +/- 0.2% luminal obliteration, respectively, P = 0.001) and 56 days (5.3 +/- 2.4% vs. 0.38 +/- 0.3%, P = 0.002). Treatment caused a 51% reduction in intimal hyperplasia at day 56. CP-690,550-treated animals also had a significant reduction of donor-specific IgG production and of the gene expression for suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 and with unchanged levels of expression of RANTES, IP-10 and transforming growth factor-beta1. These results are the first to show that JAK3 blockade by CP-690,550 effectively prevents allograft vasculopathy in this rat model of aorta transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1432-2277.2006.00387.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241740200009

    View details for PubMedID 17081232

  • Isolated giant cell myocarditis in the atrium: An incidental finding? PACE-PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Ahmad, I., Miller, D. C., Berry, G. J., Hsia, H. H., Wang, P. J., Al-Ahmad, A. 2006; 29 (10): 1179-1180

    Abstract

    Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) is an uncommon disorder that affects ventricular myocardium causing severe left ventricular dysfunction and ventricular arrhythmias. We report a case of GCM that only affected the atrium sparing the ventricle.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241995100019

    View details for PubMedID 17038151

  • The use of endobronchial valve device to eliminate air leak RESPIRATORY MEDICINE Fann, J. I., Berry, G. J., Burdon, T. A. 2006; 100 (8): 1402-1406

    Abstract

    We evaluated an endobronchial valve device in the treatment of surgically created air leak or pneumothorax by eliminating antegrade flow.Six sheep underwent general anesthesia with positive pressure ventilation and left thoracotomy. After division of the mediastinal pleura, the contralateral cranial lobe was identified and a 2.5 cmx1.5 cm laceration created with resultant air leak. Using bronchoscopy, we deployed a valve device in the bronchus of the injured segment. Chest drainage tube was placed and the thoracotomy closed. At 1 week (n=3) and 4 weeks (n=3), the animals underwent general anesthesia, bronchoscopy and right thoracotomy.All animals survived the procedure. Bronchoscopic valve device placement in the segmental bronchus resolved the air leak immediately. After closure of thoracotomy, the chest tube demonstrated minimal drainage with no air leak. At 1 and 4 weeks, bronchoscopy showed no change in device location, and the treated segments were atelectatic with fibrous scar at the injured site.Collapse of a selected lung segment with resolution of air leak can be achieved using bronchoscopically implanted valve device. The valve device may facilitate treatment of patients with post-surgical or post-traumatic persistent air leak.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.rmed.2005.11.011.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239219000014

    View details for PubMedID 16376535

  • Images in cardiovascular medicine. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for myocarditis: effective use in medical decision making. Circulation Fenster, B. E., Chan, F. P., Valentine, H. A., Yang, E., McConnell, M. V., Berry, G. J., Yang, P. C. 2006; 113 (22): e842-3

    View details for PubMedID 16754807

  • Glycolipid activation of invariant T cell receptor(+) NK T cells is sufficient to induce airway hyperreactivity independent of conventional CD4(+) T cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Meyer, E. H., Goya, S., Akbari, O., Berry, G. J., Savage, P. B., Kronenberg, M., Nakayama, T., DeKruyff, R. H., Umetsu, D. T. 2006; 103 (8): 2782-2787

    Abstract

    Asthma is an inflammatory lung disease, in which conventional CD4+ T cells producing IL-4/IL-13 appear to play an obligatory pathogenic role. Here we show, in a mouse model of asthma, that activation of pulmonary IL-4/IL-13 producing invariant TCR+ CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells is sufficient for the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma, in the absence of conventional CD4+ T cells and adaptive immunity. Respiratory administration of glycolipid antigens that specifically activate NKT cells (alpha-GalactosylCeramide and a Sphingomonas bacterial glycolipid) rapidly induced AHR and inflammation typically associated with protein allergen administration. Naïve MHC class II-deficient mice, which lack conventional CD4+ T but have NKT cells, showed exaggerated baseline AHR and, when challenged with alpha-GalactosylCeramide, demonstrated even greater AHR. These studies demonstrate an expanded role for NKT cells, in which NKT cells not only produce cytokines that influence adaptive immunity but also function as critical effector cells that can induce AHR. These results suggest that NKT cells responding to glycolipid antigens, as well as conventional CD4+ T cells responding to peptide antigens, may be synergistic in the induction of AHR, although in some cases, each may independently induce AHR.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0510282103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235554900055

    View details for PubMedID 16478801

  • Recurrence of pulmonary intravascular bronchoalveolar tumor with mediastinal metastasis 20 years later RESPIRATORY MEDICINE Chen, T. M., Donington, J., Mak, G., Berry, G. J., Ruoss, S. J., Rosen, G. D., Upadhyay, D. 2006; 100 (2): 367-370

    Abstract

    Pulmonary intravascular bronchoalveolar tumor (IVBAT) also recognized as pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, is a rare malignant vascular tumor of unknown etiology. IVBAT is a tumor of multicentric origin and the lungs are rarely involved, with only about 60 cases of pulmonary IVBAT described in the literature. The prognosis is unpredictable, with life expectancy ranging from 1 to 15 years. We report an unusual case of pulmonary IVBAT that recurred in the lung with metastasis to the mediastinum.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.rmed.2005.05.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235243000024

    View details for PubMedID 15990286

  • Dual in vivo magnetic resonance evaluation of magnetically labeled mouse embryonic stem cells and cardiac function at 1.5 T MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Arai, T., Kofidis, T., Bulte, J. W., de Bruin, J., Venook, R. D., Berry, G. J., McConnell, M. V., Quertermous, T., Robbins, R. C., Yang, P. C. 2006; 55 (1): 203-209

    Abstract

    Cell therapy has demonstrated the potential to restore injured myocardium. A reliable in vivo imaging method to localize transplanted cells and monitor their restorative effects will enable a systematic investigation of this therapeutic modality. The dual MRI capability of imaging both magnetically labeled mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) and their restorative effects on cardiac function in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction is demonstrated. Serial in vivo MR detection of transplanted mESC and monitoring of the mESC-treated myocardium was conducted over a 4-week period using a 1.5 T clinical scanner. During the 4-week duration, the mESC-treated myocardium demonstrated sustained improvement of the left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and conservation of LV mass. Furthermore, no significant difference of their restorative effects on the cardiac function was created by the magnetic labeling of mESC. Thus, in vivo MRI enables simultaneous detection of transplanted mESC and their therapeutic effect on the injured myocardium.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.20702

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234342800025

    View details for PubMedID 16315206

  • Recurrence of iron deposition in the cardiac allograft in a patient with non-HFE hemochromatosis JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Kuppahally, S. S., Hunt, S. A., Valantine, H. A., Berry, G. J. 2006; 25 (1): 144-147

    Abstract

    We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with a diagnosis of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who underwent cardiac transplantation. The results of her initial iron studies were normal, but hemochromatosis was suspected after microscopy of the explanted heart revealed iron deposition. By 6 months post-transplantation, iron deposition was detected in her surveillance endomyocardial biopsy specimens and studies then confirmed the existence of non-HFE hemochromatosis. The patient has been stable on treatment with regular phlebotomies and a low vitamin C diet.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2005.08.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234610200025

    View details for PubMedID 16399547

  • Differential cardioprotective/cardiotoxic effects mediated by ss-adrenergic receptor subtypes AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY Bernstein, D., Fajardo, G., Zhao, M. M., Urashima, T., Powers, J., Berry, G., Kobilka, B. K. 2005; 289 (6): H2441-H2449

    Abstract

    Recent data suggest that beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes couple differentially to signaling pathways regulating cardiac function vs. cardiac remodeling. To dissect the roles of beta1- vs. beta2-receptors in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy, doxorubicin was administered to beta1, beta2, and beta1/beta2 knockout (-/-) and wild-type mice. Expression and activation of MAPKs were measured. Wild-type and beta1-/- mice showed no acute cardiovascular effects, whereas beta2-/- mice all died within 30 min. The additional deletion of the beta1-receptor (beta1/beta2-/-) totally rescued this toxicity. beta2-/- mice developed decreased contractile function, hypotension, QTc prolongation, and ST segment changes and a 20-fold increase in p38 MAPK activity not seen in the other genotypes. The MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 rescued beta2-/- mice from this acute toxicity. The enhanced toxicity in beta2-/- mice was also recapitulated in wild-type mice with the beta2-selective antagonist ICI-118,551, although the rescue effect of the beta1-deletion was not recapitulated using the beta1-selective antagonist metoprolol or the nonselective beta-antagonist propranolol. These data suggest that beta2-adrenergic receptors play a cardioprotective role in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy, whereas beta1-adrenergic receptors mediate at least some of the acute cardiotoxicity of anthracyclines. Differential activation of MAPK isoforms, previously shown in vitro to regulate beta-agonist as well as doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, appears to play a role in mediating the differential effects of these beta-adrenergic receptor subtypes in vivo.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpheart.00005.2005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233176600023

    View details for PubMedID 16040722

  • Lymphocytic myocarditis after lung transplantation JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Weinkauf, J., Walia, R., Berry, G. J., Vagelos, R., Faul, J. L. 2005; 24 (8): 1163-1165

    Abstract

    This study reports the development of lymphocytic myocarditis in a bilateral lung allograft recipient. A 23-year-old woman developed congestive heart failure and severe left ventricular dysfunction 32 months after a bilateral lung allograft for cystic fibrosis. She had taken oral acyclovir for infectious mononucleosis that was diagnosed 11 months previously. Her viral load for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) increased, and an echocardiogram revealed a left ventricular ejection fraction of 25% and endomyocardial biopsy revealed lymphocytic myocarditis. She received valacyclovir (1 g x 3 times daily) and made a full recovery 6 months later.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2004.07.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231300600040

    View details for PubMedID 16102466

  • Pathology of radiation and anthracycline cardiotoxicity PEDIATRIC BLOOD & CANCER Berry, G. J., Jorden, M. 2005; 44 (7): 630-637

    Abstract

    Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) and anthracycline cardiotoxicity are two patterns of cardiac dysfunction caused by therapeutic interventions to treat malignancies. They occur in both the pediatric and adult populations and there is evidence to suggest that pediatric patients are at greater risk. This is due in part to the longer survival rates but also reflects increased susceptibility to the attendant complications caused by both therapies. Radiation can cause injury to all the components of the heart, including the vasculature, while anthracycline toxicity is generally limited to the myocardium.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/pbc.20346

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228789300010

    View details for PubMedID 15825155

  • TIM-1 induces T cell activation and inhibits the development of peripheral tolerance NATURE IMMUNOLOGY Umetsu, S. E., Lee, W. L., McIntire, J. J., Downey, L., Sanjanwala, B., Akbari, O., Berry, G. J., Nagumo, H., Freeman, G. J., Umetsu, D. T., DeKruyff, R. H. 2005; 6 (5): 447-454

    Abstract

    We have examined the function of TIM-1, encoded by a gene identified as an 'atopy susceptibility gene' (Havcr1*), and demonstrate here that TIM-1 is a molecule that costimulates T cell activation. TIM-1 was expressed on CD4(+) T cells after activation and its expression was sustained preferentially in T helper type 2 (T(H)2) but not T(H)1 cells. In vitro stimulation of CD4(+) T cells with a TIM-1-specific monoclonal antibody and T cell receptor ligation enhanced T cell proliferation; in T(H)2 cells, such costimulation greatly enhanced synthesis of interleukin 4 but not interferon-gamma. In vivo, the use of antibody to TIM-1 plus antigen substantially increased production of both interleukin 4 and interferon-gamma in unpolarized T cells, prevented the development of respiratory tolerance, and increased pulmonary inflammation. Our studies suggest that immunotherapies that regulate TIM-1 function may downmodulate allergic inflammatory diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ni1186

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228634300016

    View details for PubMedID 15793575

  • Recurrent lymphoma of the lung - Computed tomography appearance JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ASSISTED TOMOGRAPHY Hwang, G. L., Leung, A. N., Zinck, S. E., Berry, G. J. 2005; 29 (2): 228-230

    Abstract

    To describe the computed tomography findings of recurrent lymphoma involving the lung.Computed tomography scans of 15 patients with biopsy-proven recurrent lymphoma involving the lung were reviewed. Group mean age of enrolled patients was 38 years (range: 14-68 years). Pathologic specimens were obtained by thoracoscopic or open wedge biopsy (n = 8), transbronchial biopsy (n = 5), and fine needle aspiration (n = 2).Nodules, the most common manifestation, were present in all patients; nodules were greater than 10 in number in 12 (80%) of 15 cases and predominantly 6-10 mm in size in 8 cases (53%). Nodular distribution was bilateral and multilobar except in 2 patients, in whom a solitary pulmonary nodule was found. Lymphadenopathy was the second most common finding; it was seen in 13 (87%) of 15 cases and involved an average of 5 nodal stations.Recurrent lymphoma in the lung most commonly manifests as multiple pulmonary nodules that are typically bilateral and multilobar in distribution.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228030400014

    View details for PubMedID 15772542

  • Split-thickness skin graft attachment to bone lacking periosteum ARCHIVES OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD & NECK SURGERY Tran, L. E., Berry, G. J., Fee, W. E. 2005; 131 (2): 124-128

    Abstract

    To develop an animal model to investigate the survival of split-thickness skin grafts (STSGs) on bone without periosteum, to compare STSG attachment to bone with and without periosteum, and to determine the effect of fibrin glue on STSG attachment to bone.Prospective laboratory study.University laboratory.Sprague-Dawley rats.Percentage of survival of the STSGs at 2 weeks determined independently by the authors and a third, blinded head and neck surgeon.In experiment 1, which included 40 rats, the sutured STSGs showed an average survival rate of 38% when attached to bone with periosteum, 6% when attached to bare bone, and 10% when attached to bare bone using fibrin glue. The poor survival rate was thought to be attributable to the animals scratching at their bolster dressings. In experiment 2, 18 animals underwent a posteriorly based U-shaped flap of skin and subcutaneous tissue. The grafts were placed and isolated from the overlying flap with a biosynthetic wound dressing. The sutured STSG survival rates were as follows: 87% when attached to bone with periosteum, 94% when attached to bare bone, and 74% when attached to bare bone using fibrin glue.The survival of STSGs attached to bare bone was comparable to that of STSGs attached to bone with periosteum when grafts were protected with the skin-subcutaneous flap. The STSGs that were fixed with 0.1 cc of fibrin glue demonstrated poorer survival rates than those attached with sutures and were associated with more seromas.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226817900006

    View details for PubMedID 15723943

  • Improved assessment of graft function by echocardiography in cynomolgus monkey recipients of hDAF-transgenic pig cardiac xenografts JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Stalder, M., Tye, T., Lam, T. T., Chan, M. C., Berry, G. J., Borie, D. C., Morris, R. E. 2005; 24 (2): 215-221

    Abstract

    The current practice of evaluating heterotopic heart xenografts by palpation allows only detection of severe graft dysfunction, which indicates terminal graft failure. Therefore, we evaluated whether echocardiography is a better method of detecting early graft dysfunction as a marker of rejection in abdominal pig heart xenografts in cynomolgus monkeys.Six cynomolgus monkeys received heterotopic heart transplants from pig donors transgenic for human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF). Induction therapy consisted of either cyclophosphamide or rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin. Maintenance therapy consisted of cyclosporine or tacrolimus, steroids, and sodium mycophenolate or mycophenolate mofetil, GAS914 (alphaGal oligosaccharide containing glycoconjugate), and for some animals TP10 (soluble complement receptor type 1). Echocardiography was performed immediately after transplantation and 3 times a week after surgery. We scored contractility and measured left ventricular wall thickness. Impaired contractility or increased wall thickness were considered graft dysfunction and were treated with pulse steroids. Palpation score was recorded daily. We also obtained myocardial biopsy specimens.Palpation score remained at 4 out of 4 in all animals until 2 to 5 days before final graft failure, whereas echocardiography detected several episodes of impaired graft function, either decreased left ventricular contractility or increased left ventricular wall thickness before graft failure. Treatment with pulse steroids improved graft function only during early episodes of graft impairment. Final graft failure was steroid resistant and caused by severe vascular rejection.Echocardiography is a better method of assessing graft dysfunction than is palpation. Therefore, echocardiography may detect early rejection episodes of heterotopic heart xenografts in non-human primates.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2003.09.041

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226922800017

    View details for PubMedID 15701440

  • Scedosporium apiospermum soft tissue infection successfully treated with voriconazole: Potential pitfalls in the transition from intravenous to oral therapy JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY Schaenman, J. M., DiGiulio, D. B., Mirels, L. F., McClenny, N. M., Berry, G. J., Fothergill, A. W., Rinaldi, M. G., Montoya, J. G. 2005; 43 (2): 973-977

    Abstract

    An immunocompromised patient with an invasive soft tissue infection due to Scedosporium apiospermum was successfully treated with voriconazole and surgical debridement. After transition from intravenous to oral therapy, successive adjustments of the oral dose were required to achieve complete resolution. For soft tissue infections due to molds characterized by thin, septate hyphae branching at acute angles, voriconazole should be considered a first-line antifungal agent. The potential usefulness of plasma voriconazole levels for guiding optimal therapy should be investigated.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JCM.43.2.973-977.2005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227045600082

    View details for PubMedID 15695722

  • Giant cell myocarditis: a rare cardiovascular manifestation in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus Chung, L., Berry, G. J., Chakravarty, E. F. 2005; 14 (2): 166-169

    Abstract

    Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) is a rare form of myocarditis with a median survival of less than one year. It has been reported to occur in patients with various underlying autoimmune diseases; however, no cases of GCM have been described in patients with clear evidence of underlying systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The presentation of GCM may mimic that of lupus myocarditis, including an initial response to immunosuppression. Despite initial clinical similarities, lupus myocarditis and GCM are histologically distinct entities with dramatic differences in prognosis. We report herein a patient with a longstanding history of SLE, who presented acutely with myocarditis, responded well to initial immunosuppression and then subsequently died of progressive heart failure that was found to be due to GCM. Endomyocardial biopsy can help define diagnosis and prognosis of lupus patients presenting with myocarditis, and early referral for cardiac transplantation should be considered in patients diagnosed with GCM.

    View details for PubMedID 15751823

  • Hyperacute rejection of hDAF-transgenic pig organ xenografts in cynomolgus monkeys: influence of pre-existing anti-pig antibodies and prevention by the alpha GAL glycoconjugate GAS914 XENOTRANSPLANTATION Lam, T. T., Hausen, B., Boeke-Purkis, K., Paniagua, R., Lau, M., Hook, L., Berry, G., Higgins, J., Duthaler, R. O., Katopodis, A. G., Robbins, R., Reitz, B., Borie, D., Schuurman, H. J., Morris, R. E. 2004; 11 (6): 517-524

    Abstract

    Our introductory pig-to-cynomolgus monkey heart or kidney transplantation using organs from pigs transgenic for human decay-accelerating factor (hDAF), showed a high incidence of hyperacute rejection (HAR), which was ascribed to extraordinary high levels of anti-pig antibodies. We evaluated the efficacy of GAS914, a Gal alpha 1-3Gal trisaccharide linked to a poly-l-lysine backbone, in inhibition of HAR.hDAF transgenic heterotopic heart (n = 15) or life-supporting kidney (n = 8) transplantation included induction with cyclophosphamide or anti-thymocyte globulin, and maintenance with cyclosporine or tacrolimus, steroids and mycophenolate sodium/mofetil. Four doses of GAS914 were given before transplantation. Rejection was confirmed by graft histology, and anti-pig antibody levels were determined in various assays.Four of six heart transplants without GAS914 treatment showed HAR. Nine subsequent transplants with GAS914 pre-treatment, did not show HAR (chi-square, P < 0.05). Two of four kidney transplants without GAS914 treatment ended with HAR. Four subsequent transplants with GAS914 did not show HAR. Animals with HAR showed extremely high antibody levels. Samples just before transplantation showed significantly higher antibody levels in recipients presenting with HAR. In all assays antibody levels were significantly lowered by GAS914 pre-treatment.HAR of hDAF solid organs could be ascribed to high levels of anti-pig antibodies. It is hypothesized that the hDAF transgene shows a threshold in efficacy, above which an overwhelming attack by antibodies and complement activation cannot be modulated to prevent HAR. HAR does not occur when animals with lower levels are used, or when antibodies are effectively depleted from the circulation by GAS914 treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1399-3089.2004.00173.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224432900005

    View details for PubMedID 15479461

  • Induction of T helper type 1-like regulatory cells that express Foxp3 and protect against airway hyper-reactivity NATURE IMMUNOLOGY Stock, P., Akbari, O., Berry, G., Freeman, G. J., DeKruyff, R. H., Umetsu, D. T. 2004; 5 (11): 1149-1156

    Abstract

    The range of regulatory T cell (T(R) cell) types that control immune responses is poorly understood. We describe here a population of T(R) cells that developed in vivo from naive CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells during a T helper type 1 (T(H)1)-polarized response, distinct from CD25(+) T(R) cells. These antigen-specific T(R) cells were induced by CD8alpha(+) DCs, produced both interleukin 10 and interferon-gamma, and potently inhibited the development of airway hyper-reactivity. These T(R) cells expressed the transcription factors Foxp3 and T-bet, indicating that these T(R) cells are related to T(H)1 cells. Thus, adaptive T(R) cells are heterogeneous and comprise T(H)1-like T(R) cells as well as previously described T(H)2-like T(R) cells, which express Foxp3 and are induced during the development of respiratory tolerance by CD8alpha(-) DCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ni1122

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224692700012

    View details for PubMedID 15448689

  • Gastric pacing for severe gastroparesis in a heart-lung transplant recipient JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Yiannopoulos, A., Shafazand, S., Ziedalski, T., Berry, G. J., Robbins, R. C., Theodore, J., Faul, J. L. 2004; 23 (3): 371-374

    Abstract

    Gastroparesis is a serious complication of lung and heart-lung transplantation that can lead to malnutrition, gastroesophageal reflux, aspiration pneumonia and deteriorating lung function. Some patients with severe gastroparesis have symptoms that are refractory to dietary modifications and gastric promotility agents and require surgery. We describe the successful use of gastric pacing for the management of intractable gastroparesis, malnutrition and recurrent aspiration in a heart-lung allograft recipient. Lung transplant recipients with severe gastroparesis may benefit from gastric pacing.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1053-2498(03)00188-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220155700015

    View details for PubMedID 15019648

  • Noncirrhotic portal hypertension in association with juvenile nephropathic cystinosis: Case presentation and review of the literature JOURNAL OF INHERITED METABOLIC DISEASE DiDomenico, P., Berry, G., Bass, D., Fridge, J., Sarwal, M. 2004; 27 (5): 693-699

    Abstract

    We report a case of portal hypertension and oesophageal varices arising in an 18-year-old female renal transplant recipient with juvenile nephropathic cystinosis diagnosed at 6 years of age. The patient had a history of poor compliance with her prescribed cysteamine therapy. Routine examination revealed normal liver function without hepatomegaly but asymptomatic splenomegaly. An abdominal ultrasound suggested mild oesophageal varices, confirmed later on endoscopy. A liver biopsy revealed an abundance of cystine crystals within the hepatic Kupffer cells, with preserved hepatic architecture. Although the pathophysiology of this rare complication is unclear, in the absence of other aetiologies the likely cause is the patient's poorly controlled cystinosis. As cystinotic patients live longer with improved renal transplant management and cysteamine therapy, it is of interest to characterize the long-term course of the illness after renal transplantation. An understanding of the pathophysiology of hepatic dysfunction will be required to manage this potential late complication of the disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224100100019

    View details for PubMedID 15669688

  • Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition decreases ischemia-reperfusion injury after lung transplantation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Soccal, P. M., Gasche, Y., Miniati, D. N., Hoyt, G., Berry, G. J., Doyle, R. L., Theodore, J., Robbins, R. C. 2004; 4 (1): 41-50

    Abstract

    Increased microvascular permeability and extravasation of inflammatory cells are key events of lung ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in IR-induced alveolar capillary membrane disruption after experimental lung transplantation. We used a rat model of lung orthotopic transplantation (n = 86) with a prolonged cold ischemic phase. MMP2 and MMP9 were elevated 4 h after the onset of ischemia and further increased during reperfusion. Compared to sham values, the alveolar-capillary membrane permeability increased by 105% and 82.6% after 4 h of ischemia and 2 h or 24 h of reperfusion, respectively. A 4- and 5-fold increase of the infiltration of ischemic tissue by neutrophils was also observed after 2 h and 24 h of reperfusion. The PO2/FIO2 ratio dropped significantly from 244 to 76.6 after 2 h of reperfusion and from 296.4 to 127.6 after 24 h of reperfusion. A nonselective inhibitor of MMP, administered to the rats and added to the preservation solution, reduced significantly the alveolar-capillary leakage, the transmigration of neutrophils and improved gas exchanges in animals submitted to 4 h of ischemia combined with 2 h or 24 h of reperfusion. We conclude that inhibition of MMP attenuates IR injury after experimental lung transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1046/j.1600-6135.2003.00277.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187242700008

    View details for PubMedID 14678033

  • Thoracic lymphatic disorders. Lymphatic research and biology Davis, K. K., Berry, G. J., Raffin, T. A., Faul, J. L. 2004; 2 (3): 131-137

    Abstract

    Thoracic complications of lymphatic disorders can culminate in respiratory failure and death and should be considered in any patient with a lymphatic disease and clinical or radiographic evidence of chest disease. Congenital lymphatic disorders are being increasingly recognized in the adult population. The spectrum of thoracic manifestations of lymphatic disorders ranges from incidental radiographic findings to diffuse lymphatic disease with respiratory failure. This article serves to review some recent advances that allow improved diagnosis and management of thoracic lymphatic disorders. Herein, we describe their anatomical and physiologic effects, the time course of their progression, and the therapies that are currently available. The management of malignant (cancerous) lymphatic disorders of the thorax is beyond the scope of this paper.

    View details for PubMedID 15609812

  • Ablation of mitral annular and leaflet muscle: effects on annular and leaflet dynamics AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-HEART AND CIRCULATORY PHYSIOLOGY Timek, T. A., Lai, D. T., Dagum, P., Tibayan, F., Daughters, G. T., Liang, D., Berry, G. J., Miller, D. C., Ingels, N. B. 2003; 285 (4): H1668-H1674

    Abstract

    Mitral annular (MA) and leaflet three-dimensional (3-D) dynamics were examined after circumferential phenol ablation of the MA and anterior mitral leaflet (AML) muscle. Radiopaque markers were sutured to the left ventricle, MA, and both mitral leaflets in 18 sheep. In 10 sheep, phenol was applied circumferentially to the atrial surface of the mitral annulus and the hinge region of the AML, whereas 8 sheep served as controls. Animals were studied with biplane video fluoroscopy for computation of 3-D mitral annular area (MAA) and leaflet shape. MAA contraction (MAACont) was determined from maximum to minimum value. Presystolic MAA (PS-MAACont) reduction was calculated as the percentage of total reduction occurring before end diastole. Phenol ablation decreased PS-MAACont (72 +/- 6 vs. 47 +/- 31%, P = 0.04) and delayed valve closure (31 +/- 11 vs. 57 +/- 25 ms, P = 0.017). In control, the AML had a compound sigmoid shape; after phenol, this shape was entirely concave to the atrium during valve closure. These data indicate that myocardial fibers on the atrial side of the valve influence the 3-D dynamic geometry and shape of the MA and AML.

    View details for DOI 10.1152/ajpheart.00179.2003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185249900037

    View details for PubMedID 12969884

  • Simvastatin rescues rats from fatal pulmonary hypertension by inducing apoptosis of neointimal smooth muscle cells CIRCULATION Nishimura, T., Vaszar, L. T., Faul, J. L., Zhao, G. H., Berry, G. J., Shi, L. F., Qiu, D. M., Benson, G., Pearl, R. G., Kao, P. N. 2003; 108 (13): 1640-1645

    Abstract

    Pulmonary vascular injury by toxins can induce neointimal formation, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), right ventricular failure, and death. We showed previously that simvastatin attenuates smooth muscle neointimal proliferation and pulmonary hypertension in pneumonectomized rats injected with the alkaloid toxin monocrotaline. The present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of simvastatin and its mechanism of reversing established neointimal vascular occlusion and pulmonary hypertension.Pneumonectomized rats injected with monocrotaline at 4 weeks demonstrated severe PAH at 11 weeks (mean pulmonary artery pressure [mPAP]=42 versus 17 mm Hg in normal rats) and death by 15 weeks. When rats with severe PAH received simvastatin (2 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) by gavage) from week 11, there was 100% survival and reversal of PAH after 2 weeks (mPAP=36 mm Hg) and 6 weeks (mPAP=24 mm Hg) of therapy. Simvastatin treatment reduced right ventricular hypertrophy and reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of pathological smooth muscle cells in the neointima and medial walls of pulmonary arteries. Longitudinal transcriptional profiling revealed that simvastatin downregulated the inflammatory genes fos, jun, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and upregulated the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1a.Simvastatin reverses pulmonary arterial neointimal formation and PAH after toxic injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000087592.47401.37

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185624500032

    View details for PubMedID 12963647

  • Treatment by mycophenolate mofetil of advanced graft vascular disease in non-human primate recipients of orthotopic aortic allografts AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Klupp, J., Dambrin, C., Hibi, K., Luna, J., Suzuki, T., Hausen, B., Birsan, T., van Gelder, T., Fitzgerald, P. J., Berry, G., Morris, R. E. 2003; 3 (7): 817-829

    Abstract

    Failure to control chronic graft dysfunction [e.g. graft vascular disease (GVD)] is the primary cause of immunologic graft failure. This is the first study of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) for the treatment of GVD in non-human primate recipients of aortic allografts. Abdominal aortic allografts were exchanged between mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) -mismatched, blood-group-compatible cynomolgus monkeys. Six control recipients were untreated. Individualized treatment with frequent dose adjustments of MMF insured that treatment was close to the maximum tolerated dose (mean 99.2 mg/kg/day). Immune-mediated injury proceeded unhindered until day 45, after which MMF treatment began. Changes in intimal volume (IV) were quantified by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and compared to histology on day 105. Serial IVUS measurements of IV (mm(3)) in controls showed progressive GVD. In four out of six animals, MMF was well tolerated, thus enabling optimum treatment; in all these animals, IV was significantly less than in the control animals (p = 0.02). In the two remaining animals, high doses were not tolerated; at day 105, there was no significant difference in IV between them and the controls. We found a significant correlation between the mean MMF tolerated dose and the inhibition of progression of IV (r = -0.88, p = 0.015). When high MMF doses were tolerated, MMF slowed progression of GVD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184032600007

    View details for PubMedID 12814473

  • Sirolimus (rapamycin) monotherapy prevents graft vascular disease in nonhuman primate recipients of orthotopic aortic allografts CIRCULATION Dambrin, C., Klupp, J., Birsan, T., Luna, J., Suzuki, T., Lam, T., Stahr, P., Hausen, B., Christians, U., Fitzgerald, P., Berry, G., Morris, R. 2003; 107 (18): 2369-2374

    Abstract

    Delayed treatment with sirolimus (SRL) halts progression of graft vascular disease (GVD) in nonhuman primate (NHP) aortic allograft recipients. In this study, we investigated whether SRL monotherapy prevents the development of GVD.Pairs of 3-cm infrarenal aortic segments were exchanged between mixed lymphocyte reaction-mismatched, blood group-compatible NHPs (n=12). Six NHPs were untreated controls, and 6 were treated orally with SRL starting on the day of transplantation. Follow-up was 105 days. SRL doses were adjusted individually by assessing SRL blood concentrations, immune function, and clinical status. The severity of GVD was determined every 3 weeks by intravascular ultrasound, which quantified intimal area (IA) and intimal volume (IV) for the middle 1-cm graft segments. The mean+/-SEM SRL plasma levels were 14.5+/-9 ng/mL. In grafts from treated NHPs, IA and IV values on days 63, 84, and 105 were significantly lower than for controls (P<0.05 to P<0.001). On day 105, in the grafts from SRL-treated NHPs compared with grafts from controls, values (mean+/-SEM) were IA, 2.9+/-0.9 versus 5.5+/-0.7 mm2, P<0.001 and IV, 29.6+/-4.6 versus 55.2+/-2.8 mm3, P<0.001; IA and IV values for grafts from SRL-treated NHPs did not increase significantly between days 21 and 105.We show that SRL monotherapy prevented GVD in NHP aortic allograft recipients, suggesting the value of SRL for controlling GVD in clinical transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000065576.80196.A4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182807000028

    View details for PubMedID 12719285

  • Effect of a surgical aortocaval fistula on mono crotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Nishimura, T., Faul, J. L., Berry, G. J., Kao, P. N., Pearl, R. G. 2003; 31 (4): 1213-1218

    Abstract

    Increased pulmonary blood flow is believed to contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension. We investigated the effect of overcirculation via an aortocaval fistula, on the development of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Monocrotaline was administered 1 wk after the creation of an aortocaval fistula.Randomized, controlled study.Research laboratory of an academic institution.Male Sprague-Dawley rats.Overcirculation was induced by pneumonectomy and by surgical creation of aortocaval fistula. Pulmonary artery hypertension was induced by administration of monocrotaline.Aortic blood flow, Pao(2), and pulmonary arterial pressure were measured 4 wks later. A blinded investigator quantified pulmonary arterial neointimal formation in small pulmonary arteries. Compared with animals that received monocrotaline and/or underwent pneumonectomy but did not undergo aortocaval fistula, the presence of a surgical aortocaval fistula was associated with increased aortic blood flow (p <.001), increased Pao(2) (p <.001), and lower mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p <.001). In addition, rats with aortocaval fistula had less pulmonary arterial neointimal formation than matched animals without an aortocaval fistula (p =.034).The presence of a surgical aortocaval fistula attenuates, rather than worsens, the development of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.CCM.0000059440.44597.07

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182411900033

    View details for PubMedID 12682495

  • PG490-88, a derivative of triptolide, attenuates obliterative airway disease in a mouse heterotopic tracheal allograft model JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Leonard, C. T., Soccal, P. M., Berry, G. J., Doyle, R. L., Theodore, J., Duncan, S. R., Rosen, G. D. 2002; 21 (12): 1314-1318

    Abstract

    The current treatment of obliterative bronchiolitis in lung transplant recipients is sub-optimal. Triptolide is a novel immunosuppressant that has a mechanism of action distinct from currently available immunosuppressants, including induction of T-cell apoptosis, blockade of fibroblast proliferation/maturation and inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mRNA production. We hypothesized that triptolide may be helpful in blocking obliterative airway disease in lung transplant recipients. We investigated the effect of PG490-88, a water-soluble derivative of triptolide, in a mouse heterotopic tracheal allograft model of obliterative airway disease. We show that PG490-88 attenuates airway obliteration in this model and inhibits accumulation of inflammatory cells, and therefore may have preventive or therapeutic benefits for patients with obliterative airway disease (OAD) following lung transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179959800009

    View details for PubMedID 12490278

  • Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia - A narrative review CHEST Swigris, J. J., Berry, G. J., Raffin, T. A., Kuschner, W. G. 2002; 122 (6): 2150-2164

    Abstract

    Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is regarded as both a disease and a nonneoplastic, inflammatory pulmonary reaction to various external stimuli or systemic diseases. It is an uncommon condition with incidence and prevalence rates that are largely unknown. Liebow and Carrington originally classified LIP as an idiopathic interstitial pneumonia in 1969. Although LIP had since been removed from that category, the most recent consensus classification sponsored by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society recognizes that some cases remain idiopathic in origin, and its clinical, radiographic, and pathologic features warrant the return of LIP to its original classification among the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. LIP also belongs within a spectrum of pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders that range in severity from benign, small, airway-centered cellular aggregates to malignant lymphomas. It is characterized by diffuse hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue. The dominant microscopic feature of LIP is a diffuse, polyclonal lymphoid cell infiltrate surrounding airways and expanding the lung interstitium. Classically, LIP occurs in association with autoimmune diseases, most often Sjögren syndrome. This has led to consideration of an autoimmune etiology for LIP, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Persons who are seropositive for HIV, and children in particular, are at increased risk of acquiring LIP. Some studies suggest causal roles for both HIV and Epstein-Barr virus. The incidence of LIP is approximately twofold greater in women than men. The average age at diagnosis is between 52 years and 56 years. Symptoms of progressive cough and dyspnea predominate. There is great variability in the clinical course of LIP, from resolution without treatment to progressive respiratory failure and death. Although LIP is often regarded as a steroid-responsive condition, and oral corticosteroids continue to be the mainstay of therapy, response is unpredictable. Approximately 33 to 50% of patients die within 5 years of diagnosis, and approximately 5% of cases of LIP transform to lymphoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179985600047

    View details for PubMedID 12475860

  • Donor cardiac allografts from p53 knockout mice exhibit apoptosis-independent prolongation of survival TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Kown, M. H., Murata, S., Jahncke, C. L., Mari, C., Berry, G. J., Lijkwan, M. A., Blankenberg, F. G., Strauss, H. W., Robbins, R. C. 2002; 34 (8): 3274-3276

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179983100078

    View details for PubMedID 12493444

  • Simvastatin attenuates smooth muscle neointimal proliferation and pulmonary hypertension in rats AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Nishimura, T., Faul, J. L., Berry, G. J., Vaszar, L. T., Qiu, D. M., Pearl, R. G., Kao, P. N. 2002; 166 (10): 1403-1408

    Abstract

    Hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease is characterized by abnormal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, leading to occlusion of pulmonary arterioles, pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular failure, and death. Compounds with antiproliferative effects on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, may prevent the development of experimental hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease. Pneumonectomized rats injected with monocrotaline at 7 days develop severe hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease with neointimal formation. Rats were randomized to receive either vehicle or treatment with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin (2 mg/kg per day). By Day 35, rats that received vehicle had higher mean pulmonary arterial pressures (53 +/- 2 mm Hg) and right ventricular hypertrophy (right ventricle/[left ventricle plus septum] [RV/LV+S] = 0.78 +/- 0.09) than rats in Group PMS5-35 that received simvastatin from Day 5 to 35 (mean pulmonary arterial pressure = 27 +/- 3 mm Hg, RV/LV+S = 0.34 +/- 0.08; p < or = 0.001). Pulmonary vascular remodeling with neointimal formation consisting of vascular smooth muscle cells was more severe in vehicle-treated rats (vascular occlusion score, 1.98 +/- 0.02) than in Group PMS5-35 (vascular occlusion score, 0.59 +/- 0.46; p < 0.001). In addition, lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene expression was decreased in vehicle-treated animals but was restored toward normal levels in simvastatin-treated animals. Simvastatin attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling with neointimal formation, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and right ventricular hypertrophy in rats.

    View details for DOI 10.1164/rccm.200203-268OC

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179116500019

    View details for PubMedID 12406854

  • Imaging for suspected appendicitis: Negative appendectomy and perforation rates RADIOLOGY Bendeck, S. E., Nino-Murcia, M., Berry, G. J., Jeffrey, R. B. 2002; 225 (1): 131-136

    Abstract

    To determine which patients suspected of having acute appendicitis benefit from preoperative imaging.The medical records of 462 consecutive patients who underwent appendectomy for clinically suspected acute appendicitis and underwent preoperative evaluation at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into four groups: women (n = 166), girls (n = 46), men (n = 178), and boys (n = 72). Preoperative computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography (US), requested by the referring clinician, was performed in 313 of the 462 patients. Unnecessary, or negative, appendectomy and perforation rates were calculated for each group for preoperative evaluation with CT, with US, and with neither CT nor US. In addition, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of CT and US were calculated for diagnosing appendicitis.In women, the negative appendectomy rate was significantly lower for those who underwent preoperative CT (7% [six of 85 patients], P =.005) or US (8% [four of 49 patients], P =.019), as compared with 28% [nine of 32 patients] for those who underwent no preoperative imaging (P >.35 for all groups). The negative appendectomy rates for girls, men, and boys were not significantly affected by preoperative imaging. The sensitivity of CT and US for diagnosing acute appendicitis exceeded 93% and 77%, respectively, in all groups. The positive predictive values for both CT and US were greater than 92% in all groups.Women suspected of having appendicitis benefit the most from preoperative CT or US, with a statistically significantly lower negative appendectomy rate than women who undergo no preoperative imaging. Therefore, we propose that preoperative imaging be considered part of the routine evaluation of women suspected of having acute appendicitis.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2251011780

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178264300021

    View details for PubMedID 12354996

  • Antigen-specific regulatory T cells develop via the ICOS-ICOS-ligand pathway and inhibit allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity NATURE MEDICINE Akbari, O., Freeman, G. J., Meyer, E. H., Greenfield, E. A., Chang, T. T., Sharpe, A. H., Berry, G., DeKruyff, R. H., Umetsu, D. T. 2002; 8 (9): 1024-1032

    Abstract

    Asthma is caused by T-helper cell 2 (Th2)-driven immune responses, but the immunological mechanisms that protect against asthma development are poorly understood. T-cell tolerance, induced by respiratory exposure to allergen, can inhibit the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma, and we show here that regulatory T (T(R)) cells can mediate this protective effect. Mature pulmonary dendritic cells in the bronchial lymph nodes of mice exposed to respiratory allergen induced the development of T(R) cells, in a process that required T-cell costimulation via the inducible costimulator (ICOS-ICOS-ligand pathway. The T(R) cells produced IL-10, and had potent inhibitory activity; when adoptively transferred into sensitized mice, T(R) cells blocked the development of AHR. Both the development and the inhibitory function of regulatory cells were dependent on the presence of IL-10 and on ICOS-ICOS-ligand interactions. These studies demonstrate that T(R) cells and the ICOS-ICOS-ligand signaling pathway are critically involved in respiratory tolerance and in downregulating pulmonary inflammation in asthma.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm745

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177757900039

    View details for PubMedID 12145647

  • The use of (99m)Technetium-labeled MCP-1 to assess, graft coronary artery disease in rat cardiac allografts JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Kown, M. H., Jahncke, C. L., Lijkwan, M. A., Koransky, M. L., Mari, C., Berry, G. J., Blankenberg, F. G., Strauss, H. W., Robbins, R. C. 2002; 21 (9): 1009-1015

    Abstract

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is associated with the development of graft coronary artery disease (GCAD) following cardiac transplantation. This study assessed whether technetium 99m ((99m)Tc)-labeled MCP-1 binds its receptors in chronic cardiac transplants and thereby provides a potential modality to assess GCAD.Allogeneic (PVG-->ACI, n = 9) and syngeneic (ACI-->ACI, n = 9) rat heterotopic heart transplants were performed. Allograft recipients were treated with 7.5 mg/kg per day of Cyclosporin A for 10 days until tolerance was achieved. After 90 days, animals were injected intravenously with (99m)Tc-MCP-1 and killed after 1 hour. Radioactivity of heart tissues was measured and standardized to uptake in the overall blood pool. Two-dimensional (99m)Tc-MCP-1 uptake (autoradiographs) was imaged by exposing 50-microm sections on a phosphoimager overnight. ED-1 staining of monocyte/macrophages was performed on serial sections. Additional sections were stained with elastin von Gieson and hematoxylin. Hearts were scored for luminal narrowing and intima/media ratio (I/M) with computerized image analysis.Allografts exhibited significantly more luminal narrowing (22.5 +/- 10.7% vs 2.6 +/- 4.6, p = 0.0005) and higher I/M (0.173 +/- 0.151 vs 0.015 +/- 0.029, p = 0.0088) than isografts. The ratio of (99m)Tc-MCP-1 uptake in allografts (1.04 +/- 0.4) was greater than that of isograft controls (0.72 +/- 0.11, p = 0.03). Pixel counts of autoradiographs and ED-1-stained sections demonstrated a modest correlation between the two (R(2) = 0.50). No significant differences were seen in acute rejection scores.(99m)Tc-MCP-1 uptake was higher in allografts vs isografts and was consistent with a greater degree of GCAD. These data demonstrating increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in hearts with GCAD provide a foundation for the development of a potentially non-invasive imaging assay of this disease process in heart transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177942400009

    View details for PubMedID 12231372

  • CD4 T-helper cells engineered to produce IL-10 prevent allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity and inflammation JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY Oh, J. W., Seroogy, C. M., Meyer, E. H., Akbari, O., Berry, G., Fathman, C. G., DeKruyff, R. H., Umetsu, D. T. 2002; 110 (3): 460-468

    Abstract

    T(H)2 cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of asthma, but the precise immunologic mechanisms that inhibit T(H)2 cell function in vivo are not well understood.The purpose of our studies was to determine whether T cells producing IL-10 regulate the development of asthma.We used gene therapy to generate ovalbumin-specific CD4 T-helper cells to express IL-10, and we examined their capacity to regulate allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity.We demonstrated that the CD4 T-helper cells engineered to express IL-10 abolished airway hyperreactivity and airway eosinophilia in BALB/c mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and in SCID mice reconstituted with ovalbumin-specific T(H)2 effector cells. The inhibitory effect of the IL-10-secreting T-helper cells was accompanied by the presence of increased quantities of IL-10 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, was antigen-specific, and was reversed by neutralization of IL-10. Moreover, neutralization of IL-10 by administration of anti-IL-10 mAb in mice sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin seriously exacerbated airway hyperreactivity and airway inflammation.Our results demonstrate that T cells secreting IL-10 in the respiratory mucosa can indeed regulate T(H)2-induced airway hyperreactivity and inflammation, and they strongly suggest that IL-10 plays an important inhibitory role in allergic asthma.

    View details for DOI 10.1067/mai.2002.127512

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177936900018

    View details for PubMedID 12209095

  • The pathology of hibernating myocardium NUCLEAR MEDICINE COMMUNICATIONS Berry, G. J., Masek, M. 2002; 23 (4): 303-309

    Abstract

    Myocardial hibernation represents a protective mechanism of muscle preservation in the setting of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Long-standing myocardial hypoperfusion leads to diminished myocardial contractility that reverses with improved blood flow after revascularization. The morphologic changes in both animal models and humans are described.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175245600003

    View details for PubMedID 11930183

  • Nodular invasive tracheobronchitis due to Aspergillus in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus LUPUS Angelotti, T., Krishna, G., Scott, J., Berry, G., Weinacker, A. 2002; 11 (5): 325-328

    Abstract

    Nodular or pseudomembranous tracheobronchitis due to infection by Aspergillus species is an uncommon presentation of invasive aspergillosis. Most cases have been described in severely immunocompromised hosts. We describe the case of a 23-year-old woman, with recently diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus, who developed worsening respiratory function. Bronchoscopy revealed rapid development and progression of multiple nodular plaques in her trachea and bronchi. Endobronchial biopsy demonstrated invasive fungal infection with tissue necrosis and the presence of hyphal elements consistent with aspergillosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the second report of fulminant invasive tracheobronchitis due to Aspergillus in a patient with an autoimmune disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1191/0961203302lu206cr

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176537200011

    View details for PubMedID 12090570

  • Impact of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin on outcome after cardiothoracic transplantation - A comparative study of combined prophylaxis with CMV hyperimmune globulin plus ganciclovir versus ganciclovir alone TRANSPLANTATION Valantine, H. A., Luikart, H., Doyle, R., Theodore, J., Hunt, S., Oyer, P., Robbins, R., Berry, G., Reitz, B. 2001; 72 (10): 1647-1652

    Abstract

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease was previously shown to be unaltered by a 28-day course of ganciclovir compared with placebo in seronegative recipients of hearts from seropositive donors (D+/R-). This study tests the hypothesis that a combination of ganciclovir plus CMV hyperimmune globulin (CMVIG) is more effective than ganciclovir alone for preventing acute CMV illness and its long-term sequelae.The study population receiving CMVIG (n=80) included 27 heart transplant recipients (D+/R-) and 53 heart-lung and lung transplant recipients (R+ and/or D+). Each group was matched with historical controls who underwent transplantation within the preceding 2-3 years. Outcome measures compared were as follows: 3-year incidence of CMV disease; fungal infection; acute rejection; survival; rates and severity of transplant coronary artery disease (in heart patients) defined by intimal thickness (ultrasound) and coronary artery stenosis (angiographic); and incidence and death from obliterative bronchiolitis defined by pathological criteria on endobronchial biopsy specimens (in heart-lung/lung patients).Patients treated with CMVIG had a higher disease-free incidence of CMV, lower rejection incidence, and higher survival rate compared with the patients treated with ganciclovir alone. The coronary artery intimal thickness and the prevalence of intimal thickening were lower in the patients receiving CMVIG. Heart-lung and lung transplant patients treated with CMVIG had lower incidences of obliterative bronchiolitis and death from obliterative bronchiolitis and longer survival compared with the patients treated with ganciclovir alone.CMVIG plus ganciclovir seems to be more effective that ganciclovir alone for preventing the sequelae of CMV infection. A prospective randomized study is required to confirm these observations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172614200012

    View details for PubMedID 11726825

  • CT of noninfectious granulomatous lung disease RADIOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Zinck, S. E., Schwartz, E., Berry, G. J., Leung, A. N. 2001; 39 (6): 1189-?

    Abstract

    Noninfectious granulomatous diseases of the lung consist of a diverse group of disorders that logically can be subdivided into those with and without associated vasculitis. This article reviews the epidemiologic, clinical, pathologic, and radiologic features of sarcoidosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, berylliosis, and the five entities traditionally classified as pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172023200008

    View details for PubMedID 11699668

  • Cellulose granulomatosis presenting as centrilobular nodules: CT and histologic findings AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Bendeck, S. E., Leung, A. N., Berry, G. J., Daniel, D., Ruoss, S. J. 2001; 177 (5): 1151-1153

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171732700034

    View details for PubMedID 11641191

  • A cystic upper lobe lesion in a healthy nonsmoking man - Angiosarcoma of the left upper lobe, presumed metastatic CHEST Leonard, C. T., Weinacker, A., Berry, G., Whyte, R. I. 2001; 120 (5): 1725-1727

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172274300051

    View details for PubMedID 11713159

  • Critical role for IL-13 in the development of allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Walter, D. M., McIntire, J. J., Berry, G., McKenzie, A. N., Donaldson, D. D., DeKruyff, R. H., Umetsu, D. T. 2001; 167 (8): 4668-4675

    Abstract

    Airway hyperresponsiveness to a variety of specific and nonspecific stimuli is a cardinal feature of asthma, which affects nearly 10% of the population in industrialized countries. Eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation, eosinophil-derived products, as well as Th2 cytokines IL-13, IL-4, and IL-5, have been associated with the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR), but the specific immunological basis underlying the development of AHR remains controversial. Herein we show that mice with targeted deletion of IL-13 failed to develop allergen-induced AHR, despite the presence of vigorous Th2-biased, eosinophilic pulmonary inflammation. However, AHR was restored in IL-13(-/-) mice by the administration of recombinant IL-13. Moreover, adoptive transfer of OVA-specific Th2 cells generated from TCR-transgenic IL-13(-/-) mice failed to induce AHR in recipient SCID mice, although such IL-13(-/-) Th2 cells produced high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 and induced significant airway inflammation. These studies definitively demonstrate that IL-13 is necessary and sufficient for the induction of AHR and that eosinophilic airway inflammation in the absence of IL-13 is inadequate for the induction of AHR. Therefore, treatment of human asthma with antagonists of IL-13 may be very effective.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171858300066

    View details for PubMedID 11591797

  • Modified cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone therapy for posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease in pediatric patients undergoing solid organ transplantation JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC HEMATOLOGY ONCOLOGY Suryanarayan, K., Natkunam, Y., Berry, G., Bangs, C. D., Cherry, A., Dahl, G. 2001; 23 (7): 452-455

    Abstract

    The authors report the use of a cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP)-based chemotherapy regimen in treating six children with posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) that developed after solid organ transplantation.The chemotherapy regimen consisted of a 29-day induction with CHOP and then as many as 15 cycles of maintenance therapy using methotrexate and cytarabine alternating with vincristine, adriamycin, mercaptopurine, and prednisone.All patients attained remission. One patient died of sepsis while in remission. Four of the five remaining patients have been followed-up in remission for as long as 8 years without losing the graft. One of the patients experienced relapse after completing therapy and subsequently died with disease.The authors conclude that pediatric patients with PTLD after solid organ transplantation that fails conservative management can be treated successfully with CHOP-based chemotherapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171516000011

    View details for PubMedID 11878581

  • In vivo Imaging of acute cardiac rejection in human patients using (99m)Technetium labeled annexin V AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Kown, M. H., Strauss, H. W., Blankenberg, F. G., Berry, G. J., Stafford-Cecil, S., Tait, J. F., Goris, M. L., Robbins, R. C. 2001; 1 (3): 270-277

    Abstract

    Annexin V binds phosphatidylserine moieties on apoptotic cells. This study reports the initial experience at Stanford University Medical Center with 99mTc-labeled annexin V imaging as a noninvasive measure of apoptosis in acute cardiac rejection. Ten cardiac transplant patients had 99mTc Annexin V imaging and endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) performed within 24 h. No complications related to 99mTc annexin V administration occurred. Eight patients had ISHLT grade of acute rejection of 1A or less. Five patients had two or more areas of uptake noted in the right ventricle on imaging studies. Two of these patients had positive biopsies: one patient had grade 2 rejection with two focal uptake areas and another had grade 3A rejection with three foci. An additional five patients had either one or zero hot spot areas and corresponding negative EMBs. 99mTc-annexin V appears to be well tolerated and may identify patients with acute cardiac rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173466800011

    View details for PubMedID 12102261

  • Viral serine proteinase inhibitor (SERP-1) effectively decreases the incidence of graft vasculopathy in heterotopic heart allografts TRANSPLANTATION Hausen, B., Boeke, K., Berry, G. J., Morris, R. E. 2001; 72 (3): 364-368

    Abstract

    Graft vascular disease (GVD) is the most common cause of late graft failure in solid organ transplantation. Recent studies have shown good efficacy of a novel nontoxic viral-derived serine proteinase inhibitor (SERP-1) in preventing postangioplasty restenosis. The current study was designed to test whether short-term treatment with SERP-1 was effective in reducing the incidence of GVD in a solid organ transplant.Piebald-Virol-Glaxo (PVG) donor hearts were transplanted into August-Copenhagen-Irish (ACI) recipients and observed for 90 days. All recipients (n=60) were treated with microemulsion cyclosporine (CsA) 7.5 mg/kg per gavage from day 0 to day 9 and randomized into 4 groups. SERP-1 was given intravenously. Group I received CsA monotherapy; group II, CsA+SERP-1 1 ng/g (postoperative days 0-9); group III, CsA+SERP-1 10 ng/g (postoperative days 0-9); and group IV, CsA+SERP-1 10 ng/g (postoperative days 0-9, 30, and 60). Graft viability was monitored by palpation, and GVD was assessed by morphometry.Two animals in group I rejected their allografts on postoperative days 7 and 14, 1 animal in group II rejected the allograft (postoperative day 31), and none in group III and IV rejected the allografts. At 90 days postoperative, 23.8% of all coronary vessels showed evidence of GVD in group I, 18.4% in group II, 12.9% in group III, and 11.8% in group IV. The difference in incidence of GVD was significant between groups I and III (P<0.05) and groups I and IV (P<0.05). Treatment with SERP-1 was well tolerated, and all animals regained weight quickly postsurgery.Treatment of allograft recipients with SERP-1 in combination with CsA early after transplantation significantly decreases the incidence of GVD when compared to grafts treated with only CsA. These results demonstrate the clinical potential for this novel serine protease inhibitor to prevent GVD in solid organ transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170587000003

    View details for PubMedID 11502962

  • Nasal-pulmonary relations in allergic fungal sinusitis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis CLINICAL REVIEWS IN ALLERGY & IMMUNOLOGY Leonard, C. T., Berry, G. J., Ruoss, S. J. 2001; 21 (1): 5-15

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169702700002

    View details for PubMedID 11471340

  • IL-18 gene transfer by adenovirus prevents the development of and reverses established allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Walter, D. M., Wong, C. P., DeKruyff, R. H., Berry, G. J., Levy, S., Umetsu, D. T. 2001; 166 (10): 6392-6398

    Abstract

    We examined the role of IL-18 in preventing the development of and in reversing established allergen-induced airway inflammation and airway hyperreactivity (AHR), the cardinal features of asthma. IL-18, which potently induces IFN-gamma, was administered into the respiratory tract as cDNA in a replication-deficient adenovirus (Adv). Treatment of OVA-sensitized mice with the IL-18-expressing Adv reduced allergen-specific IL-4 production, airway eosinophilia, and mucus production, increased IFN-gamma production, and prevented the development of AHR. The effects of the IL-18 Adv treatment were dependent on the presence of IFN-gamma and IL-12. Moreover, administration of the IL-18 Adv to mice with established AHR greatly reduced AHR and IL-4 production and increased IFN-gamma production. These results demonstrate that IL-18, when administered by Adv into the respiratory tract, effectively reduces AHR and replaces an established Th2-biased immune response with a Th1-biased response.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170948500068

    View details for PubMedID 11342664

  • Case report - Paclitaxel-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Radiographic and CT findings AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Wong, P., Leung, A. N., Berry, G. J., Atkins, K. A., Montoya, J. G., Ruoss, S. J., Stockdale, F. E. 2001; 176 (3): 718-720
  • 40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension and neointimal formation in rats AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Nishimura, T., Faul, J. L., Berry, G. I., Veve, I., Pearl, R. G., Kao, P. N. 2001; 163 (2): 498-502

    Abstract

    Pneumonectomized rats develop pulmonary hypertension (PH) and pulmonary vascular neointimal formation 4 wk after monocrotaline (MCT) administration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with MCT (60 mg/kg) on Day 7 after left pneumonectomy. Three groups (n = 5) received 40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin (RAD, 2.5 mg/kg/d, by gavage): Group PMR(5-35) from Day 5 to Day 35, Group PMR5-14 from Day 5 to Day 14, and Group PMR15-35 from Day 15 to Day 35. By Day 35, rats that received vehicle had higher mean pulmonary arterial pressures (Ppa = 41 +/- 3 mm Hg) (p < 0.001), right ventricular systolic pressures (Prv,s = 45 +/- 2 mm Hg) (p < 0.01), and right ventricle/(left ventricle plus septum) (0.55 +/- 0.05) (p = 0.028) than rats in Groups PMR5-35 (Ppa = 25 +/- 3 mm Hg, Prv,s = 32 +/- 7 mm Hg, RV/LV&S = 0.42 +/- 0.06) and PMR5-14 (Ppa = 29 +/- 4 mm Hg, Prv,s = 30 +/- 5 mm Hg, RV/LV&S = 0.43 +/- 0.07). Pulmonary arterial neointimal formation (quantified by a vascular occlusion score) was more severe in vehicle-treated rats (1.93 +/- 0.03) than in Groups PMR5-14 (1.56 +/- 0.27) and PMR(5-35) (1.57 +/- 0.1) (p < 0.01). RAD attenuates the development of MCT-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in the pneumonectomized rat.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167050900038

    View details for PubMedID 11179130

  • In vivo monitoring of myoblast transplantation into rat myocardium. The Journal of heart and lung transplantation : the official publication of the International Society for Heart Transplantation Koransky, M. L., Ip, T. K., Wu, S., Cao, Y., Berry, G., Contag, C., Blau, H., Robbins, R. 2001; 20 (2): 188-189

    View details for PubMedID 11250320

  • Triptolide attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension and neointimal formation in rats AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Faul, J. L., Nishimura, T., Berry, G. J., BENSON, G. V., Pearl, R. G., Kao, P. N. 2000; 162 (6): 2252-2258

    Abstract

    This paper reports the effect of triptolide (a diterpenoid triepoxide) on the development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension in pneumonectomized rats. Male Sprague- Dawley rats were injected with MCT (60 mg/kg) on Day 7 after left pneumonectomy. Rats received therapy from Day 5 to 35 with triptolide (0.25 mg/kg intraperitoneally, every other day, n = 10), or vehicle (0.1 ml of ethanol/cremophor intraperitoneally, every other day, n = 10). By Day 35, triptolide-treated rats demonstrated lower mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) than vehicle-treated rats (mPAP 21 +/- 3 versus 42 +/- 5 mm Hg, p < 0.001). Triptolide-treated rats also had significantly less right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) and pulmonary arterial neointimal formation. In a rescue experiment, rats initiated therapy on Day 21. At Day 35, vehicle-treated rats (n = 4) had higher mPAP (40 +/- 9 mm Hg), greater RVH, and more severe pulmonary arterial neointimal formation than rats that received triptolide (0.25 mg/kg every other day, n = 7, mPAP 30 +/- 4 mm Hg) and rats that received triptolide (0.2 mg/kg daily, n = 7, mPAP 25 +/- 5 mm Hg, p < 0.01). In pneumonectomized rats that receive MCT, triptolide attenuates the development of pulmonary hypertension and RVH, and promotes regression of pulmonary arterial neointimal formation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165794700050

    View details for PubMedID 11112148

  • Zinc-mediated reduction of apoptosis in cardiac allografts. Circulation Kown, M. H., van der Steenhoven, T., Blankenberg, F. G., Hoyt, G., Berry, G. J., Tait, J. F., Strauss, H. W., Robbins, R. C. 2000; 102 (19): III228-32

    Abstract

    Apoptosis is thought to occur during immune-mediated acute rejection of cardiac allografts. In vitro studies have shown that zinc inhibits the activity of the proapoptotic enzyme caspase-3. We hypothesized that ZnCl(2) would reduce acute cardiac rejection in vivo via the blockade of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. (99m)Tc-labeled annexin V was used to measure apoptosis in cardiac allografts through nuclear imaging. Annexin V binds to phosphatidylserines, which are externalized to the outer membrane of apoptotic cells.Twenty-seven PVG rat hearts were transplanted heterotopically into the abdomen of untreated ACI rats as controls (group 1). Fifteen were scanned and euthanized on postoperative day 4, and 12 were assessed for graft survival. Group 2 and 3 rats (n=15 each) received 1 and 5 mg/kg ZnCl(2) BID IP, respectively. Nine of each of these groups were scanned and euthanized on postoperative day 4, and 6 were studied for allograft survival. Group 4 rats (n=3) received isografts. Region-of-interest analysis demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in (99m)Tc annexin uptake in ZnCl(2)-treated allografts: 2.43+/-0.37% for group 1, 1. 97+/-0.41% for group 2, 1.21+/-0.47% for group 3, and 0.55+/-0.19% for group 4 (ANOVA, P:=0.001). Graft survival times of 6.4+/-1.7, 9. 3+/-3.0, and 11.5+/-3.4 days for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, were also observed (ANOVA, P:=0.001). Caspase-3 activity in the allografts showed a 3.7-fold reduction in group 3 animals compared with group 1 animals (P:=0.004).Apoptosis that occurs in acute cardiac allograft rejection is reduced with ZnCl(2) in a dose-dependent manner via caspase-3 inhibition.

    View details for PubMedID 11082392

  • Tissue characterization of atherosclerotic plaques by intravascular ultrasound radiofrequency signal analysis: An in vitro study of human coronary arteries AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Komiyama, N., Berry, G. J., Kolz, M. L., Oshima, A., Metz, J. A., Preuss, P., Brisken, A. F., Moore, M. P., Yock, P. G., Fitzgerald, P. J. 2000; 140 (4): 565-574

    Abstract

    Conventional gray-scale images of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) cannot accurately differentiate histologic subtypes of sonolucent coronary plaques with or without a lipid core.We analyzed radiofrequency signals obtained in vitro from 24 regions of interest (ROI) of noncalcified (sonolucent) plaques in 10 atherosclerotic coronary artery specimens pressure-fixed by formalin. Radiofrequency signals were sampled with a 30-MHz IVUS catheter and digitized at 500 MHz in 8-bit resolution. The ROIs were histologically categorized into 12 plaques with a lipid core and 12 plaques without it. Integrated backscatter and statistical parameters of the radiofrequency envelope (mean/SD ratio [MSR], skewness, and kurtosis) within the ROI were calculated offline, and their ability to detect a lipid core was compared with visual analysis of the IVUS video images. In the group with lipid cores, percent area of a lipid core in each ROI was measured in a digitized histologic image by a computerized planimeter.Sensitivity and specificity of MSR, skewness, and kurtosis for lipid core detection were substantially greater than visual video image analysis (83.3% and 91.7%, 100% and 91.7%, 100% and 91.7% vs 53.3% and 71.7%). Furthermore, the parameters of integrated backscatter, MSR, skewness, and kurtosis were significantly correlated to percent of core area (r = -0.64, -0.73, 0.78, and 0.63, respectively; P<.05).Compared with IVUS video images, the parameters of radiofrequency signal analysis may be used to aid in more accurate detection and quantitative evaluation of a lipid core, which is one of the major factors of a vulnerable coronary plaque.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089692600005

    View details for PubMedID 11011329

  • Sirolimus (rapamycin) halts and reverses progression of allograft vascular disease in non-human primates TRANSPLANTATION Ikonen, T. S., Gummert, J. F., Hayase, M., Honda, Y., Hausen, B., Christians, U., Berry, G. J., Yock, P. G., Morris, R. E. 2000; 70 (6): 969-975

    Abstract

    Current immunosuppressive protocols fail to prevent chronic rejection often manifested as graft vascular disease (GVD) in solid organ transplant recipients. Several new immunosuppressants including sirolimus, a dual function growth factor antagonist, have been discovered, but studies of drug efficacy have been hampered by the lack of a model of GVD in primates, as a prelude to clinical trials. As described earlier, we have developed a novel non-human primate model of GVD where progression of GVD is quantified by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS).Twelve cynomolgus monkeys underwent aortic transplantation from blood group compatible but mixed lymphocyte reaction-mismatched donors. To allow the development of GVD in the allograft, no treatment was administered for the first 6 weeks. Six monkeys were treated orally with sirolimus from day 45 after transplantation to day 105.Progression of GVD measured as change in intimal area from day 42 to 105 was halted in sirolimus-treated monkeys compared to untreated monkeys (P<0.001, general linear model). On day 105, the intimal area +/- SEM was 3.7+/-1.0 and 6.4+/-0.5 mm2, respectively (P<0.05, t test). The magnitude of allograft intimal area on day 105 correlated inversely with sirolimus trough levels (R2=0.67, P<0.05). Regression of the intimal area was seen in four of six sirolimus-treated monkeys, which was significantly different from the untreated monkeys (P<0.05).Our results in the first non-human primate model of GVD showed that treatment with sirolimus not only halted the progression of preexisting GVD but also was associated with partial regression. Sirolimus trough blood levels were correlated with efficacy. Therefore, sirolimus has the potential to control clinical chronic allograft rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089710700014

    View details for PubMedID 11014651

  • Epithelial re-growth is associated with inhibition of obliterative airway disease in orthotopic tracheal allografts in non-immunosuppressed rats TRANSPLANTATION Ikonen, T. S., Brazelton, T. R., Berry, G. J., Shorthouse, R. S., Morris, R. E. 2000; 70 (6): 857-863

    Abstract

    Because epithelial cells are targets of alloimmune injury leading ultimately to airway obliteration, we tested whether epithelial re-growth could prevent obliterative airway disease (OAD) in orthotopic tracheal allografts.Brown Norway tracheal segments were orthotopically transplanted into nonimmunosuppressed Lewis rats. Allografts were removed on days 2-10 (n=13), 30 (n=4), and 60 (n=5) for histology, computerized morphometry (obliteration), and immunohistochemical detection of mononuclear cells, smooth muscle alpha-actin, and tissue phenotype. Normal tracheas, host tracheas, and heterotopically transplanted allografts served as controls.Orthotopic allografts removed on days 2-10 exhibited epithelial damage and re-growth and mononuclear cell infiltration. On days 30 and 60, partially ciliated cuboidal or attenuated epithelium completely covered the lumen. Although mononuclear cells declined, numerous T cells with a high CD4/CD8 ratio were found in the epithelium till day 60. Orthotopic allograft epithelium expressed donor phenotype on day 7, but recipient phenotype on days 30 and 60. Despite subepithelial alpha-actin positive myofibroblast proliferation, obliteration did not progress from day 7 to 30 and 60 (35, 30, and 33%, respectively). Although more than in normal or host tracheas, the obliteration in orthotopic allografts on days 30 and 60 was significantly less (P<0.001) than in heterotopic allografts.We describe, for the first time, longterm patency of fully histoincompatible orthotopic tracheal allografts in nonimmunosuppressed rats. Despite acute alloimmune injury and induction of myofibroblast proliferation, epithelial re-growth from the host limited the progression of OAD, thus emphasizing the role of epithelium in the control of airway obliteration.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089710700001

    View details for PubMedID 11014638

  • Respiratory infection with influenza A virus interferes with the induction of tolerance to aeroallergens JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Tsitoura, D. C., Kim, S., Dabbagh, K., Berry, G., Lewis, D. B., Umetsu, D. T. 2000; 165 (6): 3484-3491

    Abstract

    Viral respiratory infections have been implicated in influencing allergen sensitization and the development of asthma, but their exact role remains controversial. Because respiratory exposure to Ag normally engenders T cell tolerance and prevents the development of airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and inflammation, we examined the effects of influenza A virus infection on tolerance induced by exposure to intranasal (i.n.) OVA and the subsequent development of AHR. We found that concurrent infection with influenza A abrogated tolerance induced by exposure to i.n. OVA, and instead led to the development of AHR accompanied by the production of OVA-specific IgE, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-gamma. When both IL-4 and IL-5 were neutralized in this system, AHR was still induced, suggesting that influenza-induced cytokines such as IL-13, or mechanisms unrelated to cytokines, might be responsible for the development of AHR. The length of time between influenza A infection and i.n. exposure to OVA was crucial, because mice exposed to i.n. OVA 15-30 days after viral inoculation developed neither AHR nor OVA-specific tolerance. These mice instead acquired Th1-biased OVA-specific immune responses associated with vigorous OVA-induced T cell proliferation, and reduced production of OVA-specific IgE. The protective effect of influenza A on AHR was dependent on IFN-gamma, because protection was abrogated with a neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma mAb. These results suggest that viral respiratory infection interferes with the development of respiratory allergen-induced tolerance, and that the time interval between viral infection and allergen exposure is critical in determining whether viral infection will enhance, or protect against, the development of respiratory allergen sensitization and AHR.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165938100073

    View details for PubMedID 10975869

  • Mechanisms preventing allergen-induced airways hyperreactivity: Role of tolerance and immune deviation JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY Tsitoura, D. C., Blumenthal, R. L., Berry, G., DeKruyff, R. H., Umetsu, D. T. 2000; 106 (2): 239-246

    Abstract

    Aeroallergens continuously enter the respiratory tract of atopic individuals and provoke the development of asthma characterized by airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and inflammation. By contrast, nonatopic individuals are exposed to the same aeroallergens, but airway inflammation does not develop. However, the mechanisms that prevent allergen-induced respiratory diseases in nonatopic subjects are poorly characterized.In this study we compared the role of allergen-specific T-cell tolerance and immune deviation in conferring protection against the development of allergen-induced AHR.We exposed mice to intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) to induce T-cell tolerance and examined its effects on the subsequent development of AHR and inflammation.We demonstrated that exposure of mice to intranasal OVA resulted in peripheral CD4(+) T-cell unresponsiveness that very efficiently prevented not only the development of AHR but also greatly inhibited airway inflammation and OVA-specific IgE production. The induction of peripheral T-cell tolerance and protection against AHR were not dependent on the presence of IFN-gamma or IL-4. The development of AHR was also prevented by an OVA-specific T(H)1-biased immune response induced by inhalation of OVA in the presence of IL-12. However, the OVA-specific T(H)1 response was associated with a significant degree of pulmonary inflammation.These results indicate that both allergen-specific T-cell tolerance and T(H)1-biased immune deviation prevent the development of AHR, but T(H)1 responses are associated with significantly greater inflammation in the lung than is associated with T-cell unresponsiveness. Therefore CD4(+) T-cell unresponsiveness critically regulates immune responses to aeroallergens and protects against the development of allergic disease and asthma.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088708100004

    View details for PubMedID 10932065

  • Immunosuppressive therapies for the prevention and treatment of obliterative airway disease in heterotopic rat trachea allografts TRANSPLANTATION Adams, B. F., Berry, G. J., Huang, X. F., Shorthouse, R., Brazelton, T., Morris, R. E. 2000; 69 (11): 2260-2266

    Abstract

    Obliterative bronchiolitis remains a major long-term complication after lung transplantation. Using a reproducible model of heterotopically transplanted rat tracheas, this study examined the role of several novel immunosuppresive compounds to prevent and reverse obliterative airway disease in these animals.Brown Norway rat trachea were transplanted into the greater omentum of Lewis (allografts) or Brown Norway (isografts) animals. Recipient animals were treated with rapamycin, cyclosporine, 15-deoxyspergulin, mycophenolate mofetil, or leflunomide from day 0, 7, or 14 until day of graft removal, either day 28 or 50. Trachea segments were evaluated for degree of lumenal occlusion, as well as percent and type of lumen epithelial cell coverage.All untreated allografted tracheas obliterated completely, although isografts appeared patent with normal respiratory epithelium when they were removed. Leflunomide, rapamycin, and cyclosporine effectively prevented obliteration when treatment was initiated at day 0, with rapamycin showing continued efficacy when initiated as late as day 7. 15-deoxyspergulin and mycophenolate mofetil failed to consistently inhibit obliteration with any treatment schedule. An inverse correlation was found between epithelial coverage and degree of obliteration, and was especially pronounced in grafts from cyclosporine-treated animals.Immunosuppressive drug therapy will inhibit airway obliteration, but efficacy sharply diminishes if initiation of treatment is delayed. Efficacy also varies among immunosuppressive compounds, and results indicate those drugs that enable epithelial regrowth most effectively inhibit airway graft obliteration.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087669400007

    View details for PubMedID 10868623

  • Dendritic cells and macrophages in lung allografts a role in chronic rejection? AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Leonard, C. T., Soccal, P. M., Singer, L., Berry, G. J., Theodore, J., Holt, P. G., Doyle, R. L., Rosen, G. D. 2000; 161 (4): 1349-1354

    Abstract

    Antigen presentation by lung macrophages/dendritic cells (DC) is thought to be important in obliterative bronchiolitis/bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (OB/BOS), which severely limits survival post-lung transplantation. However, a recent study found minimal numbers of DC in lung allografts. We looked at numbers and phenotype of macrophages/DC in lung allografts using endobronchial biopsy (EBB) and transbronchial biopsy (TBB) from 22 lung transplant patients. Biopsies were stained with monoclonal markers of DC (CD1a, RFD1, and major histocompatibility complex [MHC] Class II), and "suppressor macrophages" (RFD1 and RFD7). Dendritic cells were also stained for the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. Significantly greater numbers of DC/high-power field (HPF) were seen in biopsies when we defined DC using dendritic morphology and Class II MHC expression instead of CD1a expression. Dendritic cell numbers were significantly higher in eight patients with OB/BOS compared with 14 stable patients. Fifty percent of DC expressed CD86 and 20% expressed CD80. There was no difference in CD80 or CD86 expression between OB/BOS patients and stable patients. There was no correlation between DC numbers and presence or absence of acute rejection (AR), and/or cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis on current or prior biopsies. There were significantly more MHC Class II DC in EBB compared with TBB. We found minimal staining for lung macrophages capable of suppressing T-cell inflammation. We conclude that studies of lung allografts may underestimate DC numbers if relying on CD1a as the sole marker of DC. DC are increased in patients with OB/BOS compared with stable patients. EBB may be more important than TBB in looking for inflammatory changes of OB. DC expressing costimulatory molecules are present in lung allografts, and costimulatory pathway blockade may be useful in human lung allografts. Also, the absence of "suppressor" macrophages may increase susceptibility of human lung allografts to the rejection process.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086573400044

    View details for PubMedID 10764333

  • Successful treatment of acute, ongoing rat lung allograft rejection with the novel immunosuppressant SDZ-RAD ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Hausen, B., Boeke, K., Berry, G. J., Christians, U., Schuler, W., Morris, R. E. 2000; 69 (3): 904-909

    Abstract

    Recent experimental data have shown that coadministration of microemulsion cyclosporine and the novel immunosuppressant SDZ-RAD potentiates the immunosuppressive efficacies of both drugs to suppress allograft rejection. Our study was designed to assess the potential of delayed SDZ-RAD administration, in addition to cyclosporine maintenance therapy, to reverse acute rejection in an allogeneic rat lung transplant model.Unilateral left lung transplantation was performed using Brown-Norway donors implanted into Lewis recipients. An untreated control group and a cyclosporine monotherapy group (7.5 mg/kg) were followed for 7 days. An additional cyclosporine monotherapy group (7.5 mg/kg), and a combined therapy group treated with cyclosporine (7.5 mg/kg) plus SDZ-RAD (2.5 mg/kg), were followed for 21 days. For treatment of ongoing rejection, 7.5 mg/kg cyclosporine was given as maintenance therapy, and SDZ-RAD (2.5 mg/kg) was added on postoperative day 7. Drugs were given orally, and in the combined therapy regimens, administered 6 hours apart. Outcome variables included daily weight, radiographs, and histology.Radiographs on postoperative day 7 showed mild and moderate opacification of the left chest in the cyclosporine monotherapy groups and the untreated control group. Addition of SDZ-RAD to cyclosporine treatment on postoperative day 7 reversed opacification by postoperative days 14 and 21. Monotherapy with microemulsion CsA resulted in mild histological rejection by day 7, which progressed to moderate rejection by day 21. Addition of SDZ-RAD on postoperative day 7 reversed acute rejection, resulting in none or minimal rejection at day 21.SDZ RAD reverses acute rejection under cyclosporine maintenance therapy in a stringent lung allotransplant model.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086022000056

    View details for PubMedID 10750781

  • Thoracic lymphangiomas, lymphangiectasis, lymphangiomatosis, and lymphatic dysplasia syndrome AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Faul, J. L., Berry, G. J., Colby, T. V., Ruoss, S. J., Walter, M. B., Rosen, G. D., Raffin, T. A. 2000; 161 (3): 1037-1046

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085996400058

    View details for PubMedID 10712360

  • Prevention of acute allograft rejection in nonhuman primate lung transplant recipients - Induction with chimeric anti-interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibody improves the tolerability and potentiates the immunosuppressive activity of a regimen using low doses of both microemulsion cyclosporine and 40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin TRANSPLANTATION Hausen, B., Gummert, J., Berry, G. J., Christians, U., Serkova, N., Ikonen, T., Hook, L., Legay, F., Schuler, W., Schreier, M. H., Morris, R. E. 2000; 69 (4): 488-496

    Abstract

    In previous studies of cynomolgus monkey lung allograft recipients, we demonstrated significant immunosuppressive efficacy but reduced tolerability after combined treatment with high doses of microemulsion cyclosporine (CsA) and SDZ RAD (40-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-rapamycin). The current study was designed to compare efficacy and tolerability of a combination of low-dose CsA and high-dose SDZ RAD (CTL group) to triple therapy using the chimeric anti-interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (CD25) monoclonal antibody (mAb) basiliximab (anti-IL-2 receptor mAb) for induction therapy (basiliximab: 5 mg intravenously on days 0 and 4) plus low-dose CsA and low-dose SDZ RAD for maintenance immunosuppression (CD25 group). CsA and anti-IL-2 receptor mAb are drugs that reduce cytokine synthesis and block IL-2-mediated lymphocyte stimulation, respectively. SDZ RAD blocks lymphocyte stimulation by other cytokines (e.g., IL-15) that are not inhibited by anti-IL-2 receptor mAb.Twelve unilateral lung transplants were performed. Recipients were observed for 49 days by daily weight assessment, hemograms, blood chemistries, radiographs, and lung biopsies. Monkeys were euthanized before day 49 in the event of excessive weight loss (>25%) or organ failure. Target CsA trough levels were 100-200 ng/ml. Target SDZ RAD trough levels in the CTL group (no mAb) were 20-40 ng/ml, and 10-20 ng/ml in the CD25 group.None of the monkeys in the CD25 group needed to be euthanized early due to signs of drug toxicity. In contrast, four monkeys in the CTL group were sacrificed on days 28-35 as a result of excessive weight loss (n=3) and renal functional impairment (n=1). Three recipients in the CD25 group were euthanized on days 36, 38, and 46 as a result of persistent high fever associated with severe rejection. The median animal survival in the CTL group was 32 vs. 46 days in the CD25 group (P<0.04). The only two long-term survivors in the CTL group showed moderate rejection at day 49. The median rejection scores at day 14 (A0) and day 28 (A2) were identical in the two groups, despite the fact that the mean SDZ RAD trough level was significantly lower in the CD25 group (CTL: 38+/-3 ng/ml, CD25: 18+/-2 ng/ml, P<0.0001). After basiliximab levels fell below the minimum therapeutic level (1 mg/ml) on day 28, the median rejection score at day 49 increased to A4 in the CD25 group.This is the first study to combine an anti-IL-2 receptor mAb with a drug from the rapamycin class plus CsA. Our study shows that induction therapy with basiliximab enabled SDZ RAD blood levels to be significantly reduced, which led to improved tolerability without the penalty of increased rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085611500005

    View details for PubMedID 10708100

  • The role of respiratory epithelium in a rat model of obliterative airway disease TRANSPLANTATION Adams, B. F., Brazelton, T., Berry, G. J., Morris, R. E. 2000; 69 (4): 661-664

    Abstract

    The etiology and pathogenesis of obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation remain to be fully elucidated. Using a rat model of heterotopically transplanted trachea grafts, we have examined the role airway epithelium plays in obliterative airway disease (OAD).Rat trachea isografts were denuded of epithelium by protease digestion. Grafts were inoculated either with or without native airway epithelial cells and transplanted into the omentum of recipient animals.Airway epithelium removal resulted in OAD in denuded isogeneic trachea grafts. Reseeding of the denuded grafts with epithelial cells significantly reduced airway obliteration from 78% to 22% luminal occlusion.Non-immune-mediated injury will cause OAD, and epithelial cell replacement in denuded isografts can significantly reduce the fibrotic progression of the disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085611500031

    View details for PubMedID 10708126

  • Combined immunosuppression with cyclosporine (Neoral) and SDZ RAD in non-human primate lung transplantation: Systematic pharmacokinetic-based trials to improve efficacy and tolerability TRANSPLANTATION Hausen, B., Ikonen, T., Briffa, N., Berry, G. J., Christians, U., Robbins, R. C., Hook, L., Serkova, N., Benet, L. Z., Schuler, W., Morris, R. E. 2000; 69 (1): 76-86

    Abstract

    We studied the efficacy and tolerability of combined immunosuppressive therapy with cyclosporine A microemulsion (Neoral) plus the macrolide SDZ RAD 40-0 (2-hydroxyethyl) rapamycin (RAD) in a stringent cynomolgus monkey lung graft model in comparison with cyclosporine or SDZ RAD monotherapy.Thirty-nine cynomolgus monkeys received mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) mismatched unilateral lung transplants. Immunosuppressants were administered orally as single daily doses. The observation period was 28 days and follow-up included serial trough blood drug concentrations measured by high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, blood analyses, chest radiographs, open lung biopsies, as well as tissue drug concentrations and graft histology at necropsy.Graft biopsies in monkeys treated with vehicle (n=4), Neoral (day 1-7: 150 mg/kg/day; day 8-28: 100 mg/kg/day; n=6; mean +/- SE trough level (MTL): 292+/-17 ng/ml) or SDZ RAD monotherapy (1.5 mg/kg/day; n=6; MTL: 15+/-1 ng/ml) showed severe rejection. Coadministration in two transplant monkeys of Neoral (150/100 mg/kg/day) and SDZ RAD (1.5 mg/kg/day) caused their early death. In both animals, SDZ RAD blood levels were more than 5-fold higher than under monotherapy (MTL: 82+/-18 ng/ml). Simultaneous administration (n=6) of Neoral (150/100 mg/kg/day; MTL: 217+/-16 ng/ml) and SDZ RAD (0.3 mg/kg/day; MTL: 24+/-2 ng/ml) improved graft outcome (mild rejection). Side effects included renal failure (n=2) and seizures (n=1). Three monkeys survived to day 28. In this group the MTL for cyclosporin was 143+/-13 and for RAD 38+/-3. Staggered treatment completely prevented rejection in four of six grafts. However, five of six monkeys had moderate to severe diarrhea. In a concentration-controlled trial of simultaneously administered Neoral and SDZ RAD in transplant monkeys (target SDZ RAD MTL: 20-40 ng/ml; cyclosporine MTL: 100-200 ng/ml) all six monkeys survived with improved drug tolerability and an average biopsy score of mild rejection.Combination of orally administered SDZ RAD and Neoral showed excellent immunosuppressive efficacy in a stringent lung transplant model. The drug interaction and the narrow therapeutic index of this drug combination required careful dose adjustments to optimize tolerability and efficacy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084860100015

    View details for PubMedID 10653384

  • Vaccination with heat-killed Listeria as adjuvant reverses established allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity and inflammation: Role of CD8(+) T cells and IL-18 JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Hansen, G., Yeung, V. P., Berry, G., Umetsu, D. T., DeKruyff, R. H. 2000; 164 (1): 223-230

    Abstract

    Asthma is a respiratory disorder characterized by airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and inflammation and is associated with high serum IgE and overproduction of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 by allergen-specific Th2 cells. Our previous studies demonstrated that heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKL) as an adjuvant in immunotherapy successfully reversed ongoing Ag-specific Th2-dominated responses toward Th1-dominated responses, but it was unclear if such immune modulation could reverse ongoing, established disease in target organs such as the lung. In this paper we show that a single dose of Ag plus HKL as adjuvant significantly reduced AHR in a murine model for asthma and reversed established AHR when given late after allergen sensitization. HKL as adjuvant also dramatically inhibited airway inflammation, eosinophilia, and mucus production, significantly reduced Ag-specific IgE and IL-4 production, and dramatically increased Ag-specific IFN-gamma synthesis. The inhibitory effect of HKL on AHR depended on the presence of IL-12 and CD8+ T cells and was associated with an increase of IL-18 mRNA expression. Thus, our results demonstrate that HKL as an adjuvant for immunotherapy mediates immune deviation from a pathological Th2-dominated response toward a protective immune response in peripheral lymphoid tissues and in the lungs and may be clinically effective in the treatment of patients with established asthma and allergic disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084321200033

    View details for PubMedID 10605015

  • Influenza pneumonia in a paediatric lung transplant recipient TRANSPLANT INTERNATIONAL Faul, J. L., Akindipe, O. A., Berry, G. J., Theodore, J. 2000; 13 (1): 79-81

    Abstract

    Although a common cause of morbidity and mortality in the general population, influenza infections are uncommon in lung transplant recipients and, to date, have only been associated with transient declines in pulmonary function and a relatively benign clinical course. This paper describes severe influenza pneumonia in a 13-year-old paediatric lung transplant recipient (5 months after double lung transplantation). Influenza pneumonia was diagnosed by direct fluorescent antibody testing and viral culture of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The patient required mechanical ventilation for 2 days due to respiratory failure and fatigue. Since his recovery from this pneumonia, he has developed obliterative bronchiolitis and currently awaits re-transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085936000013

    View details for PubMedID 10743695

  • Electrophysiological correlates of transmural linear ablation PACE-PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Liem, L. B., Pomeranz, M., Riseling, K., Anderson, S., Berry, G. J. 2000; 23 (1): 40-46

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of lesions created using radiofrequency (RF) energy delivered through a saline/foam electrode that is designed to simplify ablation of the isthmus between the tricuspid annulus (TA) and the inferior vena cava (IVC). We compared the changes in the electrophysiological parameters produced by the ablation to histological findings. In search of a more practical and effective atrial flutter ablation method, various energy modifications and catheter designs have been tested. It was shown that the efficiency of RF ablation could be improved using an endocardial cooled catheter; resulting in increased lesion size. Thus, we postulate that a similar advantage of the cooled catheter system would allow efficient RF delivery through specially designed long foam electrodes, therefore improving the practicality of TA-IVC isthmus ablation for atrial flutter. The study was performed in two acute and five subacute sheep under general anesthesia and with adequate heparinization. We used a linear ablation catheter system equipped with two 2-cm saline bipole electrode pockets with 1.5-mm separation, each consisting of two 8-mm electrodes with 1-mm spacing, allowing for bipolar pacing and recording. This saline/foam electrode pair were positioned on a support loop. RF energy was applied to the saline electrodes at 50 watts for 90 seconds with a saline flow rate of 0.4 mL/s. Bipolar atrial signal amplitude and pacing thresholds were measured before and after ablation. If necessary, the catheter was pulled back and additional ablation was applied to any viable tissue. Transisthmus ablations were created with a single catheter positioning in five sheep using both saline electrodes in four and one electrode in the other. Pullback and additional ablation to one saline electrode was required in two sheep; in one after RF was delivered to only one electrode. After ablation, atrial signal amplitude was reduced by an average of 76% (range 51%-92%) and its pacing threshold was increased by an average of 617% (range 150%-400%). Transmural lesions were found in all sheep, measuring 8-20 mm in length, 4-10 mm in width, and 1.5-2.0 mm in depth. No charring, coagulum, or remote structural damage was found in any preparation. Continuous transmural TA-IVC isthmus lesions could be produced with stationary RF linear ablation using a saline/foam electrode catheter system. This system allowed for assessment of electrophysiological parameters that correlated with complete necrosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084952100007

    View details for PubMedID 10666752

  • CD4(+) T helper cells engineered to produce latent TGF-beta 1 reverse allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity and inflammation JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Hansen, G., McIntire, J. J., Yeung, V. P., Berry, G., Thorbecke, G. J., Chen, L. Z., DeKruyff, R. H., Umetsu, D. T. 2000; 105 (1): 61-70

    Abstract

    T helper 2 (Th2) cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of asthma, but the precise immunological mechanisms that inhibit Th2 cell function in vivo are not well understood. Using gene therapy, we demonstrated that ovalbumin-specific (OVA-specific) Th cells engineered to express latent TGF-beta abolished airway hyperreactivity and airway inflammation induced by OVA-specific Th2 effector cells in SCID and BALB/c mice. These effects correlated with increased concentrations of active TGF-beta in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, demonstrating that latent TGF-beta was activated in the inflammatory environment. In contrast, OVA-specific Th1 cells failed to inhibit airway hyperreactivity and inflammation in this system. The inhibitory effect of TGF-beta-secreting Th cells was antigen-specific and was reversed by neutralization of TGF-beta. Our results demonstrate that T cells secreting TGF-beta in the respiratory mucosa can indeed regulate Th2-induced airway hyperreactivity and inflammation and suggest that TGF-beta-producing T cells play an important regulatory role in asthma.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084579300009

    View details for PubMedID 10619862

  • Feasibility of in vivo intravascular ultrasound tissue characterization in the detection of early vascular transplant rejection CIRCULATION Jeremias, A., Kolz, M. L., Ikonen, T. S., Gummert, J. F., Oshima, A., Hayase, M., Honda, Y., Komiyama, N., Berry, G. J., Morris, R. E., Yock, P. G., Fitzgerald, P. J. 1999; 100 (21): 2127-2130

    Abstract

    Unprocessed ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) signal analysis has been shown to distinguish different tissue structures more reliably than gray-scale interpretation of conventional ultrasound images.The objective of this study was to test the feasibility of in vivo intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) RF signal analysis in an animal model of allograft rejection. Six cynomolgus monkeys underwent transplantation of 3-cm aortic allograft segments distal to the renal arteries from immunologically mismatched donors. IVUS imaging with a 30-MHz system was performed 84 to 105 days after the operation. RF signals were acquired from cross sections of the recipient and the allograft aortas in real time with a digitizer at 500 MHz with 8-bit resolution. Sixty-five cross sections and 68 regions of interest (31 in host aorta and 37 in allograft) were analyzed in the adventitial layer with a total number of 8568 vectors processed. For each region of interest, a weighted-average attenuation was calculated on the basis of the attenuation and length for each individual vector. Histological examination was performed at every cross section imaged by IVUS. When the gray-scale images of conventional IVUS scored by an independent observer were compared, no distinction between adventitia of the native aorta and allograft was possible. Analysis of the average RF backscatter power also showed no significant difference (70.32+/-3.55 versus 70.72+/-3.38 dB). However, the average attenuation of allografts was significantly lower than that of the host aortas (2.64+/-1.38 versus 4.02+/-1.16 dB/mm, P<0.001). Histology demonstrated a marked adventitial inflammatory response in all allografts, with no inflammation observed in the host aortas.In vivo IVUS tissue characterization can be performed during routine imaging. In this model of transplant vasculopathy, RF attenuation measurements were more sensitive than visual or quantitative gray-scale analysis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083945000005

    View details for PubMedID 10571969

  • Mitral annular dilatation and papillary muscle dislocation without mitral regurgitation in sheep. Circulation Green, G. R., Dagum, P., Glasson, J. R., Daughters, G. T., Bolger, A. F., Foppiano, L. E., Berry, G. J., Ingels, N. B., Miller, D. C. 1999; 100 (19): II95-102

    Abstract

    Asymmetrical mitral annular (MA) dilatation and papillary muscle dislocation are implicated in the pathogenesis of functional mitral regurgitation (MR).To determine the mechanism by which annular and papillary muscle geometric alterations result in MR, we implanted radiopaque markers in the left ventricle, mitral annulus, anterior and posterior mitral leaflets, and papillary muscle tips and bases in 2 groups of sheep. One group served as controls (CTL, n=7); an experimental group (EXP, n=9) underwent topical phenol application to obliterate anterior annular and leaflet muscle (confirmed histologically ex vivo). After 1 week of recovery, markers were imaged with biplane videofluoroscopy, and hemodynamic data were recorded. MA area (computed from 3-dimensional marker coordinates) was 11% to 13% larger in the EXP group than in the CTL group (P<0.05 by ANOVA). This area increase resulted exclusively from intercommissural axis increase except in 1 heart with large (>1 cm) increases in both the intercommissural and septolateral annular axes. The anterior papillary muscle tip in EXP was displaced from CTL by 2.9+/-0.23 mm toward the anterolateral left ventricle and 2.5+/-0.12 mm toward the mitral annulus at end systole; the posterior papillary muscle geometry was unchanged. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed MR only in the heart exhibiting biaxial annular enlargement.MA dilatation in the intercommissural dimension with anterior papillary muscle tip displacement toward the annulus is insufficient to produce MR in sheep. Functional MR may require MA dilatation in the septolateral axis, as observed with proximal circumflex coronary occlusion.

    View details for PubMedID 10567285

  • Superior vena cava syndrome caused by pulmonary artery sarcoma JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Faul, J. L., Wahl, T., Ihnken, K., Berry, G. J., Doyle, R. L., Whyte, R. I. 1999; 118 (4): 749-750

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083129400034

    View details for PubMedID 10504645

  • Constrictive pericarditis due to coccidiomycosis ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Faul, J. L., Hoang, K., Schmoker, J., Vagelos, R. H., Berry, G. J. 1999; 68 (4): 1407-1409

    Abstract

    Coccidiomycosis is a fungal infection that rarely causes cardiac disease. Constrictive pericarditis in the setting of disseminated coccidiomycosis can be fatal, despite antifungal therapy and pericardiectomy. We report on a patient with constrictive pericarditis due to localized infection by Coccidioides immitis. The patient underwent successful surgical pericardiectomy and antifungal chemotherapy, and remains well 1 year later.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083265800076

    View details for PubMedID 10543521

  • The histology of subcutaneously implanted donor bronchial rings correlates with rejection scores of lung allografts in a primate lung transplant model JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Hausen, B., Berry, G. J., Dagum, P., Ikonen, T., Christians, U., Briffa, N., Hook, L., Morris, R. E. 1999; 18 (7): 714-724

    Abstract

    The diagnosis of acute rejection in lung transplantation generally relies on transbronchial biopsies. This invasive procedure may be associated with bronchial bleeding or pneumothorax and may not be feasible in patients with severely compromised lung function. The hypothesis of the current study was that histopathological findings of donor bronchial segments implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of lung allograft recipients would predict lung tissue rejection scores, thus providing the clinician with an alternate source of information.Unilateral left lung transplantation was performed in 34 cynomolgus monkeys as part of a drug efficacy study. After completion of the transplant procedure, 4 bronchial ring segments of the explanted recipient left lung and 4 bronchial ring segments of the non-transplanted right donor lung were implanted subcutaneously in the abdominal region. Lung allograft rejection was evaluated by open lung biopsies of the allograft performed on postoperative (PO) Day 14 and during sacrifice on PO Day 28. At the time of each biopsy, 2 donor and 2 recipient subcutaneous bronchial rings were explanted. Histologic evaluation of the lung tissue samples was performed according to the working formulation of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Bronchial rings were independently evaluated by assessing the degree of airway narrowing; percentage of intact epithelial coverage as well as its specific histology (respiratory ciliated, flattened cuboidal, squamous); presence of lymphocytes, macrophages or spindle cells; and presence of peribronchial inflammation, luminal fibrosis, lymphocytic bronchitis or luminal mucous. Statistical analysis was performed by logistic regression.In the recipient bronchial rings, there was no evidence of airway narrowing. There was 98% epithelial coverage, 71% that were respiratory ciliated cells, and there was no inflammation. Donor bronchial rings showed no airway narrowing for monkeys with grade A0 to A2 rejection in tissue biopsies and a maximum narrowing (41.2%) with A4 rejection. Epithelial cell coverage was approximately 100% with grade A0-A2 and 44+/-11% with A4 rejection. Lymphocytic bronchitis was most severe in A4 rejection and minimal in A0 to A2 rejection. By logistic regression analysis, independent predictors of a likelihood of rejection were the degree of airway obliteration, the percentage of epithelial cell coverage, the degree of lymphocytic bronchitis and the product of respiratory and flattened cuboidal cell coverage.The current data show that histologic alterations of subcutaneously implanted donor bronchial rings correlate with lung tissue biopsy scores based on the ISHLT working formulation. Because subcutaneous bronchial rings can be explanted under local anesthesia, they may provide useful information for the diagnosis of acute allograft rejection in patients with impaired lung function, patients that obtaining lung tissue samples may not be feasible.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081667900013

    View details for PubMedID 10452349

  • Recurrent Pneumocystis carinii colonization in a heart-lung transplant recipient on long-term trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Faul, J. L., Akindipe, O. A., Berry, G. J., Doyle, R. L., Theodore, J. 1999; 18 (4): 384-387

    Abstract

    In the setting of organ transplantation, prior to prophylaxis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) had been a common clinical problem, particularly in heart-lung and lung recipients who receive long-term immunosuppressive therapy to prevent allograft rejection. Continuous oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been highly effective in preventing PCP in these patients.In this paper we report a case of recurrent Pneumocystis carinii infection in a chronic (> 15 years) heart-lung allograft recipient on long-term TMP-SMX prophylaxis. Twice, in 1995 and again in 1998, Pneumocystis carinii infection was diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), in the same patient, despite continued oral TMP-SMX (960 mg TMP/4800 mg SMX per week) prophylaxis. The subject was not lymphopenic (his CD4 count was 569/mm3) and there was no associated deterioration in pulmonary function, nor evidence of hypoxemia.This case demonstrates that asymptomatic Pneumocystis carinii lung infections may recur in chronic heart-lung transplant recipients who take standard oral PCP prophylaxis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079923800017

    View details for PubMedID 10226906

  • Potentiation of immunosuppressive efficacy by combining the novel leflunomide analog, HMR 279, with microemulsion cyclosporine in a rat lung transplant model TRANSPLANTATION Hausen, B., Boeke, K., Berry, G. J., Gummert, J. F., Christians, U., Morris, R. E. 1999; 67 (3): 354-359

    Abstract

    The novel leflunomide (LFM) analog, HMR 279, potentiates the immunosuppressive efficacy of microemulsion cyclosporine (Neoral) in rodent heart transplantation. The present study was designed to evaluate the immunosuppressive efficacy of this combination in comparison to the combination of Neoral and LFM in a stringent allogeneic rodent lung transplant model.Donor lungs from Brown Norway rats were implanted into Lewis recipients and were followed for 21 days. Postoperative monitoring included daily weight assessment, chest radiographs, drug trough levels measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (LFM/HMR 279) and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (Neoral), and blinded histology assessment of the transplanted lung on the day of death based on the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation working formulation. Untreated lung recipients served as controls (group I, n=5). Rats were assigned to the following treatment groups: II, 7.5 mg/kg/day Neoral (n=6); III, 10 mg/kg/day LFM (n=6); IV, 10 mg/kg/day HMR 279 (n=6); V, 10 mg/kg/day LFM plus 7.5 mg/kg/day Neoral given simultaneously (n=13); and VI, 10 mg/kg/day HMR 279 plus 7.5 mg/kg/day Neoral given simultaneously (n=6). Drugs were given daily by oral gavage.All rats except for one in the HMR 279 monotherapy group survived the follow-up period. The chest radiographs in the control, LFM, and HMR 279 monotherapy groups showed moderate to complete opacification of the left chest by postoperative day 7 (controls) and day 14 (LFM, 279). At postoperative day 21, the Neoral monotherapy and the combination groups showed no signs of opacification in the radiographs. Combination therapies of Neoral plus HMR 279 or Neoral plus LFM were most successful in preventing histologic allograft rejection. Combining Neoral and HMR 279 resulted in a significant decrease in the cyclosporine trough levels. Co-administration of LFM plus Neoral resulted in significantly higher LFM trough levels when compared to LFM monotherapy. Of all treatments studied, the combination of HMR 279 plus Neoral was tolerated best as assessed by percentage of weight change.This study showed for the first time in a stringent rodent lung transplant model that combined treatment of LFM or HMR 279 plus Neoral potentiates the immunosuppressive efficacies of these drugs and successfully prevents allograft rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078730800003

    View details for PubMedID 10030278

  • Suppression of acute rejection in allogeneic rat lung transplantation: A study of the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of rapamycin derivative (SDZ RAD) used alone and in combination with a microemulsion formulation of cyclosporine JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Hausen, B., Boeke, K., Berry, G. J., Segarra, I., Christians, U., Morris, R. E. 1999; 18 (2): 150-159

    Abstract

    The novel immunosuppressant SDZ RAD, 40-0 (2-hydroxyethyl)rapamycin, is an orally active rapamycin analogue developed for use in combination with cyclosporine (Neoral). The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of SDZ RAD, Neoral, or a combination of both drugs for suppression of acute rejection in an allogeneic, unilateral rat lung transplant model.Brown-Norway (RT1n) donor lungs were implanted into Lewis (RT1l) recipients that were observed for 21 days. Postoperative evaluation included daily weights, serial chest radiographs, drug trough levels, and histology scores of the transplanted lung on the day of sacrifice. Treatment groups were comprised of rats treated orally with the RAD vehicle as controls (n = 6); SDZ RAD 2.5 mg/kg/day (n = 9); Neoral 7.5 mg/kg/day (n = 8); Neoral 2.5 mg/kg/day (n = 6); SDZ RAD 2.5 mg/kg/day plus Neoral 7.5 mg/kg/day (n = 7); and Neoral 2.5 mg/kg/day plus SDZ RAD 2.5 mg/kg/day (n = 6).The results of this study showed that neither monotherapy with 2.5 mg/kg/day of Neoral, nor 2.5 mg/kg/day of SDZ RAD prevented severe acute rejection in unilateral lung transplant recipients. Furthermore, despite high dose (7.5 mg/kg/day) Neoral treatment, graft histology showed moderate rejection. However, addition of 2.5 mg/kg/day of SDZ RAD to 7.5 mg/kg/day of Neoral completely prevented histologic rejection in four of seven grafts, although the remaining 3 grafts showed minimal rejection. This combination resulted in significantly higher RAD trough levels when compared to SDZ RAD treatment alone. Combining a lower dose of Neoral (2.5 mg/ kg/day) with 2.5 mg/kg/day of SDZ RAD resulted in less weight loss and improved animal health; however, the histology of lung grafts in these rats showed mild rejection.This is the first study on the efficacy of the novel rapamycin derivative SDZ RAD for the control of acute lung allograft rejection. Results showed that acute unilateral rat lung allograft rejection is refractory to monotherapy with either high dose Neoral or SDZ RAD. The two regimens of combined treatment with Neoral plus SDZ RAD used in these studies produced either minimal rejection and reduced tolerability or mild rejection and better tolerability and showed potentiation of immunosuppression when both drugs were used together. Additional investigation of these two drugs is needed, however, to devise regimens that produce both high immunosuppressive efficacy and good tolerability.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079340500008

    View details for PubMedID 10194039

  • Allergen-specific Th1 cells fail to counterbalance Th2 cell-induced airway hyperreactivity but cause severe airway inflammation JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Hansen, G., Berry, G., DeKruyff, R. H., Umetsu, D. T. 1999; 103 (2): 175-183

    Abstract

    Allergic asthma, which is present in as many as 10% of individuals in industrialized nations, is characterized by chronic airway inflammation and hyperreactivity induced by allergen-specific Th2 cells secreting interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5. Because Th1 cells antagonize Th2 cell functions, it has been proposed that immune deviation toward Th1 can protect against asthma and allergies. Using an adoptive transfer system, we assessed the roles of Th1, Th2, and Th0 cells in a mouse model of asthma and examined the capacity of Th1 cells to counterbalance the proasthmatic effects of Th2 cells. Th1, Th2, and Th0 lines were generated from ovalbumin (OVA)-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mice and transferred into lymphocyte-deficient, OVA-treated severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. OVA-specific Th2 and Th0 cells induced significant airway hyperreactivity and inflammation. Surprisingly, Th1 cells did not attenuate Th2 cell-induced airway hyperreactivity and inflammation in either SCID mice or in OVA-immunized immunocompetent BALB/c mice, but rather caused severe airway inflammation. These results indicate that antigen-specific Th1 cells may not protect or prevent Th2-mediated allergic disease, but rather may cause acute lung pathology. These findings have significant implications with regard to current therapeutic goals in asthma and allergy and suggest that conversion of Th2-dominated allergic inflammatory responses into Th1-dominated responses may lead to further problems.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078247400004

    View details for PubMedID 9916129

  • The use of technetium Tc 99m annexin V for in vivo imaging of apoptosis during cardiac allograft rejection JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Vriens, P. W., Blankenberg, F. G., Stoot, J. H., Ohtsuki, K., Berry, G. J., Tait, J. F., Strauss, H. W., Robbins, R. C. 1998; 116 (5): 844-852

    Abstract

    Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, has been suggested as a mechanism of immunologic injury during cardiac allograft rejection. We tested the hypothesis that technetium Tc 99m annexin V, a novel radiopharmaceutical used to detect apoptosis, can be used to detect cardiac allograft rejection by nuclear imaging.Untreated ACI rats served as recipients of allogeneic PVG rat (n = 66) or syngeneic ACI rat (n = 30) cardiac grafts. Untreated recipient animals underwent 99mTc-annexin V imaging daily for 7 days. Region of interest analysis was used to quantify the uptake of 99mTc-annexin V. Immediately after imaging grafts were procured for histopathologic analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick-end labeling of apoptotic nuclei. One group was treated with 10 mg/kg/d cyclosporine (INN: ciclosporin) commencing on day 4 after transplantation (n = 6).Untreated allografts showed histologic signs of rejection 4 days after transplantation. Apoptotic nuclei could be demonstrated in myocytes, endothelial cells, and graft-infiltrating cells of all rejecting allografts. Nuclear imaging revealed a significantly greater uptake of 99mTc-annexin V in rejecting allogeneic grafts than in syngeneic grafts on day 4 (P = .05), day 5 (P < .001), day 6 (P < .001), and day 7 (P = .013) after transplantation. A correlation between the histologic grade of acute rejection and uptake of 99mTc-annexin V was observed (r2 = 0.87). After treatment of rejection with cyclosporine, no apoptotic nuclei could be identified in allografts and uptake of 99mTc-annexin V decreased to baseline.Apoptosis occurs during acute cardiac allograft rejection and disappears after treatment of rejection. 99mTc-annexin V can be used to detect and monitor cardiac allograft rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076693300031

    View details for PubMedID 9806391

  • The use of cardiac biopsy to demonstrate reduced cardiotoxicity in AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma patients treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY Berry, G., Billingham, M., Alderman, E., Richardson, P., Torti, F., Lum, B., Patek, A., Martin, F. J. 1998; 9 (7): 711-716

    Abstract

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PL-DOX) has been shown in preclinical models to induce less cardiotoxicity than non-liposomal doxorubicin. Endomyocardial biopsy is a highly sensitive and specific method for detecting anthracycline-induced cardiac damage.Myocardial tissue from ten KS patients who had received cumulative PL-DOX (20 mg/m2/biweekly) of 440-840 mg/m2 was evaluated for evidence of anthracycline-induced cardiac damage. Controls were assembled from patients who had received cumulative doxorubicin doses of 174-671 mg/m2 in two earlier cardiac biopsy protocols. Two control groups were selected on the basis of both cumulative (+/- 10 mg/m2) and peak doxorubicin dose (60 or 20 mg/m2, control group 1), or peak dose alone (20 mg/m2, control group 2).PL-DOX patients had significantly lower biopsy scores compared with those of doxorubicin controls despite higher cumulative doses of anthracycline. The median biopsy scores for the PL-DOX and doxorubicin groups, respectively, were 0.3 vs. 3.0 (P = 0.002, Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel row mean difference test) for group 1 and 1.25 for group 2 (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon rank-sum test).Less severe cardiac changes were seen in patients given PL-DOX relative to historical control patients given comparable cumulative doses of doxorubicin.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075448300008

    View details for PubMedID 9739435

  • Enhancement of obliterative airway disease in rat tracheal allografts infected with recombinant rat cytomegalovirus JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Reichenspurner, H., Soni, V., Nitschke, M., Berry, G. J., Brazelton, T., Shorthouse, R., Huang, X. F., Boname, J., Girgis, R., Raitz, B. A., Mocarski, E., SANDFORD, G., Morris, R. E. 1998; 17 (5): 439-451

    Abstract

    Cytomegalovirus infection has been identified as a significant risk factor for the development of obliterative bronchiolitis in human lung transplant recipients. This study was designed to assess the influence of rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) on the pathogenesis and development of obliterative bronchiolitis in an experimental model of obliterative airway disease, which occurs after allogenic heterotopic tracheal transplantation in rodents.Sixty Lewis rats were infected intraperitoneally with 10(7) plaque-forming units of recombinant lac-Z-tagged RCMV expressing the gene for beta-galactosidase. Rats were either infected at the time of surgery (acute infection, n = 30) or 56 days before surgery (chronic infection, n = 30). Tracheae from Brown Norway (allograft) or Lewis (isograft) rats were implanted and wrapped in the greater omentum of infected Lewis rats. RCMV infection was verified in different recipient tissues by in vitro plaque-assays and by direct in situ staining for beta-galactosidase activity. The tracheal grafts were harvested on days 7, 14, and 21 after transplantation and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome. The peritracheal cellular inflammation was scored visually. The cellular density of the infiltrating cells and the extent of airway obliteration were analyzed by use of computer-digitized morphometry and compared with uninfected allografts as control.Both acute and chronic cytomegalovirus infection produced significantly higher mononuclear cell density values on days 7 and 14 compared with noninfected controls, indicating a more intense immune response in the infected allografts. Tracheal allograft obliteration was also more extensive after acute and, in particular, after chronic cytomegalovirus infection (64% narrowing after 21 days compared with 36% in grafts from noninfected control animals).Our experimental results provide direct evidence that the tracheal grafts were infected with RCMV and that the development of obliterative airway disease was enhanced in the acutely and chronically infected allografts compared with grafts from noninfected control animals.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073855800001

    View details for PubMedID 9628562

  • Bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation - Detection using expiratory HRCT CHEST Leung, A. N., Fisher, K., Valentine, V., Girgis, R. E., Berry, G. J., Robbins, R. C., Theodore, J. 1998; 113 (2): 365-370

    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to determine if air trapping, as detected on expiratory high-resolution CT (HRCT), is useful as an indicator of bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) in lung transplant recipients. MATERIALS andCorresponding inspiratory and expiratory HRCT images at five different levels and spirometry were obtained in 21 lung transplant recipients. Eleven patients had BO proved by transbronchial biopsy specimens; the remaining 10 patients had no pathologic or functional evidence of airways disease. Two "blinded" observers assessed the inspiratory images for the presence of bronchiectasis and mosaic pattern of lung attenuation, and the expiratory images for presence and extent of air trapping. Statistical comparison of the frequency of HRCT findings between patients with and without BO was performed using Fisher's Exact Test.On inspiratory images, bronchiectasis and mosaic pattern of lung attenuation were present in 4 (36%) and 7 (64%) of 11 patients with BO, and 2 (20%) and 1 (10%) of 10 patients without BO (p>0.05 and p<0.05), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of bronchiectasis and mosaic pattern for BO were 36%, 80%, and 57%, and 64%, 90%, and 70%, respectively. On expiratory images, air trapping was found in 10 of 11 (91%) patients with BO compared to 2 of 10 (20%) patients without BO (p<0.002). Air trapping was found to have a sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 80%, and accuracy of 86% for BO. Air trapping was identified in one patient with BO who had normal results of baseline spirometric function tests.Air trapping, as detected on expiratory HRCT, was the most sensitive and accurate radiologic indicator of BO in the lung transplant population.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072002900022

    View details for PubMedID 9498953

  • Validity of clinic biopsy specimens in classifying histopathologic characteristics of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma ARCHIVES OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD & NECK SURGERY Brown, J. J., Berry, G. J., Moretto, J., KEATING, W. F., Fee, W. E. 1997; 123 (9): 950-955

    Abstract

    To evaluate nasopharyngeal carcinoma resection specimens for heterogeneity of histologic patterns to determine if preoperative histologic characteristics of the clinic biopsy specimen are representative of the entire lesion. The null hypothesis is that clinic biopsy specimens are not necessarily representative.Preoperative clinic biopsy specimens were measured to calculate their average size. Resection specimens were then sectioned and evaluated in increments corresponding to this size. Each of these increments was then histologically classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. This classification of the preoperative biopsy specimens was compared with that of the resection specimen as a whole.University referral center.Twenty-six consecutive patients with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma who underwent surgical resection. Radiation therapy failed in all patients.The presence or absence of WHO histologic heterogeneity in the nasopharyngectomy specimen was recorded. Disparity between preoperative clinic biopsy and resection specimens was recorded.The mean clinic biopsy specimen size was 13.9 mm2 or less than 1% of the available surface area of the nasopharynx. Of 26 resection specimens classified in 5 increments of this size, 15 (57.7%) were a single WHO type, and 11 (42.3%) were found to be mixtures of WHO types I, II, and III. Of 16 cases with preoperative biopsy specimens available, 4 (25%) were a different WHO classification than their corresponding resection specimen.Most clinic biopsy specimens were representative of their corresponding tumor resection specimens in their entirety; however, tumor heterogeneity is such that some biopsy specimens will not be representative. This finding may interfere with WHO classification data determined on the basis of clinic biopsy specimens and hence confound any meaningful data on treatment outcomes. It is recommended then that multiple nasopharyngeal biopsy specimens be obtained from disparate areas of the lesion and each subjected to independent histopathologic review.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XX18900008

    View details for PubMedID 9305245

  • Obliterative airway disease after heterotopic tracheal xenotransplantation: Pathogenesis and prevention using new immunosuppressive agents TRANSPLANTATION Reichenspurner, H., Soni, V., Nitschke, M., Berry, G. J., Brazelton, T. R., Shorthouse, R., Huang, X. F., Reitz, B. A., Morris, R. E. 1997; 64 (3): 373-383

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether obliterative bronchiolitis might occur after xenogenic pulmonary transplantation. A model for obliterative airway disease (OAD) after tracheal allograft transplantation in the rat undergoes tracheal obliteration with histologic features characteristic of obliterative bronchiolitis in human lung transplant recipients. Using this model, the pathogenesis of OAD and its prevention with immunosuppressive drugs was studied in rat recipients of hamster tracheal grafts.Tracheae from 30 hamsters (xenografts) or 23 Brown-Norway rats (allografts) were implanted and wrapped in the greater omentum of untreated Lewis rats. The grafts were removed on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, or 28 after transplantation and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome and by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence (IFL) techniques. In addition, 25 recipients were treated with cyclosporine (CsA, 10 mg/kg p.o.), leflunomide (LFM, 20 mg/kg p.o.), or rapamycin (RPM, 6 mg/kg i.p.) for 14 or 21 days (5 animals per treatment group). Visual and morphometric analyses were used to evaluate the extent of airway obliteration, luminal coverage by respiratory or flattened cuboidal epithelium, and extent and density of peritracheal cellular inflammation.In all xenografts, a neutrophilic infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa was observed from day 1 until day 14 and was associated with complete loss of tracheal epithelium by day 14. A marked peritracheal mononuclear cellular infiltrate mixed with plasma cells and eosinophils was seen on days 7 and 14. Both the extent of peritracheal inflammation and the density of the mononuclear cell infiltrate were significantly increased in xenograft tracheae when compared with the allografts. Tracheal obliteration began on day 14 and reached a maximum of 43% on day 21 with evidence of intraluminal fibrosis. In contrast to IFL of allografts, IFL of xenografts demonstrated marked deposition of rat immunoglobulin in the peritracheal tissue on days 7 and 14. The effects of treatment with immunosuppressive drugs on tracheal graft narrowing and protection of respiratory epithelium were as follows: After 14 days of treatment, the percentage of tracheal graft narrowing was 12%, 23%, and 19% in the no treatment, CsA, and LFM groups, respectively; the percentage of respiratory epithelium at 14 days was 0%, 21%, and 95%. After 21 days of treatment, the percentage of tracheal graft narrowing was 43%, 49%, 12%, and 5% for the no treatment, CsA, LFM, and RPM groups, respectively; the percentage of respiratory epithelium at 21 days was 0%, 39%, 86%, and 0%. Using computerized morphometry, the extent and densities of the peritracheal cellular infiltrates were significantly reduced in LFM- and CsA-treated groups when compared with untreated xenograft controls. LFM and RPM, but not CsA, significantly reduced the degree of luminal obliteration compared with no treatment (P<0.05). LFM and, to a lesser extent, CsA were able to prevent the loss of normal respiratory epithelium. Analysis by IFL revealed a marked decrease in rat immunoglobulin deposition in xenografts from LFM- and RPM-treated groups compared with xenografts from CsA-treated or untreated rats.(1) OAD occurs not only after tracheal allotransplantation but also after xenotransplantation. (2) Subepithelial infiltration of neutrophils and the appearance of plasma cells and eosinophils in the peritracheal infiltrates distinguished the histology of rejected xenografts from allografts. (3) Antibody deposition was detected by IFL only in xenografts. (4) Treatment with LFM or RPM significantly decreased the severity of luminal obliteration. Importantly, LFM also prevented the loss of respiratory epithelium.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XR62400001

    View details for PubMedID 9275099

  • Pulmonary tumor embolism AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Bassiri, A. G., Haghighi, B., Doyle, R. L., Berry, G. J., Rizk, N. W. 1997; 155 (6): 2089-2095

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XD76000040

    View details for PubMedID 9196119

  • The effects of post-treatment with lisofylline, a phosphatidic acid generation inhibitor, on sepsis-induced acute lung injury in pigs AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE Hasegawa, N., Oka, Y., Nakayama, M., Berry, G. J., Bursten, S., Rice, G., Raffin, T. A. 1997; 155 (3): 928-936

    Abstract

    The effects of lisofylline [(R)-1-(5-hydroxyhexyl)-3,7-dimethylxanthine] (LSF), an inhibitor of de novo phosphatidic acid (PA) generation, on sepsis-induced acute lung injury was studied using Hanford minipigs weighing 18 to 25 kg. Sepsis was induced by an intravenous infusion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1 x 10(6)/colony-forming units/kg/min over 2 h). Saline was used as the control vehicle. Six groups were studied: saline control group (SALINE: n = 5); sepsis control group (SEPSIS: n = 5); LSF control group (LSF: n = 5), which received a 25-mg/kgbolus of LSF 30 min before time zero followed by continuous infusion of 10 mg/kg/h throughout the study; LSF-treated septic groups, which were treated with LSF 30 min prior to sepsis (Pre: n = 5), 1 h postonset (Post-1 h: n = 8) or h postonset (Post-2 h: n = 8) of the bacterial infusion. Hemodynamics PaO2, neutrophil counts, and plasma porcine tumor necrosis factor-alpha concentrations were monitored for 6 h. After the minipigs were killed, lung tissue was sampled to measured wet-to-dry weight ratio (W/D), tissue albumin index (TAI), thiobarbituric acid-reactive material content (TBARM), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Compared with the SALINE group, the SEPSIS group showed significant systemic hypotension, pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypoxemia, neutropenia, and increase in TNF-alpha, MPO activity, W/D, TBARM, and TAI. LSF treatment attenuated sepsis-induced pulmonary hypertension, neutropenia, and hypoxemia, and increased MPO activity and lung injury measurements in the Pre and Post-1 h groups, but its efficacy was blunted in the Post-2 h group. Plasma TNF-alpha was decreased only in the Pre group. Thus, inhibition of intracellular PA generation through de novo pathways attenuates sepsis-induced acute lung injury.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WN85700024

    View details for PubMedID 9117028

  • Rapamycin inhibits development of obliterative airway disease in a murine heterotopic airway transplant model TRANSPLANTATION Fahrni, J. A., Berry, G. J., Morris, R. E., Rosen, G. D. 1997; 63 (4): 533-537

    Abstract

    Obliterative bronchiolitis is the major cause of long-term morbidity and mortality in heart-lung and lung transplant recipients. There is presently no completely effective therapy for the treatment of obliterative bronchiolitis. We have examined the effects of rapamycin (RPM) on the development of obliterative airway disease in murine recipients of heterotopically transplanted allograft tracheas. In this model, an untreated allograft develops almost complete occlusion of the airway lumen with fibroblastic tissue and collagen scar by day 28 after transplantation. RPM administered intraperitoneally at the time of transplantation or even as late as day 14 after transplantation markedly inhibited obliteration of the airway lumen by fibroblastic tissue. Also, RPM significantly inhibited infiltration of the graft by macrophages. In the RPM-treated animals, the airway was reconstituted with an attenuated squamous epithelium rather than a normal pseudostratified epithelium. No adverse side effects were observed with RPM doses up to 12 mg/kg/ day. These findings suggest a potential role for RPM, perhaps in combination with cyclosporine, in preventing and treating obliterative bronchiolitis in heart-lung and lung allograft recipients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WL85500008

    View details for PubMedID 9047146

  • Risk factors for the development of obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Girgis, R. E., Tu, I. P., Berry, G. J., Reichenspurner, H., Valentine, V. G., Conte, J. V., Ting, A., Johnstone, I., Miller, J., Robbins, R. C., Reitz, B. A., Theodore, J. 1996; 15 (12): 1200-1208

    Abstract

    Acute rejection has emerged as an important risk factor for obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess the impact of additional variables.Seventy-four recipients (48 heart-lung, 18 single-lung, and 8 bilateral-lung recipients) who survived longer than 90 days and underwent transplantation more than 15 months before data analysis were included in this study. Several variables were entered into a Cox regression analysis to determine their association with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome developed in 48 (65%) of 74 patients. Significant correlations were detected for acute rejection score, defined as the sum of pathologic grades of each separate acute rejection episode (p = 0.0004, likelihood ratio test value = 12.4) and for lymphocytic bronchiolitis (p = 0.03). In a bivariate model, episodes of organizing pneumonia and bacterial or fungal pneumonia significantly increased the likelihood ratio test value of the acute rejection score. The addition of the cytomegalovirus infection score, reflecting the frequency and severity of infection, to the combination of the acute rejection score and episodes of bacterial or fungal pneumonia resulted in a further significant increase in the likelihood ratio test value. Significant risk factors for moderate to severe stages of airflow limitation were at least one episode of acute rejection of grade > or = 2, younger recipient age, and any acute rejection episode 180 days or longer after transplantation.Increasing frequency and severity of acute rejection episodes are strongly associated with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Lymphocytic bronchiolitis appeared to be significant by univariate analysis, but in a two-risk factor model, it did not augment the influence of acute rejection. Organizing pneumonia, bacterial or fungal pneumonia, and increasing severity and frequency of cytomegalovirus infections potentiate the effect of acute rejection. Late episodes of acute rejection and younger recipient age increase the risk for development of advanced disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996WA94600005

    View details for PubMedID 8981205

  • Increased accumulation of tissue ACE in human atherosclerotic coronary artery disease CIRCULATION Diet, F., Pratt, R. E., Berry, G. J., Momose, N., Gibbons, G. H., Dzau, V. J. 1996; 94 (11): 2756-2767

    Abstract

    Angiotensin may play a pathophysiological role in experimental and human cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies have shown that ACE inhibitors reduce mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, and ischemic events in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Animal studies suggest that tissue ACE, particularly within blood vessels, may be an important target.To study tissue ACE in human coronary artery disease and to identify potential mechanisms of ACE inhibitor action, we examined ACE expression immunohistochemically in nonatherosclerotic and diseased human coronary arteries. In nonatherosclerotic arteries, ACE immunoreactivity was found in luminal and adventitial vasa vasorum endothelium. In early- and intermediate-stage atherosclerotic lesions, ACE was detected prominently in regions of fat-laden macrophages and in association with T lymphocytes. In advanced lesions, ACE immunoreactivity was also localized to the endothelium of the microvasculature throughout the plaques. Immunoreactive angiotensin II was also detected in these areas. ACE expression in macrophages was further examined by in vitro experiments with a monocytoid cell line. ACE activity was induced threefold after differentiation of the cells into macrophages and was further increased after stimulation with acetylated LDL.These observations demonstrate that significant sources of tissue ACE in human atherosclerotic plaques are regions of inflammatory cells, especially areas of clustered macrophages as well as microvessel endothelial cells. These results suggest that ACE accumulation within the plaque may contribute to an increased production of local angiotensin that may participate in the pathobiology of coronary artery disease. Plaque ACE probably is an important target of drug action.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VV27400017

    View details for PubMedID 8941100

  • Pulmonary capillaritis and alveolar hemorrhage - Update on diagnosis and management CHEST Green, R. J., Ruoss, S. J., KRAFT, S. A., Berry, G. J., Raffin, T. A. 1996; 110 (5): 1305-1316

    Abstract

    Pulmonary vascular inflammatory disorders may involve all components of the pulmonary vasculature, including capillaries. The principal histopathologic features of pulmonary capillaritis include capillary wall necrosis with infiltration by neutrophils, interstitial erythrocytes, and/or hemosiderin, and interalveolar septal capillary occlusion by fibrin thrombi. Immune complex deposition is variably present. Patients often present clinically with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, which is characterized by dyspnea and hemoptysis; diffuse, bilateral, alveolar infiltrates on chest radiograph; and anemia. Pulmonary capillaritis has been reported with variable frequency and severity as a manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis, microscopic polyarteritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Goodpasture's syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary renal syndrome, Behçet's syndrome, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, IgA nephropathy, antiphospholipid syndrome, progressive systemic sclerosis, and diphenylhydantoin use. In addition to history, physical examination, and routine laboratory studies, certain ancillary laboratory tests, such as antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies, may help diagnose an underlying disease. Diagnosis of pulmonary capillaritis can be made by fiberoptic bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy, but thoracoscopic biopsy is often employed. Since many disorders can result in pulmonary capillaritis with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, it is crucial for clinicians and pathologists to work together when attempting to identify an underlying disease. Therapy depends on the disorder that gave rise to the pulmonary capillaritis and usually includes corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide or azathioprine. Since most diseases that result in pulmonary capillaritis are treated with immunosuppression, infection must be excluded aggressively.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VR83500037

    View details for PubMedID 8915239

  • Impact of ganciclovir prophylaxis on heart-lung and lung transplant recipients JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Soghikian, M. V., Valentine, V. G., Berry, G. J., Patel, H. R., Robbins, R. C., Theodore, J. 1996; 15 (9): 881-887

    Abstract

    Cytomegalovirus infection threatens pulmonary allograft survival and function. This retrospective study details the experience of ganciclovir prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus infection and its sequelae.Eight-nine lung and heart-lung transplant recipients with positive cytomegalovirus serology were analyzed. The 37 recipients who underwent transplantation before September 1989 received no prophylaxis. The 52 subsequent recipients received ganciclovir prophylaxis.Thirty-six non-prophylaxed versus 42 prophylaxed patients had cytomegalovirus events with cumulative incidences of 100% and 86% (p < < 0.01), and median onsets of 37 +/- 21 versus 85 +/- 35 days, respectively (p < < 0.01); 22 non-prophylaxed versus 27 prophylaxed patients had cytomegalovirus pneumonitis with cumulative incidences of 60% and 55% (p < < 0.01), and median onsets of 34 +/- 14 and 84 +/- 26 days, respectively (p < < 0.01). Respiratory failure caused by cytomegalovirus pneumonitis developed in nine of the non-prophylaxed versus two of the prophylaxed patients (p < < 0.01). The significant estimated survival benefit in patients who received prophylaxis (p = 0.04) was not apparent when reanalysis was performed after exclusion of patients with respiratory failure (p = 0.36). Ganciclovir prophylaxis produced a significant delay in the development of obliterative bronchiolitis with a median time to onset of 1072 +/- 280 days versus 432 +/- 189 days for the non-prophylaxis cohort (p < < 0.01).Ganciclovir prophylaxis (1) improves recipient survival by reducing the severity of disease and essentially eliminating respiratory failure caused by cytomegalovirus pneumonitis, (2) reduces the incidence and delays the onset of cytomegalovirus events and pneumonitis, and (3) delays the onset of obliterative bronchiolitis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VU01300004

    View details for PubMedID 8889983

  • Endoluminal aortic grafting: A preliminary animal study of graft healing JOURNAL OF SURGICAL RESEARCH Harris, E. J., Harris, E. J., Berry, G. J., Mitchell, R. S. 1996; 61 (2): 404-412

    Abstract

    Our purpose was to evaluate the placement, long term performance, and healing of a transluminally delivered endoluminal graft and attachment system, in an animal model using large adult sheep. Nineteen sheep in the weight range of 105-125 kg were entered into this study. Under fluoroscopic guidance in anesthetized animals, an endoluminal delivery system was inserted through a common femoral arteriotomy into the infrarenal aorta, and the graft and attachment system were deployed. Fixation of the proximal and distal ends of the graft to the aortic wall was achieved by hooks on the self expanding attachment system, and seated by balloon expansion. Explantation of the prosthesis was performed prior to euthanasia at 1-, 3-, and 6-month intervals. Aortograms were obtained before and after implantation and before explantation for evaluation of placement, patency, anastomotic seal, migration, and graft infolding. In situ gross examination of the prosthesis under anesthesia prior to sacrifice was performed in all animals. Histologic sections were obtained from both attachment sites ("anastomoses"), from the midgraft and hook insertion sites, and from normal aorta inferior and superior to the endoluminal prosthesis. Scanning electron microscopy was performed randomly on specimens derived from the superior and inferior anastomotic sites at each time point. Selected intervals of healing were 1 month (N=5), 3 months (N=5), and 6 months (N=8). One sheep was euthanized at 1 week due to paraplegia. At all intervals, all prostheses were patent, were well incorporated at the aortic wall-anastomotic sites, and were without mural thrombus. The attachment hooks penetrated the aortic adventitia in all animals. There was no graft migration. At one month, initial pannus formation covered the anastomoses and the entire luminal graft, yet the endothelial-like surface coverage was incomplete. At 3 months and at 6 months, the anastomoses and luminal surfaces displayed more uniform pannus and endothelial-like surface coverage. We conclude that this endoluminal delivery system, passed through a femoral arteriotomy, can effectively deploy an endoluminal graft with self expanding attachment system having consistent patency, secure fixation, and incorporation of the anastomoses with the aortic wall in this animal model.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TZ90100018

    View details for PubMedID 8656616

  • Obliterative bronchiolitis after lung and heart-lung transplantation ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Reichenspurner, H., Girgis, R. E., Robbins, R. C., Conte, J. V., Nair, R. V., Valentine, V., Berry, G. J., Morris, R. E., Theodore, J., Reitz, B. A. 1995; 60 (6): 1845-1853

    Abstract

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) has emerged as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the long-term follow-up after lung and heart-lung transplantation. The pathogenesis of OB is multifactorial, with acute rejection and cytomegalovirus infection being the main risk factors for the development of OB. The final common pathway of all inciting events seems to be an alloimmune injury, with subsequent release of immunologic mediators and production of growth factors leading to luminal obliteration and fibrous scarring of the small airways. Analyzing the 14 years of experience in 163 patients at Stanford University, we found a current incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome or histologically proven OB within the first 3 years after lung and heart-lung transplantation of 36.3%, with an overall prevalence of 58.1% after heart-lung and 51.4% after lung transplantation. Both pulmonary function indices (forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and transbronchial biopsies have proven helpful in diagnosing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome or OB at an early stage. Early diagnosis of OB and improved management have achieved survival rates in patients with OB after 1, 3, 5, and 10 years of 83%, 66%, 46%, and 22%, compared with 86%, 83%, 67%, and 67% in patients without OB. Recently, different experimental models have been developed to investigate the cellular and molecular events leading to OB and to evaluate new treatment strategies for this complication, which currently limits the long-term success of heart-lung and lung transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TV39200074

    View details for PubMedID 8787504

  • CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION FOR HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY ASSOCIATED WITH SENGERS-SYNDROME ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Robbins, R. C., Bernstein, D., Berry, G. J., VanMeurs, K. P., Frankel, L. R., Reitz, B. A. 1995; 60 (5): 1425-1427

    Abstract

    Sengers' syndrome is a rare condition consisting of congenital cataracts, mitochondrial myopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. The syndrome is transmitted in an autosomal recessive pattern. Progressive cardiac failure is the cause of death in most patients. This report describes cardiac transplantation for the treatment of the cardiomyopathy associated with Sengers' syndrome.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TE95600056

    View details for PubMedID 8526648

  • ARTERIAL SWITCH AND RESECTION OF HEPATIC HEMANGIOENDOTHELIOMA ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Robbins, R. C., Chin, C., Yun, K. L., Berry, G. J., Bernstein, D., Reitz, B. A. 1995; 59 (6): 1575-1577

    Abstract

    We report on the management of a neonate undergoing arterial switch for transposition of the great arteries and concomitant resection of a hepatic infantile hemangioendothelioma. A preoperative aortogram demonstrated the arterial supply of the hepatic hemangioendothelioma. Pulmonary artery hypertension and myocardial ischemia were noted after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. Resection of the hepatic malformation produced an immediate reduction in pulmonary hypertension and resolution of the myocardial ischemia. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RB62100052

    View details for PubMedID 7771849

  • Neoplastic disorders after pediatric heart transplantation. Circulation Bernstein, D., Baum, D., Berry, G., Dahl, G., Weiss, L., Starnes, V. A., Gamberg, P., Stinson, E. B. 1993; 88 (5): II230-7

    Abstract

    Because of their life-long requirement for immunosuppressive therapy, neoplastic disorders could represent a significant threat to long-term survival in infants and children after heart transplantation. This study determined the incidence and clinical spectrum of neoplastic disorders in 80 pediatric patients who underwent heart transplantation between 1974 and 1992.Follow-up ranged from 6 to 189 months (mean, 50.0 months). Tumors occurred in 10 patients (12.5%). Time to detection ranged from 3.3 to 139.2 months (mean, 52.7 months). Tumor incidence was greatest in 9 patients transplanted before the cyclosporine era (44%) compared with the subsequent 71 patients (8.5%, P < .05). There was no increase in risk related to sex, age, underlying disease, or blood type; however, patients with tumors received higher initial doses of cyclosporine and prednisone and had more rejection episodes in the first 3 months (P < .05). There was an increased risk associated with anti-thymocyte globulin (33%, P < .05) but not with OKT3 (6%, P = NS). There were eight lymphoproliferative disorders (four B-cell, one T-cell, three not determined) and one hepatocellular and one squamous cell carcinomas. Six cases of lymphoproliferative disorder had in situ evidence of Epstein-Barr virus. Patients were treated by reducing immunosuppression (7), radiotherapy (2), and chemotherapy (1). There were five deaths: two tumor related and the others due to rejection, renal failure, and infection. Of 5 survivors, 1 had tumor recurrence 4 years after diagnosis, and 4 are disease free.Tumors represent a small but serious long-term risk to pediatric heart transplant recipients. The incidence in children transplanted in the cyclosporine era is similar to that in adults, and the majority of tumors are lymphoproliferative disorders that often regress by reducing immunosuppression.

    View details for PubMedID 8222159

  • INFANTILE HISTIOCYTOID CARDIOMYOPATHY - MYOCARDIAL OR CONDUCTION SYSTEM HAMARTOMA - WHAT IS THE CELL-TYPE INVOLVED HUMAN PATHOLOGY Gelb, A. B., VANMETER, S. H., Billingham, M. E., Berry, G. J., Rouse, R. V. 1993; 24 (11): 1226-1231

    Abstract

    Primary myocardial diseases in the pediatric age group encompass a variety of metabolic, infectious, congenital, and acquired disorders, one of which is "histiocytoid cardiomyopathy." We describe clinical and pathologic features in two infants. Autopsy findings in the first case were consistent with sudden cardiac death. The second infant has survived for 2 years on antiarrhythmic therapy with amiodarone. Microscopically, cells with vacuolated to granular cytoplasm were grouped in fascicles, imparting a pseudonodular appearance, but following a distribution reminiscent of conduction fibers. Ultrastructurally, the cells lack a T-tubule system, possess scattered lipid droplets and desmosomes rather than side-to-side junctions, and contain leptomeric fibrils that predominantly marginate to the cell periphery without sarcomeres. Immunostaining of paraffin-embedded tissue reveals perimembranous immunoreactivity for muscle-specific actin, but not for the histiocytic markers CD68 (KP1) and lysozyme. Immunohistochemistry may be a practical alternative when tissue is not saved for electron microscopy. The clinical and pathologic features of this disorder in light of the current literature suggest that it may be hamartoma, possibly of conduction system origin.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MK50900012

    View details for PubMedID 8244322

  • EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS-ASSOCIATED LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDER FOLLOWING AUTOLOGOUS BONE-MARROW TRANSPLANTATION FOR NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA TRANSPLANTATION Chao, N. J., Berry, G. J., Advani, R., Horning, S. J., Weiss, L. M., Blume, K. G. 1993; 55 (6): 1425-1428

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LK58900040

    View details for PubMedID 8390736

  • WEGENER GRANULOMATOSIS PRESENTING AS RIGHT MIDDLE LOBE OBSTRUCTION CHEST Lee, S. J., Berry, G. J., HUSARI, A. W. 1993; 103 (5): 1623-1624

    Abstract

    Wegener's granulomatosis may present with a variety of findings and be difficult to diagnose. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman presenting with right middle lobe obstruction who was found to have limited Wegener's granulomatosis. Extensive medical evaluation was nondiagnostic and open lung biopsy specimens were required to establish the diagnosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LB23500072

    View details for PubMedID 8486064

  • THE ROLE OF TRANSBRONCHIAL BIOPSIES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF LUNG-TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Sibley, R. K., Berry, G. J., Tazelaar, H. D., KRAEMER, M. R., Theodore, J., Marshall, S. E., Billingham, M. E., Starnes, V. A. 1993; 12 (2): 308-324

    Abstract

    We examined the utility of the transbronchial biopsy in the management of 53 lung transplant patients. One hundred thirty-three protocol biopsies were performed to ascertain the frequency and nature of abnormalities in clinically stable or asymptomatic patients; 128 diagnostic biopsies were performed in clinically ill patients to assess the morphologic abnormalities before the institution of therapy, and 105 biopsies were performed to assess the response to therapy. Histologic evidence of acute rejection was found in 24% of the protocol biopsies, and infection was found in 17%. Twenty-five patients with grade 1 or grade 2 perivascular infiltrates in protocol biopsies did not receive antirejection therapy. Follow-up biopsy in these patients showed spontaneous resolution of the infiltrates in 19% and increased infiltrates in 6. Only two of these patients became clinically ill, representing "progression" to clinical rejection in only 8% of the nontreated patients. Forty percent of the biopsies performed to rule out acute rejection or infection had histologic features of acute rejection, and another 23% had features of infection. Treatment of patients with clinical and histologic evidence of rejection was associated with rapid resolution of clinical symptoms in nearly 90% of the patients, but follow-up biopsies showed residual infiltrates compatible with ongoing or resolving rejection in 52%. Despite repeat antirejection therapy in some patients, these infiltrates persisted for an average of 30 days after the diagnostic biopsy. Follow-up biopsies also showed asymptomatic infection, usually cytomegalovirus pneumonitis, which often persisted for weeks despite the lack of symptoms. Perivascular infiltrates compatible with acute rejection were also found in 38% of biopsy specimens with evidence of infection. These perivascular infiltrates resolved with antibiotic treatment alone in nearly 50% of the patients with these features. Although perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates are the cardinal histologic feature of acute rejection, similar infiltrates occur in patients who apparently have infection alone and other patients who have both infection and rejection; infiltrates compatible with minimal, mild, and moderate acute rejection also occur in clinically asymptomatic patients. These histologic findings are a challenge to both the pathologists' and the clinicians' skills in the management of the lung transplant patient.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KW40400020

    View details for PubMedID 8476904

  • DIAGNOSIS OF BRONCHIOLITIS OBLITERANS IN HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANTATION PATIENTS - IMPORTANCE OF BRONCHIAL DILATATION ON CT AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Lentz, D., Bergin, C. J., Berry, G. J., STOEHR, C., Theodore, J. 1992; 159 (3): 463-467

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significance of bronchial dilatation identified on high-resolution CT scans obtained after heart-lung transplantation. Bronchial dilatation has been identified on pathologic specimens and on high-resolution CT scans of patients with severe bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation, but this finding has not previously been systematically studied as a manifestation of this complication.We studied the high-resolution CT scans of 16 patients who had had heart and lung transplantation at least 1 year before, and compared the percentage of dilated bronchi with evidence of small airways disease shown on pulmonary function tests.We found a close correlation between the percentage of bronchi in the lower lobes that were dilated and the percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 sec, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity. No other feature identified on high-resolution CT scans correlated with pulmonary function abnormalities.We conclude that dilatation of the lower lobe bronchi is a good indicator of bronchiolitis obliterans in this population, and that the percentage of dilated bronchi generally increases with increasing pulmonary dysfunction.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JJ98300003

    View details for PubMedID 1503006

  • WARTHIN-FINKELDEY POLYKARYOCYTES DEMONSTRATE A T-CELL IMMUNOPHENOTYPE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Kamel, O. W., LeBrun, D. P., Berry, G. J., Dorfman, R. F., Warnke, R. A. 1992; 97 (2): 179-183

    Abstract

    Warthin-Finkeldey polykaryocytes have been described in various benign and malignant lymphoid conditions since their initial identification in tonsils of patients in the prodromal stage of measles. However, the nature of these multinucleated giant cells is obscure. The authors studied the immunohistochemical profile of the Warthin-Finkeldey-type giant cells in three cases of lymphoid proliferations (two reactive, one neoplastic) containing many multinucleated cells using a panel of paraffin-reactive antibodies. Warthin-Finkeldey polykaryocytes demonstrated reactivity with Leu22 (CD43), anti-CD3, and OPD4, indicating that these cells are multinucleated T lymphocytes. The significance of these results with respect to the disorders in which these cells are found and their possible role in pathogenesis of disease are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HC49900005

    View details for PubMedID 1312298

  • DIVERSITY OF T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR VARIABLE GENES USED BY MYCOSIS-FUNGOIDES CELLS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Bahler, D. W., Berry, G., Oksenberg, J., Warnke, R. A., Levy, R. 1992; 140 (1): 1-8

    Abstract

    The expression of T-cell antigen receptor beta-chain variable genes (V beta) was evaluated in 28 cases of mycosis fungoides. A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to associate expression of particular V beta genes with monoclonal T-cell populations. In addition, the same biopsies used for PCR analysis were also examined for reactivity with a panel of seven monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized V beta proteins from four different families. Only three cases clearly stained with the antibodies, a result consistent with a diverse set of V beta genes being used. This was confirmed by PCR analysis, which indicated that V beta genes from many different families were expressed by these tumors. Preferential use of the V beta 8 family, which had been previously use of the V beta 8 family, which had been previously reported for this disease, was not evident among the cases analyzed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992GZ63600002

    View details for PubMedID 1731519

  • ULCERATIVE TRACHEOBRONCHITIS AFTER LUNG TRANSPLANTATION - A NEW FORM OF INVASIVE ASPERGILLOSIS AMERICAN REVIEW OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE Kramer, M. R., Denning, D. W., Marshall, S. E., Ross, D. J., Berry, G., LEWISTON, N. J., Stevens, D. A., Theodore, J. 1991; 144 (3): 552-556

    Abstract

    Invasive aspergillosis is frequently a fatal disease in the setting of immunosuppression, including organ transplant recipients. The fungus usually affects lung parenchyma and may disseminate from there. We have recently noted tracheobronchitis in six patients with heart-lung and lung transplants, three of whom had deep mucosal ulceration and histologic evidence of invasive aspergillosis. This apparently new form of invasive disease is initially limited to the anastomosis site and large airways. Ulceration, necrosis, cartilage invasion, and formation of a pseudomembrane are the pathologic features. In two patients subsequent disseminated aspergillosis occurred with a fatal outcome. In the two single-lung recipients, disease was limited to the transplanted side emphasizing the importance of abnormal local defense mechanisms in the airways of lung transplant recipients. Routine bronchoscopic examination of the airways is important in early detection of this complication. Oral therapy with the new, antifungal agent itraconazole was successful in five of the six patients, with fatal relapse in one. A classification of the various forms of saprophytic, allergic, and invasive forms of aspergillus tracheobronchitis, to include this new entity, is proposed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GF55100015

    View details for PubMedID 1654038

  • CYTOLOGY OF ANGIOSARCOMA IN EFFUSIONS ACTA CYTOLOGICA Berry, G. J., Anderson, C. J., Pitts, W. C., NEITZEL, G. F., Weiss, L. M. 1991; 35 (5): 538-542

    Abstract

    The cytologic and immunocytochemical findings in pleural effusions from three cases of angiosarcoma are presented. In two of the cases, the primary lesion was on the scalp; in the third case, an angiosarcoma of the small intestine developed after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. Single malignant cells and small clusters of cells were seen in cytologic preparations from two cases while only single cells were seen in preparations from one case. The malignant cells had delicate, finely vacuolated cytoplasm with distinct borders. No specific morphologic features were noted. Immunoperoxidase studies revealed binding of Ulex europaeus and reactivity for vimentin in all three cases and expression of Factor VIII-related protein in two of the cases but no expression of epithelial markers. The clinical history and immunoperoxidase studies are necessary to distinguish angiosarcoma from metastatic adenocarcinoma and other malignancies in effusions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GG70900011

    View details for PubMedID 1927194

  • GROWTH FRACTION ESTIMATION OF MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMAS IN FORMALIN-FIXED PARAFFIN-EMBEDDED TISSUE USING ANTI-PCNA CYCLIN 19A2 - CORRELATION WITH KI-67 LABELING AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Kamel, O. W., LeBrun, D. P., Davis, R. E., Berry, G. J., Warnke, R. A. 1991; 138 (6): 1471-1477

    Abstract

    The immunohistochemical detection of PCNA/Cyclin, a nuclear protein associated with cell proliferation, represents a potentially useful tool for the study of tumor proliferative activity. Previous studies investigating the reactivity of anti-PCNA/Cyclin monoclonal antibody 19A2 have not clearly defined the population of proliferating cells with which 19A2 reacts in tissue sections. The authors describe a method for detection of PCNA/Cyclin in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using a routine biotin-streptavidin immunohistochemical system that employs an anti-IgM, mu-chain-specific second-stage antibody. The authors used this method to study the proliferative activity of 24 malignant lymphomas, consisting of 12 low-grade lymphomas (LGLs) and 12 intermediate-grade lymphomas (IGLs), and five reactive tonsils. 19A2 data was compared with Ki-67 labeling in frozen sections in the same group of cases. 19A2 provided easily detectable nuclear staining of proliferating cells with reactive cells demonstrating varying intensity of staining, this latter finding most likely due to the varying nuclear concentration of PCNA/Cyclin protein during the cell cycle. In tonsils, 19A2 reacted with germinal center cells and basal keratinocytes. In the malignant lymphomas, there was good correlation between 19A2 and Ki-67 data (r = 0.90, P less than 0.001). The subgroup of LGLs showed a mean PCNA/Cyclin of 26% and a mean Ki-67 of 28%. In the subgroup of IGLs, mean PCNA/Cyclin = 54% and mean Ki-67 = 59%. These results indicate that 19A2 detects a fraction of proliferating cells that is similar to that detected by Ki-67, ie, the growth fraction, and that 19A2 is a reliable marker of proliferative activity in uniformly handled, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FR74600018

    View details for PubMedID 1675840

  • PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SERIAL PULMONARY-FUNCTION STUDIES AND TRANSBRONCHIAL BIOPSIES IN SINGLE-LUNG TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Marshall, S. E., LEWISTON, N. J., Kramer, M. R., Sibley, R. K., Berry, G., Rich, J. B., Theodore, J., Starnes, V. A. 1991; 23 (1): 1217-1219

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV39100122

    View details for PubMedID 1989192

  • PSEUDOMALIGNANT ULCERATIVE CHANGE OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL-TRACT HUMAN PATHOLOGY Berry, G. J., Pitts, W. C., Weiss, L. M. 1991; 22 (1): 59-62

    Abstract

    The occurrence of pseudomalignant ulcerative change in seven specimens from the colon and rectum of six patients is described. In all cases, there was surface ulceration of a polypoid lesion which contained granulation tissue and acute and chronic inflammation. There was an underlying inflammatory pseudopolyp in four lesions, a juvenile polyp in one lesion, an adenomatous polyp in one lesion, and a benign retention polyp in one lesion. Within the stroma of all cases were numerous atypical cells that mimicked a malignant neoplasm. The atypical cells expressed vimentin in immunohistochemical studies; no expression of keratins, leukocyte common antigen, factor VIII, Ulex europaeus, carcinoembryonic antigen, actin, or desmin was found. Recognition of this lesion is important, as confusion with carcinoma, lymphoma, sarcoma, or a viral infection may easily occur.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991ET39500010

    View details for PubMedID 1985079

  • PNEUMOCYSTIS-CARINII PNEUMONIA - CT AND HRCT OBSERVATIONS JOURNAL OF COMPUTER ASSISTED TOMOGRAPHY Bergin, C. J., WIRTH, R. L., Berry, G. J., Castellino, R. A. 1990; 14 (5): 756-759

    Abstract

    We examined the chest radiography, CT, and high resolution CT (HRCT) of 14 patients with proven Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. We compared the radiographic and HRCT patterns of abnormal lung parenchyma with histologic sections obtained in those 11 patients who had had transbronchial lung biopsies. Diffuse bilateral perihilar airspace disease was the most common radiographic pattern. Both CT and HRCT showed "ground glass" opacity in the lungs, through which the vessels remained visible in all patients. No enlarged lymph nodes or pleural effusions were seen in patients without associated lymphoproliferative disorders.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DZ41600014

    View details for PubMedID 2398155

  • ACUTE LUNG REJECTION AFTER HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANTATION - CORRELATION OF FINDINGS ON CHEST RADIOGRAPHS WITH LUNG-BIOPSY RESULTS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Bergin, C. J., Castellino, R. A., Blank, N., Berry, G. J., Sibley, R. K., Starnes, V. A. 1990; 155 (1): 23-27

    Abstract

    This retrospective study was performed to determine if the chest radiograph could serve as a predictor for acute lung rejection in heart-lung transplantation patients. The findings on chest radiographs were correlated with the results of transbronchial biopsies in 16 heart-lung transplantation patients. The chest radiographs immediately preceding 83 biopsies were evaluated for a variety of findings. The histopathologic results of the lung biopsies were divided into five categories: (1) acute lung rejection (n = 25); (2) suggestive, but not diagnostic, of acute lung rejection (n = 8); (3) nonspecific (n = 26); (4) infection (n = 17); and (5) normal lung (n = 9). Biopsies from two patients showed both acute lung rejection and cytomegalovirus infection and were included in both categories. These histopathologic results were then correlated with the radiologic observations. We found that the combination of septal lines and new or increasing pleural effusions, without concomitant increase in cardiac size or vascular pedicle width, or evidence of vascular redistribution, indicated acute lung rejection with a sensitivity of 68% (17/25), specificity of 90% (52/58), and overall accuracy of 83% (69/83). We conclude that the chest radiograph is a useful indicator of acute lung rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DK48700003

    View details for PubMedID 2112858

  • INSITU HYBRIDIZATION STUDIES FOR VIRAL NUCLEIC-ACIDS IN HEART AND LUNG ALLOGRAFT BIOPSIES AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Weiss, L. M., MOVAHED, L. A., Berry, G. J., Billingham, M. E. 1990; 93 (5): 675-679

    Abstract

    In situ hybridization has been shown to be a useful technique for the identification of specific viruses in pathologic tissues. The authors studied 313 lung and 164 heart biopsies from 20 heart-lung recipients to assess its utility in this clinical setting, employing biotinylated probes for the cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and adenovirus genomes. Twenty-five lung biopsies and one heart biopsy had detectable cytomegalovirus DNA by in situ hybridization. As compared to histopathology, in situ hybridization had a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 99%. None of the biopsies had detectable herpes simplex or adenovirus by either in situ hybridization or routine histopathology. In situ hybridization studies may be of greatest use when the results of conventional histopathology are equivocal and in the patients with radiologic or clinical evidence of pulmonary disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DB55100014

    View details for PubMedID 2158226

  • SPINDLE CELL NEOPLASMS OF LYMPH-NODES OF PROBABLE RETICULUM-CELL LINEAGE - TRUE RETICULUM-CELL SARCOMA AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Weiss, L. M., Berry, G. J., Dorfman, R. F., Banks, P., Kaiserling, E., CURTIS, J., Rosai, J., Warnke, R. A. 1990; 14 (5): 405-414

    Abstract

    Primary spindle cell neoplasms involving hematolymphoid organs are extremely rare. We present four cases of spindle cell neoplasms of unusual phenotype arising within lymph nodes. Two of the four cases showed morphologic and immunophenotypic features suggestive of interdigitating reticulum cell lineage; these cases expressed several macrophage antigens and S-100 protein but not CD1. The other two cases showed evidence suggestive of dendritic reticulum cell lineage. Both cases expressed HLA-DR, several macrophage antigens, complement receptors C3b and C3d; one case expressed R4/23; both showed the presence of desmosomes on ultrastructural examination. A germline configuration for the immunoglobulin heavy chain and beta-T--cell receptor genes was detected in all four cases. Of the two patients in the first group, one had local recurrence of tumor; the other died of widespread metastases. Of the two patients in the second group, both are alive and well at 12 and 27 months follow-up, respectively.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DA42600001

    View details for PubMedID 2158241

  • EVALUATION OF HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS WITH PROSPECTIVE, SERIAL TRANS-BRONCHIAL BIOPSIES AND PULMONARY-FUNCTION STUDIES JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Starnes, V. A., Theodore, J., Oyer, P. E., Billingham, M. E., Sibley, R. K., Berry, G., Shumway, N. E., Stinson, E. B. 1989; 98 (5): 683-690

    Abstract

    The insidious development of obliterative bronchiolitis after heart-lung transplantation is thought to be due to rejection and possibly infection (cytomegalovirus). To evaluate further, we prospectively managed the last 16 consecutive heart-lung transplant recipients with serial transbronchial biopsies with lavage and pulmonary function studies as part of a surveillance protocol or as dictated by clinical presentation. A total of 123 transbronchial biopsies with lavage were performed, 77 for clinical indications (group I) and 46 for routine surveillance (group II). Results of 64 (83.1%) group I biopsies were positive for rejection or infection. Thirty-one of these biopsy specimens showed signs of rejection (29 in group I and two in group II), characterized by a perivascular mononuclear infiltrate, lymphocytic bronchiolitis, and occasionally alveolar septal mononuclear infiltrate. Forty-six serial pulmonary function tests were performed. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (percent predicted), forced expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity (percent predicted), and arterial oxygen tension (millimeters of mercury) were significantly reduced from baseline values during rejection episodes: forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 75.7% +/- 20.1% versus 52.7% +/- 18.3% (p less than or equal to 0.05); forced expiratory flow rate between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity, 97.6% +/- 30.5% versus 49.8% +/- 22.3% (p less than or equal to 0.05); and arterial oxygen tension, 92.1 +/- 8.8 mm Hg versus 71.4 +/- 18.8 mm Hg (p less than or equal to 0.05). The fall in pulmonary function was reversible with pulse methylprednisolone. Asynchronous heart and lung rejection was documented. Of the 29 episodes of pulmonary rejection, 18 (62%) occurred asynchronously. Ten of the 16 (62%) heart-lung recipients had at least one episode of cardiac rejection. Thirteen of 16 (81%) had at least one episode of lung rejection. Serial transbronchial biopsies with lavage, as dictated by pulmonary function tests and clinical status, have guided early and more specific therapy directed against rejection and infection. With early detection, small airway dysfunction has been reversible.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AZ79100004

    View details for PubMedID 2554067

  • MARGINAL VACUOLES IN METASTATIC THYROID-CARCINOMA - A CASE-REPORT DIAGNOSTIC CYTOPATHOLOGY Pitts, W. C., Berry, G. J. 1989; 5 (2): 200-202

    Abstract

    A case of metastatic follicular carcinoma to the iliac bone in a 78-yr-old woman is presented. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) smears showed numerous, cohesive tumor cell groups with moderately abundant cytoplasm and distinctive, peripherally situated pink-staining vacuoles on May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain. The presence of marginal vacuoles strongly suggested the possibility of metastatic thyroid carcinoma. Immunohistochemical studies performed on a concomitant needle core biopsy showed immunoreactivity for thyroglobulin, supporting a thyroid derivation for this metastasis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which marginal vacuoles ("flame cells") have been identified in a malignant thyroid condition.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AB53200015

    View details for PubMedID 2776601

  • KIKUCHIS HISTIOCYTIC NECROTIZING LYMPHADENITIS - AN ANALYSIS OF 108 CASES WITH EMPHASIS ON DIFFERENTIAL-DIAGNOSIS SEMINARS IN DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGY Dorfman, R. F., Berry, G. J. 1988; 5 (4): 329-345

    Abstract

    Kikuchi's necrotizing lymphadenitis has now become recognized in many parts of the world as a well-defined clinicopathologic entity with a remarkable predilection for cervical lymph nodes of young women. The morphologic features encountered in lymph nodes are distinctive and should enable pathologists to establish the diagnosis with confidence. Nonetheless, this analysis of 108 cases, encountered over a 15-year period, has emphasized the difficulty that many pathologists have in recognizing this disorder, and in particular, in distinguishing it from malignant lymphoma. Although in the vast majority of cases, lymphadenopathy and other symptomatology resolves spontaneously, two of our patients, thought initially to have Kikuchi's disease, developed systemic lupus erythematosus. This raises consideration for the proposal that Kikuchi's disease may reflect a self-limited SLE-like auto-immune condition (a "forme fruste" of SLE), perhaps induced by virus-infected transformed lymphocytes. Moreover, such observations indicate that patients with Kikuchi's disease should be kept under observation for several years to ensure that they are not at risk for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988R247100003

    View details for PubMedID 3217625

Conference Proceedings


  • Prolonged inhibition of obliterative airway disease in murine tracheal allografts by brief treatment with anti-leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (CD11a) monoclonal antibody Morikawa, M., Brazelton, T. R., Berry, G. J., Morris, R. E. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2001: 1616-1621

    Abstract

    We have previously shown that anti-leukocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 (CD11a) monoclonal antibody (mAb) prevents acute rejection and produces donor-specific unresponsiveness in murine recipients of heterotopic heart allografts. Here, we investigate the ability of this mAb to prevent the development of obliterative airway disease (OAD) in murine recipients of tracheal allografts.BALB/c tracheae were heterotopically transplanted into C3H mice. OAD developed by day 28 after transplantation and was characterized histologically by a loss of epithelial cell coverage and luminal obliteration of the tracheal allograft with a proliferation of fibrogenic mesenchymal cells, which is a lesion comparable to obliterative bronchiolitis in human lung transplant recipients. Monotherapy with anti-LFA-1 mAb preserved graft epithelium, prevented the development of OAD, and maintained unresponsiveness to donor antigen for more than 42 days after the final mAb administration.These findings suggest the potential for anti-LFA-1 mAb therapy to suppress both acute and chronic rejection in clinical lung transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169420900022

    View details for PubMedID 11435974

  • Radionuclide imaging of acute lung transplant rejection with annexin V Blankenberg, F. G., Robbins, R. C., Stoot, J. H., Vriens, P. W., Berry, G. J., Tait, J. F., Strauss, H. W. AMER COLL CHEST PHYSICIANS. 2000: 834-840

    Abstract

    Early detection and treatment of lung transplant rejection is critical for preservation of pulmonary graft function. Damage to pulmonary allografts is mediated by apoptotic cell death induced by the alloreactive T lymphocytes that infiltrate lung grafts. Previous studies demonstrate that acute cardiac allograft rejection can be visualized using radiolabeled annexin V. This study was done to determine whether this technique could visualize acute rejection in a rodent model of unilateral orthotopic lung transplantation.Eighteen Sprague-Dawley ACI rats underwent removal of their left lung followed by orthotopic transplant of either an allogeneic (PVG, immunologically mismatched; N = 10) or a syngeneic (ACI, immunologically matched) pulmonary graft (N = 8). Animals were imaged 1 h after IV injection of 1 mCi (37.0 MBq) of (99m)Tc-annexin V 1 to 7 days after transplantation.Lungs receiving the allograft demonstrated moderate to marked mononuclear infiltration of the perivascular, interstitial, and peribronchial tissues. No mononuclear infiltrates were noted in the native right lungs nor in the syngeneic transplants. Region of interest image analysis revealed significant (p < 0.0005) increases of transplant to normal lung activity ratios 3 to 7 days after allograft surgery. The increased annexin V uptake in these lungs was confirmed at biodistribution assay (allograft 151% greater than isograft activity, p < 0.005).Acute experimental lung transplant rejection can be noninvasively identified using (99m)Tc-annexin V. Radiolabeled annexin V may be a clinically useful noninvasive screening tool for acute rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085884000037

    View details for PubMedID 10713014

  • Coadministration of neoral and the novel rapamycin analog, SDZ RAD, to rat lung allograft recipients - Potentiation of immunosuppressive efficacy and improvement of tolerability by staggered versus simultaneous treatment Hausen, B., Boeke, K., Berry, G. J., Segarra, I., Benet, L. Z., Christians, U., Morris, R. E. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 1999: 956-962

    Abstract

    Neoral and rapamycin derivative (RAD) have complementary mechanisms for inhibition of lymphocyte activation and are substrates for the same pathways of drug metabolism. Therefore, we investigated treatment regimens designed to minimize pharmacokinetic interactions and to potentiate immunosuppressive efficacy in a highly stringent rat lung allograft model.Lewis recipients of Brown Norway lungs received the following daily oral doses: (A) RAD at 2.5 mg/kg (n=9); (B) Neoral at 7.5 mg/kg (n=8); (C) RAD at 2.5 mg/kg + Neoral at 7.5 mg/kg simultaneously (n=8); or (D) RAD at 2.5 mg/kg + Neoral at 7.5 mg/kg (n=6) staggered 6 hr apart. Rats were assessed by daily weights, chest radiographs, drug trough levels (high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry), and blinded scoring of graft histology at death (day 21).Radiographs were completely opacified in all grafts of control and RAD monotherapy groups on days 7 and 14, respectively. Grafts were mildly opacified (Neoral monotherapy) and completely clear (both RAD + Neoral groups) on day 21. Simultaneous or staggered combined treatment dramatically reduced histologic rejection compared with treatment with either drug alone. Simultaneous treatment caused poor tolerability (poor grooming, lethargy) and significantly higher day-14 RAD and cyclosporine (CsA) trough levels (49+/-5 and 638+/-106 ng/ml; P<0.04) than in the staggered group (28+/-3 and 318+/-25 ng/ml) in which all animals were clinically normal. RAD and CsA day-14 trough levels in the staggered group were the same or lower than trough levels in animals treated with either drug alone (RAD 27+/-3/Neoral 815+/-67 ng/ml).(1) Administration of RAD + Neoral suppressed lung rejection more effectively than treatment with either drug alone. (2) Trough levels did not differ between monotherapy and staggered combination therapy for RAD but were lower for CsA. These results suggested that pharmacological, rather than pharmacokinetic, interactions between the parent drugs were responsible for the potentiation of immunosuppression when these drugs were coadministered. 3) Staggered administration of RAD+Neoral avoided the pharmacokinetic interactions that caused the elevated drug blood levels and poor tolerability caused by simultaneous administration. Thus, we could potentiate efficacy and improve tolerability by staggering administration of RAD and Neoral.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079910700005

    View details for PubMedID 10221478

  • Alterations in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitrotyrosine (NitroY) during re-epithelialization of heterotopic rat tracheal composite grafts Ikonen, T. S., Romanska, H. M., Bishop, A. E., Berry, G. J., Polak, J. M., Morris, R. E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1999: 182-182

    View details for Web of Science ID 000078960600076

    View details for PubMedID 10083067

  • Stanford experience with obliterative bronchiolitis after lung and heart lung transplantation Reichenspurner, H., Girgis, R. E., Robbins, R. C., Yun, K. L., Nitschke, M., Berry, G. J., Morris, R. E., Theodore, J., Reitz, B. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1996: 1467-1472

    Abstract

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the main chronic complication after heart-lung (HLTx) and lung transplantation (LTx), limiting the long-term success of both transplant procedures.Since 1981, 135 HLTxs and 61 isolated LTxs were performed in 184 patients at Stanford University.The overall prevalence of OB in patients surviving longer than 3 months postoperatively was 64% after HLTx and 68% after LTx. The actuarial freedom from OB was 72%, 51%, 44%, and 29% at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively, after HLTx and LTx. An analysis of potential risk factors revealed that the frequency and severity of acute rejection episodes (p < 0.001) and the appearance of lymphocytic bronchiolitis on biopsy (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with the development of OB. With regard to diagnosis of OB, pulmonary function tests show early reductions of the forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity with subsequent decreases in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The sensitivity of transbronchial biopsies has increased to 71% since 1993. Current treatment consists of augmented immunosuppression. Concurrent acute rejection episodes or active OB on biopsy have been treated aggressively with high-dose steroid pulses. Analysis of data from 73 patients with OB after HLTx and LTx revealed actuarial 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival of 89%, 71%, 44%, and 17% versus 86%, 77%, 63% and 56% in patients without OB (p < 0.05 by log-rank analysis). The main complication and cause of death in patients with OB was superimposed respiratory tract infection, which was treated aggressively.Early diagnosis of OB using pulmonary function tests or transbronchial biopsy is possible and important, because immediate treatment initiation has led to acceptable survival rates, with nearly 50% of affected patients still alive 5 years after transplantation. Current experimental research on OB suggests that immune injury is the main pathogenetic event of airway obliteration in animal models; rapamycin and leflunomide are new immunosuppressive agents that may have the potential to prevent and treat airway obliteration.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VQ16700050

    View details for PubMedID 8893585

  • Port-access coronary artery bypass with cardioplegic arrest: Acute and chronic canine studies Stevens, J. H., Burdon, T. A., Siegel, L. C., Peters, W. S., Pompili, M. F., STGOAR, F. G., Berry, G. J., Ribakove, G. H., Vierra, M. A., Mitchell, R. S., Toomasian, J. M., Reitz, B. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1996: 435-440

    Abstract

    Our goal is to perform minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting without sacrificing the benefits of myocardial protection with cardioplegia.Twenty-three dogs underwent acute studies and 4 dogs underwent survival studies. The left internal mammary artery was taken down using a thoracoscope. Cardiopulmonary bypass was conducted via femoral cannulas and using an endovascular balloon catheter for ascending aortic occlusion, root venting, and delivery of antegrade blood cardioplegia. Pulmonary artery venting was achieved with a jugular vein catheter. An internal mammary artery-to-coronary artery anastomosis was performed using a microscope through a 10 mm port.All animals were weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass in sinus rhythm without inotropes. Cardiopulmonary bypass duration was 104 +/- 28 minutes and aortic clamp duration was 61 +/- 22 minutes. Cardiac output and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure were unchanged. The internal mammary artery was anastomosed to the left anterior descending artery (25) or the first diagonal (2) with patency shown in 25 of 27. One dog in the survival study had a very short internal mammary artery pedicle under tension and was euthanized for excessive postoperative hemorrhage. Three weeks postoperatively the remaining dogs had angiographically patent anastomoses, normal transthoracic echocardiograms, and histologically normal healing and patent grafts.Endovascular cardiopulmonary bypass using a balloon catheter is effective in arresting and protecting the heart to allow thoracoscopic internal mammary artery-to-coronary artery anastomosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VA28700026

    View details for PubMedID 8694602

  • Obliterative airway disease after heterotopic tracheal xenotransplantation in a concordant rodent model: Pathogenesis and treatment Reichenspurner, H., Adams, B., Soni, V., Brazelton, T., Shorthouse, R., Reitz, B. A., Berry, G. J., Morris, R. E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1996: 729-730

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UG38300121

    View details for PubMedID 8623368

  • STUDIES IN EXPERIMENTAL-MODELS OF CHRONIC REJECTION - USE OF RAPAMYCIN (SIROLIMUS) AND ISOXAZOLE DERIVATIVES (LEFLUNOMIDE AND ITS ANALOG) FOR THE SUPPRESSION OF GRAFT VASCULAR-DISEASE AND OBLITERATIVE BRONCHIOLITIS Morris, R. E., Huang, X., Gregory, C. R., Billingham, M. E., Rowan, R., Shorthouse, R., Berry, G. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1995: 2068-2069

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RE11800053

    View details for PubMedID 7792888

  • GRAFT CORONARY-DISEASE IN PEDIATRIC HEART AND COMBINED HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS - A STUDY OF 15 CASES Berry, G. J., Rizeq, M. N., Weiss, L. M., Billingham, M. E. MOSBY-YEAR BOOK INC. 1993: S309-S319

    Abstract

    Graft coronary disease (GCD) has emerged as the most important deterrent to long-term survival in adult heart transplant recipients. The incidence, natural history, and pathobiology of GCD is less well understood in the pediatric transplant population. This study evaluated the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of GCD in the Stanford pediatric heart and heart-lung group. Eighty-eight patients, ages 1 week to 18 years, received heart transplants between 1974 and 1992, and 15 patients, ages 1 month to 18 years received heart-lung transplants between 1981 and 1992 at Stanford University Hospital. There were 50 males and 38 females in the heart transplant group; 39 (11%) had idiopathic cardiomyopathy, 26 (30%) had congenital heart disease, 13 (15%) had viral cardiomyopathy, seven (8%) had familial cardiomyopathy, two (2%) had cardiomyopathy resulting from doxorubicin therapy, and one other case was not further delineated. In the heart-lung transplant group, there were eight males and seven females; pretransplantation diagnoses included nine (60%) with congenital heart disease and Eisenmenger's physiology, three (20%) with primary pulmonary hypertension, and one (7%) each with cystic fibrosis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and congenital lymphangiectasia. Fifteen (17%) of the heart transplant recipients and three (20%) of the heart-lung transplant recipients had GCD on angiographic or pathologic examination. Histopathologic samples were available on 14 cases (11 heart transplants and three heart-lung transplants).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MP74800027

    View details for PubMedID 8312350

  • THE DIAGNOSIS OF OBLITERATIVE BRONCHIOLITIS AFTER HEART-LUNG AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION - LOW-YIELD OF TRANSBRONCHIAL LUNG-BIOPSY Kramer, M. R., STOEHR, C., WHANG, J. L., Berry, G. J., Sibley, R., Marshall, S. E., PATTERSON, G. M., Starnes, V. A., Theodore, J. MOSBY-YEAR BOOK INC. 1993: 675-681

    Abstract

    Obliterative bronchiolitis is the most significant long-term complication of lung and heart-lung transplantation characterized by the rapid development of obstructive airway disease. It is thought to be a manifestation of chronic rejection and has been treated, with limited success, with augmentation of immunosuppression. Early detection of obliterative bronchiolitis and prompt initiation of therapy may result in an improved outcome. The role of transbronchial biopsy has been reported in the diagnosis of acute rejection and infection but not for obliterative bronchiolitis. To study this problem we retrospectively reviewed the transbronchial biopsy results of patients with advanced clinical obliterative bronchiolitis, as defined physiologically. Between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 1991, 46 "sets" of adequate transbronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from 16 patients (15 heart-lung recipients and one double lung recipient). Seven sets of transbronchial biopsy specimens (15.2%) showed obliterative bronchiolitis by pathologic study. In four patients with severe clinical obliterative bronchiolitis, only one transbronchial biopsy specimen of seven (14.3%) showed obliterative bronchiolitis. The pathologic diagnosis of obliterative bronchiolitis was confirmed in three of these patients at the time of autopsy or retransplantation. Twelve patients were still alive at the end of the study period, and all experienced further deterioration of lung function typical for obliterative bronchiolitis. We conclude that the sensitivity of transbronchial biopsy for obliterative bronchiolitis is poor. Possible explanations for these results are explored.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LP82800018

    View details for PubMedID 8369329

  • ASSESSMENT OF CARDIAC ALLOGRAFT-REJECTION WITH ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY OF THE CONDUCTION SYSTEM AND HISTOPATHOLOGY OF THE VENTRICLE Kitamura, M., Berry, G. J., Billingham, M. E., Hoyt, E. G., Gutierrez, J., CLAYBERGER, C., Starnes, V. A. MOSBY-YEAR BOOK INC. 1992: 280-288

    Abstract

    Correlation between the effective refractory period of the conduction system and the histopathologic grade of the ventricle was examined in the rat cardiac allograft during acute rejection. Lewis rats were recipients of intraabdominal heart grafts from brown Norway rats (allogeneic group, n = 42) or Lewis rats (syngeneic group, n = 15). No immunosuppressant was given. The effective refractory period of the conduction system was measured by the programmed atrial extrastimulus method (basic cycle length, 150 msec) just before the time of death. Specimens of the transplanted hearts were examined histopathologically and the histopathologic grade of rejection was scored according to the standardized grading system of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. The effective refractory period of the allogeneic heart was significantly longer starting on the third day after transplantation (p less than 0.01). The effective refractory period of the allogeneic heart was more prolonged as the severity of rejection increased. The correlation between the effective refractory period (Y) and the histopathologic grade (X) of the allogeneic group was statistically significant (r = 0.955; Y = 10.3X + 81.0; p less than 0.01). The effective refractory period of all syngeneic hearts and allogeneic hearts of postoperative day 1 and 2 were statistically equivalent to the period of native rat hearts (81.0 +/- 2.0 msec; n = 6). The histopathologic grade of the conduction system was the same as that of the ventricle. We conclude that the effective refractory period of the conduction system could be a useful measure to predict the histopathologic grade of cardiac allograft rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HN91000008

    View details for PubMedID 1576134

  • EFFECTS OF THE NEW AND HIGHLY-ACTIVE IMMUNOSUPPRESSANT, RAPAMYCIN, ON LYMPHOID-TISSUES AND CELLS INVIVO Zheng, B., Shorthouse, R., Masek, M. A., Berry, G., Billingham, M. E., Morris, R. E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1991: 851-855

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV39000342

    View details for PubMedID 1703717

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