Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Cardiovascular Disease

Professional Education


  • Residency:Univ Of Ma Med Sch - Worcester (1990) MA
  • Fellowship:Duke University Medical Center (1993) NC
  • Board Certification: Internal Medicine, American Board of Internal Medicine (1989)
  • Internship:Univ Of Ma Med Sch - Worcester (1987) MA
  • Medical Education:Tufts University School of Medicine (1986) MA

Publications

All Publications


  • Sex-Stratified Trends in Enrollment, Patient Characteristics, Treatment, and Outcomes Among Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Insights From Clinical Trials Over 17 Years CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Kragholm, K., Halim, S. A., Yang, Q., Schulte, P. J., Hochman, J. S., Melloni, C., Mahaffey, K. W., Moliterno, D. J., Harrington, R. A., White, H. D., Armstrong, P. W., Ohman, E. M., Van de Werf, F., Tricoci, P., Alexander, J. H., Giugliano, R. P., Newby, L. K. 2015; 8 (4): 357-367
  • The future of cardiovascular clinical research in North America and beyond-addressing challenges and leveraging opportunities through unique academic and grassroots collaborations AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Roe, M. T., Mahaffey, K. W., Ezekowitz, J. A., Alexander, J. H., Goodman, S. G., Hernandez, A., Temple, T., Berdan, L., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Peterson, E. D., Armstrong, P. W. 2015; 169 (6): 743-750
  • Meta-Analysis of Intracranial Hemorrhage in Acute Coronary Syndromes: Incidence, Predictors, and Clinical Outcomes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION Mahaffey, K. W., Hager, R., Wojdyla, D., White, H. D., Armstrong, P. W., Alexander, J. H., Tricoci, P., Lopes, R. D., Ohman, E. M., Roe, M. T., Harrington, R. A., Wallentin, L. 2015; 4 (6)

    Abstract

    Little is known about the incidence, predictors, or outcomes of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS). We aimed to determine the incidence and timing of ICH, characterize the location of ICH, and identify independent baseline predictors of ICH in NSTE ACS patients.We pooled patient-level data from 4 contemporary antithrombotic therapy trials. Multivariable modeling identified independent predictors of ICH. ICHs were adjudicated by a clinical events committee. Of 37 815 patients, 135 (0.4%) had an ICH. The median (25th, 75th percentiles) follow-up was 332 (184, 434) days but differed across trials. Locations of ICH were intracerebral (50%), subdural (31%), subarachnoid (18.5%), and intraventricular (11%). Independent predictors of ICH were older age (HR per 10 years, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.91); prior stroke/transient ischemic attack; HR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.35), higher systolic blood pressure; HR per 10 mm Hg increase, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.18), and larger number of antithrombotic agents (HR per each additional agent, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.49 to 2.84). Of all ICHs, 45 (33%) were fatal.In patients with NSTE ACS enrolled in recent clinical trials of antithrombotic therapies, ICH was uncommon. Patients with older age, prior transient ischemic attack/stroke, higher systolic blood pressure, or larger number of antithrombotic agents were at increased risk. One-third of patients with ICH died. These data may be useful to trialists and data and safety monitoring committees for trial conduct and monitoring.URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/. Unique identifiers: TRACER: NCT00527943, PLATO: NCT00391872, APPRAISE-2: NCT00831441, TRILOGY ACS: NCT00699998.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/JAHA.114.001512

    View details for Web of Science ID 000357025100007

    View details for PubMedID 26089177

  • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor Inhibitors in Combination With Vorapaxar, a Platelet Thrombin Receptor Antagonist, Among Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (from the TRACER Trial) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Cornel, J. H., Tricoci, P., Lokhnygina, Y., Moliterno, D. J., Wallentin, L., Armstrong, P. W., Aylward, P. E., Clare, R. M., Chen, E., Leonardi, S., de Werf, F. V., White, H. D., Held, C., Strony, J., Mahaffey, K. W., Harrington, R. A. 2015; 115 (10): 1325-1332
  • Anticoagulant therapy and outcomes in patients with prior or acute heart failure and acute coronary syndromes: Insights from the APixaban for PRevention of Acute ISchemic Events 2 trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Cornel, J. H., Lopes, R. D., James, S., Stevens, S. R., Neely, M. L., Liaw, D., Miller, J., Mohan, P., Amerena, J., Raev, D., Huo, Y., Urina-Triana, M., Cazorla, A. G., Vinereanu, D., Fridrich, V., Harrington, R. A., Wallentin, L., Alexander, J. H. 2015; 169 (4): 531-538
  • Outcomes With Cangrelor Versus Clopidogrel on a Background of Bivalirudin Insights From the CHAMPION PHOENIX (A Clinical Trial Comparing Cangrelor to Clopidogrel Standard Therapy in Subjects Who Require Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI]) JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS White, H. D., Bhatt, D. L., Gibson, C. M., Hamm, C. W., Mahaffey, K. W., Price, M. J., Steg, P. G., Stone, G. W., Cortese, B., Wilensky, M., Deliargyris, E. N., Liu, T., Prats, J., Harrington, R. A. 2015; 8 (3): 424-433

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and bleeding outcomes of cangrelor in patients in the CHAMPION PHOENIX (A Clinical Trial Comparing Cangrelor to Clopidogrel Standard Therapy in Subjects Who Require Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI]) who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with bivalirudin.Cangrelor is a potent intravenous P2Y12 inhibitor with rapid onset and offset. In the CHAMPION PHOENIX, cangrelor compared with clopidogrel significantly reduced 48-h ischemic events including stent thrombosis, without increasing major bleeding. Bivalirudin has demonstrated ischemic outcomes similar to those with heparin plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition, with reduced bleeding but increased early stent thrombosis.In the modified intent-to-treat population, 2,059 patients (18.8%) received bivalirudin, with 1,014 patients in the cangrelor treatment arm and 1,045 in the clopidogrel treatment arm.At 48 h, the primary endpoint of death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis was lower with cangrelor versus clopidogrel (48 [4.7%] vs. 70 [6.7%]; odds ratio [OR]: 0.68, p = 0.047). Death was similar in both arms (2 [0.2%] vs. 2 [0.2%]). Myocardial infarction was reduced by cangrelor (37 [3.6%] vs. 59 [5.6%]; OR: 0.63, p = 0.03), as was death/myocardial infarction (39 [3.8%] vs. 61 [5.8%]; OR: 0.65, p = 0.04). Cangrelor was associated with a nonsignificant trend toward less stent thrombosis (7 [0.7%] vs. 15 [1.4%]; OR: 0.48, p = 0.10), which was evident within 2 h after percutaneous coronary intervention (p = 0.057). GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries) severe bleeding was similar in both arms (2 of 1,021 [0.2%] vs. 2 of 1,055 [0.2%]) as were other bleeding definitions and transfusions. Efficacy and safety results were consistent in patients with stable angina, non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome, and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (p for interaction: 0.62 and 0.29).Cangrelor may offer an attractive benefit risk profile when used in combination with bivalirudin.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcin.2014.09.025

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351221300014

    View details for PubMedID 25703887

  • Economic Analysis of Ticagrelor Therapy From a US Perspective JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Cowper, P. A., Pan, W., Anstrom, K. J., Kaul, P., Wallentin, L., Davidson-Ray, L., Nikolic, E., Janzon, M., Levin, L., Cannon, C. P., Harrington, R. A., Mark, D. B. 2015; 65 (5): 465-476
  • More Than 10 Million Steps in the Right Direction: Results From the First American Heart Association Scientific Sessions Walking Challenge PROGRESS IN CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES Harrington, R. A., Arena, R., Despres, J., Ciarochi, A., Croll, E., Bloch, K. D. 2015; 57 (4): 296-298

    Abstract

    In 2013, the Global Congress theme at the American Heart Association (AHA) Annual Scientific Sessions was Physical Activity (PA). As a key component of the Congress, iHealth working in collaboration with AHA provided a Bluetooth-enabled wireless PA and sleep tracker to up to 2,000 Scientific Sessions attendees. Approximately 1850 Scientific Sessions attendees registered for, received a PA tracker and participated in the Walking Challenge. More than 10 million steps were walked by participants (10,703,504) during the 2.5 days of the Walking Challenge. This translates into almost 6000 miles walked (5976.3 miles) and 656,716 calories burned by participants during the Challenge. The Global Congress of PA held at Scientific Sessions 2013 not only extensively reviewed the science of PA as a powerful/independent and, most importantly, modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, but it also provided evidence from a fun and entertaining challenge that PA as a risk behavior can be assessed and targeted. We just took 10 million steps in the right direction. Join us and make your steps count!

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pcad.2014.09.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000348003900002

    View details for PubMedID 25269063

  • D-Dimer elevation and adverse outcomes JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND THROMBOLYSIS Halaby, R., Popma, C. J., Cohen, A., Chi, G., Zacarkim, M. R., Romero, G., Goldhaber, S. Z., Hull, R., Hernandez, A., Mentz, R., Harrington, R., Lip, G., Peacock, F., Welker, J., Martin-Loeches, I., Daaboul, Y., Korjian, S., Gibson, C. M. 2015; 39 (1): 55-59

    Abstract

    D-Dimer is a biomarker of fibrin formation and degradation. While a D-dimer within normal limits is used to rule out the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism among patients with a low clinical probability of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the prognostic association of an elevated D-dimer with adverse outcomes has received far less emphasis. An elevated D-dimer is independently associated with an increased risk for incident VTE, recurrent VTE, and mortality. An elevated D-dimer is an independent correlate of increased mortality and subsequent VTE across a broad variety of disease states. Therefore, medically ill subjects in whom the D-dimer is elevated constitute a high risk subgroup in which the prospective evaluation of the efficacy and safety of antithrombotic therapy is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11239-014-1101-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000348660300008

    View details for PubMedID 25006010

  • Vorapaxar with or without clopidogrel after non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: Results from the Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Tricoci, P., Lokhnygina, Y., Huang, Z., Van de Werf, F., Cornel, J. H., Chen, E., Wallentin, L., Held, C., Aylward, P. E., Moliterno, D. J., Jennings, L. K., White, H. D., Armstrong, P. W., Harrington, R. A., Strony, J., Mahaffey, K. W. 2014; 168 (6): 869-?
  • Extent, Location, and Clinical Significance ? of Non-Infarct-Related Coronary Artery Disease Among Patimts With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Park, D., Clare, R. M., Schulte, P. J., Pieper, K. S., Shaw, L. K., Califf, R. M., Ohman, E. M., Van de Werf, F., Hirji, S., Harrington, R. A., Armstrong, P. W., Granger, C. B., Jeong, M., Patel, M. R. 2014; 312 (19): 2019-2027
  • Effect of alirocumab, a monoclonal antibody to PCSK9, on long-term cardiovascular outcomes following acute coronary syndromes: Rationale and design of the ODYSSEY Outcomes trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Schwartz, G. G., Bessac, L., Berdan, L. G., Bhatt, D. L., Bittner, V., Diaz, R., Goodman, S. G., Hanotin, C., Harrington, R. A., Jukema, J. W., Mahaffey, K. W., Moryusef, A., Pordy, R., Roe, M. T., Rorick, T., Sasiela, W. J., Shirodaria, C., Szarek, M., Tamby, J., Tricoci, P., White, H., Zeiher, A., Steg, P. G. 2014; 168 (5): 682-689
  • Vorapaxar in patients with peripheral artery disease and acute coronary syndrome: Insights from Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Jones, W. S., Tricoci, P., Huang, Z., Moliterno, D. J., Harrington, R. A., Sinnaeve, P. R., Strony, J., Van de Werf, F., White, H. D., Held, C., Armstrong, P. W., Aylward, P. E., Chen, E., Patel, M. R., Mahaffey, K. W. 2014; 168 (4): 588-596
  • Usefulness and Safety of Vorapaxar in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the TRACER Trial). American journal of cardiology Valgimigli, M., Tricoci, P., Huang, Z., Aylward, P. E., Armstrong, P. W., Van de Werf, F., Leonardi, S., White, H. D., Widimsky, P., Harrington, R. A., Cequier, A., Chen, E., Lokhnygina, Y., Wallentin, L., Strony, J., Mahaffey, K. W., Moliterno, D. J. 2014; 114 (5): 665-673

    Abstract

    The therapeutic potential of vorapaxar in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. This prespecified analysis of a postrandomization subgroup evaluated the effects of vorapaxar compared with placebo among Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) participants undergoing PCI, focusing on the implanted stent type (drug-eluting stent [DES] vs bare-metal stent [BMS]). Among 12,944 recruited patients, 7,479 (57.8%) underwent PCI during index hospitalization, and 3,060 (40.9%) of those patients received exclusively BMS, whereas 4,015 (53.7%) received DES. The median (twenty-fifth, seventy-fifth percentiles) duration of thienopyridine therapy was 133 days (47, 246) with BMS and 221 days (88, 341) with DES. At 2 years among patients undergoing PCI, the primary (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization) and secondary (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) end points did not differ between vorapaxar and placebo groups, which was consistent with the treatment effect observed in the overall study population (p value for interaction = 0.540). However, the treatment effect trended greater (p value for interaction = 0.069) and the risk for bleeding in patients taking vorapaxar versus placebo appeared attenuated in BMS-only recipients. After adjustment for confounders, the interaction was no longer significant (p value = 0.301). The covariate that mostly explained the stent-type-by-treatment interaction was the duration of clopidogrel therapy. In conclusion, among patients with PCI, the effect of vorapaxar is consistent with the overall TRACER results. Patients who received a BMS underwent shorter courses of clopidogrel therapy and displayed trends toward greater ischemic benefit from vorapaxar and lesser bleeding risk, compared with patients who received a DES.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.05.054

    View details for PubMedID 25129064

  • Ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome with or without revascularization: results from the PLATO trial EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Lindholm, D., Varenhorst, C., Cannon, C. P., Harrington, R. A., Himmelmann, A., Maya, J., Husted, S., Steg, P. G., Cornel, J. H., Storey, R. F., Stevens, S. R., Wallentin, L., James, S. K. 2014; 35 (31): 2083-2093

    Abstract

    The optimal platelet inhibition strategy for ACS patients managed without revascularization is unknown. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel in the non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) subgroup of the PLATO trial, in the total cohort, and in the subgroups managed with and without revascularization within 10 days of randomization.We performed a retrospective analysis of the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death/myocardial infarction/stroke. Among 18 624 PLATO patients, 11 080 (59%) were categorized as NSTE-ACS at randomization. During the initial 10 days, 74% had angiography, 46% PCI, and 5% CABG. In NSTE-ACS patients, the primary endpoint was reduced with ticagrelor vs. clopidogrel [10.0 vs. 12.3%; hazard ratio (HR) 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74-0.93], as was myocardial infarction (6.6 vs. 7.7%; HR 0.86; 95% CI = 0.74-0.99), cardiovascular death (3.7 vs. 4.9%; HR 0.77; 95% CI = 0.64-0.93), and all-cause death (4.3 vs. 5.8%; HR 0.76; 95% CI = 0.64-0.90). Major bleeding rate was similar between treatment groups (13.4 vs. 12.6%; HR 1.07; 95% CI = 0.95-1.19), but ticagrelor was associated with an increase in non-CABG major bleeding (4.8 vs. 3.8%; HR 1.28; 95% CI = 1.05-1.56). Within the first 10 days, 5366 (48.4%) patients were managed without revascularization. Regardless of revascularization or not, ticagrelor consistently reduced the primary outcome (HR 0.86 vs. 0.85, interaction P = 0.93), and all-cause death (HR 0.75 vs. 0.73, interaction P = 0.89) with no significant increase in overall major bleeding.In patients with NSTE-ACS, benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel in reducing ischaemic events and total mortality was consistent with the overall PLATO trial, independent of actually performed revascularization during the initial 10 days.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/ehu160

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342232600013

    View details for PubMedID 24727884

  • Vein Graft Preservation Solutions, Patency, and Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Follow-up From PREVENT IV Randomized Clinical Trail JAMA SURGERY Harskamp, R. E., Alexander, J. H., Schulte, P. J., Brophy, C. M., Mack, M. J., Peterson, E. D., Williams, J. B., Gibson, C. M., Califf, R. M., Kouchoukos, N. T., Harrington, R. A., Ferguson, T. B., Lopes, R. D. 2014; 149 (8): 798-805

    Abstract

    In vitro and animal model data suggest that intraoperative preservation solutions may influence endothelial function and vein graft failure (VGF) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Clinical studies to validate these findings are lacking.To evaluate the effect of vein graft preservation solutions on VGF and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing CABG surgery.Data from the Project of Ex-Vivo Vein Graft Engineering via Transfection IV (PREVENT IV) study, a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 3014 patients at 107 US sites from August 1, 2002, through October 22, 2003, were used. Eligibility criteria for the trial included CABG surgery for coronary artery disease with at least 2 planned vein grafts.Preservation of vein grafts in saline, blood, or buffered saline solutions.One-year angiographic VGF and 5-year rates of death, myocardial infarction, and subsequent revascularization.Most patients had grafts preserved in saline (1339 [44.4%]), followed by blood (971 [32.2%]) and buffered saline (507 [16.8%]). Baseline characteristics were similar among groups. One-year VGF rates were much lower in the buffered saline group than in the saline group (patient-level odds ratio [OR], 0.59 [95% CI, 0.45-0.78; P < .001]; graft-level OR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.49-0.79; P < .001]) or the blood group (patient-level OR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.46-0.83; P = .001]; graft-level OR, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.48-0.81; P < .001]). Use of buffered saline solution also tended to be associated with a lower 5-year risk for death, myocardial infarction, or subsequent revascularization compared with saline (hazard ratio, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.64-1.02; P = .08]) and blood (0.81 [0.63-1.03; P = .09]) solutions.Patients undergoing CABG whose vein grafts were preserved in a buffered saline solution had lower VGF rates and trends toward better long-term clinical outcomes compared with patients whose grafts were preserved in saline- or blood-based solutions.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00042081.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamasurg.2014.87

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340834300011

    View details for PubMedID 25073921

  • Association of metabolic syndrome and its individual components with outcomes among patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Mehta, R. H., Westerhout, C. M., Zheng, Y., Giugliano, R. P., Huber, K., Prabhakaran, D., Harrington, R. A., Newby, K. L., Armstrong, P. W. 2014; 168 (2): 182-?

    Abstract

    The relationship of metabolic syndrome and its individual components (obesity, hypertension, glucose intolerance, high triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) with 1-year mortality in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) patients is not known.The association of metabolic syndrome (and its individual components) with all-cause mortality within 1 year was assessed in NSTE ACS patients enrolled in the EARLY ACS trial. Adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CIs are reported.Of 9,406 patients, 2,596 (27.6%) had metabolic syndrome. Compared with those without metabolic syndrome, patients with this syndrome were younger, were more often female, and had a higher prevalence of comorbid conditions and higher-risk presenting features. Metabolic syndrome was not associated with increased 1-year mortality (HR 1.20, 95% CI 0.97-1.47; P = .09). The risk of 1-year mortality varied across the individual components: high-density lipoprotein <40 mg/dL (men)/<50 mg/dL (women; or dyslipidemia) was associated with higher risk (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.02), and triglycerides >150 mg/dL (or dyslipidemia) was associated with lower risk (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.54-0.81), whereas the other components (ie, body mass index >30 kg/m(2), fasting plasma glucose >100 mg/dL or diabetes, systolic blood pressure >130 mm Hg or diastolic >85 mm Hg [or hypertension]) were associated with neutral risk of this event.The individual components of metabolic syndrome had varying associations with 1-year mortality, and as an integrated diagnosis, metabolic syndrome was not significantly associated with 1-year mortality. Thus, patient case-mix of the studied NSTE ACS population may influence the observed relationship of metabolic syndrome with subsequent cardiovascular events.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2014.04.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000340207700012

    View details for PubMedID 25066557

  • Antiplatelet and Anticoagulation Therapy for Acute Coronary Syndromes CIRCULATION RESEARCH Bhatt, D. L., Hulot, J., Moliterno, D. J., Harrington, R. A. 2014; 114 (12): 1929-1943

    Abstract

    The past 2 decades have witnessed the introduction and demise of several different antithrombotic medications for acute coronary syndromes. Part of the assessment of these compounds has been their effect on thrombotic events relative to the degree of increase in bleeding events. This review will outline the data supporting various antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies and their combinations in patients with acute coronary syndromes and related disorders in both the acute and chronic phases of therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302737

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337707200008

    View details for PubMedID 24902976

  • Comparison of Clinical Trial Outcome Patterns in Patients Following Acute Coronary Syndromes and in Patients With Chronic Stable Atherosclerosis CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY Mahaffey, K. W., Wojdyla, D. M., Pieper, K. S., Tricoci, P., Alexander, J. H., Lincoff, A. M., Brennan, D. M., Bhatt, D. L., Wallentin, L., Harrington, R. A. 2014; 37 (6): 337-342

    View details for DOI 10.1002/clc.22255

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337597900003

  • Effects of vorapaxar on platelet reactivity and biomarker expression in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS Storey, R. F., Kotha, J., Smyth, S. S., Moliterno, D. J., Rorick, T. L., Moccetti, T., Valgimigli, M., Dery, J. P., Cornel, J. H., Thomas, G. S., Huber, K., Harrington, R. A., Hord, E., Judge, H. M., Chen, E., Strony, J., Mahaffey, K. W., Tricoci, P., Becker, R. C., Jennings, L. K. 2014; 111 (5): 883-891
  • Darapladib for Preventing Ischemic Events in Stable Coronary Heart Disease NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE White, H. D., Held, C., Stewart, R., Tarka, E., Brown, R., Davies, R. Y., Budaj, A., Harrington, R. A., Steg, P. G., Ardis-Sino, D., Armstrong, P. W., Avezum, A., Aylward, P. E., Bryce, A., Chen, H., Chen, M., Corbalan, R., Dalby, A. J., Danchin, N., de Winter, R. J., Denchev, S., Diaz, R., Elisaf, M., Flather, M. D., Goudev, A. R., Granger, C. B., Grinfeld, L., Hochman, J. S., Husted, S., Kim, H., Koenig, W., Linhart, A., Lonn, E., Lopez-Sendon, J., Manolis, A. J., Mohler, E. R., Nicolau, J. C., Pais, P., Parkhomenko, A., Pedersen, T. R., Pella, D., Ramos-Corrales, M. A., Ruda, M., Sereg, M., Siddique, S., Sinnaeve, P., Smith, P., Sritara, P., Swart, H. P., Sy, R. G., Teramoto, T., Tse, H., Watson, D., Weaver, W. D., Weiss, R., Viigimaa, M., Vinereanu, D., Zhu, J., Cannon, C. P., Wallentin, L. 2014; 370 (18): 1702-1711

    Abstract

    Elevated lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 activity promotes the development of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques, and elevated plasma levels of this enzyme are associated with an increased risk of coronary events. Darapladib is a selective oral inhibitor of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2.In a double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 15,828 patients with stable coronary heart disease to receive either once-daily darapladib (at a dose of 160 mg) or placebo. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Secondary end points included the components of the primary end point as well as major coronary events (death from coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, or urgent coronary revascularization for myocardial ischemia) and total coronary events (death from coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hospitalization for unstable angina, or any coronary revascularization).During a median follow-up period of 3.7 years, the primary end point occurred in 769 of 7924 patients (9.7%) in the darapladib group and 819 of 7904 patients (10.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the darapladib group, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.03; P=0.20). There were also no significant between-group differences in the rates of the individual components of the primary end point or in all-cause mortality. Darapladib, as compared with placebo, reduced the rate of major coronary events (9.3% vs. 10.3%; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.00; P=0.045) and total coronary events (14.6% vs. 16.1%; hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.98; P=0.02).In patients with stable coronary heart disease, darapladib did not significantly reduce the risk of the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; STABILITY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00799903.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1315878

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335405200008

    View details for PubMedID 24678955

  • Ticagrelor Effects on Myocardial Infarction and the Impact of Event Adjudication in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Mahaffey, K. W., Held, C., Wojdyla, D. M., James, S. K., Katus, H. A., Husted, S., Steg, P. G., Cannon, C. P., Becker, R. C., Storey, R. F., Khurmi, N. S., Nicolau, J. C., Yu, C., Ardissino, D., Budaj, A., Morais, J., Montgomery, D., Himmelmann, A., Harrington, R. A., Wallentin, L. 2014; 63 (15): 1493-1499

    Abstract

    This study sought to report the treatment effect of ticagrelor on myocardial infarction (MI) and the strategy for and impact of event adjudication in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial.In PLATO, ticagrelor reduced cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS).A clinical events committee (CEC) prospectively defined and adjudicated all suspected MI events, on the basis of events reported by investigators and by triggers on biomarkers. Treatment comparisons used CEC-adjudicated data, and per protocol, excluded silent MI.Overall, 1,299 (610 ticagrelor, 689 clopidogrel) MIs reported by the CEC occurred during the trial. Of these, 1,097 (504 ticagrelor, 593 clopidogrel) contributed to the primary composite endpoint. Site investigators reported 1,198 (580 ticagrelor, 618 clopidogrel) MIs. Ticagrelor significantly reduced overall MI rates (12-month CEC-adjudicated Kaplan-Meier rates: 5.8% ticagrelor, 6.9% clopidogrel; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75 to 0.95). Nonprocedural MI (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.74 to 1.01) and MI related to percutaneous coronary intervention or stent thrombosis tended to be lower with ticagrelor. MIs related to coronary artery bypass graft surgery were few, but numerical excess was observed in patients assigned ticagrelor. Analyses of overall MIs using investigator-reported data showed similar results but did not reach statistical significance (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.00).In patients with ACS, ticagrelor significantly reduced the incidence of MI compared with clopidogrel, with consistent results across most MI subtypes. CEC procedures identified more MI endpoints compared with site investigators. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.01.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334285900007

  • Angiographic Outcomes With Early Eptifibatide Therapy in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (from the EARLY ACS Trial) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Kunadian, V., Giugliano, R. P., Newby, L. K., Zorkun, C., Guo, J., Bagai, A., Montalescot, G., Braunwald, E., Califf, R. M., Van de Werf, F., Armstrong, P. W., Harrington, R., Gibson, C. M. 2014; 113 (8): 1297-1305

    Abstract

    Early administration of glycoprotein IIbIIIa inhibitors results in improved angiographic parameters, including thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade, corrected TIMI frame count, and TIMI myocardial perfusion grade (TMPG) among patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Whether the same is true in the setting of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome is unknown. The goal of the early glycoprotein IIbIIIa inhibition in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (EARLY ACS) angiographic substudy was to compare angiographic outcomes among patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome who were administered early routine versus delayed provisional eptifibatide. Of 9,406 patients in the EARLY ACS trial, 2,066 patients were included in the angiographic substudy (early routine eptifibatide [n=1,042] or early placebo [n=1,024] with delayed provisional eptifibatide after angiography and before percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]). The angiographic substudy primary end point was the incidence of TMPG 3 before and after PCI. TMPG 3 before (43.7% vs 44.9%, p=0.58) and after PCI (52.4% vs 50.1%, p=0.73) was similar for early routine versus delayed provisional eptifibatide, respectively. Angiographic procedural complications consisting of a composite of loss of side branch, abrupt vessel closure, distal embolization, and no reflow occurred less frequently in early routine group versus delayed provisional group (9.3% vs 13.6%, respectively, p=0.01). In the EARLY ACS angiographic substudy, the use of early routine eptifibatide resulted in fewer angiographic procedural complications. These data provide support for the use of eptifibatide in the catheterization laboratory during high-risk cases merely to prevent angiographic procedural complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.01.404

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334648000006

    View details for PubMedID 24607027

  • Ferric carboxymaltose in patients with iron-deficiency anemia and impaired renal function: the REPAIR-IDA trial NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION Onken, J. E., Bregman, D. B., Harrington, R. A., Morris, D., Buerkert, J., Hamerski, D., Iftikhar, H., Mangoo-Karim, R., Martin, E. R., Martinez, C. O., Newman, G. E., Qunibi, W. Y., Ross, D. L., Singh, B., Smith, M. T., Butcher, A., Koch, T. A., Goodnough, L. T. 2014; 29 (4): 833-842

    Abstract

    Iron-deficiency anemia in non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) frequently requires parenteral iron replacement, but existing therapies often require multiple administrations. We evaluated the efficacy and cardiovascular safety of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), a non-dextran parenteral iron permitting large single-dose infusions, versus iron sucrose in patients with iron-deficiency anemia and NDD-CKD.A total of 2584 participants were randomized to two doses of FCM 750 mg in one week, or iron sucrose 200 mg administered in up to five infusions in 14 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the mean change to highest hemoglobin from baseline to Day 56. The primary composite safety endpoint included all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, unstable angina, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and hyper- and hypotensive events.The mean hemoglobin increase was 1.13 g/dL in the FCM group and 0.92 g/dL in the iron sucrose group (95% CI, 0.13-0.28). Similar results were observed across all subgroups, except Stage 2 CKD. More subjects in the FCM group achieved a hemoglobin increase of ≥ 1.0 g/dL between baseline and Day 56 (48.6 versus 41.0%; 95% CI, 3.6-11.6%). There was no significant difference between FCM and iron sucrose recipients with respect to the primary composite safety endpoint, including the major adverse cardiac events of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. A significant difference in the number of protocol-defined, predominantly transient hypertensive episodes was observed in the FCM group.Two 750-mg infusions of FCM are a safe and effective alternative to multiple lower dose iron sucrose infusions in NDD-CKD patients with iron-deficiency anemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ndt/gft251

    View details for Web of Science ID 000336093700020

    View details for PubMedID 23963731

  • Vorapaxar in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery: subgroup analysis from the TRACER trial (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome). Journal of the American College of Cardiology Whellan, D. J., Tricoci, P., Chen, E., Huang, Z., Leibowitz, D., Vranckx, P., Marhefka, G. D., Held, C., Nicolau, J. C., Storey, R. F., Ruzyllo, W., Huber, K., Sinnaeve, P., Weiss, A. T., Dery, J., Moliterno, D. J., Van de Werf, F., Aylward, P. E., White, H. D., Armstrong, P. W., Wallentin, L., Strony, J., Harrington, R. A., Mahaffey, K. W. 2014; 63 (11): 1048-1057

    Abstract

    This study evaluated effects of protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist vorapaxar (Merck, Whitehouse Station, New Jersey) versus placebo among the TRACER (Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome) study patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).Platelet activation may play a key role in graft occlusion, and antiplatelet therapies may reduce ischemic events, but perioperative bleeding risk remains a major concern. Although the TRACER study did not meet the primary quintuple composite outcome in the overall population with increased bleeding, an efficacy signal with vorapaxar was noted on major ischemic outcomes, and preliminary data suggest an acceptable surgical bleeding profile. We aimed to assess efficacy and safety of vorapaxar among CABG patients.Associations between treatment and ischemic and bleeding outcomes were assessed using time-to-event analysis. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Cox hazards model. Event rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.Among 12,944 patients, 1,312 (10.1%) underwent CABG during index hospitalization, with 78% on the study drug at the time of surgery. Compared with placebo CABG patients, vorapaxar-treated patients had a 45% lower rate of the primary endpoint (i.e., a composite of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization during index hospitalization) (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.83; p = 0.005), with a significant interaction (p = 0.012). The CABG-related Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction major bleeding was numerically higher with vorapaxar, but not significantly different between vorapaxar and placebo (9.7% vs. 7.3%; HR: 1.36; 95% CI: 0.92 to 2.02; p = 0.12), with no excess in fatal bleeding (0% vs. 0.3%) or need for reoperation (4.7% vs. 4.6%).In non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing CABG, vorapaxar was associated with a significant reduction in ischemic events and no significant increase in major CABG-related bleeding. These data show promise for protease-activated receptor 1 antagonism in patients undergoing CABG and warrant confirmatory evidence in randomized trials. (Trial to Assess the Effects of SCH 530348 in Preventing Heart Attack and Stroke in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [TRA·CER] [Study P04736AM3]; NCT00527943).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.10.048

    View details for PubMedID 24211500

  • Association of Aspirin Dose and Vorapaxar Safety and Efficacy in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (from the TRACER Trial) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Mahaffey, K. W., Huang, Z., Wallentin, L., Storey, R. F., Jennings, L. K., Tricoci, P., White, H. D., Armstrong, P. W., Aylward, P. E., Molitemo, D. J., Van de Werf, F., Chen, E., Leonardi, S., Rorick, T., Held, C., Strony, J., Harrington, R. A. 2014; 113 (6): 936-944

    Abstract

    Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRACER) trial compared vorapaxar and placebo in 12,944 high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. We explored aspirin (ASA) use and its association with outcomes. Kaplan-Meier event rates were compared in groups defined by ASA dose (low, medium, and high). Landmark analyses with covariate adjustment were performed for 0 to 30, 31 to 180, and 181 to 365 days. Of 12,515 participants, 7,523, 1,049, and 3,943 participants were treated with low-, medium-, and high-dose ASA at baseline, respectively. Participants enrolled in North America versus elsewhere were more often treated with a high dose at baseline (66% vs 19%) and discharge (60% vs 3%). Unadjusted cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for ischemia, or urgent revascularization event rates tended to be higher with higher baseline ASA (18.45% low, 19.13% medium, and 20.27% high; p for trend = 0.15573). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for effect of vorapaxar on cardiovascular (unadjusted p for interaction = 0.065; adjusted p for interaction = 0.140) and bleeding (unadjusted p for interaction = 0.915; adjusted p for interaction = 0.954) outcomes were similar across groups. Landmark analyses showed similar safety and efficacy outcomes with vorapaxar and placebo by ASA dose at each time point except for 0 to 30 days, when vorapaxar tended to be worse for efficacy (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.89 to 1.44, p for interaction = 0.0157). In conclusion, most TRACER participants were treated with low-dose ASA, although a high dose was common in North America. High-dose participants tended to have higher rates of ischemic and bleeding outcomes. Although formal statistical testing did not reveal heterogeneity in vorapaxar's effect across dose subgroups, consistent trends support use of low-dose ASA with other antiplatelet therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2013.11.052

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333476700006

  • The design and rationale for the Acute Medically Ill Venous Thromboembolism Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) study AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Cohen, A. T., Harrington, R., Goldhaber, S. Z., Hull, R., Gibson, C. M., Hernandez, A. F., Kitt, M. M., Lorenz, T. J. 2014; 167 (3): 335-341

    Abstract

    Randomized clinical trials have identified a population of acute medically ill patients who remain at risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) beyond the standard duration of therapy and hospital discharge. The aim of the APEX study is to determine whether extended administration of oral betrixaban (35-42 days) is superior to a standard short course of prophylaxis with subcutaneous enoxaparin (10 ± 4 days followed by placebo) in patients with known risk factors for post-discharge VTE. Patients initially are randomized to receive either betrixaban or enoxaparin (and matching placebo) in a double dummy design. Following a standard duration period of enoxaparin treatment (with placebo tablets) or betrixaban (with placebo injections), patients receive only betrixaban (or alternative matching placebo). Patients are considered for enrollment if they are older than 40 years, have a specified medical illness, and restricted mobility. They must also meet the APEX criteria for increased VTE risk (aged ≥75 years, baseline D-Dimer ≥2× upper the limit of "normal", or 2 additional ancillary risk factors for VTE). The primary efficacy end point is the composite of asymptomatic proximal deep venous thrombosis, symptomatic deep venous thrombosis, non-fatal (pulmonary embolus) pulmonary embolism, or VTE-related death through day 35. The primary safety outcome is the occurrence of major bleeding. We hypothesize that extended duration betrixaban VTE prophylaxis will be safe and more effective than standard short duration enoxaparin in preventing VTE in acute medically ill patients with known risk factors for post hospital discharge VTE.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.11.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332395900010

    View details for PubMedID 24576517

  • Impact of intraprocedural stent thrombosis during percutaneous coronary intervention: insights from the CHAMPION PHOENIX Trial (Clinical Trial Comparing Cangrelor to Clopidogrel Standard of Care Therapy in Subjects Who Require Percutaneous Coronary Intervention). Journal of the American College of Cardiology Généreux, P., Stone, G. W., Harrington, R. A., Gibson, C. M., Steg, P. G., Brener, S. J., Angiolillo, D. J., Price, M. J., Prats, J., Lasalle, L., Liu, T., Todd, M., Skerjanec, S., Hamm, C. W., Mahaffey, K. W., White, H. D., Bhatt, D. L. 2014; 63 (7): 619-629

    Abstract

    This study sought to evaluate the clinical impact of intraprocedural stent thrombosis (IPST), a relatively new endpoint.In the prospective, double-blind, active-controlled CHAMPION PHOENIX (Clinical Trial Comparing Cangrelor to Clopidogrel Standard of Care Therapy in Subjects Who Require Percutaneous Coronary Intervention) trial, cangrelor significantly reduced periprocedural and 30-day ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), including IPST.An independent core laboratory blinded to treatment assignment performed a frame-by-frame angiographic analysis in 10,939 patients for the development of IPST, defined as new or worsening thrombus related to stent deployment at any time during the procedure. Adverse events were adjudicated by an independent, blinded clinical events committee.IPST developed in 89 patients (0.8%), including 35 of 5,470 (0.6%) and 54 of 5,469 (1.0%) patients in the cangrelor and clopidogrel arms, respectively (odds ratio: 0.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.42 to 0.99; p = 0.04). Compared to patients without IPST, IPST was associated with a marked increase in composite ischemia (death, myocardial infarction [MI], ischemia-driven revascularization, or new-onset out-of-laboratory stent thrombosis [Academic Research Consortium]) at 48 h and at 30 days (29.2% vs. 4.5% and 31.5% vs. 5.7%, respectively; p < 0.0001 for both). After controlling for potential confounders, IPST remained a strong predictor of all adverse ischemic events at both time points.In the large-scale CHAMPION PHOENIX trial, the occurrence of IPST was strongly predictive of subsequent adverse cardiovascular events. The potent intravenous adenosine diphosphate antagonist cangrelor substantially reduced IPST, contributing to its beneficial effects at 48 h and 30 days. (Clinical Trial Comparing Cangrelor to Clopidogrel Standard of Care Therapy in Subjects Who Require Percutaneous Coronary Intervention [PCI] [CHAMPION PHOENIX]; NCT01156571).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.10.022

    View details for PubMedID 24184169

  • A multicenter, randomized, active-controlled study to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravenous ferric carboxymaltose in patients with iron deficiency anemia TRANSFUSION Onken, J. E., Bregman, D. B., Harrington, R. A., Morris, D., Acs, P., Akright, B., Barish, C., Bhaskar, B. S., Smith-Nguyen, G. N., Butcher, A., Koch, T. A., Goodnough, L. T. 2014; 54 (2): 306-315

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Many patients receiving oral iron for iron deficiency anemia (IDA) cannot tolerate or fail to respond to therapy, and existing intravenous (IV) iron formulations often require repeated administrations. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM), a nondextran IV formulation, permits larger single doses. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We evaluated FCM versus oral iron in IDA patients. After 14 days of oral iron, 507 participants responding inadequately to oral iron (hemoglobin [Hb] increase <1 g/dL; Cohort 1) were assigned to Group A (two doses of FCM, 750 mg, 1 week apart) or Group B (oral iron, 325 mg, 3 × day for 14 additional days). Also, 504 subjects not appropriate for oral iron (Cohort 2) were assigned to Group C (FCM as above) or Group D (standard-of-care IV iron). The primary efficacy endpoint was change to highest observed Hb from baseline to Day 35. The composite safety endpoint included all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, unstable angina, heart failure, arrhythmias, and hyper- or hypotensive events. RESULTS: Mean (± standard deviation [SD]) Hb increase was significantly greater in Group A-FCM than Group B-oral iron: 1.57 (±1.19) g/dL versus 0.80 (±0.80) g/dL (p = 0.001). Post hoc comparison of Group C-FCM and Group D-IV standard of care also demonstrated significant mean (±SD) increase in Hb from baseline to highest value by Day 35 in Group C versus Group D: 2.90 (±1.64) g/dL versus 2.16 (±1.25) g/dL (p = 0.001). Safety endpoints occurred in 17 of 499 (3.4%) participants receiving FCM versus 16 of 498 (3.2%) in comparator groups. CONCLUSION: Two 750-mg FCM infusions are safe and superior to oral iron in increasing Hb levels in IDA patients with inadequate oral iron response.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/trf.12289

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331382100010

    View details for PubMedID 23772856

  • Biomarkers in Relation to the Effects of Ticagrelor in Comparison With Clopidogrel in Non-ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Managed With or Without In-Hospital Revascularization A Substudy From the Prospective Randomized Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial CIRCULATION Wallentin, L., Lindholm, D., Siegbahn, A., Wernroth, L., Becker, R. C., Cannon, C. P., Cornel, J. H., Himmelmann, A., Giannitsis, E., Harrington, R. A., Held, C., Husted, S., Katus, H. A., Mahaffey, K. W., Steg, P. G., Storey, R. F., James, S. K. 2014; 129 (3): 293-303

    Abstract

    Risk stratification and the use of specific biomarkers have been proposed for tailoring treatment in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). We investigated the prognostic importance of high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) in relation to randomized treatment (ticagrelor versus clopidogrel) and management strategy (with or without revascularization) in the NSTE-ACS subgroup of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial.Of 18 624 patients in the PLATO trial, 9946 had an entry diagnosis of NSTE-ACS and baseline blood samples available. During index hospitalization, 5357 were revascularized, and 4589 were managed without revascularization. Hs-TnT, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 were determined and assessed according to predefined cutoff levels. Median follow-up was 9.1 months. Increasing levels of hs-TnT were associated with increasing risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in medically managed patients (P<0.001), but not in those managed invasively. NT-proBNP and GDF-15 levels were associated with the same events independent of management strategy. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel reduced the rate of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients with NSTE-ACS and hs-TnT ≥14.0 ng/L in both invasively and noninvasively managed patients; in patients with hs-TnT <14.0 ng/L, there was no difference between ticagrelor and clopidogrel in the noninvasive groupHs-TnT, NT-proBNP, and GDF-15 are predictors of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in patients with NSTE-ACS managed noninvasively, and NT-proBNP and GDF-15 also in those managed invasively. Elevated hs-TnT predicts substantial benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel both in invasively and noninvasively managed patients, but no apparent benefit was seen at normal hs-TnT.URL:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.004420

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329880700006

  • Effect of cangrelor on periprocedural outcomes in percutaneous coronary interventions: a pooled analysis of patient-level data LANCET Steg, P. G., Bhatt, D. L., Hamm, C. W., Stone, G. W., Gibson, C. M., Mahaffey, K. W., Leonardi, S., Liu, T., Skerjanec, S., Day, J. R., Iwaoka, R. S., Stuckey, T. D., Gogia, H. S., Gruberg, L., French, W. J., White, H. D., Harrington, R. A. 2013; 382 (9909): 1981-1992

    Abstract

    Cangrelor is a potent, rapid-acting, reversible intravenous platelet inhibitor that was tested for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in three large, double-blind, randomised trials. We did a pooled analysis of data from three trials that assessed the effectiveness of cangrelor against either clopidogrel or placebo in PCI.This prespecified, pooled analysis of patient-level data from three trials (CHAMPION-PCI, CHAMPION-PLATFORM, and CHAMPION-PHOENIX) compared cangrelor with control (clopidogrel or placebo) for prevention of thrombotic complications during and after PCI. Trial participants were patients undergoing PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (11.6%), non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (57.4%), and stable coronary artery disease (31.0%). Efficacy was assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population of 24,910 patients, with a prespecified primary efficacy composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischaemia-driven revascularisation, or stent thrombosis at 48 h. The primary safety outcome was non-coronary artery bypass graft-related GUSTO (Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) severe or life-threatening bleeding at 48 h.Cangrelor reduced the odds of the primary outcome by 19% (3.8% for cangrelor vs 4.7% for control; odds ratio [OR] 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.91, p=0.0007), and stent thrombosis by 41% (0.5% vs 0.8%, OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.43-0.80, p=0.0008). Cangrelor reduced the odds of the secondary triple composite (all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or ischaemia-driven revascularisation at 48 h) by 19% (3.6% vs 4.4%, OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.71-0.92, p=0.0014). Efficacy outcomes were consistent across the trials and main patient subsets. These benefits were maintained at 30 days. There was no difference in the primary safety outcome (0.2% in both groups), in GUSTO moderate bleeding (0.6% vs 0.4%), or in transfusion (0.7% vs 0.6%), but cangrelor increased GUSTO mild bleeding (16.8% vs 13.0%, p<0.0001).Compared with control (clopidogrel or placebo), cangrelor reduced PCI periprocedural thrombotic complications, at the expense of increased bleeding.The Medicines Company.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61615-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328223700025

  • Relationship between postoperative clopidogrel use and subsequent angiographic and clinical outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND THROMBOLYSIS Williams, J. B., Lopes, R. D., Hafley, G. E., Ferguson, T. B., Mack, M. J., Gibson, C. M., Harrington, R. A., Peterson, E. D., Smith, P. K., Mehta, R. H., Alexander, J. H. 2013; 36 (4): 384-393
  • Association between bleeding and mortality among women and men with high-risk acute coronary syndromes: Insights from the Early versus Delayed, Provisional Eptifibatide in Acute Coronary Syndromes (EARLY ACS) trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Kaul, P., Tanguay, J., Newby, L. K., Hochman, J. S., Westerhout, C. M., Califf, R. M., Tricoci, P., Gibson, C. M., Giugliano, R. P., Harrington, R. A., Van de Werf, F., Armstrong, P. W. 2013; 166 (4): 723-728

    Abstract

    Female sex is an established risk factor for bleeding, which is an important safety end point in patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS). However, it is unknown whether the association between bleeding and mortality is modulated by sex in this patient population.We examined the interaction between sex and bleeding and 30-day mortality outcomes among 2,975 women and 6,431 men with high-risk NSTE ACS enrolled in the EARLY ACS trial. The Global Utilization of Strategies to Open Occluded Arteries (GUSTO) criteria were used to identify moderate or severe bleeds.Women were older and had more comorbid disease compared with men. Bleeding rates were higher among women (8.2%) than among men (5.5%; P < .01). However, the association of bleeding and 30-day mortality was stronger among men (odds ratio 5.8, 95% CI 3.9-8.8) than among women (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.8-2.9; sex * bleeding interaction P < .01). Sex differences in the association of bleeding and mortality persisted in a landmark analysis of 120-hour survivors.In a contemporary high-risk NSTE ACS cohort, women had higher bleeding rates than did men. Paradoxically, the association between bleeding and mortality was worse among men than among women.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.07.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000325092300027

    View details for PubMedID 24093853

  • Stent Thrombosis With Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes: An Analysis From the Prospective, Randomized PLATO Trial CIRCULATION Steg, P. G., Harrington, R. A., Emanuelsson, H., Katus, H. A., Mahaffey, K. W., Meier, B., Storey, R. F., Wojdyla, D. M., Lewis, B. S., Maurer, G., Wallentin, L., James, S. K. 2013; 128 (10): 1055-1065
  • A novel approach to systematically implement the universal definition of myocardial infarction: insights from the CHAMPION PLATFORM trial HEART Leonardi, S., Truffa, A. A., Neely, M. L., Tricoci, P., White, H. D., Gibson, C. M., Wilson, M., Stone, G. W., Harrington, R. A., Bhatt, D. L., Mahaffey, K. W. 2013; 99 (17): 1282-1287

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: To reassess the efficacy of cangrelor efficacy using the universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI). DESIGN: We adopted a novel approach to systematically implement the universal definition of MI. Two physicians blinded to treatment allocation reviewed plots of CK-MB and troponin values in relation to time of randomisation and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to identify patients with stable or falling biomarkers pre-PCI (ie, primary cohort), and those with post-PCI CK-MB elevations. SETTING: The CHAMPION PLATFORM trial. PATIENTS: Non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (95%) and stable angina patients (5%). INTERVENTIONS: Cangrelor versus placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The efficacy of cangrelor compared with placebo using the reclassified events (type 4a MI) and the original clinical events committee-adjudicated (CEC PCI-MI) results was investigated. RESULTS: Of 5295 patients, 3406 (64.4%) were in the primary cohort. Type 4a MI occurred in 4.3% (226 events/5295 patients) while original CEC PCI-MI occurred in 6.5% (344 events/5295 patients), a significant difference (p<0.0001). Using the reclassified MI events, the primary composite endpoint of death, MI, or ischaemia-driven revascularisation through 48 h occurred in 5.4% of patients (4.9% cangrelor, 6.0% placebo; OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.02) as opposed to 7.5% of the primary analyses (7.0% cangrelor, 8.0% placebo; OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.71 to 1.07). CONCLUSIONS: Systematic, strict implementation of the universal MI definition with emphasis on baseline assessment may enhance discrimination in detecting PCI-MI and may allow for more rigorous assessment of interventions in patients undergoing early PCI.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/heartjnl-2012-303103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323162800012

    View details for PubMedID 23434768

  • Routine early eptifibatide versus delayed provisional use at percutaneous coronary intervention in high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes patients: An analysis from the Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Bagai, A., White, J. A., Lokhnygina, Y., Giugliano, R. P., Van de Werf, F., Montalescot, G., Armstrong, P. W., Tricoci, P., Gibson, C. M., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Newby, L. K. 2013; 166 (3): 466-?

    Abstract

    In the EARLY ACS trial, routine early eptifibatide was not superior to delayed provisional use at percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); however, among PCI-treated patients, numerically fewer ischemic end points occurred in the upstream eptifibatide group. We sought to further explore this finding using methods for examination of treatment effect in this postrandomization subgroup.Of 9,406 patients in the EARLY ACS primary analysis cohort, 9,166 (97.4%) underwent coronary angiography. We used Cox proportional hazards regression modeling, with PCI as a time-dependent covariate, to examine the effect of routine early versus delayed provisional eptifibatide among 5,541 patients undergoing PCI and to explore the interaction between treatment with PCI and randomized treatment strategy. After multivariable adjustment, compared with delayed provisional use, routine early eptifibatide was associated with lower rate of 30-day death or myocardial infarction (MI) after PCI (hazard ratio [HR] 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.95) but not with medical management (HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.74-1.29); PCI × randomized treatment interaction term P = .24. Excluding PCI-related MI, the adjusted HR for 30-day death or MI for routine early eptifibatide versus delayed provisional use was 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.08) for post-PCI treatment and 1.01 (95% CI 0.79-1.34) for medical management; PCI × randomized treatment interaction term P = .28.Consistent with previous literature, upstream treatment with eptifibatide was associated with improved outcomes in high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients treated with PCI; however, a nonsignificant interaction term precludes a definite conclusion.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.05.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324163600020

    View details for PubMedID 24016495

  • Quantitative ST-depression in Acute Coronary Syndromes: the PLATO Electrocardiographic Substudy AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Armstrong, P. W., Westerhout, C. M., Fu, Y., Harrington, R. A., Storey, R. F., Katus, H., James, S., Wallentin, L. 2013; 126 (8): 723-?

    Abstract

    We evaluated whether electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristics were aligned with clinical outcomes and the effect of ticagrelor within the diverse spectrum of non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients enrolled in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial.There were 8884 PLATO patients who had baseline ECGs assessed by a core laboratory; of these, 4935 had an ECG at hospital discharge that also was assessed. Associations with study treatment on vascular death or myocardial infarction within 1 year were examined.At baseline, most patients had either no or ≤0.5 mm of ST-segment depression (57%); 26% had 1.0 mm, and 17% had more extensive depression (>1.0 mm). Across the baseline ST-segment depression strata, there was a consistent treatment benefit with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel on vascular death/myocardial infarction. The extent of residual ST-segment depression at discharge was similar in the treatment groups, and the treatment effect did not differ by the extent of discharge ST-segment depression. There was a progressive increase in vascular death/myocardial infarction with increasing extent of baseline ST-segment depression (1.0 mm [vs no/0.5 mm]: hazard ratio [HR] 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.45; >1.0 mm: HR 1.49; 95% CI, 1.24-1.78; P <.001) and at discharge (HR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61; HR 2.13; 95% CI, 1.54-2.95; P <.001).The treatment effect of ticagrelor among non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients was consistently expressed across all baseline ST-segment depression strata. There was no indication of an anti-ischemic benefit of ticagrelor as reflected on the discharge ECG. Our data affirm the independent prognostic relationship of both baseline and hospital discharge ST-segment depression on outcomes within 1 year in non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.01.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322827200027

    View details for PubMedID 23795897

  • Trends in clinical trials of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes over 15 years INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Chan, M. Y., Sun, J., Newby, L. K., Lokhnygina, Y., White, H. D., Moliterno, D. J., Theroux, P., Ohman, E. M., Simoons, M. L., Mahaffey, K. W., Pieper, K. S., Giugliano, R. P., Armstrong, P. W., Califf, R. M., Van de Werf, F., Harrington, R. A. 2013; 167 (2): 548-554

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Data are limited on whether clinical trials have randomized higher-risk patients over time and how trends in risk profiles and evidence-based pharmacotherapies have influenced trial outcomes. We quantified changes in baseline risk, treatment, and outcomes of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) randomized in 9 phase 3 clinical trials of antithrombotic therapy over 15years. METHODS: We studied 58,771 patients in GUSTO IIb, PURSUIT, PARAGON-A, PARAGON-B, PRISM, PRISM-PLUS, GUSTO IV-ACS, SYNERGY, and EARLY ACS. Patient-level data were mapped to 3 pre-specified 5-year randomization periods. Temporal trends in GRACE score-predicted mortality were compared with trends in observed mortality. RESULTS: Over time, in-hospital and discharge use of thienopyridines (p=0.001), statins (p<0.0001), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (p<0.0001) increased, and hospital length-of-stay decreased (p=0.024). Blood transfusion use increased (8.3% [1994-98], 10.7% [1999-2003], 13% [2004-08], p=0.0002) despite stable rates of severe bleeding (0.9% [1994-98], 1.4% [1999-2003] and 1.1% [2004-08], p=0.127) and coronary artery bypass grafting (12.4% [1994-98], 13.7% [1999-2003] 13.1% [2004-08], p=0.880). Although predicted 6-month mortality increased (6.9% [1994-98], 9.0% [1999-2003], 7.9% [2004-08], p=0.017), observed 6-month mortality decreased (6.7% [1994-98], 5.8% [1999-2003], 5.1% [2004-08], p=0.025). Thirty-day myocardial infarction rates remained stable (9.2% [1994-98], 9.3% [1999-2003], 10% [2004-08], p=0.539). CONCLUSIONS: Despite enrolling higher-risk patients into these NSTE ACS trials, with better treatment, observed mortality declined over the past 15years. The appropriateness of increased blood transfusion despite unchanged bleeding rates deserves further study.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.01.065

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320768800050

    View details for PubMedID 22341697

  • Cardiac Troponin After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention and 1-Year Mortality in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Using Systematic Evaluation of Biomarker Trends JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Tricoci, P., Leonardi, S., White, J., White, H. D., Armstrong, P. W., Montalescot, G., Giugliano, R. P., Gibson, C. M., Van de Werf, F., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Braunwald, E., Mahaffey, K. W., Newby, L. K. 2013; 62 (3): 242-251

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: We reviewed cardiac troponin (cTn) trends during non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in EARLY ACS and SYNERGY and studied the relationship between post-PCI cTn and mortality. BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of cTn post-PCI is controversial. In patients with NSTE ACS, it is especially difficult to distinguish between cTn elevations due to PCI or index myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: Time and cTn (indexed by upper limit of normal [ULN]) data pairs were plotted for 10,199 patients and independently reviewed by 2 physicians to identify patients in whom post-PCI cTn elevation could be distinguished from that of index MI. Post-PCI cTn peak was identified for each plot, and its relationship with 1-year mortality was evaluated using Cox modeling, correcting for 15 clinical variables from the EARLY ACS 1-year mortality model (including baseline cTn). We used an identical methodology to assess the association between creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and 1-year mortality. RESULTS: Patients with cTn (re)elevation post-PCI not evaluable were identified and excluded from further analysis (4198 [41%] with cTn rising prior to PCI; 229 [2%] with missing cTn). Among the remainder (N=5772 [57%]), in the multivariable model, peak cTn post-PCI was associated with a 7% increase in mortality (hazard ratio [HR] for 10x ULN increase, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.11; p=0.0038). Peak post-PCI CK-MB was significantly associated with 1-year mortality (HR for 1x ULN increase, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.05-1.21; p=0.0013). CONCLUSIONS: We used a methodology that differentiated post-PCI cTn (re)elevation from that of presenting MI in more than half of patients with NSTE ACS undergoing PCI. This identified a highly significant relationship between post-PCI cTn and 1-year mortality, with implication for both incorporating a cTn post-PCI MI definition and preventing PCI-related myonecrosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2013.04.043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321695500011

    View details for PubMedID 23684676

  • Angiographic Outcomes in the PLATO Trial (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS Kunadian, V., James, S. K., Wojdyla, D. M., Zorkun, C., Wu, J., Storey, R. F., Steg, P. G., Katus, H., Emanuelsson, H., Horrow, J., Maya, J., Wallentin, L., Harrington, R. A., Gibson, M. 2013; 6 (7): 671-683

    Abstract

    The PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) angiographic substudy sought to compare the efficacy of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel with respect to angiographic outcomes before and after PCI in the setting of acute coronary syndrome.Greater platelet inhibition has been associated with improved angiographic outcomes before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Therefore, it was hypothesized that treatment with ticagrelor, which achieves more rapid, higher, and more consistent platelet inhibition, would be associated with improved angiographic outcomes when compared with those of clopidogrel treatment.The angiographic cohort consists of 2,616 patients drawn from the 18,624-patient PLATO trial. Clopidogrel naïve or pre-treated patients were randomized to 180 mg of ticagrelor or 300 mg of clopidogrel (75 mg for clopidogrel pre-treated patients). PCI patients were administered, as per treatment group: 1) an additional 90 mg of ticagrelor if >24 h following the initial loading dose; or 2) an optional further 300 mg of clopidogrel or placebo (total 600 mg) prior to PCI. The substudy primary endpoint was the incidence of post-PCI TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction) myocardial perfusion grade 3 (TMPG 3) among patients who received a study drug prior to PCI.In total, 21.3% of patients were pretreated with clopidogrel prior to randomization. There was a short time interval between randomization and PCI (median: 0.68 [interquartile range (IQR): 0.30 to 2.21] h) among all patients. Post-PCI TMPG 3 was similar between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups (47.1% vs. 46.9%; p = 0.96). Likewise, the following pre-PCI outcomes were similar in the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups, respectively: TMPG 3 (30.5% vs. 31.2%), TIMI flow grade 3 (37.1% vs. 39.3%), corrected TIMI frame count (median: 100 vs. 71 frames), TIMI thrombus grade 0 (24.1% vs. 27.6%), minimum lumen diameter (median: 0.3 [IQR: 0.0 to 0.6] vs. 0.3 [IQR: 0.0 to 0.6] mm) and percentage of diameter stenosis (median: 89 [IQR: 78 to 100] vs. 89 [IQR: 77 to 100]).Neither coronary flow nor myocardial perfusion, evaluated on coronary angiograms performed before or following PCI procedures within a few hours after the start of oral antiplatelet treatment in the setting of acute coronary syndromes, demonstrated a difference with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel. (A Comparison of Ticagrelor [AZD6140] and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcin.2013.03.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322129400007

    View details for PubMedID 23866179

  • Effect of vorapaxar on myocardial infarction in the thrombin receptor antagonist for clinical event reduction in acute coronary syndrome (TRA.CER) trial EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Leonardi, S., Tricoci, P., White, H. D., Armstrong, P. W., Huang, Z., Wallentin, L., Aylward, P. E., Moliterno, D. J., Van de Werf, F., Chen, E., Providencia, L., Nordrehaug, J. E., Held, C., Strony, J., Rorick, T. L., Harrington, R. A., Mahaffey, K. W. 2013; 34 (23): 1723-1731

    Abstract

    AimsThe TRA·CER trial compared vorapaxar, a novel platelet protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 antagonist, with placebo in 12 944 patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS). In this analysis, we explored the effect of vorapaxar on myocardial infarction (MI).Methods and resultsA blinded, independent central endpoint adjudication committee prospectively defined and classified MI according to the universal MI definition, including peak cardiac marker value (creatine kinase-MB [CK-MB] and/or troponin). Because the trial failed to meet its primary endpoint, these analyses are considered exploratory. During a median follow-up of 502 days, 1580 MIs occurred in 1319 patients. The majority (n = 1025, 64.9%) were type 1 (spontaneous) MI, followed by type 4a [percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related] MI (n = 352; 22.3%). Compared with placebo, vorapaxar reduced the hazard of a first MI of any type by 12% [hazard ratio (HR), 0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.79-0.98; P = 0.021] and the hazard of total number of MIs (first and subsequent) by 14% (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.97; P = 0.014), an effect that was sustained over time. Vorapaxar reduced type 1 MI by 17% (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73-0.95; P = 0.007). Type 4a MIs were not significantly reduced by vorapaxar (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73-1.12; P = 0.35). Vorapaxar effect was consistent across MI sizes defined by peak cardiac marker elevations and across key clinical subgroups; however, in patients not treated with thienopyridine at baseline (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.46-0.92) compared with patients who received thienopyridine (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.81-1.02), there was a trend towards a higher effect (Pint = 0.077).ConclusionThe PAR-1 antagonist vorapaxar was associated with a reduction of MI, including total number of infarctions. This reduction was sustained over time and was mostly evident in type 1 MI, the most common type of MI observed.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/eht104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320408500009

    View details for PubMedID 23530022

  • Rescuing clinical trials in the United States and beyond: A call for action AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Eapen, Z. J., Vavalle, J. P., Granger, C. B., Harrington, R. A., Peterson, E. D., Califf, R. M. 2013; 165 (6): 837-847

    Abstract

    Numerous challenges-financial, regulatory, and cultural-are hindering US participation and performance in multinational clinical trials. Consequently, it is increasingly unclear how the results of these trials should be applied to American patients, practice patterns, and systems of care. Both incremental and transformative changes are needed to revitalize US participation as well as the broader clinical trial enterprise. To promote consensus around the solutions needed to address the adverse trends in clinical research, the Duke Clinical Research Institute convenedstakeholders from academia, industry, and government. article summarizes the proceedings of this meeting and addresses: (1) adverse trends in the United States and multinational clinical trials, (2) the key issues that underlie these adverse trends, and (3) potential solutions to these problems.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.02.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319439900004

    View details for PubMedID 23708153

  • A phase 3, randomized, double-blinded, active-controlled, unblinded standard of care study assessing the efficacy and safety of intramyocardial autologous CD34+ cell administration in patients with refractory angina: Design of the RENEW study AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Povsic, T. J., Junge, C., Nada, A., Schatz, R. A., Harrington, R. A., Davidson, C. J., Fortuin, F. D., Kereiakes, D. J., Mendelsohn, F. O., Sherman, W., Schaer, G. L., White, C. J., Stewart, D., Story, K., Losordo, D. W., Henry, T. D. 2013; 165 (6): 854-?

    Abstract

    Preclinical trials indicate that CD34+ cells represent an effective angiogenic stem cell component. Early-phase clinical trials suggest that intramyocardial administration of autologous CD34+ cells may improve functional capacity and symptoms of angina. RENEW is a pivotal phase 3 trial designed to determine the efficacy of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized CD34+ stem cells for the treatment for patients with refractory angina and chronic myocardial ischemia. Patients (n = 444) receiving maximally tolerated antianginal therapies and lacking conventional revascularization options with Canadian Cardiovascular Society class III or IV angina and ischemia on stress testing will be randomized 2:1:1 to cell therapy (G-CSF-mediated stem cell mobilization, apheresis, and intramyocardial injection of 1 × 10(5) autologous CD34(+) cells/kg), active control (G-CSF-mediated stem cell mobilization, apheresis, and intramyocardial placebo injection), or open-label standard of care. The primary efficacy end point is change in exercise treadmill time in the treated vs active control patients, with 90% power to detect a 60-second difference in exercise time between cell-treated (n = 200) and active control (n = 100) patients. Key secondary end points include total number of anginal episodes per week and the incidence of independently adjudicated major adverse cardiac events and serious adverse events. RENEW will be the first adequately powered study aimed at definitively determining the efficacy of a cell therapy (intramyocardially delivered autologous CD34+ cells) for improvement of functional capacity in patients with refractory angina.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.03.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319439900006

    View details for PubMedID 23708155

  • Prevalence and clinical outcomes of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and prediabetes among patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Giraldez, R. R., Clare, R. M., Lopes, R. D., Dalby, A. J., Prabhakaran, D., Brogan, G. X., Giugliano, R. P., James, S. K., Tanguay, J., Pollack, C. V., Harrington, R. A., Braunwald, E., Newby, L. K. 2013; 165 (6): 918-?

    Abstract

    We examined the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes and associations with ischemic outcomes among non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients.We categorized 8795 EARLY ACS trial patients into one of the following groups: "known diabetes" (n = 2860 [32.5%]; reported on the case report form), "undiagnosed diabetes" (n = 1069 [12.2%]; no diabetes history and fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%), "prediabetes" (n = 947 [10.8%]; fasting glucose ≥110 to <126 mg/dL, or "normal" (n = 3919 [44.5%]). Adjusted associations of known diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and prediabetes (versus normal) with 30-day and 1-year outcomes were determined.Undiagnosed diabetes was associated with greater 30-day death or myocardial infarction (MI) (ORadj 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.57), driven primarily by greater 30-day mortality (ORadj 1.65, 95% CI 1.09-2.48). Known diabetic patients had 30-day death or MI outcomes similar to those of normal patients, but 30-day mortality was higher (ORadj 1.40, 95% CI 1.01-1.93). Prediabetic patients had 30-day death or MI outcomes similar to those of normal patients. One-year mortality was greater among known diabetic patients (HRadj 1.38, 95% CI 1.13-1.67) but not among those with undiagnosed diabetes or prediabetes.Undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes were common among high-risk non-ST-segment elevation ACS patients. Routine screening for undiagnosed diabetes may be useful since these patients seem to have worse short-term outcomes and deserve consideration of alternative management strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.01.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000319439900013

    View details for PubMedID 23708162

  • Effect of Platelet Inhibition with Cangrelor during PCI on Ischemic Events NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Bhatt, D. L., Stone, G. W., Mahaffey, K. W., Gibson, C. M., Steg, P. G., Hamm, C. W., Price, M. J., Leonardi, S., Gallup, D., Bramucci, E., Radke, P. W., Widimsky, P., Tousek, F., Tauth, J., Spriggs, D., McLaurin, B. T., Angiolillo, D. J., Genereux, P., Liu, T., Prats, J., Todd, M., Skerjanec, S., White, H. D., Harrington, R. A. 2013; 368 (14): 1303-1313

    Abstract

    The intensity of antiplatelet therapy during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an important determinant of PCI-related ischemic complications. Cangrelor is a potent intravenous adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonist that acts rapidly and has quickly reversible effects.In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 11,145 patients who were undergoing either urgent or elective PCI and were receiving guideline-recommended therapy to receive a bolus and infusion of cangrelor or to receive a loading dose of 600 mg or 300 mg of clopidogrel. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis at 48 hours after randomization; the key secondary end point was stent thrombosis at 48 hours. The primary safety end point was severe bleeding at 48 hours.The rate of the primary efficacy end point was 4.7% in the cangrelor group and 5.9% in the clopidogrel group (adjusted odds ratio with cangrelor, 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.93; P=0.005). The rate of the primary safety end point was 0.16% in the cangrelor group and 0.11% in the clopidogrel group (odds ratio, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.53 to 4.22; P=0.44). Stent thrombosis developed in 0.8% of the patients in the cangrelor group and in 1.4% in the clopidogrel group (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.90; P=0.01). The rates of adverse events related to the study treatment were low in both groups, though transient dyspnea occurred significantly more frequently with cangrelor than with clopidogrel (1.2% vs. 0.3%). The benefit from cangrelor with respect to the primary end point was consistent across multiple prespecified subgroups.Cangrelor significantly reduced the rate of ischemic events, including stent thrombosis, during PCI, with no significant increase in severe bleeding. (Funded by the Medicines Company; CHAMPION PHOENIX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01156571.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1300815

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316989900007

    View details for PubMedID 23473369

  • Left Bundle Branch Block in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes Incidence, Angiographic Characteristics, and Clinical Outcomes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Rose, J. J., Newby, L. K., Broderick, S., Chiswell, K., Van de Werf, F., Armstrong, P. W., Mahaffey, K. W., Harrington, R. A., Ohman, E. M., Giugliano, R. P., Goodman, S. G., White, H. D., Califf, R. M., Granger, C. B., Lopes, R. D. 2013; 61 (13): 1461-1463

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.12.032

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317191200017

    View details for PubMedID 23500249

  • Radial versus femoral access, bleeding and ischemic events in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome managed with an invasive strategy AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Klutstein, M. W., Westerhout, C. M., Armstrong, P. W., Giugliano, R. P., Lewis, B. S., Gibson, C. M., Lutchmedial, S., Widimsky, P., Steg, P. G., Dalby, A., Zeymer, U., Van de Werf, F., Harrington, R. A., Newby, L. K., Rao, S. V. 2013; 165 (4): 583-?

    Abstract

    Bleeding is a major limitation of antithrombotic therapy among invasively managed non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) patients; therefore, we examined the use of radial access and its association with outcomes among NSTE-ACS patients.Clinical characteristics and geographic variation in radial access were examined, as well as its association with bleeding, red blood cell transfusion and ischemic outcomes (96-hour death/myocardial infarction/recurrent ischemic/thrombotic bailout; 30-day death/myocardial infarction; 1-year death) in the EARLY versus delayed, provisional eptifibatide in acute coronary syndromes trial.Of 9126 patients, 13.5% underwent radial-access catheterization. Female sex, age, weight, and prior revascularization were inversely associated with radial access, and its use varied widely by country (2%-97%). There were fewer GUSTO severe/moderate bleeds and red blood cell transfusions in the radial access group; however, it was attenuated after adjustment (odds ratio 0.73, 95% confidence intervals [CI] [0.50-1.06], P = .094 and 1.00 [0.71-1.40] P = .991). Ischemic outcomes did not differ by access site.In this post hoc analysis of a large clinical trial, there was significant international variation in use of radial access for NSTE-ACS patients undergoing invasive management, and it was preferentially used in those at lower risk for bleeding. Radial approach was not associated with a significant reduction in either bleeding or ischemic outcomes. Further study is needed to determine whether wider application of radial approach to acute coronary syndrome patients at high risk for bleeding improves overall outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2013.01.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317184300021

    View details for PubMedID 23537976

  • Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: do trial results enable clinicians and patients to evaluate whether the benefits justify the risk? Proceedings of an Ad Hoc Working Group Meeting JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS Berger, J., Eikelboom, J. W., Quinlan, D. J., Guyatt, G., Buller, H. R., Sobieraj-Teague, M., Harrington, R. A., Hirsh, J. 2013; 11 (4): 778-782

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jth.4900

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317615500027

    View details for PubMedID 23578178

  • ACP Journal Club. PCI using drug-eluting stents had higher mortality than CABG in diabetes and multivessel CAD. Annals of internal medicine Harrington, R. A. 2013; 158 (6): JC8-?
  • 2013 ACCF/AHA key data elements and definitions for measuring the clinical management and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes and coronary artery disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards (Writing Committee to Develop Acute Coronary Syndromes and Coronary Artery Disease Clinical Data Standards). Circulation Cannon, C. P., Brindis, R. G., Chaitman, B. R., Cohen, D. J., Cross, J. T., Drozda, J. P., Fesmire, F. M., Fintel, D. J., Fonarow, G. C., Fox, K. A., Gray, D. T., Harrington, R. A., Hicks, K. A., Hollander, J. E., Krumholz, H., Labarthe, D. R., Long, J. B., Mascette, A. M., Meyer, C., Peterson, E. D., Radford, M. J., Roe, M. T., Richmann, J. B., Selker, H. P., Shahian, D. M., Shaw, R. E., Sprenger, S., Swor, R., Underberg, J. A., Van de Werf, F., Weiner, B. H., Weintraub, W. S. 2013; 127 (9): 1052-1089

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIR.0b013e3182831a11

    View details for PubMedID 23357718

  • 2013 ACCF/AHA key data elements and definitions for measuring the clinical management and outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes and coronary artery disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on clinical data standards (writing committee to develop acute coronary syndromes and coronary artery disease clinical data standards). Journal of the American College of Cardiology Cannon, C. P., Brindis, R. G., Chaitman, B. R., Cohen, D. J., Cross, J. T., Drozda, J. P., Fesmire, F. M., Fintel, D. J., Fonarow, G. C., Fox, K. A., Gray, D. T., Harrington, R. A., Hicks, K. A., Hollander, J. E., Krumholz, H., Labarthe, D. R., Long, J. B., Mascette, A. M., Meyer, C., Peterson, E. D., Radford, M. J., Roe, M. T., Richmann, J. B., Selker, H. P., Shahian, D. M., Shaw, R. E., Sprenger, S., Swor, R., Underberg, J. A., Van de Werf, F., Weiner, B. H., Weintraub, W. S. 2013; 61 (9): 992-1025

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2012.10.005

    View details for PubMedID 23369353

  • Response to letter regarding article, “sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation complicating non–ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes”. Circulation Piccini, J. P., White, J. A., Mehta, R. H., Lokhnygina, Y., Al-Khatib, S. M., Tricoci, P., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Newby, L. K., Pollack, C. V., Montalescot, G., Van de Werf, F., Gibson, C. M., Giugliano, R. P. 2013; 127 (20): e634

    View details for PubMedID 23833786

  • Response to letter regarding article, "ticagrelor in patients with acute coronary syndromes and stroke: interpretation of subgroups in clinical trials". Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation James, S. K., Storey, R. F., Pieper, K. S., Cannon, C. P., Becker, R. C., Steg, P. G., Wallentin, L., Harrington, R. A. 2013; 44 (8): e95-6

    View details for PubMedID 23800556

  • 2013 ACCF/AHA Key Data Elements and Definitions for Measuring the Clinical Management and Outcomes of Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes and Coronary Artery Disease: A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Data Standards (Writing Committee to Develop Acute Coronary Syndromes and Coronary Artery Disease Clinical Data Standards). Critical pathways in cardiology Cannon, C. P., Brindis, R. G., Chaitman, B. R., Cohen, D. J., Cross, J. T., Drozda, J. P., Fesmire, F. M., Fintel, D. J., Fonarow, G. C., Fox, K. A., Gray, D. T., Harrington, R. A., Hicks, K. A., Hollander, J. E., Krumholz, H., Labarthe, D. R., Long, J. B., Mascette, A. M., Meyer, C., Peterson, E. D., Radford, M. J., Roe, M. T., Richmann, J. B., Selker, H. P., Shahian, D. M., Shaw, R. E., Sprenger, S., Swor, R., Underberg, J. A., Van de Werf, F., Weiner, B. H., Weintraub, W. S. 2013; 12 (2): 65-105

    View details for PubMedID 23680811

  • Relationship between postoperative clopidogrel use and subsequent angiographic and clinical outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting. Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis Williams, J. B., Lopes, R. D., Hafley, G. E., Bruce Ferguson, T., Mack, M. J., Michael Gibson, C., Harrington, R. A., Peterson, E. D., Smith, P. K., Mehta, R. H., Alexander, J. H. 2013

    Abstract

    Dual antiplatelet therapy with both aspirin and clopidogrel is increasingly used after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); however, little is known about the safety or efficacy. We sought to determine the relationship between postoperative clopidogrel and clinical and angiographic outcomes following CABG. We evaluated 3,014 patients from PREVENT IV who underwent CABG at 107 US sites. Postoperative antiplatelet therapy was left to physician discretion. Risk-adjusted angiographic and clinical outcomes were compared in patients taking and not taking clopidogrel 30 days post-CABG. At 30 days, 633 (21 %) patients were taking clopidogrel. Clopidogrel users were more likely to have peripheral vascular (15 vs. 11 %) and cerebrovascular disease (17 vs. 11 %), prior myocardial infarction (MI) (46 vs. 41 %), and off-pump surgery (33 vs. 18 %). Clopidogrel use was associated with statistically insignificant higher graft failure (adjusted odds ratio 1.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI] [1.0, 1.7]; P = 0.05). At 5-year follow-up, clopidogrel use was associated with similar composite rates of death, MI, or revascularization (27 vs. 24 %; adjusted hazard ratio 1.1; 95 % CI [0.9, 1.4]; P = 0.38) compared with those not using clopidogrel. There was an interaction between use of cardiopulmonary bypass and clopidogrel with a trend toward lower 5-year clinical events with clopidogrel in patients undergoing off-pump CABG. In this observational analysis, clopidogrel use was not associated with better 5-year outcomes following CABG. There may be better outcomes with clopidogrel among patients having off-pump surgery. Adequately powered randomized clinical trials are needed to determine the role of dual antiplatelet therapy after CABG.

    View details for PubMedID 23543398

  • Platelet inhibition with cangrelor during PCI. The New England journal of medicine Bhatt, D. L., Harrington, R. A. 2013; 369 (4): 393-4

    View details for PubMedID 23883387

  • ACP Journal Club. Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation did not reduce mortality in acute MI with cardiogenic shock. Annals of internal medicine Harrington, R. A. 2012; 157 (12): JC6-11
  • Conversion of Cardiovascular Conference Abstracts to Publications CIRCULATION Fosbol, E. L., Fosbol, P. L., Harrington, R. A., Eapen, Z. J., Peterson, E. D. 2012; 126 (24): 2819-?

    Abstract

    The transition of scientific knowledge from discovery into practice is less than ideal. A key step in this translation occurs when presentations from major meetings are published in peer-reviewed literature, yet the completeness and speed of this process are not known. We performed a systematic and automated evaluation of rates, timing, and correlates of publication from scientific abstracts presented at 3 major cardiovascular conferences.Using an automated computer algorithm, we searched the ISI Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed publications of abstracts presented at the American Heart Association (AHA), American College of Cardiology (ACC), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) scientific sessions from 2006 to 2008. We compared abstract publication rates and journal impact factor between the 3 meetings using multivariable logistic regression modeling. From 2006 to 2008, 11 365, 5005, and 10 838 abstracts were presented at the AHA, ACC, and ESC meetings, respectively. Overall, 30.6% of presented abstracts were published within 2 years of the conference; ranging from 34.5% for AHA to 29.5% for ACC to 27.0% for ESC (P<0.0001). Five years after conference presentation in 2005, these rates had risen slightly to 49.7% for AHA, 42.6% for ACC, and 37.6% for ESC (P<0.0001). After adjustment for abstract characteristics and contributing countries, abstracts presented at the AHA meeting remained more likely for publication relative to the ESC (adjusted odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.34) and the ACC (adjusted odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.29). Median impact factors for subsequent publications varied from 4.8 (interquartile range, 3.8-10.1) for AHA to 4.0 (interquartile range, 3.1-7.5) for ACC and 3.9 (quartile 1-3, 2.5-5.8) for ESC (P for difference between groups <0.01). Clinical science and population science were less likely to be published compared with basic science.One third of abstracts were translated into publications by 2 years after presentation and less than one half by 5 years after presentation. Our findings suggest that efforts to understand the barriers to publication and to facilitate the rapid dissemination of new knowledge are needed to speed up the transition of scientific discovery into clinical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.120535

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312275600010

    View details for PubMedID 23124031

  • Are Central Institutional Review Boards the Solution? The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group's Report on Optimizing the IRB Process ACADEMIC MEDICINE Mascette, A. M., Bernard, G. R., DiMichele, D., Goldner, J. A., Harrington, R., Harris, P. A., Leeds, H. S., Pearson, T. A., Ramsey, B., Wagner, T. H. 2012; 87 (12): 1710-1714

    Abstract

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) of the National Institutes of Health convened a working group in June 2011 to examine alternative institutional review board (IRB) models. The working group was held in response to proposed changes in the regulations for government-supported research and the proliferation of multicenter clinical trials where multiple individual reviews may be inefficient. Group members included experts in heart, lung, and blood research, research oversight, bioethics, health economics, regulations, and information technology (IT). The group discussed alternative IRB models, ethical concerns, metrics for evaluating IRBs, IT needs, and economic considerations. Participants noted research gaps in IRB best practices and in metrics. The group arrived at recommendations for process changes, such as defining specific IRB performance requirements in funding announcements, requiring funded researchers to use more efficient alternative IRB models, and developing IT systems to facilitate information sharing and collaboration among IRBs. Despite the success of the National Cancer Institute's central IRB (CIRB), the working group, concerned about the creation costs and unknown cost-efficiency of a new CIRB, and about the risk of shifting the burden of dealing with multiple IRBs from sponsors to research institutions, did not recommend the creation of an NHLBI-funded CIRB.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3182720859

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311836800021

    View details for PubMedID 23095928

  • Transforming Clinical Trials in Cardiovascular Disease Mission Critical for Health and Economic Well-being JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Antman, E. M., Harrington, R. A. 2012; 308 (17): 1743-1744

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310726500017

    View details for PubMedID 23117771

  • Incidence and clinical significance of cardiac biomarker elevation during stem cell mobilization, apheresis, and intramyocardial delivery: An analysis from ACT34-CMI AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Povsic, T. J., Losordo, D. W., Story, K., Junge, C. E., Schatz, R. A., Harrington, R. A., Henry, T. D. 2012; 164 (5): 689-U86

    Abstract

    Cell therapy is a promising therapeutic for a variety of cardiovascular conditions including refractory angina. Elevation of cardiac biomarkers during cell delivery has been frequently described, but the clinical implications have never been studied.ACT34-CMI was a randomized double-blind study assessing the use of intramyocardial delivery of autologous CD34(+) cells for the treatment of refractory angina. Patients (n = 167) underwent G-CSF-mediated (5 ?g/[kg day] × 5 days) stem cell mobilization, apheresis, and intramyocardial injection of 1 × 10(5)/kg or 5 × 10(5)/kg CD34(+) cells or placebo. Troponin and creatinine kinase MB were assessed at baseline (n = 161), after cell mobilization and apheresis (n = 153 and 143, respectively), and post-intramyocardial injection (n = 155 and 141, respectively). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) included death, myocardial infarction, acute congestive heart failure, urgent revascularization, or sustained ventricular arrhythmia.Seven (4.3%) subjects had troponin above the upper limits of normal (ULN) at baseline. Thirty-four (22.2%) and 11 (7.2%) subjects had troponin levels > ULN or >3× ULN after cell mobilization and apheresis, whereas 72 (46.1%) and 39 (25.2%) subjects had troponin elevations > ULN or >3× ULN, respectively, after intramyocardial injections. Age, but no other preprocedural factors, was predictive of troponin elevation. Periprocedural troponin elevation was not associated with an increased risk of MACE during 1 year, especially in cell therapy-treated patients.Troponin elevation is common during stem cell harvesting and intramyocardial administration, is usually asymptomatic, and does not appear to be associated with long-term MACE in subjects undergoing stem cell mobilization and intramyocardial injection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.06.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310783100011

    View details for PubMedID 23137499

  • Road mapping ATLAS ACS 2: are we there yet? EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Armstrong, P. W., Harrington, R. A. 2012; 33 (20): 2510-2512

    View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310167200007

    View details for PubMedID 22297122

  • Association Between Angiographic Complications and Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention An EARLY ACS (Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome) Angiographic Substudy JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS Pride, Y. B., Mohanavelu, S., Zorkun, C., Kunadian, V., Giugliano, R. P., Newby, L. K., Braunwald, E., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Gibson, C. M. 2012; 5 (9): 927-935

    Abstract

    The goal of this analysis was to determine the association between intraprocedural complications and clinical outcomes among patients with high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).Among patients undergoing PCI for NSTEACS, the relationship between intraprocedural complications and clinical outcomes, independent of epicardial and myocardial perfusion, has not been well characterized.The EARLY ACS (Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome) trial enrolled 9,406 patients with high-risk NSTEACS undergoing an early invasive strategy. Of these, 1,452 underwent angiographic assessment in an independent core laboratory and did not have a myocardial infarction (MI) between enrollment and angiography. We assessed the relationship between abrupt closure, loss of side branch(es), distal embolization, and no-reflow phenomenon and 30-day clinical outcomes in these patients.Of the patients, 166 (11.4%) experienced an intraprocedural complication. Baseline clinical characteristics were similar between patients who did and did not have complications. The 30-day composite of death or MI was significantly higher among patients with an intraprocedural complication (28.3% vs. 7.8%, odds ratio [OR]: 4.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2 to 7.0, p < 0.001). Individually, both mortality (3.0% vs. 0.9%, OR: 3.60, 95% CI: 1.2 to 10.5, p = 0.019) and MI (27.1% vs. 7.4%, OR: 4.66, 95% CI: 3.1 to 7.0, p < 0.001) were significantly increased. After adjusting for differences in post-PCI epicardial and myocardial perfusion, the association with 30-day death or MI remained significant.Among high-risk NSTEACS patients undergoing an invasive strategy, the incidence of intraprocedural complications is high, and the occurrence of these complications is associated with worse clinical outcomes independent of epicardial and myocardial perfusion. (Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Patients With Non-ST-segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome [EARLY ACS]; NCT00089895).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcin.2012.05.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309351600007

    View details for PubMedID 22995880

  • 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation/Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions expert consensus document on cardiac catheterization laboratory standards update: American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on expert consensus documents Society of Thoracic Surgeons Society for Vascular Medicine. Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions Bashore, T. M., Balter, S., Barac, A., Byrne, J. G., Cavendish, J. J., Chambers, C. E., Hermiller, J. B., Kinlay, S., Landzberg, J. S., Laskey, W. K., McKay, C. R., Miller, J. M., Moliterno, D. J., Moore, J. W., Oliver-McNeil, S. M., Popma, J. J., Gardner 2012; 80 (3): E37-49

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ccd.24466

    View details for PubMedID 22570114

  • Edifoligide and long-term outcomes after coronary artery bypass grafting: PRoject of Ex-vivo Vein graft ENgineering via Transfection IV (PREVENT IV) 5-year results AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Lopes, R. D., Williams, J. B., Mehta, R. H., Reyes, E. M., Hafley, G. E., Allen, K. B., Mack, M. J., Peterson, E. D., Harrington, R. A., Gibson, C. M., Califf, R. M., Kouchoukos, N. T., Ferguson, T. B., Lorenz, T. J., Alexander, J. H. 2012; 164 (3): 379-U284

    Abstract

    Edifoligide, an E2F transcription factor decoy, does not prevent vein graft failure or adverse clinical outcomes at 1 year in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We compared the 5-year clinical outcomes of patients in PREVENT IV treated with edifoligide and placebo to identify predictors of long-term clinical outcomes.A total of 3,014 patients undergoing CABG with at least 2 planned vein grafts were enrolled. Kaplan-Meier curves were generated to compare the long-term effects of edifoligide and placebo. A Cox proportional hazards model was constructed to identify factors associated with 5-year post-CABG outcomes. The main outcome measures were death, myocardial infarction (MI), repeat revascularization, and rehospitalization through 5 years.Five-year follow-up was complete in 2,865 patients (95.1%). At 5 years, patients randomized to edifoligide and placebo had similar rates of death (11.7% and 10.7%, respectively), MI (2.3% and 3.2%), revascularization (14.1% and 13.9%), and rehospitalization (61.6% and 62.5%). The composite outcome of death, MI, or revascularization occurred at similar frequency in patients assigned to edifoligide and placebo (26.3% and 25.5%, respectively; hazard ratio 1.03 [95% CI 0.89-1.18], P = .721). Factors associated with death, MI, or revascularization at 5 years included peripheral and/or cerebrovascular disease, time on cardiopulmonary bypass, lung disease, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure.Up to a quarter of patients undergoing CABG will have a major cardiac event or repeat revascularization procedure within 5 years of surgery. Edifoligide does not affect outcomes after CABG; however, common identifiable baseline and procedural risk factors are associated with long-term outcomes after CABG.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.05.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308690100015

    View details for PubMedID 22980305

  • Prior smoking status, clinical outcomes, and the comparison of ticagrelor with clopidogrel in acute coronary syndromes-Insights from the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Cornel, J. H., Becker, R. C., Goodman, S. G., Husted, S., Katus, H., Santoso, A., Steg, G., Storey, R. F., Vintila, M., Sun, J. L., Horrow, J., Wallentin, L., Harrington, R., James, S. 2012; 164 (3): 334-U239

    Abstract

    Habitual smoking has been associated with increased platelet reactivity, increased risk of thrombotic complications and greater efficacy of clopidogrel therapy over placebo. In the PLATO trial, ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) reduced the primary composite end point of vascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke, without increasing overall rates of major bleeding. We evaluated the results in relation to smoking habits.Interactions between habitual smokers (n = 6678) and in ex/nonsmokers (n = 11,932) and the effects of randomized treatments on ischemic and bleeding outcomes were evaluated by Cox regression analyses.Habitual smokers had an overall lower risk profile and more often ST-elevation ACS. After adjustment for baseline imbalances, habitual smoking was associated with a higher incidence of definite stent thrombosis (adjusted HR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.07-1.94]); there were no significant associations with other ischemic or bleeding end points. The effects of ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel were consistent for all outcomes regardless of smoking status. Thus, there was a similar reduction in the primary composite end point for habitual smokers (adjusted HR, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.68-1.00]) and ex/nonsmokers (adjusted HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.79-1.00]) (interaction P = .50), and in definite stent thrombosis for habitual smokers (adjusted HR, 0.59 [0.39-0.91]) and ex/nonsmokers (adjusted HR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.45-1.07]) (interaction P = .61).In patients hospitalized with ACS, habitual smoking is associated with a greater risk of subsequent stent thrombosis. The reduction of vascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and stent thrombosis by ticagrelor compared to clopidogrel is consistent regardless of smoking habits.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.06.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308690100009

    View details for PubMedID 22980299

  • 2012 ACCF/AATS/SCAI/STS expert consensus document on transcatheter aortic valve replacement: developed in collabration with the American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Heart Failure Society of America, Mended Hearts, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Holmes, D. R., Mack, M. J., Kaul, S., Agnihotri, A., Alexander, K. P., Bailey, S. R., Calhoon, J. H., Carabello, B. A., Desai, M. Y., Edwards, F. H., Francis, G. S., Gardner, T. J., Kappetein, A. P., Linderbaum, J. A., Mukherjee, C., Mukherjee, D., Otto, C. M., Ruiz, C. E., Sacco, R. L., Smith, D., Thomas, J. D., Harrington, R. A., Bhatt, D. L., Ferrari, V. A., Fisher, J. D., Garcia, M. J., Gardner, T. J., Gentile, F., Gilson, M. F., Hernandez, A. F., Jacobs, A. K., Kaul, S., Linderbaum, J. A., Moliterno, D. J., Weitz, H. H. 2012; 144 (3): e29-84

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.03.001

    View details for PubMedID 22898522

  • Lecture Halls without Lectures NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Eapen, Z. J., Vavalle, J. P., Harrington, R. A. 2012; 367 (7): 678-678

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307496600025

    View details for PubMedID 22894591

  • Effect of Adenosine-Regulating Agent Acadesine on Morbidity and Mortality Associated With Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting The RED-CABG Randomized Controlled Trial JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Newman, M. F., Ferguson, T. B., White, J. A., Ambrosio, G., Koglin, J., Nussmeier, N. A., Pearl, R. G., Pitt, B., Wechsler, A. S., Weisel, R. D., Reece, T. L., Lira, A., Harrington, R. A. 2012; 308 (2): 157-164

    Abstract

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. In a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials, perioperative and postoperative infusion of acadesine, a first-in-class adenosine-regulating agent, was associated with a reduction in early cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and combined adverse cardiac outcomes in participants undergoing on-pump CABG surgery.To assess the efficacy and safety of acadesine administered in the perioperative period in reducing all-cause mortality, nonfatal stroke, and severe left ventricular dysfunction (SLVD) through 28 days.The Reduction in Cardiovascular Events by Acadesine in Patients Undergoing CABG (RED-CABG) trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group evaluation of intermediate- to high-risk patients (median age, 66 years) undergoing nonemergency, on-pump CABG surgery at 300 sites in 7 countries. Enrollment occurred from May 6, 2009, to July 30, 2010.Eligible participants were randomized 1:1 to receive acadesine (0.1 mg/kg per minute for 7 hours) or placebo (both also added to cardioplegic solutions) beginning just before anesthesia induction.Composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal stroke, or need for mechanical support for SLVD during and following CABG surgery through postoperative day 28.Because results of a prespecified futility analysis indicated a very low likelihood of a statistically significant efficacious outcome, the trial was stopped after 3080 of the originally projected 7500 study participants were randomized. The primary outcome occurred in 75 of 1493 participants (5.0%) in the placebo group and 76 of 1493 (5.1%) in the acadesine group (odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI, 0.73-1.41]). There were no differences in key secondary end points measured.In this population of intermediate- to high-risk patients undergoing CABG surgery, acadesine did not reduce the composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal stroke, or SLVD.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00872001.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306219500029

    View details for PubMedID 22782417

  • Usefulness of Medical Conferences JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Antman, E. M., Harrington, R., Tomaselli, G. 2012; 308 (1): 31-32

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2012.6368

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306183000015

    View details for PubMedID 22760283

  • Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation Complicating Non-ST-Segment-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes CIRCULATION Piccini, J. P., White, J. A., Mehta, R. H., Lokhnygina, Y., Al-Khatib, S. M., Tricoci, P., Pollack, C. V., Montalescot, G., Van de Werf, F., Gibson, C. M., Giugliano, R. P., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Newby, L. K. 2012; 126 (1): 41-49

    Abstract

    Ventricular arrhythmias remain a lethal complication of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, the incidence and prognosis of sustained ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) in contemporary non-ST-segment-elevation (NSTE) ACS populations are not well described.We examined the incidence of VT/VF and subsequent survival among 9211 patients enrolled in the Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in NSTE ACS (EARLY ACS) trial. The cumulative incidence of VT/VF was 1.5% (n=141); 0.6% (n=55) had VT/VF ?48 hours after enrollment, and 0.9% (n=86) had VT/VF >48 hours after enrollment. Patients with VT/VF more frequently had prior heart failure, an ejection fraction <30%, and triple-vessel coronary artery disease. Predictors of sustained VT/VF were similar regardless of the timing of VT/VF (?48 versus >48 hours). Patients with VT/VF ?48 hours after enrollment had higher 30-day mortality than those who did not have VT/VF ?48 hours (13.0% versus 2.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 6.73; 95% confidence interval, 2.68-16.9). The increased risk of death associated with VT/VF ?48 hours persisted at 1 year. The risk of mortality, relative to patients without VT/VF, was greater for patients with VT/VF >48 hours (hazard ratio, 20.70; 95% confidence interval, 15.39-27.85) than for those with earlier VT/VF (hazard ratio, 7.45; 95% confidence interval, 4.60-12.08; P=0.0003). The frequency of arrhythmic death was higher in patients with VT/VF than in those without VT/VF (26.4% versus 6.9%).Sustained VT/VF is infrequent after NSTE ACS but is as likely to occur after 48 hours as within the first 48 hours. The marked increase in all-cause death among NSTE ACS patients with both early and late sustained VT/VF raises important considerations for aggressive monitoring beyond 48 hours and interventions to prevent arrhythmic death in these patients.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00089895.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.071860

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306977100022

    View details for PubMedID 22645292

  • Highlights from the IV International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation (ISTA), October 20-21, 2011, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND THROMBOLYSIS Lopes, R. D., Becker, R. C., Newby, L. K., Peterson, E. D., Hylek, E. M., Granger, C. B., Crowther, M., Wang, T., Carvalho, A. C., Berwanger, O., Giraldez, R. R., Feitosa, G. S., Ribeiro, J. P., Darze, E., Kalil, R. A., Andrande, M., Boas, F. V., Andrade, J., Rocha, A. T., Harrington, R. A., Lopes, A. C., Garcia, D. A. 2012; 34 (1): 143-163

    Abstract

    To discuss and share knowledge about advances in the care of patients with thrombotic disorders, the Fourth International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation was held in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, from October 20-21, 2011. This scientific program was developed by clinicians for clinicians and was promoted by three major clinical research institutes: the Brazilian Clinical Research Institute, the Duke Clinical Research Institute of the Duke University School of Medicine, and Hospital do Coração Research Institute. Comprising 2 days of academic presentations and open discussion, the symposium had as its primary goal to educate, motivate, and inspire internists, cardiologists, hematologists, and other physicians by convening national and international visionaries, thought-leaders, and dedicated clinician-scientists. This paper summarizes the symposium proceedings.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11239-012-0700-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305523300023

    View details for PubMedID 22427055

  • Pharmacodynamic effects of cangrelor and clopidogrel: the platelet function substudy from the cangrelor versus standard therapy to achieve optimal management of platelet inhibition (CHAMPION) trials JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND THROMBOLYSIS Angiolillo, D. J., Schneider, D. J., Bhatt, D. L., French, W. J., Price, M. J., Saucedo, J. F., Shaburishvili, T., Huber, K., Prats, J., Liu, T., Harrington, R. A., Becker, R. C. 2012; 34 (1): 44-55

    Abstract

    Cangrelor is an intravenous antagonist of the P2Y(12) receptor characterized by rapid, potent, predictable, and reversible platelet inhibition. However, cangrelor was not superior to clopidogrel in reducing the incidence of ischemic events in the cangrelor versus standard therapy to achieve optimal management of platelet inhibition (CHAMPION) trials. A prospectively designed platelet function substudy was performed in a selected cohort of patients to provide insight into the pharmacodynamic effects of cangrelor, particularly in regard to whether cangrelor therapy may interfere with the inhibitory effects of clopidogrel. This pre-defined substudy was conducted in a subset of patients from the CHAMPION-PCI trial (n = 230) comparing cangrelor with 600 mg of clopidogrel administered before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and from the CHAMPION-PLATFORM trial (n = 4) comparing cangrelor at the time of PCI and 600 mg clopidogrel given after the PCI. Pharmacodynamic measures included P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) assessed by VerifyNow P2Y12 testing (primary endpoint marker), platelet aggregation by light transmittance aggregometry following 5 and 20 ?mol/L adenosine diphosphate stimuli, and markers of platelet activation determined by flow cytometry. The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients who achieved <20 % change in PRU between baseline and >10 h after PCI. The main trial was stopped early limiting enrollment in the platelet substudy. A total of 167 patients had valid pharmacodynamic assessments for the primary endpoint. The percent of individuals achieving <20 % change in PRU between baseline and >10 h after PCI was higher with cangrelor + clopidogrel (32/84, 38.1 %) compared with placebo + clopidogrel (21/83, 25.3 %), but this was not statistically significant (difference:12.79 %, 95 % CI: -1.18 %, 26.77 %;p = 0.076). All pharmacodynamic markers as well as the prevalence of patients with high on-treatment platelet reactivity were significantly lower in patients treated with cangrelor. A rapid platelet inhibitory effect was achieved during cangrelor infusion and a rapid offset of action after treatment discontinuation. This CHAMPION platelet function substudy represents the largest pharmacodynamic experience with cangrelor, demonstrating its potent P2Y(12) receptor inhibitory effects, and rapid onset/offset of action. Although there was no significant pharmacodynamic interaction when transitioning to clopidogrel therapy, further studies are warranted given that enrollment in this study was limited due to premature interruption of the main trial.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11239-012-0737-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305523300007

    View details for PubMedID 22569899

  • 2012 ACCF/AATS/SCAI/STS Expert Consensus Document on Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Developed in collaboration with the American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, European Association for CardioThoracic Surgery, Heart Failure Society of America, Mended Hearts, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance CATHETERIZATION AND CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS Holmes, D. R., Mack, M. J., Kaul, S., Agnihotri, A., Alexander, K. P., Bailey, S. R., Calhoon, J. H., Carabello, B. A., Desai, M. Y., Edwards, F. H., Francis, G. S., Gardner, T. J., Kappetein, A. P., Linderbaum, J. A., Mukherjee, C., Mukherjee, D., Otto, C. M., Ruiz, C. E., Sacco, R. L., Smith, D., Thomas, J. D., Harrington, R. A., Bhatt, D. L., Ferrari, V. A., Fisher, J. D., Garcia, M. J., Gardner, T. J., Gentile, F., Gilson, M. F., Hernandez, A. F., Jacobs, A. K., Kaul, S., Linderbaum, J. A., Moliterno, D. J., Weitz, H. H. 2012; 79 (7): 1023-1082

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ccd.24351

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304753500001

    View details for PubMedID 22294439

  • Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Effects of Elinogrel Results of the Platelet Function Substudy From the Intravenous and Oral Administration of Elinogrel to Evaluate Tolerability and Efficacy in Nonurgent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Patients (INNOVATE-PCI) Trial CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS Angiolillo, D. J., Welsh, R. C., Trenk, D., Neumann, F., Conley, P. B., McClure, M. W., Stephens, G., Kochman, J., Jennings, L. K., Gurbel, P. A., Wojcik, J., Dabrowski, M., Saucedo, J. F., Stumpf, J., Buerke, M., Broderick, S., Harrington, R. A., Rao, S. V. 2012; 5 (3): 347-356

    Abstract

    Elinogrel is the only selective, competitive and reversible platelet P2Y(12) inhibitor available in both intravenous (IV) and oral formulations.This substudy of the Intravenous and Oral Administration of Elinogrel to Evaluate Tolerability and Efficacy in Nonurgent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention patients (INNOVATE-PCI) trial evaluated the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of two dosing regimens of IV followed by oral elinogrel (120 mg IV plus 100 mg oral twice daily; 120 mg IV plus 150 mg oral twice daily) versus standard clopidogrel therapy (300-600 mg oral loading dose plus 75 mg oral maintenance dose) in 56 patients undergoing nonurgent PCI. At time of randomization, 71.4% (40/56) of patients were using maintenance clopidogrel therapy. In the acute phase, an IV bolus of elinogrel achieved more rapid and potent antiplatelet effects compared with clopidogrel, which were sustained during the transition from the IV to the oral formulation in the first 24 hours of the peri-PCI period. During chronic therapy, elinogrel achieved similar levels of platelet reactivity compared with clopidogrel before the next oral dose and, although platelet reactivity was lower with elinogrel up to 6 hours after daily oral maintenance dosing, these differences were not statistically significant. These pharmacodynamic effects matched the pharmacokinetic profile of elinogrel. There were no differences in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects between the two elinogrel dosing regimens.Compared with clopidogrel, the combination of IV and oral elinogrel achieves more rapid and enhanced antiplatelet effects that were sustained through the transition to oral elinogrel in the peri-PCI period, but these were not significant during chronic dosing in this pilot investigation.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00751231.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.111.965608

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311707000012

    View details for PubMedID 22619259

  • A Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Controlled Phase 2 Trial to Evaluate a Novel Selective and Reversible Intravenous and Oral P2Y(12) Inhibitor Elinogrel Versus Clopidogrel in Patients Undergoing Nonurgent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention The INNOVATE-PCI Trial CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS Welsh, R. C., Rao, S. V., Zeymer, U., Thompson, V. P., Huber, K., Kochman, J., McClure, M. W., Gretler, D. D., Bhatt, D. L., Gibson, C. M., Angiolillo, D. J., Gurbel, P. A., Berdan, L. G., Paynter, G., Leonardi, S., Madan, M., French, W. J., Harrington, R. A. 2012; 5 (3): 336-346

    Abstract

    We evaluated the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of elinogrel, a competitive, reversible intravenous and oral P2Y(12) inhibitor that does not require metabolic activation, in patients undergoing nonurgent percutaneous coronary intervention.In a randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging phase 2b trial, 652 patients received either 300 or 600 mg of clopidogrel pre-percutaneous coronary intervention followed by 75 mg daily or 80 or 120 mg of IV elinogrel followed by 50, 100, or 150 mg oral elinogrel twice daily. Numerous exploratory safety and efficacy end points were assessed and, as such, had no prespecified primary end point, and the study was not powered to conclusively evaluate its objectives. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction combined bleeding was increased with elinogrel (hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 3.57), related largely to increased bleeding requiring medical attention (elinogrel 47/408 [11.5%] versus clopidogrel 13/208 [6.3%]) and occurring primarily at the percutaneous coronary intervention access site. Efficacy end points and postprocedure cardiac enzyme were similar, but there was a nonsignificant higher frequency of periprocedural myocardial infarctions in the elinogrel arms (OR, 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 3.48). There was an increased incidence of dyspnea (elinogrel 50/408 [12.3%] versus clopidogrel 8/208 [3.8%]) and transaminase elevation (alanine transferase/aspartate transferase >3× the upper limit of normal; elinogrel 18/408 [4.4%] versus clopidogrel 2/208 [1.0%]) in the elinogrel arms, but there were no cases of heart block, bradycardia, hypotension, or liver failure.In patients undergoing nonurgent percutaneous coronary intervention and in comparison with clopidogrel, intravenous and oral elinogrel therapy did not significantly increase thrombolysis in myocardial infarction major or minor bleeding, although bleeding requiring medical attention was more common. The significance of these findings will need to be more definitively determined in future Phase 3 studies.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00751231.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.111.964197

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311707000011

    View details for PubMedID 22647518

  • Rationale and design of the Cangrelor versus standard therapy to acHieve optimal Management of Platelet InhibitiON PHOENIX trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Leonardi, S., Mahaffey, K. W., White, H. D., Gibson, C. M., Stone, G. W., Steg, P. G., Hamm, C. W., Price, M. J., Todd, M., Dietrich, M., Gallup, D., Liu, T., Skerjanec, S., Harrington, R. A., Bhatt, D. L. 2012; 163 (5): 768-?

    Abstract

    Despite robust efficacy in the reduction of ischemic events in patients who require percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), current P2Y(12) inhibitors have limitations. In particular, they require hours to be effective, and they can only be administered orally. Cangrelor is an intravenous, potent, and reversible P2Y(12) inhibitor with fast onset and offset of action. We designed CHAMPION PHOENIX to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cangrelor in patients with atherosclerosis undergoing PCI.The CHAMPION PHOENIX is a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, superiority trial comparing cangrelor with clopidogrel standard of care in approximately 10,900 patients who have not previously received a P2Y(12) inhibitor and who require PCI, including patients with stable angina and with acute coronary syndromes (with or without ST-segment elevation). The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate that cangrelor will reduce the incidence of the composite of death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia-driven revascularization, or stent thrombosis in the 48 hours after randomization compared with clopidogrel without excessive periprocedural bleeding. The key secondary objective is to demonstrate that cangrelor will reduce the incidence of stent thrombosis. Myocardial infarction will be defined according to the universal MI definition, adapting the definition of PCI-related (type 4a) MI. Bleeding will be assessed according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, GUSTO, and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) scales.The CHAMPION PHOENIX may establish the role of cangrelor in the care of patients who require PCI across the spectrum of stable and unstable coronary diseases in the setting of current treatment strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2012.02.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304261000011

    View details for PubMedID 22607853

  • Regional Patterns of Use of a Medical Management Strategy for Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes Insights From the EARLY ACS Trial CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Roe, M. T., White, J. A., Kaul, P., Tricoci, P., Lokhnygina, Y., Miller, C. D., Van'T Hof, A. W., Montalescot, G., James, S. K., Saucedo, J., Ohman, E. M., Pollack, C. V., Hochman, J. S., Armstrong, P. W., Giugliano, R. P., Harrington, R. A., Van de Werf, F., Califf, R. M., Newby, L. K. 2012; 5 (2): 205-213

    Abstract

    Regional differences in the profile and prognosis of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) patients treated with medical management after angiography remain uncertain.Using data from the Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes (EARLY ACS) trial, we examined regional variations in the use of an in-hospital medical management strategy in NSTE ACS patients who had significant coronary artery disease (CAD) identified during angiography, factors associated with the use of a medical management strategy, and 1-year mortality rates. Of 9406 patients, 8387 (89%) underwent angiography and had significant CAD; thereafter, 1766 (21%) were treated solely with a medical management strategy (range: 18% to 23% across 4 major geographic regions). Factors most strongly associated with a medical management strategy were negative baseline troponin values, prior coronary artery bypass grafting, lower baseline hemoglobin values, and greater number of diseased vessels; region was not a significant factor. One-year mortality was higher among patients treated with a medical management strategy compared with those who underwent revascularization (7.8% versus 3.6%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.21-1.76), with no significant interaction by region (interaction probability value=0.42).Approximately 20% of NSTE ACS patients with significant CAD in an international trial were treated solely with an in-hospital medical management strategy after early angiography, with no regional differences in factors associated with medical management or the risk of 1-year mortality. These findings have important implications for the conduct of future clinical trials, and highlight global similarities in the profile and prognosis of medically managed NSTE ACS patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.111.962332

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302120300014

    View details for PubMedID 22373905

  • Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor Use on Cardiovascular Outcomes With Clopidogrel and Ticagrelor Insights From the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes Trial CIRCULATION Goodman, S. G., Clare, R., Pieper, K. S., Nicolau, J. C., Storey, R. F., Cantor, W. J., Mahaffey, K. W., Angiolillo, D. J., Husted, S., Cannon, C. P., James, S. K., Kilhamn, J., Steg, P. G., Harrington, R. A., Wallentin, L. 2012; 125 (8): 978-986

    Abstract

    The clinical significance of the interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remains unclear.We examined the relationship between PPI use and 1-year cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) in patients with acute coronary syndrome randomized to clopidogrel or ticagrelor in a prespecified, nonrandomized subgroup analysis of the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. The primary end point rates were higher for individuals on a PPI (n=6539) compared with those not on a PPI (n=12 060) at randomization in both the clopidogrel (13.0% versus 10.9%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.38) and ticagrelor (11.0% versus 9.2%; HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07-1.45) groups. Patients on non-PPI gastrointestinal drugs had similar primary end point rates compared with those on a PPI (PPI versus non-PPI gastrointestinal treatment: clopidogrel, HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.79-1.23; ticagrelor, HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73-1.10). In contrast, patients on no gastric therapy had a significantly lower primary end point rate (PPI versus no gastrointestinal treatment: clopidogrel, HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.12-1.49; ticagrelor, HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14-1.49).The use of a PPI was independently associated with a higher rate of cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndrome receiving clopidogrel. However, a similar association was observed between cardiovascular events and PPI use during ticagrelor treatment and with other non-PPI gastrointestinal treatment. Therefore, in the PLATO trial, the association between PPI use and adverse events may be due to confounding, with PPI use more of a marker for, than a cause of, higher rates of cardiovascular events.http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.032912

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300951700013

    View details for PubMedID 22261200

  • Relationship Between Vein Graft Failure and Subsequent Clinical Outcomes After Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery CIRCULATION Lopes, R. D., Mehta, R. H., Hafley, G. E., Williams, J. B., Mack, M. J., Peterson, E. D., Allen, K. B., Harrington, R. A., Gibson, C. M., Califf, R. M., Kouchoukos, N. T., Ferguson, T. B., Alexander, J. H. 2012; 125 (6): 749-756

    Abstract

    Vein graft failure (VGF) is common after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, but its relationship with long-term clinical outcomes is unknown. In this retrospective analysis, we examined the relationship between VGF, assessed by coronary angiography 12 to 18 months after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and subsequent clinical outcomes.Using the Project of Ex Vivo Vein Graft Engineering via Transfection IV (PREVENT IV) trial database, we studied data from 1829 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery and had an angiogram performed up to 18 months after surgery. The main outcome measure was death, myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization through 4 years after angiography. VGF occurred in 787 of 1829 patients (43%). Clinical follow-up was completed in 97% of patients with angiographic follow-up. The composite of death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization occurred more frequently among patients who had any VGF compared with those who had none (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.06; P=0.008). This was due mainly to more frequent revascularization with no differences in death (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.52; P=0.85) or death or myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-1.53; P=0.65).VGF is common after coronary artery bypass graft surgery and is associated with repeat revascularization but not with death and/or myocardial infarction. Further investigations are needed to evaluate therapies and strategies for decreasing VGF to improve outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.040311

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300605200012

    View details for PubMedID 22238227

  • Reduced immediate ischemic events with cangrelor in PCI: A pooled analysis of the CHAMPION trials using the universal definition of myocardial infarction AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL White, H. D., Chew, D. P., Dauerman, H. L., Mahaffey, K. W., Gibson, C. M., Stone, G. W., Gruberg, L., Harrington, R. A., Bhatt, D. L. 2012; 163 (2): 182-U275

    Abstract

    There is a clinical need for an intravenous P2Y(12) inhibitor in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) for patients who are unable to take oral medications or might benefit from a rapidly reversible compound. As the time from admission to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) shortens, establishing the benefit of novel therapies impacting ischemic events is increasingly challenging. Cangrelor, an intravenous potent rapidly acting P2Y(12) inhibitor, bolus 30 ?g/Kg plus infusion of 4 ?g/Kg/min, was compared to a 600-mg loading dose of clopidogrel either before or early after PCI in patients with ACS undergoing PCI in The CHAMPION (Cangrelor versus standard tHerapy to Achieve optimal Management of Platelet InhibitiON) PLATFORM and PCI studies.As both CHAMPION studies used similar inclusion/exclusion criteria and death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization (including stent thrombosis) at 48 hours as their primary end points, the studies were pooled. The clinical events committee adjudicated myocardial infarction. The universal definition was used to define myocardial infarction.A total of 13 049 patients were included. Cangrelor had no effect on the primary end point with the original MI definition (P = .646). With the use of the universal definition, the primary end point was decreased with cangrelor (odds ratio 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.99, P = .037). Stent thrombosis was reduced from 0.4% to 0.2% (odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.87, P = .018). Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding and transfusions were not increased with cangrelor.With the use of the universal definition of myocardial infarction, cangrelor was associated with a significant reduction in early ischemic events when compared with clopidogrel in patients with non-ST-elevation ACS undergoing PCI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.11.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300226600009

    View details for PubMedID 22305835

  • ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial Insights From the ECG Substudy CIRCULATION Armstrong, P. W., Siha, H., Fu, Y., Westerhout, C. M., Steg, P. G., James, S. K., Storey, R. F., Horrow, J., Katus, H., Clemmensen, P., Harrington, R. A., Wallentin, L. 2012; 125 (3): 514-U131

    Abstract

    Ticagrelor, when compared with clopidogrel, reduced the 12-month risk of vascular death/myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes intended to undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. This prespecified ECG substudy explored whether ticagrelor's association with vascular death and myocardial infarction within 1 year would be amplified by (1) the extent of baseline ST shift and (2) subsequently associated with fewer residual ST changes at hospital discharge.ECGs were evaluated centrally in a core laboratory in 3122 ticagrelor- and 3084 clopidogrel-assigned patients having at least 1 mm ST-elevation in 2 contiguous leads as identified by site investigators on the qualifying ECG. Patients with greater ST-segment shift at baseline had higher rates of vascular death/myocardial infarction within 1 year. Among those who also had an ECG at hospital discharge (n=4798), patients with ?50% ?ST-deviation (?ST-dev) resolution had higher event-free survival than those with incomplete resolution (6.4% versus 8.8%, adjusted hazard ratio 0.69 (0.54-0.88), P=0.003). The extent of ?ST-dev resolution was similar irrespective of treatment assignment. The benefit of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel on clinical events was consistent irrespective of the extent of baseline ?ST-dev (P(interaction)=0.728). When stratified according to conventional times from symptom onset, ie, ?3 hours, 3 to 6 hours, >6 hours, the extent of baseline ?ST-dev declined progressively over time. As time from symptom onset increased beyond 3 hours, the benefit of ticagrelor appeared to be more pronounced; however, the interaction between time and treatment was not significant (P=0.175).Ticagrelor did not modify ?ST-dev resolution at discharge nor was its benefit affected by the extent of baseline ?ST-dev. These hypothesis-generating observations suggest that the main effects of ticagrelor may not relate to the rapidity or the completeness of acute reperfusion, but rather the prevention of recurrent vascular events by more powerful platelet inhibition or other mechanisms.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.047530

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300252800019

    View details for PubMedID 22179530

  • Thrombin-Receptor Antagonist Vorapaxar in Acute Coronary Syndromes NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Tricoci, P., Huang, Z., Held, C., Moliterno, D. J., Armstrong, P. W., Van de Werf, F., White, H. D., Aylward, P. E., Wallentin, L., Chen, E., Lokhnygina, Y., Pei, J., Leonardi, S., Rorick, T. L., Kilian, A. M., Jennings, L. H., Ambrosio, G., Bode, C., Cequier, A., Cornel, J. H., Diaz, R., Erkan, A., Huber, K., Hudson, M. P., Jiang, L., Jukema, J. W., Lewis, B. S., Lincoff, A. M., Montalescot, G., Nicolau, J. C., Ogawa, H., Pfisterer, M., Carlos Prieto, J., Ruzyllo, W., Sinnaeve, P. R., Storey, R. F., Valgimigli, M., Whellan, D. J., Widimsky, P., Strony, J., Harrington, R. A., Mahaffey, K. W. 2012; 366 (1): 20-33

    Abstract

    Vorapaxar is a new oral protease-activated-receptor 1 (PAR-1) antagonist that inhibits thrombin-induced platelet activation.In this multinational, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared vorapaxar with placebo in 12,944 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, or urgent coronary revascularization.Follow-up in the trial was terminated early after a safety review. After a median follow-up of 502 days (interquartile range, 349 to 667), the primary end point occurred in 1031 of 6473 patients receiving vorapaxar versus 1102 of 6471 patients receiving placebo (Kaplan-Meier 2-year rate, 18.5% vs. 19.9%; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.01; P=0.07). A composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke occurred in 822 patients in the vorapaxar group versus 910 in the placebo group (14.7% and 16.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.98; P=0.02). Rates of moderate and severe bleeding were 7.2% in the vorapaxar group and 5.2% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.58; P<0.001). Intracranial hemorrhage rates were 1.1% and 0.2%, respectively (hazard ratio, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.78 to 6.45; P<0.001). Rates of nonhemorrhagic adverse events were similar in the two groups.In patients with acute coronary syndromes, the addition of vorapaxar to standard therapy did not significantly reduce the primary composite end point but significantly increased the risk of major bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRACER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00527943.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1109719

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299968800004

    View details for PubMedID 22077816

  • Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis: do trial results enable clinicians and patients to evaluate whether the benefits justify the risk? proceedings of an ad hoc working group meeting. Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH Berger, J., Eikelboom, J. W., Quinlan, D. J., Guyatt, G., Büller, H. R., Sobieraj-Teague, M., Harrington, R. A., Hirsh, J. 2012

    Abstract

    Physicians and patients consider the balance between benefits and risks of treatment when making decisions about the use of anticoagulants for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The results of early trials demonstrating the efficacy of heparin compared with placebo or no thromboprophylaxis for the prevention of fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) led to adoption of routine anticoagulant prophylaxis in patients considered to be at increased risk of VTE. More recent trials comparing new anticoagulants with heparin have most commonly used the composite outcome, asymptomatic (or "silent") deep vein thrombosis (DVT), detected by screening venography, and symptomatic (or "patient-important") VTE, as the primary measure of efficacy [1-3]. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

    View details for PubMedID 22906159

  • Age, treatment, and outcomes in high-risk non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients: Insights from the EARLY ACS trial. International journal of cardiology Lopes, R. D., White, J. A., Tricoci, P., White, H. D., Armstrong, P. W., Braunwald, E., Giugliano, R. P., Harrington, R. A., Lewis, B. S., Brogan, G. X., Gibson, C. M., Califf, R. M., Newby, L. K. 2012

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Elderly patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are at high risk for death and recurrent thrombotic events. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of intensive treatment with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in an elderly population, and the relationships between age, timing of administration, and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We used data from high-risk non-ST-segment elevation ACS patients randomized to early eptifibatide vs. delayed provisional use at percutaneous coronary intervention. In multivariable models, we included age×treatment interaction terms to assess whether treatment effect varied by age after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: Of 9406 patients, 13.9% were aged <55years; 27.6%, 55-64years; 33.2%, 65-74years; and 25.3%, ?75years. For each 10-year age increase, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for 96-hour death, myocardial infarction (MI), recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization, or thrombotic bailout was 1.13 (1.04-1.23) and for 30-day death or MI was 1.13 (1.04-1.22). Increasing age was also associated with greater 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio per 10years: 1.44, 95% CI 1.30-1.60). There was no interaction between age and treatment (p interaction=0.99, 0.54, and 0.87, respectively). Increasing age was associated with more non-coronary artery bypass grafting-related TIMI major bleeding (adjusted OR and 95% CI per 10years: 1.54 [1.24-1.92]), GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding (1.52 [1.33-1.75]), and transfusion (1.25 [1.07-1.45]). The amount by which TIMI major bleeding was increased with early vs. delayed provisional eptifibatide use was significantly greater with increasing age (p interaction=0.02), but the age×treatment interactions were not significant for GUSTO moderate/severe bleeding or transfusion (p interaction=0.33 and 0.54, respectively). CONCLUSION: Increasing age was associated with greater risk for ischemic events and more bleeding. Despite higher baseline ischemic risk in older patients, there was no preferential benefit of early vs. delayed provisional eptifibatide use for ischemic outcomes as age increased, but the incremental bleeding risk was amplified.

    View details for PubMedID 22795720

  • Bleeding complications with the P2Y12 receptor antagonists clopidogrel and ticagrelor in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Becker, R. C., Bassand, J. P., Budaj, A., Wojdyla, D. M., James, S. K., Cornel, J. H., French, J., Held, C., Horrow, J., Husted, S., Lopez-Sendon, J., Lassila, R., Mahaffey, K. W., Storey, R. F., Harrington, R. A., Wallentin, L. 2011; 32 (23): 2933-2944

    Abstract

    AIMS More intense platelet-directed therapy for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may increase bleeding risk. The aim of the current analysis was to determine the rate, clinical impact, and predictors of major and fatal bleeding complications in the PLATO study. METHODS AND RESULTS PLATO was a randomized, double-blind, active control international, phase 3 clinical trial in patients with acute ST elevation and non-ST-segment elevation ACS. A total of 18 624 patients were randomized to either ticagrelor, a non-thienopyridine, reversibly binding platelet P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, or clopidogrel in addition to aspirin. Patients randomized to ticagrelor and clopidogrel had similar rates of PLATO major bleeding (11.6 vs. 11.2%; P = 0.43), TIMI major bleeding (7.9 vs. 7.7%, P = 0.56) and GUSTO severe bleeding (2.9 vs. 3.1%, P = 0.22). Procedure-related bleeding rates were also similar. Non-CABG major bleeding (4.5 vs. 3.8%, P = 0.02) and non-procedure-related major bleeding (3.1 vs. 2.3%, P = 0.05) were more common in ticagrelor-treated patients, primarily after 30 days on treatment. Fatal bleeding and transfusion rates did not differ between groups. There were no significant interactions for major bleeding or combined minor plus major bleeding between treatment groups and age ?75 years, weight <60 kg, region, chronic kidney disease, creatinine clearance <60 mL/min, aspirin dose >325 mg on the day of randomization, pre-randomization clopidogrel administration, or clopidogrel loading dose. CONCLUSION Ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel was associated with similar total major bleeding but increased non-CABG and non-procedure-related major bleeding, primarily after 30 days on study drug treatment. Fatal bleeding was low and did not differ between groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr422

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297647400008

    View details for PubMedID 22090660

  • Pulmonary Function in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome Treated With Ticagrelor or Clopidogrel (from the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes [PLATO] Pulmonary Function Substudy) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Storey, R. F., Becker, R. C., Harrington, R. A., Husted, S., James, S. K., Cools, F., Steg, P. G., Khurmi, N. S., Emanuelsson, H., Lim, S. T., Cannon, C. P., Katus, H. A., Wallentin, L. 2011; 108 (11): 1542-1546

    Abstract

    The Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial showed that ticagrelor reduced the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with acute coronary syndromes compared to clopidogrel but was associated with increased incidence of dyspnea. This substudy assessed whether ticagrelor affects pulmonary function in patients with acute coronary syndromes: 199 patients enrolled in the PLATO trial and receiving randomized treatment with ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily (n = 101) or clopidogrel 75 mg/day (n = 98) took part in the pulmonary function substudy. Patients with advanced lung disease, congestive heart failure, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery after the index event were excluded. Pulse oximetry (blood oxygen saturation), spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity before and 20 minutes after inhalation of a ?(2) agonist), lung volumes (total lung capacity, functional residual capacity, residual volume), and diffusion capacity were performed after patients received study medication for 30 to 40 days. Tests were then repeated <10 days before and approximately 30 days after the discontinuation of study medication. After a mean treatment duration of 31 days, there were no differences between the groups for any of the pulmonary function parameters. At the end of treatment (mean 211 days) and after the discontinuation of study medication (mean 32 days after the last dose), there was also no evidence of a change in pulmonary function in either group. For example, forced expiratory volume in 1 second values before ?(2) agonist inhalation in the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups were 2.81 ± 0.73 and 2.70 ± 0.84 L, respectively, at the first visit and did not change significantly at subsequent visits. In conclusion, no effect of ticagrelor on pulmonary function was seen in this cohort of patients with acute coronary syndromes compared to clopidogrel.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.07.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297880000004

    View details for PubMedID 21890085

  • Characterization of dyspnoea in PLATO study patients treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel and its association with clinical outcomes EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Storey, R. F., Becker, R. C., Harrington, R. A., Husted, S., James, S. K., Cools, F., Steg, P. G., Khurmi, N. S., Emanuelsson, H., Cooper, A., Cairns, R., Cannon, C. P., Wallentin, L. 2011; 32 (23): 2945-2953

    Abstract

    AIMS To describe the incidence of dyspnoea and its associations with demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) treated with ticagrelor or clopidogrel in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) study. METHODS AND RESULTS In the PLATO study, 18 624 patients were randomized to receive either clopidogrel [300-600 mg loading dose (LD), 75 mg daily] or ticagrelor (180 mg LD, 90 mg b.i.d.). The occurrence of reported dyspnoea adverse events (AEs) was analysed in the 18 421 patients who received at least one dose of study medication in relation to demographic characteristics, clinical outcomes and other associations of patients with and without dyspnoea. A total of 1339 ticagrelor-treated patients (14.5%) and 798 clopidogrel-treated patients (8.7%) had a dyspnoea AE following randomization, with respectively 39 (0.4%) and 24 (0.3%) classified as severe in intensity. Excluding dyspnoea AEs occurring after the secondary endpoint of myocardial infarction (MI), the yearly rates of the efficacy endpoints in dyspnoea AE patients in the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups were: for the primary composite of CV death, MI, and stroke, 8.8 and 10.4% (unadjusted P = 0.25; adjusted P = 0.54); for CV death, 3.1 and 4.8% (unadjusted P = 0.024; adjusted P = 0.18); and for total death 3.7 and 6.2% (unadjusted P = 0.004; adjusted P = 0.06), respectively. CONCLUSIONS Ticagrelor-related dyspnoea is usually mild or moderate in intensity and does not appear to be associated with differences concerning any efficacy or safety outcomes with ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel therapy in ACS patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/ehr231

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297647400009

    View details for PubMedID 21804104

  • Safety and efficacy of adjusted-dose eptifibatide in patients with acute coronary syndromes and reduced renal function AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Melloni, C., James, S. K., White, J. A., Giugliano, R. P., Harrington, R. A., Huber, K., Tricoci, P., Armstrong, P. W., Van de Werf, F., Montalescot, G., Califf, R. M., Newby, L. K. 2011; 162 (5)

    Abstract

    Dose adjustment of renally excreted antithrombotic drugs is recommended for patients with reduced renal function. We examined the influence of dose modification on bleeding and efficacy.Based on initial study drug infusion rate, Early GP IIb/IIIa Inhibition in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (EARLY ACS) patients were categorized into groups: standard dose (2 ?g/kg/min; estimated creatinine clearance [eCrCl] ?50 ml/min), adjusted dose (1 ?g/kg/min; eCrCl <50 ml/min, per protocol), excess dose (2 ?g/kg/min; eCrCl <50 ml/min). We explored relationships among initial dosing, randomized treatment assignment, and bleeding and ischemic end points (96-h composite of death, myocardial infarction [MI], recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization or thrombotic bailout, and 30-d death or MI).Of 8,708 patients with eCrCl and dosing data, 19% had eCrCl <50 ml/min. Of these, 13% received adjusted dose eptifibatide and 6% received an excess dose. Across all dosing groups, no significant reductions were found in ischemic end points between early versus delayed provisional eptifibatide (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.80-1.65; OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.81-1.56, respectively, for 96-h and 30-d composite end points). Bleeding risk was not significantly increased in the early versus delayed provisional treatment group in either the adjusted (OR 1.50, 95% CI 0.95-2.39) or excess dose group (OR 1.67, 95% CI 0.85-3.39). There were no significant interactions between dose group and treatment strategy on bleeding or efficacy.Similar to observations in practice, despite guidelines recommendations and protocol guidance, 34% of EARLY ACS patients with reduced renal function failed to receive an appropriately adjusted study drug infusion. Use of an appropriately adjusted eptifibatide infusion was not associated with expected reductions in bleeding among patients with renal insufficiency.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2011.08.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297247800014

    View details for PubMedID 22093205

  • Apixaban with Antiplatelet Therapy after Acute Coronary Syndrome NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Alexander, J. H., Lopes, R. D., James, S., Kilaru, R., He, Y., Mohan, P., Bhatt, D. L., Goodman, S., Verheugt, F. W., Flather, M., Huber, K., Liaw, D., Husted, S. E., Lopez-Sendon, J., De Caterina, R., Jansky, P., Darius, H., Vinereanu, D., Cornel, J. H., Cools, F., Atar, D., Luis Leiva-Pons, J., Keltai, M., Ogawa, H., Pais, P., Parkhomenko, A., Ruzyllo, W., Diaz, R., White, H., Ruda, M., Geraldes, M., Lawrence, J., Harrington, R. A., Wallentin, L. 2011; 365 (8): 699-708

    Abstract

    Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, may reduce the risk of recurrent ischemic events when added to antiplatelet therapy after an acute coronary syndrome.We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial comparing apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, with placebo, in addition to standard antiplatelet therapy, in patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome and at least two additional risk factors for recurrent ischemic events.The trial was terminated prematurely after recruitment of 7392 patients because of an increase in major bleeding events with apixaban in the absence of a counterbalancing reduction in recurrent ischemic events. With a median follow-up of 241 days, the primary outcome of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke occurred in 279 of the 3705 patients (7.5%) assigned to apixaban (13.2 events per 100 patient-years) and in 293 of the 3687 patients (7.9%) assigned to placebo (14.0 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.11; P=0.51). The primary safety outcome of major bleeding according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) definition occurred in 46 of the 3673 patients (1.3%) who received at least one dose of apixaban (2.4 events per 100 patient-years) and in 18 of the 3642 patients (0.5%) who received at least one dose of placebo (0.9 events per 100 patient-years) (hazard ratio with apixaban, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.50 to 4.46; P=0.001). A greater number of intracranial and fatal bleeding events occurred with apixaban than with placebo.The addition of apixaban, at a dose of 5 mg twice daily, to antiplatelet therapy in high-risk patients after an acute coronary syndrome increased the number of major bleeding events without a significant reduction in recurrent ischemic events. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; APPRAISE-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00831441.).

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa1105819

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294205300005

    View details for PubMedID 21780946

  • Biomedical Innovation: A Risky Business at Risk SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Stack, R. S., Harrington, R. A. 2011; 3 (96)

    Abstract

    Regulatory and financial challenges conspire to stall the development and market approval of breakthrough medical products. Inconsistent parameters are used to assess the safety and efficacy of drugs, biologics, and devices; this glitch in the system introduces uncertainty, slows or blocks product approvals, and increases the costs of product development. Here, we consider how to balance the benefits and risks to the public in the assessment of innovative medical products. We also discuss the Institute of Medicine's recent report on the medical device approval process.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3002459

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293953100002

    View details for PubMedID 21849662

  • American Industry and the U.S. Cardiovascular Clinical Research Enterprise An Appropriate Analogy? JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A. 2011; 58 (7): 677-680

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.03.048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293455300004

    View details for PubMedID 21816302

  • Intramyocardial, Autologous CD34+Cell Therapy for Refractory Angina CIRCULATION RESEARCH Losordo, D. W., Henry, T. D., Davidson, C., Lee, J. S., Costa, M. A., Bass, T., Mendelsohn, F., Fortuin, F. D., Pepine, C. J., Traverse, J. H., Amrani, D., Ewenstein, B. M., Riedel, N., Story, K., Barker, K., Povsic, T. J., Harrington, R. A., Schatz, R. A. 2011; 109 (4): 428-U235

    Abstract

    A growing number of patients with coronary disease have refractory angina. Preclinical and early-phase clinical data suggest that intramyocardial injection of autologous CD34+ cells can improve myocardial perfusion and function.Evaluate the safety and bioactivity of intramyocardial injections of autologous CD34+ cells in patients with refractory angina who have exhausted all other treatment options.In this prospective, double-blind, randomized, phase II study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00300053), 167 patients with refractory angina received 1 of 2 doses (1×10(5) or 5×10(5) cells/kg) of mobilized autologous CD34+ cells or an equal volume of diluent (placebo). Treatment was distributed into 10 sites of ischemic, viable myocardium with a NOGA mapping injection catheter. The primary outcome measure was weekly angina frequency 6 months after treatment. Weekly angina frequency was significantly lower in the low-dose group than in placebo-treated patients at both 6 months (6.8±1.1 versus 10.9±1.2, P=0.020) and 12 months (6.3±1.2 versus 11.0±1.2, P=0.035); measurements in the high-dose group were also lower, but not significantly. Similarly, improvement in exercise tolerance was significantly greater in low-dose patients than in placebo-treated patients (6 months: 139±151 versus 69±122 seconds, P=0.014; 12 months: 140±171 versus 58±146 seconds, P=0.017) and greater, but not significantly, in the high-dose group. During cell mobilization and collection, 4.6% of patients had cardiac enzyme elevations consistent with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Mortality at 12 months was 5.4% in the placebo-treatment group with no deaths among cell-treated patients.Patients with refractory angina who received intramyocardial injections of autologous CD34+ cells (10(5) cells/kg) experienced significant improvements in angina frequency and exercise tolerance. The cell-mobilization and -collection procedures were associated with cardiac enzyme elevations, which will be addressed in future studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.111.245993

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293504100011

    View details for PubMedID 21737787

  • Ticagrelor Compared With Clopidogrel by Geographic Region in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial CIRCULATION Mahaffey, K. W., Wojdyla, D. M., Carroll, K., Becker, R. C., Storey, R. F., Angiolillo, D. J., Held, C., Cannon, C. P., James, S., Pieper, K. S., Horrow, J., Harrington, R. A., Wallentin, L. 2011; 124 (5): 544-U78

    Abstract

    In the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, a prespecified subgroup analysis showed a significant interaction between treatment and region (P=0.045), with less effect of ticagrelor in North America than in the rest of the world.Reasons for the interaction were explored independently by 2 statistical groups. Systematic errors in trial conduct were investigated. Statistical approaches evaluated the likelihood of play of chance. Cox regression analyses were performed to quantify how much of the regional interaction could be explained by patient characteristics and concomitant treatments, including aspirin maintenance therapy. Landmark Cox regressions at 8 time points evaluated the association of selected factors, including aspirin dose, with outcomes by treatment. Systematic errors in trial conduct were ruled out. Given the large number of subgroup analyses performed and that a result numerically favoring clopidogrel in at least 1 of the 4 prespecified regions could occur with 32% probability, chance alone cannot be ruled out. More patients in the United States (53.6%) than in the rest of the world (1.7%) took a median aspirin dose ?300 mg/d. Of 37 baseline and postrandomization factors explored, only aspirin dose explained a substantial fraction of the regional interaction. In adjusted analyses, both Cox regression with median maintenance dose and landmark techniques showed that, in patients taking low-dose maintenance aspirin, ticagrelor was associated with better outcomes compared with clopidogrel, with statistical superiority in the rest of the world and similar outcomes in the US cohort.The regional interaction could arise from chance alone. Results of 2 independently performed analyses identified an underlying statistical interaction with aspirin maintenance dose as a possible explanation for the regional difference. The lowest risk of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke with ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel is associated with a low maintenance dose of concomitant aspirin.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.047498

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293338400014

    View details for PubMedID 21709065

  • Highlights from the III International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation (ISTA), October 14-16, 2010, Sao Paulo, Brazil JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND THROMBOLYSIS Lopes, R. D., Becker, R. C., Alexander, J. H., Armstrong, P. W., Califf, R. M., Chan, M. Y., Crowther, M., Granger, C. B., Harrington, R. A., Hylek, E. M., James, S. K., Jolicoeur, E. M., Mahaffey, K. W., Newby, L. K., Peterson, E. D., Pieper, K. S., Van de Werf, F., Wallentin, L., White, H. D., Carvalho, A. C., Giraldez, R. R., Guimaraes, H. P., Nader, H. B., Kalil, R. A., Bizzachi, J. M., Lopes, A. C., Garcia, D. A. 2011; 32 (2): 242-266

    Abstract

    To discuss and share knowledge around advances in the care of patients with thrombotic disorders, the Third International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation was held in São Paulo, Brazil, from October 14-16, 2010. This scientific program was developed by clinicians for clinicians, and was promoted by four major clinical research institutes: the Brazilian Clinical Research Institute, the Duke Clinical Research Institute of the Duke University School of Medicine, the Canadian VIGOUR Centre, and the Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Comprising 3 days of academic presentations and open discussion, the symposium had as its primary goal to educate, motivate, and inspire internists, cardiologists, hematologists, and other physicians by convening national and international visionaries, thought-leaders, and dedicated clinician-scientists. This paper summarizes the symposium proceedings.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11239-011-0592-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292833000017

    View details for PubMedID 21547405

  • Saphenous Vein Grafts With Multiple Versus Single Distal Targets in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery One-Year Graft Failure and Five-Year Outcomes From the Project of Ex-Vivo Vein Graft Engineering via Transfection (PREVENT) IV Trial CIRCULATION Mehta, R. H., Ferguson, T. B., Lopes, R. D., Hafley, G. E., Mack, M. J., Kouchoukos, N. T., Gibson, C. M., Harrington, R. A., Califf, R. M., Peterson, E. D., Alexander, J. H. 2011; 124 (3): 280-288

    Abstract

    Limited information exists on the intermediate-term graft patency and 5-year clinical outcomes of patients receiving saphenous vein grafts with multiple (m-SVG) versus single distal targets (s-SVG) during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in the current era.We studied the association of the use of m-SVG versus s-SVG conduits with 1-year SVG failure (defined as ?75% angiographic stenosis) and 5-year clinical events (death; death or myocardial infarction [MI]; and death, MI, or revascularization) in 3014 patients undergoing their first CABG surgery enrolled in the Project of Ex-vivo Vein Graft Engineering via Transfection (PREVENT) IV. Of 3014 patients enrolled in PREVENT IV, 1045 (34.7%) had ?1 m-SVGs during CABG. Vein graft failure at 1-year was higher for m-SVG compared with s-SVG (adjusted odds ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.48). At 5 years, the adjusted composite of death, MI (including perioperative MI), or revascularization (hazard ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.31) and death or MI (hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.43) were significantly higher in patients receiving m-SVGs.In patients undergoing first CABG surgery, the use of m-SVG was associated with a higher 1-year vein graft failure rate and trends toward worse clinical outcomes. Additional studies are needed to better understand the most appropriate conduit to improve long-term graft patency and clinical outcomes of patients undergoing CABG surgery. In the meantime, these data should encourage the use of s-SVG over m-SVG when feasible.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.991299

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292819300010

    View details for PubMedID 21709060

  • Dose Selection for a Direct and Selective Factor IXa Inhibitor and its Complementary Reversal Agent: Translating Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Properties of the REG1 System to Clinical Trial Design JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND THROMBOLYSIS Povsic, T. J., Cohen, M. G., Chan, M. Y., Zelenkofske, S. L., WARGIN, W. A., Harrington, R. A., Alexander, J. H., Rusconi, C. P., Becker, R. C. 2011; 32 (1): 21-31

    Abstract

    We performed detailed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of REG1, an anticoagulation system composed of the direct factor IXa (FIXa) inhibitor pegnivacogin (RB006) and its matched active control agent anivamersen (RB007), with a focus on level of target inhibition to translate phase 1 results to phase 2 dose selection. We modeled early-phase clinical data relating weight-adjusted pegnivacogin dose and plasma concentration to prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Using an in vitro calibration curve, percent FIXa inhibition was determined and related to aPTT prolongation and pegnivacogin dose and concentration. Similar methods were applied to relate anivamersen dose and level of reversal of pegnivacogin anticoagulation. Combined early-phase data suggested that ?0.75 mg/kg pegnivacogin was associated with >99% inhibition of FIX activity and prolongation of plasma aPTT values ?2.5 times above baseline, leading to selection of a 1 mg/kg dose for a phase 2a elective percutaneous coronary intervention study to achieve a high intensity of anticoagulation and minimize intersubject variability. Phase 2 validated our predictions, demonstrating 1 mg/kg pegnivacogin yielded plasma concentrations ?25 ?g/ml and >99% inhibition of FIX activity. The relationship between the anivamersen to pegnivacogin dose ratio and degree of pegnivacogin reversal was also validated. Our approach decreased the need for extensive dose-response studies, reducing the duration, complexity and cost of clinical development. The 1 mg/kg pegnivacogin dose and a range of anivamersen dose ratios are being tested in the phase 2b RADAR study (NCT00932100).

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11239-011-0588-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292832800003

    View details for PubMedID 21503856

  • Upstream Use of Small-Molecule Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes A Systematic Overview of Randomized Clinical Trials CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Tricoci, P., Newby, L. K., Hasselblad, V., Kong, D. F., Giugliano, R. P., White, H. D., Theroux, P., Stone, G. W., Moliterno, D. J., Van de Werf, F., Armstrong, P. W., Prabhakaran, D., Rasoul, S., Bolognese, L., durand, e., Braunwald, E., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A. 2011; 4 (4): 448-458

    Abstract

    The use of upstream small-molecule glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) has been studied in multiple randomized clinical trials. We systematically reviewed the effect of upstream GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor use in NSTE ACS as reported in published clinical trials.Randomized clinical trials of upstream small-molecule GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in NSTE ACS were identified through a PubMed and EMBASE search and were included if they contained 30-day outcome data. Odds ratios were generated from the published data and pooled by means of random effects modeling. The primary outcome measures were 30-day death and 30-day death or myocardial infarction. Primary safety measures were major bleeding and transfusion during the index hospitalization. Twelve clinical trials were included, evaluating tirofiban, eptifibatide, and lamifiban. Of these, 7 evaluated upstream GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors versus placebo (n=24 031) and 5 evaluated a strategy of upstream GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors versus upstream placebo with later provisional use at the time of percutaneous coronary intervention (n=19 643). Overall, upstream GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor use was associated with an 11% reduction in 30-day death/myocardial infarction (odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.95) but no significant mortality effect (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.05). The risk of major bleeding was 23% higher in patients treated with upstream GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.48). Results were similar when only trials comparing upstream GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors versus placebo were considered: 30-day death/myocardial infarction (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.95); 30-day death (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.03); and major bleeding (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.54). Upstream versus selective use at percutaneous coronary intervention trended toward lower 30-day death/myocardial infarction (OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.01) but had no effect on mortality (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.23) and increased major bleeding risk by 34% (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.63).In NSTE ACS, treatment with upstream small-molecule GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors provides a significant but modest ischemic benefit when compared with initial placebo. Compared with delayed, selective use at percutaneous coronary intervention, early upstream use is associated with a trend toward fewer ischemic events. However, these modest benefits are associated with an increased risk of bleeding.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.110.960294

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292872500012

    View details for PubMedID 21712522

  • Dueling Registries? An Alternative Perspective and the Case for Competitive Collaboration CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Harrington, R. A. 2011; 4 (4): 486-487
  • ACCF/AHA 2011 Expert Consensus Document on Hypertension in the Elderly A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents Developed in Collaboration With the American Academy of Neurology, American Geriatrics Society, American Society for Preventive Cardiology, American Society of Hypertension, American Society of Nephrology, Association of Black Cardiologists, and European Society of Hypertension JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HYPERTENSION Aronow, W. S., Fleg, J. L., Pepine, C. J., Artinian, N. T., Bakris, G., Brown, A. S., Ferdinand, K. C., Forciea, M. A., Frishman, W. H., Jaigobin, C., Kostis, J. B., Mancia, G., Oparil, S., Ortiz, E., Reisin, E., Rich, M. W., Schocken, D. D., Weber, M. A., Wesley, D. J., Harrington, R. A., Bates, E. R., Bhatt, D. L., Bridges, C. R., Eisenberg, M. J., Ferrari, V. A., Fisher, J. D., Gardner, T. J., Gentile, F., Gilson, M. F., Hlatky, M. A., Jacobs, A. K., Kaul, S., Moliterno, D. J., Mukherjee, D., Rosenson, R. S., Stein, J. H., Weitz, H. H., Wesley, D. J. 2011; 5 (4): 259-352

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jash.2011.06.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293866000007

    View details for PubMedID 21771565

  • Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes intended for non-invasive management: substudy from prospective randomised PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL James, S. K., Roe, M. T., Cannon, C. P., Cornel, J. H., Horrow, J., Husted, S., Katus, H., Morais, J., Steg, P. G., Storey, R. F., Stevens, S., Wallentin, L., Harrington, R. A. 2011; 342

    Abstract

    To evaluate efficacy and safety outcomes in patients in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial who at randomisation were planned for a non-invasive treatment strategy.Pre-specified analysis of pre-randomisation defined subgroup of prospective randomised clinical trial.862 centres in 43 countries.5216 (28%) of 18,624 patients admitted to hospital for acute coronary syndrome who were specified as planned for non-invasive management.Randomised treatment with ticagrelor (n=2601) versus clopidogrel (2615).Primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke; their individual components; and PLATO defined major bleeding during one year.2183 (41.9%) patients had coronary angiography during their initial hospital admission, 1065 (20.4%) had percutaneous coronary intervention, and 208 (4.0%) had coronary artery bypass surgery. Cumulatively, 3143 (60.3%) patients had been managed non-invasively by the end of follow-up. The incidence of the primary end point was lower with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel (12.0% (n=295) v 14.3% (346); hazard ratio 0.85, 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 1.00; P=0.04). Overall mortality was also lower (6.1% (147) v 8.2% (195); 0.75, 0.61 to 0.93; P=0.01). The incidence of total major bleeding (11.9% (272) v 10.3% (238); 1.17, 0.98 to 1.39; P=0.08) and non-coronary artery bypass grafting related major bleeding (4.0% (90) v 3.1% (71); 1.30, 0.95 to 1.77; P=0.10) was numerically higher with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel.In patients with acute coronary syndrome initially intended for non-invasive management, the benefits of ticagrelor over clopidogrel were consistent with those from the overall PLATO results, indicating the broad benefits of P2Y12 inhibition with ticagrelor regardless of intended management strategy.Clinical trials NCT00391872.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.d3527

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291933200003

    View details for PubMedID 21685437

  • ACCF/AHA 2011 Expert Consensus Document on Hypertension in the Elderly A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents CIRCULATION Aronow, W. S., Fleg, J. L., Pepine, C. J., Artinian, N. T., Bakris, G., Brown, A. S., Ferdinand, K. C., Forciea, M. A., Frishman, W. H., Jaigobin, C., Kostis, J. B., Mancia, G., Oparil, S., Ortiz, E., Reisin, E., Rich, M. W., Schocken, D. D., Weber, M. A., Wesley, D. J., Harrington, R. A., Bates, E. R., Bhatt, D. L., Bridges, C. R., Eisenberg, M. J., Ferrari, V. A., Fisher, J. D., Gardner, T. J., Gentile, F., Gilson, M. F., Hlatky, M. A., Jacobs, A. K., Kaul, S., Moliterno, D. J., Mukherjee, D., Rosenson, R. S., Stein, J. H., Weitz, H. H., Wesley, D. J. 2011; 123 (21): 2434-2506
  • Intravenous Erythropoietin in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction REVEAL: A Randomized Controlled Trial JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Najjar, S. S., Rao, S. V., Melloni, C., Raman, S. V., Povsic, T. J., Melton, L., Barsness, G. W., Prather, K., Heitner, J. F., Kilaru, R., Gruberg, L., Hasselblad, V., Greenbaum, A. B., Patel, M., Kim, R. J., Talan, M., Ferrucci, L., Longo, D. L., Lakatta, E. G., Harrington, R. A. 2011; 305 (18): 1863-1872

    Abstract

    Acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. In experimental models of MI, erythropoietin reduces infarct size and improves left ventricular (LV) function.To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a single intravenous bolus of epoetin alfa in patients with STEMI.A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a dose-escalation safety phase and a single dose (60,000 U of epoetin alfa) efficacy phase; the Reduction of Infarct Expansion and Ventricular Remodeling With Erythropoietin After Large Myocardial Infarction (REVEAL) trial was conducted at 28 US sites between October 2006 and February 2010, and included 222 patients with STEMI who underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a primary or rescue reperfusion strategy.Participants were randomly assigned to treatment with intravenous epoetin alfa or matching saline placebo administered within 4 hours of reperfusion.Infarct size, expressed as percentage of LV mass, assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging performed 2 to 6 days after study medication administration (first CMR) and again 12 ± 2 weeks later (second CMR).In the efficacy cohort, the infarct size did not differ between groups on either the first CMR scan (n = 136; 15.8% LV mass [95% confidence interval {CI}, 13.3-18.2% LV mass] for the epoetin alfa group vs 15.0% LV mass [95% CI, 12.6-17.3% LV mass] for the placebo group; P = .67) or on the second CMR scan (n = 124; 10.6% LV mass [95% CI, 8.4-12.8% LV mass] vs 10.4% LV mass [95% CI, 8.5-12.3% LV mass], respectively; P = .89). In a prespecified analysis of patients aged 70 years or older (n = 21), the mean infarct size within the first week (first CMR) was larger in the epoetin alfa group (19.9% LV mass; 95% CI, 14.0-25.7% LV mass) than in the placebo group (11.7% LV mass; 95% CI, 7.2-16.1% LV mass) (P = .03). In the safety cohort, of the 125 patients who received epoetin alfa, the composite outcome of death, MI, stroke, or stent thrombosis occurred in 5 (4.0%; 95% CI, 1.31%-9.09%) but in none of the 97 who received placebo (P = .04).In patients with STEMI who had successful reperfusion with primary or rescue PCI, a single intravenous bolus of epoetin alfa within 4 hours of PCI did not reduce infarct size and was associated with higher rates of adverse cardiovascular events. Subgroup analyses raised concerns about an increase in infarct size among older patients.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00378352.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290438800023

    View details for PubMedID 21558517

  • The Incidence of Bradyarrhythmias and Clinical Bradyarrhythmic Events in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes Treated With Ticagrelor or Clopidogrel in the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial Results of the Continuous Electrocardiographic Assessment Substudy JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Scirica, B. M., Cannon, C. P., Emanuelsson, H., Michelson, E. L., Harrington, R. A., Husted, S., James, S., Katus, H., Pais, P., Raev, D., Spinar, J., Steg, P. G., Storey, R. F., Wallentin, L. 2011; 57 (19): 1908-1916

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ticagrelor increased the risk of ventricular pauses compared with clopidogrel and whether these pauses were associated with any clinical bradycardic events in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes.Ticagrelor, an oral reversibly binding P2Y(12) inhibitor, provides more potent and consistent inhibition of platelet aggregation than clopidogrel but in a phase II study was associated with increased risk for ventricular pauses. A prospective continuous electrocardiographic (cECG) assessment was therefore performed within the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) study comparing ticagrelor and clopidogrel in patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes.Patients in the cECG assessment had planned 7-day cECG recording initiated at the time of randomization (week 1), which was within 24 h of symptom onset, and then repeated at 1 month after randomization during the convalescent phase. The principal safety endpoint was the incidence of ventricular pauses lasting at least 3 s. Investigators also reported symptomatic bradycardic adverse events during the entire study duration (median 277 days).A total of 2,908 patients were included in the cECG assessment, of whom 2,866 (98.5%) had week 1 recordings, 1,991 (68.4%) had 1-month recordings, and 1,949 (67.0%) had both. During the first week after randomization, ventricular pauses ?3 s occurred more frequently in patients receiving ticagrelor than clopidogrel (84 [5.8%] vs. 51 [3.6%]; relative risk: 1.61; p = 0.006). At 1 month, pauses ?3 s occurred overall less frequently and were similar between treatments (2.1% vs. 1.7%). Most were ventricular pauses, and the greatest excess associated with ticagrelor were asymptomatic, sinoatrial nodal in origin (66%), and nocturnal. There were no differences between ticagrelor and clopidogrel in the incidence of clinically reported bradycardic adverse events, including syncope, pacemaker placement, and cardiac arrest.In the PLATO cECG assessment, more patients treated with ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel had ventricular pauses, which were predominantly asymptomatic, sinoatrial nodal in origin, and nocturnal and occurred most frequently in the acute phase of acute coronary syndromes. There were no apparent clinical consequences related to the excess in ventricular pauses in patients assigned to ticagrelor. (A Comparison of AZD6140 and Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome [PLATO]; NCT00391872).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.11.056

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290210100010

    View details for PubMedID 21545948

  • The PLATO trial reveals further opportunities to improve outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Editorial on Serebruany. "Viewpoint: Paradoxical excess mortality in the PLATO trial should be independently verified" (Thromb Haemost 2011; 105.5). Thrombosis and haemostasis Wallentin, L., Becker, R. C., James, S. K., Harrington, R. A. 2011; 105 (5): 760-762

    View details for DOI 10.1160/TH11-03-0162

    View details for PubMedID 21394383

  • Upstream Clopidogrel Use and the Efficacy and Safety of Early Eptifibatide Treatment in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome An Analysis From the Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (EARLY ACS) Trial CIRCULATION Wang, T. Y., White, J. A., Tricoci, P., Giugliano, R. P., Zeymer, U., Harrington, R. A., Montalescot, G., James, S. K., Van de Werf, F., Armstrong, P. W., Braunwald, E., Califf, R. M., Newby, L. K. 2011; 123 (7): 722-730

    Abstract

    In the Early Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibition in Patients with Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (EARLY ACS) trial, routine preangiography eptifibatide use was not superior to delayed provisional use but led to more bleeding. This analysis examines efficacy and safety of early eptifibatide in the setting of concurrent upstream clopidogrel use.In EARLY-ACS, clopidogrel use and timing were determined by treating physicians, but randomization to early eptifibatide versus placebo was stratified by the intent to use upstream clopidogrel. Among 9166 non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients who underwent coronary angiography, intent to use upstream clopidogrel was declared in 6895 (75%), and 7068 (77%) received upstream clopidogrel. After multivariable adjustment, intended upstream clopidogrel use did not differentially influence the effect of early eptifibatide on the primary end point of 96-hour death/myocardial infarction/recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization/thrombotic bailout (interaction P=0.988). Early eptifibatide use reduced 30-day death/myocardial infarction among patients with intended upstream clopidogrel (adjusted odds ratio 0.85; 95% confidence interval 0.73 to 0.99) but not among those without intended upstream clopidogrel use (adjusted odds ratio 1.02; 95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.30). However, the clopidogrel by randomized treatment interaction term was not significant (P=0.23). Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction major bleeding risk was increased with early eptifibatide in the setting of upstream clopidogrel use. Results were similar using actual clopidogrel treatment strata.Routine early eptifibatide use, compared with delayed provisional use, may be associated with lower 30-day ischemic risk in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome patients also treated with clopidogrel before angiography. The benefit-risk ratio of intensive platelet inhibition with combined early use of antiplatelet agents needs further evaluation in prospective randomized trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.958041

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287588000011

    View details for PubMedID 21300952

  • Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Results From the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) Trial JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Held, C., Asenblad, N., Bassand, J. P., Becker, R. C., Cannon, C. P., Claeys, M. J., Harrington, R. A., Horrow, J., Husted, S., James, S. K., Mahaffey, K. W., Nicolau, J. C., Scirica, B. M., Storey, R. F., Vintila, M., Ycas, J., Wallentin, L. 2011; 57 (6): 672-684

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor and clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), as a post-randomization strategy.Ticagrelor is a novel, reversibly binding, oral, direct-acting P2Y(12)-receptor antagonist. In the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial, which randomized 18,624 patients with acute coronary syndromes, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel significantly reduced the risk of the primary composite end point of cardiovascular (CV) death, myocardial infarction, or stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77 to 0.92; p < 0.001). This report investigated the outcomes of patients treated with CABG during the trial.In total, 1,899 patients underwent CABG post-randomization. The protocol recommended ticagrelor/placebo to be withheld for 24 to 72 h and clopidogrel/placebo for 5 days preoperatively. In all, 1,261 patients underwent CABG and were receiving study drug treatment <7 days before surgery. The statistical analysis was based on events occurring from the CABG procedure until the end of the study, excluding 3 patients with CABG after study end.In the 1,261 patient cohort, the relative reduction of primary composite end point at 12 months (10.6% [66 of 629] with ticagrelor versus 13.1% [79 of 629] with clopidogrel; HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.60 to 1.16; p = 0.29) was consistent with the results of the whole trial. Total mortality was reduced from 9.7% (58 of 629) to 4.7% (29 of 629; HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.77; p < 0.01), CV death from 7.9% (47 of 629) to 4.1% (25 of 629; HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.32 to 0.85; p < 0.01), and non-CV death numerically from 2.0% to 0.7% (p = 0.07). There was no significant difference in CABG-related major bleeding between the randomized treatments.In the subgroup of patients undergoing CABG within 7 days after the last study drug intake, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel was associated with a substantial reduction in total and CV mortality without excess risk of CABG-related bleeding.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.10.029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286880100006

    View details for PubMedID 21194870

  • Impact of Recovery of Renal Function on Long-Term Mortality After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Mehta, R. H., Honeycutt, E., Patel, U. D., Lopes, R. D., Shaw, L. K., Glower, D. D., Harrington, R. A., Califf, R. M., Sketch, M. H. 2010; 106 (12): 1728-1734

    Abstract

    Whether prognosis differs in acute renal failure (ARF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with and without recovery of renal function is not known. We studied patients who had CABG at Duke University Medical Center (1995 to 2008). ARF was defined as an increase in peak creatinine ?50% after CABG or ?0.7 mg/dl above baseline or need for new dialysis. Patients were categorized into 3 groups: (1) no ARF after CABG, (2) ARF after CABG and completely recovered renal function at day 7 (return of creatinine to no higher than baseline and no dialysis), or (3) ARF after CABG with no recovery of renal function at day 7 (creatinine no higher than baseline or new dialysis). Main outcome measurement was risk-adjusted long-term mortality (excluding death ?7 days). ARF after CABG occurred in 2,083 of 10,415 patients (20%) and completely recovered in 703 (33.7%). Risk-adjusted mortality was highest in patients with ARF without recovery of renal function (hazard ratios 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 1.62) and intermediate in those with ARF but completely recovered renal function (hazard ratios 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.37, referent no-ARF group). Mortality was lower in patients with ARF compared to those without complete recovery of renal function (p = 0.0083). In conclusion, in patients with ARF after CABG, complete recovery of renal function was associated with significantly lower long-term mortality compared to those without such recovery, although this was significantly higher than in those without ARF. Thus, major emphasis should be on prevention of ARF in patients undergoing CABG.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2010.07.045

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285735000010

    View details for PubMedID 21126617

  • Patterns of discharge antiplatelet therapy and late outcomes among 8,582 patients with bleeding during acute coronary syndrome: A pooled analysis from PURSUIT, PARAGON-A, PARAGON-B, and SYNERGY AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Chan, M. Y., Sun, J. L., Wang, T. Y., Lopes, R. D., Jolicoeur, M. E., Pieper, K. S., Rao, S. V., Newby, L. K., Mahaffey, K. W., Harrington, R. A., Peterson, E. D. 2010; 160 (6): 1056-U95

    Abstract

    Major bleeding during an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is associated with increased late ischemic events. Patients with bleeding are often discharged without antiplatelet therapy (AT). The association between discharge AT use and late ischemic outcomes among ACS patients with bleeding is uncertain.We examined discharge AT use among 8,582 ACS patients with in-hospital bleeding from a total of 26,451 patients enrolled in 4 randomized trials. After adjusting for the propensity to receive AT, we compared 6-month postdischarge outcomes between patients discharged with and those discharged without AT.Almost 1 in 10 patients with bleeding was discharged without AT (n=826). Compared with those receiving discharge AT, those not receiving discharge AT had a higher risk of 6-month death, myocardial infarction, and stroke (14.3% vs 7.8%, propensity-adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.36, 95% confidence interval=1.01-1.85). Nonuse of AT at discharge was associated with worse outcomes among patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention compared with those treated without it (adjusted HR=4.22 vs 1.13, interaction P=.0003). Discharge monotherapy was associated with worse outcomes than dual AT among patients receiving stents (adjusted HR=1.78, 95% CI=1.04-3.03).Bleeding occurred commonly among patients with ACS. AT was often not used in these patients at discharge, and lack of discharge AT was associated with an increased risk of 6-month ischemic events. These data raise the possibility that lack of AT use among patients with in-hospital bleeding may contribute to their excess risk of long-term ischemic outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.09.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285187600015

    View details for PubMedID 21146658

  • Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Patients With ST-Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes Intended for Reperfusion With Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention A Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial Subgroup Analysis CIRCULATION Steg, P. G., James, S., Harrington, R. A., Ardissino, D., Becker, R. C., Cannon, C. P., Emanuelsson, H., Finkelstein, A., Husted, S., Katus, H., Kilhamn, J., Olofsson, S., Storey, R. F., Weaver, D., Wallentin, L. 2010; 122 (21): 2131-2141

    Abstract

    Aspirin and clopidogrel are recommended for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) or undergoing coronary stenting. Ticagrelor, a reversible oral P2Y12-receptor antagonist, provides faster, greater, and more consistent platelet inhibition than clopidogrel and may be useful for patients with acute ST-segment elevation (STE) ACS and planned primary percutaneous coronary intervention.Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO), a randomized, double-blind trial, compared ticagrelor with clopidogrel for the prevention of vascular events in 18 624 ACS patients. This report concerns the 7544 ACS patients with STE or left bundle-branch block allocated to either ticagrelor 180-mg loading dose followed by 90 mg twice daily or clopidogrel 300-mg loading dose (with provision for 300 mg clopidogrel at percutaneous coronary intervention) followed by 75 mg daily for 6 to 12 months. The reduction of the primary end point (myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death) with ticagrelor versus clopidogrel (10.8% versus 9.4%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.01; P=0.07) was consistent with the overall PLATO results. There was no interaction between presentation with STE/left bundle-branch block and randomized treatment (interaction P=0.29). Ticagrelor reduced several secondary end points, including myocardial infarction alone (HR, 0.80; P=0.03), total mortality (HR, 0.82; P=0.05), and definite stent thrombosis (HR, 0.66; P=0.03). The risk of stroke, low in both groups, was higher with ticagrelor (1.7% versus 1.0%; HR,1.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 2.48; P=0.02). Ticagrelor did not affect major bleeding (HR, 0.98; P=0.76).In patients with STE-ACS and planned primary percutaneous coronary intervention, the effects of ticagrelor were consistent with those observed in the overall PLATO trial.URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.927582

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284471800013

    View details for PubMedID 21060072

  • Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Autologous CD34+Cell Therapy for Refractory Angina: 2-Year Safety Analysis Losordo, D. W., Henry, T. D., Schatz, R. A., Lee, J. S., Costa, M., Bass, T., Schaer, G. L., Mendelsohn, F., Davidson, C., Waksman, R., Soukas, P. A., Simon, D., Chronos, N., Fortuin, F. D., Huang, P. P., Weintraub, N., Yeung, A., Rosenfield, K., Wong, S. C., Taussig, A., Raval, A. N., Sherman, W., Kereiakes, D., Strumpf, R. K., Port, S., Pieper, K., Ewenstein, B., Story, K. O., Barker, K. B., Harrington, R. A. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2010
  • ACCF/SCCT/ACR/AHA/ASE/ASNC/NASCI/SCAI/SCMR 2010 appropriate use criteria for cardiac computed tomography. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, the American College of Radiology, the American Heart Association, the American Society of Echocardiography, the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, the North American Society for Cardiovascular Imaging, the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Taylor, A. J., Cerqueira, M., Hodgson, J. M., Mark, D., Min, J., O'Gara, P., Rubin, G. D., Kramer, C. M., Berman, D., Brown, A., Chaudhry, F. A., Cury, R. C., Desai, M. Y., Einstein, A. J., Gomes, A. S., Harrington, R., Hoffmann, U., Khare, R., Lesser, J., McGann, C., Rosenberg, A., Schwartz, R., Shelton, M., Smetana, G. W., Smith, S. C. 2010; 56 (22): 1864-1894

    Abstract

    The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, conducted an appropriate use review of common clinical scenarios where cardiac computed tomography (CCT) is frequently considered. The present document is an update to the original CCT/cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) appropriateness criteria published in 2006, written to reflect changes in test utilization, to incorporate new clinical data, and to clarify CCT use where omissions or lack of clarity existed in the original criteria (1). The indications for this review were drawn from common applications or anticipated uses, as well as from current clinical practice guidelines. Ninety-three clinical scenarios were developed by a writing group and scored by a separate technical panel on a scale of 1 to 9 to designate appropriate use, inappropriate use, or uncertain use. In general, use of CCT angiography for diagnosis and risk assessment in patients with low or intermediate risk or pretest probability for coronary artery disease (CAD) was viewed favorably, whereas testing in high-risk patients, routine repeat testing, and general screening in certain clinical scenarios were viewed less favorably. Use of noncontrast computed tomography (CT) for calcium scoring was rated as appropriate within intermediate- and selected low-risk patients. Appropriate applications of CCT are also within the category of cardiac structural and functional evaluation. It is anticipated that these results will have an impact on physician decision making, performance, and reimbursement policy, and that they will help guide future research.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.07.005

    View details for PubMedID 21087721

  • Design and rationale of the Reduction of Infarct Expansion and Ventricular Remodeling with Erythropoietin after Large Myocardial Infarction (REVEAL) trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Melloni, C., Rao, S. V., Povsic, T. J., Melton, L., Kim, R. J., Kilaru, R., Patel, M. R., Talan, M., Ferrucci, L., Longo, D. L., Lakatta, E. G., Najjar, S. S., Harrington, R. A. 2010; 160 (5): 795-U39

    Abstract

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) remains a leading cause of death despite advances in pharmacologic and percutaneous therapies. Animal models of ischemia/reperfusion have demonstrated that single-dose erythropoietin may reduce infarct size, decrease apoptosis, and increase neovascularization, possibly through mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells.REVEAL is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial evaluating the effects of epoetin ? on infarct size and left ventricular remodeling in patients with large MIs. The trial comprises a dose-escalation safety phase and a single-dose efficacy phase using the highest acceptable epoetin ? dose up to 60,000 IU. Up to 250 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary or rescue percutaneous coronary intervention will be randomized to intravenous epoetin ? or placebo within 4 hours of successful reperfusion. The primary study end point is infarct size expressed as a percentage of left ventricular mass, as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging 2 to 6 days post study medication administration. Secondary end points will assess changes in endothelial progenitor cell numbers and changes in indices of ventricular remodeling.The REVEAL trial will evaluate the safety and efficacy of the highest tolerated single dose of epoetin ? in patients who have undergone successful rescue or primary percutaneous coronary intervention for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.09.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284458700004

    View details for PubMedID 21095264

  • Effect of apixaban, an oral and direct factor Xa inhibitor, on coagulation activity biomarkers following acute coronary syndrome THROMBOSIS AND HAEMOSTASIS Becker, R. C., Alexander, J. H., Newby, L. K., Yang, H., Barrett, Y., Mohan, P., Wang, J., Harrington, R. A., Wallentin, L. C. 2010; 104 (5): 976-983

    Abstract

    Apixaban is an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor under development for secondary prevention in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Apixaban's effect on D-dimer and prothrombin fragment 1.2 (F1.2) (coagulation activity biomarkers ) was determined in a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study. Patients (n=1,715) with either ST- segment elevation or non-ST-segment elevation ACS received either placebo or apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily, 10 mg once daily, 10 mg twice daily or 20 mg once daily for six months. Samples were obtained at baseline (before study drug administration), week 3 and week 26. Apixaban plasma concentrations were measured directly by liquid chromatography/mass spectometry, and anti-Xa activity was determined using apixaban as a reference standard. D-dimer and F 1.2 were measured using ELISA-based methods. Most patients had elevated D-dimer and F1.2 levels at baseline. Both coagulation activity biomarkers decreased by week 3 in all treatment groups, but to a greater degree with apixaban than placebo (p<0.001). In a multivariable analysis, apixaban was independently associated with a change in biomarkers over time (p<0.0001). While the overall decrease did not differ significantly among the three highest apixaban doses, F1.2 was suppressed more rapidly by the 10 mg once daily than the 2.5 mg twice daily dose (p<0.05). There was a strong and direct relationship between apixaban plasma concentrations and anti-Xa-apixaban levels, and an inverse relationship for both measures with coagulation activity biomarkers. In conclusion, the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor apixaban significantly reduced coagulation activity biomarkers among patients with ACS. The 10 mg once daily dose reduced thrombin generation (F 1.2) and fibrin formation (D-dimer) more rapidly and robustly than the 2.5 mg twice daily dose. The effect on both D-dimer and F 1.2 was apixaban concentration-and factor Xa inhibition dependent, durable and provided general guidance for dose selection in phase 3 investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1160/TH10.04.0247

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284522600016

    View details for PubMedID 20806117

  • Study design and rationale for the clinical outcomes of the STABILITY Trial (STabilization of Atherosclerotic plaque By Initiation of darapLadIb TherapY) comparing darapladib versus placebo in patients with coronary heart disease AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL White, H., Held, C., Stewart, R., Watson, D., Harrington, R., Budaj, A., Steg, P. G., Cannon, C. P., Krug-Gourley, S., Wittes, J., Trivedi, T., Tarka, E., Wallentin, L. 2010; 160 (4): 655-U289

    Abstract

    Elevated plasma levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. Direct inhibition of this proinflammatory enzyme with darapladib may benefit CV patients when given as an adjunct to standard of care, including lipid-lowering and antiplatelet therapies.STABILITY is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, international, multicenter, event-driven trial. The study has randomized 15,828 patients with chronic coronary heart disease (CHD) receiving standard of care to darapladib enteric-coated (EC) tablets, 160 mg or placebo.The primary end point is the composite of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE): CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke. The key secondary end points will include major coronary events, total coronary events, individual components of MACE, and all-cause mortality. Prespecified substudies include 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, albuminuria progression, changes in cognitive function, and pharmacokinetic and biomarker analyses. Health economic outcomes and characterization of baseline lifestyle risk factors also will be assessed. The study will continue until 1,500 primary end points have occurred to achieve 90% power to detect a 15.5% reduction in the primary end point. The median treatment duration is anticipated to be 2.75 years.STABILITY will assess whether direct inhibition of Lp-PLA(2) with darapladib added to the standard of care confers clinical benefit to patients with CHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.07.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282677300015

    View details for PubMedID 20934559

  • Relationship between renal function and outcomes in high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: Results from SYNERGY INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Spinler, S. A., Mahaffey, K. W., Gallup, D., Levine, G. N., Ferguson, J. J., Rao, S. V., Gallo, R., Ducas, J., Goodman, S. G., Antman, E., White, H. D., Biasucci, L., Becker, R. C., Col, J. J., Cohen, M., Harrington, R. A., Califf, R. M. 2010; 144 (1): 36-41

    Abstract

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for coronary heart disease and bleeding with antithrombotic therapy in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We evaluated the effect of renal function on efficacy and outcomes in high-risk patients with NSTE ACS in the SYNERGY trial.Creatinine clearance (CrCl) at the time of randomization was analyzed as a continuous variable added to multivariable logistic regression models for 30-day death or MI, non-CABG-associated TIMI major bleeding, GUSTO severe bleeding, and transfusion in the overall study population, patients undergoing coronary angiography, and patients undergoing PCI.Of 9838 patients with a CrCl value, 70.6% (N=6950) had CrCl≥60 mL/min, 27.8% (N=2732) had CrCl 30-59 mL/min, and 1.6% (N=156) had CrCl<30 mL/min. No randomized treatment by CrCl interaction test was found to be statistically significant, suggesting renal insufficiency affected enoxaparin and unfractionated heparin outcomes similarly. After adjustment, CrCl was an independent predictor of 30-day death or MI (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09), TIMI major bleeding (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.10), GUSTO severe bleeding (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.17), and transfusion (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11).Patients with CKD had higher rates of 30-day death or MI and bleeding than those without CKD, regardless of randomized antithrombin therapy. While this analysis suggests that there is a rise in bleeding events as CrCl falls for patients in either treatment group, it is unknown whether a reduction in dose would decrease bleeding risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijcard.2009.03.119

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282679000013

    View details for PubMedID 19406493

  • Ticagrelor Versus Clopidogrel in Acute Coronary Syndromes in Relation to Renal Function Results From the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) Trial CIRCULATION James, S., Budaj, A., Aylward, P., Buck, K. K., Cannon, C. P., Cornel, J. H., Harrington, R. A., Horrow, J., Katus, H., Keltai, M., Lewis, B. S., Parikh, K., Storey, R. F., Szummer, K., Wojdyla, D., Wallentin, L. 2010; 122 (11): 1056-1067

    Abstract

    Reduced renal function is associated with a poorer prognosis and increased bleeding risk in patients with acute coronary syndromes and may therefore alter the risk-benefit ratio with antiplatelet therapies. In the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel reduced the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke at 12 months but with similar major bleeding rates.Central laboratory serum creatinine levels were available in 15 202 (81.9%) acute coronary syndrome patients at baseline, and creatinine clearance, estimated by the Cockcroft Gault equation, was calculated. In patients with chronic kidney disease (creatinine clearance <60 mL/min; n=3237), ticagrelor versus clopidogrel significantly reduced the primary end point to 17.3% from 22.0% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.90) with an absolute risk reduction greater than that of patients with normal renal function (n=11 965): 7.9% versus 8.9% (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.02). In patients with chronic kidney disease, ticagrelor reduced total mortality (10.0% versus 14.0%; HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.89). Major bleeding rates, fatal bleedings, and non-coronary bypass-related major bleedings were not significantly different between the 2 randomized groups (15.1% versus 14.3%; HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.30; 0.34% versus 0.77%; HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.54; and 8.5% versus 7.3%; HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.68). The interactions between creatinine clearance and randomized treatment on any of the outcome variables were nonsignificant.In acute coronary syndrome patients with chronic kidney disease, ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel significantly reduces ischemic end points and mortality without a significant increase in major bleeding but with numerically more non-procedure-related bleeding.URL:http://www.clinicatrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00391872.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.933796

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281877800002

    View details for PubMedID 20805430

  • President's page: the ACC reconfirms commitment to transparent relationships with industry. Journal of the American College of Cardiology Brindis, R., Harrington, R. 2010; 56 (11): 900-902

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.08.001

    View details for PubMedID 20813288

  • First Clinical Application of an Actively Reversible Direct Factor IXa Inhibitor as an Anticoagulation Strategy in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention CIRCULATION Cohen, M. G., Purdy, D. A., Rossi, J. S., Grinfeld, L. R., Myles, S. K., Aberle, L. H., Greenbaum, A. B., Fry, E., Chan, M. Y., Tonkens, R. M., Zelenkofske, S., Alexander, J. H., Harrington, R. A., Rusconi, C. P., Becker, R. C. 2010; 122 (6): 614-622

    Abstract

    The ideal anticoagulant should prevent ischemic complications without increasing the risk of bleeding. Controlled anticoagulation is possible with the REG1 system, an RNA aptamer pair comprising the direct factor IXa inhibitor RB006 and its active control agent RB007.This phase 2a study included a roll-in group (n=2) treated with REG1 plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors followed by 2 groups randomized 5:1 to REG1 or unfractionated heparin. In group 1 (n=12), RB006 was partially reversed with RB007 after percutaneous coronary intervention and fully reversed 4 hours later. In group 2 (n=12), RB006 was fully reversed with RB007 immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention. Femoral sheaths were removed after complete reversal. Patients were pretreated with aspirin and clopidogrel. End points included major bleeding within 48 hours; composite of death, myocardial infarction, or urgent target vessel revascularization within 14 days; and pharmacodynamic measures. All cases were successful, with final Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction grade 3 flow and no angiographic thrombotic complications. There were 2 ischemic end points in the REG1 group and 1 in the unfractionated heparin group, with 1 major bleed in the unfractionated heparin group. Median activated clotting time values rose from 151 to 236 seconds after RB006. Administration of the partial RB007 dose reversed anticoagulation to an intermediate activated clotting time value of 186 seconds. Complete reversal with RB007 returned the median activated clotting time value to 144 seconds. Both reversal strategies enabled scheduled femoral sheath removal.This study demonstrates the clinical translation of a novel platform of anticoagulation targeting factor IXa and its active reversal to percutaneous coronary intervention and provides the basis for further investigation.URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00715455.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.927756

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280757300008

    View details for PubMedID 20660806

  • Rationale and design of the randomized, double-blind trial testing INtraveNous and Oral administration of elinogrel, a selective and reversible P2Y(12)-receptor inhibitor, versus clopidogrel to eVAluate Tolerability and Efficacy in nonurgent Percutaneous Coronary Interventions patients (INNOVATE-PCI) AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Leonardi, S., Rao, S. V., Harrington, R. A., Bhatt, D. L., Gibson, C. M., Roe, M. T., Kochman, J., Huber, K., Zeymer, U., Madan, M., Gretler, D. D., McClure, M. W., Paynter, G. E., Thompson, V., Welsh, R. C. 2010; 160 (1): 65-72

    Abstract

    Despite current dual-antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel, adverse clinical events continue to occur during and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The failure of clopidogrel to provide optimal protection may be related to delayed onset of action, interpatient variability in its effect, and an insufficient level of platelet inhibition. Furthermore, the irreversible binding of clopidogrel to the P2Y(12) receptor for the life span of the platelet is associated with increased bleeding risk especially during urgent or emergency surgery. Novel antiplatelet agents are required to improve management of patients undergoing PCI. Elinogrel is a potent, direct-acting (ie, non-prodrug), selective, competitive, and reversible P2Y(12) inhibitor available in both intravenous and oral formulations. The INNOVATE-PCI study is a phase 2 randomized, double-blind, clopidogrel-controlled trial to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy of this novel antiplatelet agent in patients undergoing nonurgent PCI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.04.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279440400011

    View details for PubMedID 20598974

  • Randomized Evaluation of efficacy and safety of ferric carboxymaltose in Patients with iron deficiency Anaemia and Impaired Renal function (REPAIR-IDA): rationale and study design NEPHROLOGY DIALYSIS TRANSPLANTATION Szczech, L. A., Bregman, D. B., Harrington, R. A., Morris, D., Butcher, A., Koch, T. A., Goodnough, L. T., Wolf, M., Onken, J. E. 2010; 25 (7): 2368-2375

    Abstract

    Patients with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) in the setting of non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) may benefit from treatment with intravenous (IV) iron. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) is a novel IV iron formulation designed to permit larger infusions compared to currently available IV standards such as Venofer(R) (iron sucrose).The primary objective of REPAIR-IDA is to estimate the cardiovascular safety and efficacy of FCM (two doses at 15 mg/kg to a maximum of 750 mg per dose) compared to Venofer(R) (1000 mg administered as five infusions of 200 mg) in subjects who have IDA and NDD-CKD. REPAIR-IDA is a multi-centre, randomized, active-controlled, open-label study. Eligible patients must have haemoglobin (Hgb) < or = 11.5 g/dL and CKD defined as (1) GFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) on two occasions or (2) GFR < 90 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and either evidence of renal injury by urinalysis or elevated Framingham cardiovascular risk score. Two thousand and five hundred patients will be randomized to FCM or Venofer(R) in a 1:1 ratio. The primary efficacy endpoint is mean change in Hgb from baseline to the highest observed Hgb between baseline and Day 56. The primary safety endpoint is the proportion of subjects experiencing at least one of the following events: death due to any cause, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, unstable angina requiring hospitalization, congestive heart failure requiring hospitalization or medical intervention, arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension during the 120 days following randomization.REPAIR-IDA will assess the efficacy and safety of two 750-mg infusions of FCM compared to an FDA-approved IV iron regimen in patients with NDD-CKD at increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ndt/gfq218

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279189400051

    View details for PubMedID 20466657

  • There Is a Role for Industry-Sponsored Education in Cardiology CIRCULATION Harrington, R. A., Califf, R. M. 2010; 121 (20): 2221-2227
  • An update on the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) design AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Califf, R. M., Lokhnygina, Y., Cannon, C. P., Stepanavage, M. E., McCabe, C. H., Musliner, T. A., Pasternak, R. C., Blazing, M. A., Giugliano, R. P., Harrington, R. A., Braunwald, E. 2010; 159 (5): 705-709

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2010.03.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277243300001

    View details for PubMedID 20435175

  • Changes in Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients Treated With Ticagrelor or Clopidogrel CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY Husted, S., Storey, R. F., Harrington, R. A., Emanuelsson, H., Cannon, C. P. 2010; 33 (4): 206-212

    Abstract

    Inflammation is a key factor in the development of atherosclerotic disease and acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The P2Y(12) receptor antagonists ticagrelor (AZD6140) and clopidogrel may have anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this analysis from the Dose Confirmation Study Assessing Anti-Platelet Effects of AZD6140 vs Clopidogrel in NSTEMI 2 (DISPERSE 2) trial was to compare ticagrelor and clopidogrel for effects on the inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L).Ticagrelor inhibits the P2Y(12) receptor and inflammation to a greater extent than clopidogrel in nonST-segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) patients.In a double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter trial, 990 patients who had been hospitalized within the previous 48 hours with NSTE-ACS were randomized to receive ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily, ticagrelor 180 mg twice daily, or clopidogrel 300 mg initially and then 75 mg once daily. Within the ticagrelor groups, patients were also randomized to receive or not receive a loading dose of ticagrelor 270 mg initially. All patients received standard treatment for ACS, which included 325 mg aspirin initially and 75 to 100 mg aspirin each day subsequently. Inflammatory biomarkers were measured at baseline, upon hospital discharge, and after 4 weeks.Inflammatory biomarker measurements were not significantly different among treatment groups at baseline, discharge, and 4 weeks.Ticagrelor and clopidogrel appeared not to differ in this study with respect to the inflammatory biomarkers CRP, IL-6, MPO, and sCD40L in patients with NSTE-ACS.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/clc.20732

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277113300004

    View details for PubMedID 20394040

  • Towards a new order in cardiovascular medicine: re-engineering through global collaboration EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Califf, R. M., Armstrong, P. W., Granger, C. B., Harrington, R. A., Lee, K., Simess, R. J., Van de Werf, F., Wallentin, L., White, H. D. 2010; 31 (8): 911-917

    View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp550

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277278900010

    View details for PubMedID 20130014

  • Metabolic Syndrome Is Not Associated With Increased Mortality or Cardiovascular Risk in Nondiabetic Patients With a New Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR QUALITY AND OUTCOMES Petersen, J. L., Yow, E., Aljaroudi, W., Shaw, L. K., Goyal, A., McGuire, D. K., Peterson, E. D., Harrington, R. A. 2010; 3 (2): 165-172

    Abstract

    Metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in the general population. Its prognostic implications are less well defined in patients with coronary artery disease.We analyzed patients in the Duke Database for Cardiovascular Disease with a diagnosis of incident obstructive coronary artery disease. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was classified as a clinical history of DM, use of hypoglycemic drugs, or fasting glucose of >or=126 mg/dL. MetSyn was defined as having 3 of 5 characteristics: fasting glucose >or=100 and <126 mg/dL, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (men, <40 mg/dL; women, <50 mg/dL), triglycerides >150 mg/dL, blood pressure >or=130/85 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive therapy, or body mass index >or=27. Death, myocardial infarction, or stroke was assessed at 6 months, 1 year, then annually. Cox proportional hazards models were generated to compare mortality and cardiovascular events between groups. The primary cohort consisted of 5744 patients; 1831 (31.9%) had DM, 2491 (43.4%) had MetSyn, and 1422 (24.7%) had no DM/MetSyn. Median follow-up was 5 years. Compared with no DM/MetSyn patients, DM patients had a higher adjusted risk for mortality (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.69) but MetSyn patients did not (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.08). Similar results were found for the combined end points of death or myocardial infarction, and death, myocardial infarction, or stroke.In a population of consecutive patients with a new diagnosis of coronary artery disease by angiography, MetSyn without DM was not an independent predictor of mortality or cardiovascular events.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.109.864447

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276080200010

    View details for PubMedID 20179266

  • Warfarin Use and Outcomes in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Complicating Acute Coronary Syndromes AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Lopes, R. D., Starr, A., Pieper, C. F., Al-Khatib, S. M., Newby, L. K., Mehta, R. H., Van de Werf, F., Mahaffey, K. W., Armstrong, P. W., Harrington, R. A., White, H. D., Wallentin, L., Granger, C. B. 2010; 123 (2): 134-140

    Abstract

    We examined warfarin use at discharge (according to Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age>75 years, Diabetes, Prior Stroke/transient ischemic attack score and bleeding risk) and its association with 6-month death or myocardial infarction in patients with post-acute coronary syndrome atrial fibrillation.Of the 23,208 patients enrolled in the Platelet IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy, Platelet IIb/IIIa Antagonist for the Reduction of Acute Coronary Syndrome Events in a Global Organization Network A, and Superior Yield of the New Strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization and Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors trials, 4.0% (917 patients) had atrial fibrillation as an in-hospital complication and were discharged alive. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to assess 6-month outcomes after discharge.Overall, 13.5% of patients with an acute coronary syndrome complicated by atrial fibrillation received warfarin at discharge. Warfarin use among patients with atrial fibrillation had no relation with estimated stroke risk; similar rates were observed across Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age>75 years, Diabetes, Prior Stroke/transient ischemic attack (CHADS(2)) scores (0, 13%; 1, 14%; > or = 2, 13%) and across different bleeding risk categories (low risk, 11.9%; intermediate risk, 13.3%; high risk, 11.1%). Among patients with in-hospital atrial fibrillation, warfarin use at discharge was independently associated with a lower risk of death or myocardial infarction within 6 months of discharge (hazard ratio 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.98).Warfarin is associated with better 6-month outcomes among patients with atrial fibrillation complicating an acute coronary syndrome, but its use is not related to CHADS(2) score or bleeding risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjmed.2009.09.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274346200011

    View details for PubMedID 20103022

  • Comparison of ticagrelor with clopidogrel in patients with planned invasive strategy for acute coronary syndromes (PLATO): a randomised double-blind study LANCET Cannon, C. P., Harrington, R. A., James, S., Ardissino, D., Becker, R. C., Emanuelsson, H., Husted, S., Katus, H., Keltai, M., Khurmi, N. S., Kontny, F., Lewis, B. S., Steg, P. G., Storey, R. F., Wojdyla, D., Wallentin, L. 2010; 375 (9711): 283-293

    Abstract

    Variation in and irreversibility of platelet inhibition with clopidogrel has led to controversy about its optimum dose and timing of administration in patients with acute coronary syndromes. We compared ticagrelor, a more potent reversible P2Y12 inhibitor with clopidogrel in such patients.At randomisation, an invasive strategy was planned for 13 408 (72.0%) of 18 624 patients hospitalised for acute coronary syndromes (with or without ST elevation). In a double-blind, double-dummy study, patients were randomly assigned in a one-to-one ratio to ticagrelor and placebo (180 mg loading dose followed by 90 mg twice a day), or to clopidogrel and placebo (300-600 mg loading dose or continuation with maintenance dose followed by 75 mg per day) for 6-12 months. All patients were given aspirin. The primary composite endpoint was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00391872.6732 patients were assigned to ticagrelor and 6676 to clopidogrel. The primary composite endpoint occurred in fewer patients in the ticagrelor group than in the clopidogrel group (569 [event rate at 360 days 9.0%] vs 668 [10.7%], hazard ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.75-0.94; p=0.0025). There was no difference between clopidogrel and ticagrelor groups in the rates of total major bleeding (691 [11.6%] vs 689 [11.5%], 0.99 [0.89-1.10]; p=0.8803) or severe bleeding, as defined according to the Global Use of Strategies To Open occluded coronary arteries, (198 [3.2%] vs 185 [2.9%], 0.91 [0.74-1.12]; p=0.3785).Ticagrelor seems to be a better option than clopidogrel for patients with acute coronary syndromes for whom an early invasive strategy is planned.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)62191-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274069300029

    View details for PubMedID 20079528

  • Intravenous Platelet Blockade with Cangrelor during PCI. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Bhatt, D. L., Lincoff, A. M., Gibson, C. M., Stone, G. W., McNulty, S., Montalescot, G., Kleiman, N. S., Goodman, S. G., White, H. D., Mahaffey, K. W., Pollack, C. V., Manoukian, S. V., Widimsky, P., Chew, D. P., Cura, F., Manukov, I., Tousek, F., Jafar, M. Z., Arneja, J., Skerjanec, S., Harrington, R. A. 2009; 361 (24): 2330-2341

    Abstract

    Intravenous cangrelor, a rapid-acting, reversible adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist, might reduce ischemic events during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 5362 patients who had not been treated with clopidogrel to receive either cangrelor or placebo at the time of PCI, followed by 600 mg of clopidogrel. The primary end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 48 hours. Enrollment was stopped when an interim analysis concluded that the trial would be unlikely to show superiority for the primary end point.The primary end point occurred in 185 of 2654 patients receiving cangrelor (7.0%) and in 210 of 2641 patients receiving placebo (8.0%) (odds ratio in the cangrelor group, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.07; P=0.17) (modified intention-to-treat population adjusted for missing data). In the cangrelor group, as compared with the placebo group, two prespecified secondary end points were significantly reduced at 48 hours: the rate of stent thrombosis, from 0.6% to 0.2% (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.85; P=0.02), and the rate of death from any cause, from 0.7% to 0.2% (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83; P=0.02). There was no significant difference in the rate of blood transfusion (1.0% in the cangrelor group and 0.6% in the placebo group, P=0.13), though major bleeding on one scale was increased in the cangrelor group, from 3.5% to 5.5% (P<0.001), because of more groin hematomas.The use of periprocedural cangrelor during PCI was not superior to placebo in reducing the primary end point. The prespecified secondary end points of stent thrombosis and death were lower in the cangrelor group, with no significant increase in the rate of transfusion. Further study of intravenous ADP blockade with cangrelor may be warranted. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00385138.)

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa0908629

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272547600007

    View details for PubMedID 19915222

  • Platelet Inhibition with Cangrelor in Patients Undergoing PCI. NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Harrington, R. A., Stone, G. W., McNulty, S., White, H. D., Lincoff, A. M., Gibson, C. M., Pollack, C. V., Montalescot, G., Mahaffey, K. W., Kleiman, N. S., Goodman, S. G., Amine, M., Angiolillo, D. J., Becker, R. C., Chew, D. P., French, W. J., Leisch, F., Parikh, K. H., Skerjanec, S., Bhatt, D. L. 2009; 361 (24): 2318-2329

    Abstract

    Cangrelor, a nonthienopyridine adenosine triphosphate analogue, is an intravenous blocker of the adenosine diphosphate receptor P2Y(12). This agent might have a role in the treatment of patients who require rapid, predictable, and profound but reversible platelet inhibition.We performed a large-scale international trial comparing cangrelor with 600 mg of oral clopidogrel administered before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with acute coronary syndromes. The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 48 hours.We enrolled 8877 patients, and 8716 underwent PCI. At 48 hours, cangrelor was not superior to clopidogrel with respect to the primary composite end point, which occurred in 7.5% of patients in the cangrelor group and 7.1% of patients in the clopidogrel group (odds ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88 to 1.24; P=0.59). Likewise, cangrelor was not superior at 30 days. The rate of major bleeding (according to Acute Catheterization and Urgent Intervention Triage Strategy criteria) was higher with cangrelor, a difference that approached statistical significance (3.6% vs. 2.9%; odds ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.60; P=0.06), but this was not the case with major bleeding (according to the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction criteria) or severe or life-threatening bleeding (according to Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries criteria). A secondary exploratory end point of death from any cause, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization showed a trend toward a reduction with cangrelor, but it was not significant (0.6% vs. 0.9%; odds ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.39 to 1.14; P=0.14).Cangrelor, when administered intravenously 30 minutes before PCI and continued for 2 hours after PCI, was not superior to an oral loading dose of 600 mg of clopidogrel, administered 30 minutes before PCI, in reducing the composite end point of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 48 hours. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00305162.)

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa0908628

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272547600006

    View details for PubMedID 19915221

  • Safety and feasibility of adjunctive antiplatelet therapy with intravenous elinogrel, a direct-acting and reversible P2Y12 ADP-receptor antagonist, before primary percutaneous intervention in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: The Early Rapid ReversAl of Platelet ThromboSis with Intravenous Elinogrel before PCI to Optimize REperfusion in Acute Myocardial Infarction (ERASE MI) pilot trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Berger, J. S., Roe, M. T., Gibson, C. M., Kilaru, R., Green, C. L., Melton, L., Blankenship, J. D., Metzger, D. C., Granger, C. B., Gretler, D. D., Grines, C. L., Huber, K., Zeymer, U., Buszman, P., Harrington, R. A., Armstrong, P. W. 2009; 158 (6): 998-U145

    Abstract

    Inhibition of the P2Y12 ADP-receptor with oral antiplatelet agents given to patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is associated with improved outcomes, but this strategy is limited by the time required for maximal antiplatelet effect after administration. We examined the safety and tolerability of a novel, direct-acting, reversible, intravenous P2Y12 ADP-receptor antagonist, elinogrel, versus placebo when administered to STEMI patients before primary PCI.The ERASE MI trial was a pilot, phase IIA, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of escalating doses (10, 20, 40, and 60 mg) of elinogrel administered as a single intravenous bolus before the start of the diagnostic angiogram preceding primary PCI. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 manner to either elinogrel or placebo within each dosing group; and all patients received a 600-mg clopidogrel loading dose, followed by a second 300-mg clopidogrel loading dose 4 hours after PCI. The major outcome, in-hospital bleeding, was assessed with the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction and Global Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries bleeding scales. Pre-PCI corrected Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction frame count and ST-segment resolution were also evaluated.Seventy patients were randomized in the dose-escalation study, but the dose-confirmation phase was not started because the trial was prematurely terminated for administrative reasons. The incidence of bleeding events was infrequent and appeared to be similar in patients treated with all doses of elinogrel versus placebo. No differences in serious adverse events, laboratory values, corrected Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction frame count, or ST resolution were demonstrated between elinogrel and placebo.With the limitations of a small study sample size, this pilot study provided preliminary data on the feasibility and tolerability of escalating doses of a direct-acting, reversible, intravenous P2Y12 ADP-receptor antagonist, elinogrel, as an adjunctive therapy for primary PCI for STEMI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.10.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273051100016

    View details for PubMedID 19958867

  • Standardized reporting of bleeding complications for clinical investigations in acute coronary syndromes: A proposal from the Academic Bleeding Consensus (ABC) Multidisciplinary Working Group AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Rao, S. V., Eikelboom, J., Steg, P. G., Lincoff, A. M., Weintraub, W. S., Bassand, J., Rao, A. K., Gibson, C. M., Petersen, J. L., Mehran, R., Manoukian, S. V., Charnigo, R., Lee, K. L., Moscucci, M., Harrington, R. A. 2009; 158 (6): 881-U16

    Abstract

    Clinical trials of antithrombotic agents for the treatment of ACS routinely assess bleeding as a safety endpoint, but variation in bleeding definitions makes comparison of the relative safety of these agents difficult.The ABC Multidisciplinary Working Group, an informal working group comprising clinical researchers and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, and the pharmaceutical industry, sought to develop a consensus approach to measuring the incidence and severity of bleeding complications during clinical trials of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). A meeting of the ABC was convened in April 2008 in Washington, DC, with the goal of developing a consensus approach to measuring the incidence and severity of hemorrhagic complications during clinical trials of ACS. Relevant literature on bleeding was reviewed through a series of short lectures and intensive group discussion.Using existing evidence on bleeding and outcomes as well as clinical judgment, criteria for the assessment of bleeding were developed through expert consensus. This consensus statement divides bleeding-related data elements into three categories: essential, recommended, and optional.The ABC Group recommendations for collection and reporting of bleeding complications provide a framework for consistency in the collection of information on hemorrhagic complications in trials of ACS. Widespread adoption of the statement recommendations will facilitate understanding of the mechanisms of adverse outcomes after bleeding and comparisons of the relative safety of antithrombotic agents, as well as the interpretation of safety results from future studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.10.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273051100001

    View details for PubMedID 19958852

  • Comparison of Site-Reported and Core Laboratory-Reported Creatine Kinase-MB Values in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome (from the International Trial SYNERGY) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Linefsky, J. P., Lin, M., Pieper, K. S., Reist, C. J., Berdan, L. G., Antman, E. M., Goodman, S. G., French, J. K., Guneri, S., Roe, M. T., Newby, L. K., Harrington, R. A., Ferguson, J. J., Califf, R. M., Mahaffey, K. W. 2009; 104 (10): 1330-1335

    Abstract

    The effect of nonstandardized creatine kinase (CK)-MB assays on the assessment of myocardial infarction (MI) end points in multicenter international trials has not been evaluated. We compared the site-reported and corresponding core laboratory CK-MB measures from 5 countries participating in the Superior Yield of the New Strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization, and Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors (SYNERGY) trial. Samples for CK-MB were collected locally, with corresponding samples sent to a core laboratory at enrollment and after recurrent ischemic events, percutaneous coronary intervention, or coronary artery bypass grafting. The measured values were compared to the reported assay upper limits of normal (ULN) used at the site (or core laboratory for the core laboratory samples). The CK-MB results were available locally and from the core laboratory for 913 patients, constituting 4,693 time-matched laboratory values. The agreement between the core and site laboratory CK-MB/ULN ratio was moderate (concordance correlation coefficient 0.45) and varied considerably by geographic location and site. The CK-MB values were elevated (>or=2 times the ULN) by the core laboratory but normal (<2 times the ULN) by local standards in 708 instances (15%). There were 162 MI end points according to the core laboratory values versus 91 MI end points using the site-reported CK-MB data (kappa statistic 0.48). Compared with patients with no MI by the core or site laboratory values, patients with MI, as determined by both the core and the site laboratories, had significantly lower unadjusted 1-year survival rates (80.6% vs 93.5%, p <0.0001). Patients with MI, as determined by the core laboratory but not by the site laboratory, showed a trend toward a lower 1-year survival rate (89.8% vs 93.5%, p = 0.20). In conclusion, a substantial variation in CK-MB ratios and MI outcomes between the site and core laboratory data was observed in the SYNERGY trial. More MI outcomes were identified by the core laboratory, and patients with MI as defined by core laboratory data had lower 1-year survival, making these events potentially clinically important.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2009.06.056

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271998500003

    View details for PubMedID 19892046

  • Autologous CD34+Cell Therapy for Refractory Angina: 12 Month Results of the Phase II ACT34-CMI Study Losordo, D. W., Henry, T., Schatz, R. A., Lee, J. S., Costa, M., Bass, T., Schaer, G., Niederman, A., Mendelsohn, F., Davidson, C., Waksman, R., Soukas, P. A., Simon, D., Chronos, N., Fortuin, F. D., Huang, P. P., Weintraub, N., Yeung, A., Rosenfield, K., Wong, S. C., Taussig, A., Rava, A. N., Sherman, W., Kereiakes, D., Strumpf, R. K., Port, S., Pieper, K., Adams, P. X., Harrington, R. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2009: S1132-S1132
  • Enoxaparin Versus Unfractionated Heparin in Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 1-Year Results From the STEEPLE (SafeTy and Efficacy of Enoxaparin in Percutaneous coronary intervention patients, an internationaL randomized Evaluation) Trial JACC-CARDIOVASCULAR INTERVENTIONS Montalescot, G., Gallo, R., White, H. D., Cohen, M., Steg, G., Aylward, P. E., Bode, C., Chiariello, M., King, S. B., Harrington, R. A., Desmet, W. J., Macaya, C., Steinhubl, S. R. 2009; 2 (11): 1083-1091

    Abstract

    Our purpose was to evaluate long-term mortality and identify factors associated with 1-year mortality in patients who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).While long-term outcomes in PCI patients have been reported previously, limited data are currently available regarding the comparative long-term outcomes in PCI patients who receive enoxaparin versus intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH).We conducted a follow-up analysis of clinical outcomes at 1 year in patients enrolled in the STEEPLE (SafeTy and Efficacy of Enoxaparin in Percutaneous coronary intervention patients, an internationaL randomized Evaluation) trial of 3,528 patients undergoing elective PCI. Patients were randomized to receive either intravenous 0.50-mg/kg or 0.75-mg/kg enoxaparin or intravenous UFH during elective PCI procedures. All-cause mortality at 1 year after index PCI was the main outcome measure.Mortality rates were 1.4%, 2.0%, and 1.5% from 1 month to 1 year, and 2.3%, 2.2%, and 1.9% from randomization to 1 year, after index PCI in patients receiving 0.50 mg/kg enoxaparin, 0.75 mg/kg enoxaparin, and UFH, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified nonfatal myocardial infarction and/or urgent target vessel revascularization up to 30 days after index PCI (hazard ratio: 3.5, 95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 7.3; p < 0.001), and major bleeding within 48 h (hazard ratio: 3.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.1 to 8.5; p = 0.04) as the strongest independent risk factors for 1-year mortality.The 1-year mortality rates were low and comparable between patients receiving enoxaparin and UFH during elective PCI. Periprocedural ischemic or bleeding events were the strongest independent predictors of 1-year mortality. (The STEEPLE Trial; NCT00077844).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jcin.2009.08.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275913800008

    View details for PubMedID 19926048

  • Patterns of management of atrial fibrillation complicating coronary artery bypass grafting: Results from the PRoject of Ex-vivo Vein graft ENgineering via Transfection IV (PREVENT-IV) Trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Al-Khatib, S. M., Hafley, G., Harrington, R. A., Mack, M. J., Ferguson, T. B., Peterson, E. D., Califf, R. M., Kouchoukos, N. T., Alexander, J. H. 2009; 158 (5): 792-798

    Abstract

    Current practice related to the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) complicating coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is uncertain.We examined management of post-CABG AF in the PREVENT-IV trial, and we explored patterns of use of postoperative rhythm versus rate control and anticoagulation for AF by geographic region and type of site. We also compared outcomes of patients who developed post-CABG AF (663) with those who did not (2,131).The incidence of AF was 24%. Post-CABG AF was treated with a rhythm control strategy in 81% of patients and with warfarin in 23% of patients. Although there were significant variations across sites in the management of post-CABG AF, patterns of use of postoperative rhythm versus rate control and anticoagulation did not differ by geographic region or by whether or not the enrolling site was an academic institution. Mortality was higher in patients with post-CABG AF than patients without AF at 30 days (1.5% vs 0.7%, P = .01) but not at 3 years (6.9% vs 4.9%, P = .41). There was a trend toward a higher risk of mortality or stroke at 30 days in patients with AF (2.4% vs 1.9%, P = .08).Although a rhythm control strategy was used in most of the patients in this trial and the overall rate of use of warfarin was low, the significance of these findings is uncertain because of the lack of data from randomized clinical trials. The substantial variations in the management of post-CABG AF across sites are likely because of definitive data on the most effective therapies, highlighting the need for clinical trials on rate versus rhythm control and on anticoagulation for AF in this setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.09.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271275400016

    View details for PubMedID 19853700

  • Catheter thrombosis and percutaneous coronary intervention: fundamental perspectives on blood, artificial surfaces and antithrombotic drugs JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND THROMBOLYSIS Chan, M. Y., Weitz, J. I., Merhi, Y., Harrington, R. A., Becker, R. C. 2009; 28 (3): 366-380

    Abstract

    Recent reports of catheter thrombosis among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have had a significant impact on the development of new antithrombotic therapies. The overall incidence of this complication is unknown, mainly because of underreporting in contemporary clinical trials of coronary intervention. The etiology and pathophysiology of catheter thrombosis is also poorly understood. Introduction of a catheter or guidewire may not provoke the intense thrombotic response that follows angioplasty or stenting, but factors such as catheter materials and device size, equipment surface properties, flow conditions, procedural time and complexity, as well as the antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs administered during the procedure influence the likelihood, rate and clinical impact of thrombosis. The crucial role of cellular interactions involving tissue-factor bearing cells and platelets in the process of thrombosis also needs to be critically explored when considering blood contact with an exogenous material. Focusing on the inherently prothrombotic environment of percutaneous coronary intervention, we review the physiologic underpinnings of catheter and guidewire thrombosis, and explore the effect of antithrombotic drugs at the interface between blood and material surfaces. We also propose a clinical classification for the diagnosis and investigation of catheter thrombosis in clinical trials of anticoagulant therapy and PCI.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11239-009-0375-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269860600021

    View details for PubMedID 19597766

  • Ticagrelor versus Clopidogrel in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Wallentin, L., Becker, R. C., Budaj, A., Cannon, C. P., Emanuelsson, H., Held, C., Horrow, J., Husted, S., James, S., Katus, H., Mahaffey, K. W., Scirica, B. M., Skene, A., Steg, P. G., Storey, R. F., Harrington, R. A. 2009; 361 (11): 1045-1057

    Abstract

    Ticagrelor is an oral, reversible, direct-acting inhibitor of the adenosine diphosphate receptor P2Y12 that has a more rapid onset and more pronounced platelet inhibition than clopidogrel.In this multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial, we compared ticagrelor (180-mg loading dose, 90 mg twice daily thereafter) and clopidogrel (300-to-600-mg loading dose, 75 mg daily thereafter) for the prevention of cardiovascular events in 18,624 patients admitted to the hospital with an acute coronary syndrome, with or without ST-segment elevation.At 12 months, the primary end point--a composite of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke--had occurred in 9.8% of patients receiving ticagrelor as compared with 11.7% of those receiving clopidogrel (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77 to 0.92; P<0.001). Predefined hierarchical testing of secondary end points showed significant differences in the rates of other composite end points, as well as myocardial infarction alone (5.8% in the ticagrelor group vs. 6.9% in the clopidogrel group, P=0.005) and death from vascular causes (4.0% vs. 5.1%, P=0.001) but not stroke alone (1.5% vs. 1.3%, P=0.22). The rate of death from any cause was also reduced with ticagrelor (4.5%, vs. 5.9% with clopidogrel; P<0.001). No significant difference in the rates of major bleeding was found between the ticagrelor and clopidogrel groups (11.6% and 11.2%, respectively; P=0.43), but ticagrelor was associated with a higher rate of major bleeding not related to coronary-artery bypass grafting (4.5% vs. 3.8%, P=0.03), including more instances of fatal intracranial bleeding and fewer of fatal bleeding of other types.In patients who have an acute coronary syndrome with or without ST-segment elevation, treatment with ticagrelor as compared with clopidogrel significantly reduced the rate of death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke without an increase in the rate of overall major bleeding but with an increase in the rate of non-procedure-related bleeding. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00391872.)

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa0904327

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269659400007

    View details for PubMedID 19717846

  • Antithrombotics in Acute Coronary Syndromes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Bonaca, M. P., Steg, P. G., Feldman, L. J., Canales, J. F., Ferguson, J. J., Wallentin, L., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Giugliano, R. P. 2009; 54 (11): 969-984

    Abstract

    Antithrombotic agents are an integral component of the medical regimens and interventional strategies currently recommended to reduce thrombotic complications in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Despite great advances with these therapies, associated high risks for thrombosis and hemorrhage remain as the result of complex interactions involving patient comorbidities, drug combinations, multifaceted dosing adjustments, and the intricacies of the care environment. As such, the optimal combinations of antithrombotic therapies, their timing, and appropriate targeted subgroups remain the focus of intense research. During the last several years a number of new antithrombotic treatments have been introduced, and new data regarding established therapies have come to light. Although treatment guidelines include the most current available data, subsequent findings can be challenging to integrate. This challenge is compounded by the complexity associated with different efficacy and safety measures and the variability in study populations, presenting syndromes, physician, and patient preferences. In this work we review recent data regarding clinically available antiplatelet and anticoagulation agents used in the treatment of patients with ACS. We address issues including relative efficacy, safety, and timing of therapies with respect to conservative and invasive treatment strategies. In specific cases we will highlight remaining questions and controversies and ongoing trials, which will hopefully shed light in these areas. In addition to reviewing existing agents, we take a look forward at the most promising new antithrombotics currently in late-stage clinical development and their potential role in the context of ACS management.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.03.083

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269477500001

    View details for PubMedID 19729112

  • The Thrombin Receptor Antagonist for Clinical Event Reduction in Acute Coronary Syndrome (TRA.CER) trial: study design and rationale AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Harrington, R. A., Van de Werf, F., Armstrong, P. W., Aylward, P., Veltri, E., Mahaffey, K. W., Moliterno, D. J., Strony, J., Wallentin, L., White, H. D., Diaz, R., Huber, K., Nicolau, J. C., Carlos Prieto, J., Isaza, D., Widimsky, P., Grande, P., Nieminen, M., Montalescot, G., Bode, C., Wong, L., Ofner, P., Lewis, B. S., Ambrosio, G., Valgimigli, M., Ogawa, H., Yamaguchi, J., Jukema, J. W., Cornel, J. H., Nordrehaug, J. E., Ruzyllo, W., Providencia, L., Tan, H., Dalby, A., Seung-Jung, P., Betriu, A., Cequier, A., Held, C., Pfisterer, M., Ming-Fong, C., Timurkaynak, T., Storey, R. F., Chen, E., Hudson, M. P., Lincoff, A. M., Morrow, D. A., Tricoci, P., Whellan, D. 2009; 158 (3): 327-U5

    Abstract

    The protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), the main platelet receptor for thrombin, represents a novel target for treatment of arterial thrombosis, and SCH 530348 is an orally active, selective, competitive PAR-1 antagonist. We designed TRA*CER to evaluate the efficacy and safety of SCH 530348 compared with placebo in addition to standard of care in patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and high-risk features.TRA*CER is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III trial with an original estimated sample size of 10,000 subjects. Our primary objective is to demonstrate that SCH 530348 in addition to standard of care will reduce the incidence of the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, recurrent ischemia with rehospitalization, and urgent coronary revascularization compared with standard of care alone. Our key secondary objective is to determine whether SCH 530348 will reduce the composite of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke compared with standard of care alone. Secondary objectives related to safety are the composite of moderate and severe GUSTO bleeding and clinically significant TIMI bleeding. The trial will continue until a predetermined minimum number of centrally adjudicated primary and key secondary end point events have occurred and all subjects have participated in the study for at least 1 year. The TRA*CER trial is part of the large phase III SCH 530348 development program that includes a concomitant evaluation in secondary prevention.TRA*CER will define efficacy and safety of the novel platelet PAR-1 inhibitor SCH 530348 in the treatment of high-risk patients with NSTE ACS in the setting of current treatment strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.07.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269641200002

    View details for PubMedID 19699853

  • Sex Differences in Mortality Following Acute Coronary Syndromes JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Berger, J. S., Elliott, L., Gallup, D., Roe, M., Granger, C. B., Armstrong, P. W., Simes, R. J., White, H. D., Van de Werf, F., Topol, E. J., Hochman, J. S., Newby, L. K., Harrington, R. A., Califf, R. M., Becker, R. C., Douglas, P. S. 2009; 302 (8): 874-882

    Abstract

    Conflicting information exists about whether sex differences modulate short-term mortality following acute coronary syndromes (ACS).To investigate the relationship between sex and 30-day mortality in ACS, and to determine whether this relationship was modified by clinical syndrome or coronary anatomy using a large database across the spectrum of ACS and adjusting for potentially confounding clinical covariates.A convenience sample of patients pooled from 11 independent, international, randomized ACS clinical trials between 1993 and 2006 whose databases are maintained at the Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina. Of 136 247 patients, 38 048 (28%) were women; 102 004 (26% women) with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), 14 466 (29% women) with non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and 19 777 (40% women) with unstable angina.Thirty-day mortality following ACS.Thirty-day mortality was 9.6% in women and 5.3% in men (odds ratio [OR], 1.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.83-2.00). After multivariable adjustment, mortality was not significantly different between women and men (adjusted OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.99-1.15). A significant sex by type of ACS interaction was demonstrated (P < .001). In STEMI, 30-day mortality was higher among women (adjusted OR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.24), whereas in NSTEMI (adjusted OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.95) and unstable angina, mortality was lower among women (adjusted OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.43-0.70). In a cohort of 35 128 patients with angiographic data, women more often had nonobstructive (15% vs 8%) and less often had 2-vessel (25% vs 28%) and 3-vessel (23% vs 26%) coronary disease, regardless of ACS type. After additional adjustment for angiographic disease severity, 30-day mortality among women was not significantly different than men, regardless of ACS type. The relationship between sex and 30-day mortality was similar across the levels of angiographic disease severity (P for interaction = .70).Sex-based differences existed in 30-day mortality among patients with ACS and vary depending on clinical presentation. However, these differences appear to be largely explained by clinical differences at presentation and severity of angiographically documented disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269260100021

    View details for PubMedID 19706861

  • Premature Release of Data from Clinical Trials of Ezetimibe NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Blazing, M. A. 2009; 361 (7): 712-717

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268884100015

    View details for PubMedID 19675335

  • Endoscopic versus Open Vein-Graft Harvesting in Coronary-Artery Bypass Surgery NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Lopes, R. D., Hafley, G. E., Allen, K. B., Ferguson, T. B., Peterson, E. D., Harrington, R. A., Mehta, R. H., Gibson, C. M., Mack, M. J., Kouchoukos, N. T., Califf, R. M., Alexander, J. H. 2009; 361 (3): 235-244

    Abstract

    Vein-graft harvesting with the use of endoscopy (endoscopic harvesting) is a technique that is widely used to reduce postoperative wound complications after coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG), but the long-term effects on the rate of vein-graft failure and on clinical outcomes are unknown.We studied the outcomes in patients who underwent endoscopic harvesting (1753 patients) as compared with those who underwent graft harvesting under direct vision, termed open harvesting (1247 patients), in a secondary analysis of 3000 patients undergoing CABG. The method of graft harvesting was determined by the surgeon. Vein-graft failure was defined as stenosis of at least 75% of the diameter of the graft on angiography 12 to 18 months after surgery (data were available in an angiographic subgroup of 1817 patients and 4290 grafts). Clinical outcomes included death, myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for baseline covariates associated with vein-graft failure and to account for the potential correlation between grafts within a patient. Cox proportional-hazards modeling was used to assess long-term clinical outcomes.The baseline characteristics were similar between patients who underwent endoscopic harvesting and those who underwent open harvesting. Patients who underwent endoscopic harvesting had higher rates of vein-graft failure at 12 to 18 months than patients who underwent open harvesting (46.7% vs. 38.0%, P<0.001). At 3 years, endoscopic harvesting was also associated with higher rates of death, myocardial infarction, or repeat revascularization (20.2% vs. 17.4%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.47; P=0.04), death or myocardial infarction (9.3% vs. 7.6%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.77; P=0.01), and death (7.4% vs. 5.8%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.04; P=0.005).Endoscopic vein-graft harvesting is independently associated with vein-graft failure and adverse clinical outcomes. Randomized clinical trials are needed to further evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this harvesting technique.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267976100004

    View details for PubMedID 19605828

  • A new generation of antiplatelet agents CURRENT OPINION IN CARDIOLOGY Sellers, M. B., Tricoci, P., Harrington, R. A. 2009; 24 (4): 307-312

    Abstract

    Since the development and market entry of clopidogrel, a platelet ADP blocker, physicians have had few new antiplatelet options available to them for the treatment of acute and chronic coronary disease, specifically in the setting of acute coronary syndromes, percutaneous coronary intervention, and chronic stent management. Over the years, limitations of current antiplatelet regimens have emerged, establishing a need for novel antiplatelet drugs. This article discusses potential new targets for platelet inhibition and reviews innovative antiplatelet therapies under investigation.There are five main categories of antiplatelet therapies currently undergoing clinical study, consisting of the thienopyridines (P2Y12 receptor antagonists), cyclopentyltriazolopyrimidines (P2Y12 receptor antagonists), anti-von Willebrand factor aptamers, thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1) antagonists, and thromboxane receptor antagonists. Early studies of these agents are discussed.Each of these new antiplatelet therapies has a unique profile that is aimed at improving clinical response with hopes of incremental efficacy and decreased complications, specifically bleeding.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/HCO.0b013e32832e2b44

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267279500006

    View details for PubMedID 19509485

  • Apixaban, an Oral, Direct, Selective Factor Xa Inhibitor, in Combination With Antiplatelet Therapy After Acute Coronary Syndrome Results of the Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic and Safety Events (APPRAISE) Trial CIRCULATION Alexander, J. H., Becker, R. C., Bhatt, D. L., Cools, F., Crea, F., Dellborg, M., Fox, K. A., Goodman, S. G., Harrington, R. A., Huber, K., Husted, S., Lewis, B. S., Lopez-Sendon, J., Mohan, P., Montalescot, G., Ruda, M., Ruzyllo, W., Verheugt, F., Wallentin, L., Darius, H., Simoons, M., Boersma, E., DeLemos, J., Spencer, F. 2009; 119 (22): 2877-U39

    Abstract

    After an acute coronary syndrome, patients remain at risk of recurrent events. Apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, is a novel anticoagulant that may reduce these events but also poses a risk of bleeding.Apixaban for Prevention of Acute Ischemic and Safety Events (APPRAISE) was a phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study. Patients (n=1715) with recent ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome were randomized to 6 months of placebo (n=611) or 1 of 4 doses of apixaban: 2.5 mg twice daily (n=317), 10 mg once daily (n=318), 10 mg twice daily (n=248), or 20 mg once daily (n=221). Nearly all patients received aspirin; 76% received clopidogrel. The primary outcome was International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. A secondary outcome was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, severe recurrent ischemia, or ischemic stroke. At the recommendation of the Data Monitoring Committee, the 2 higher-dose apixaban arms were discontinued because of excess total bleeding. Compared with placebo, apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily (hazard ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 3.48; P=0.09) and 10 mg once daily (hazard ratio, 2.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 4.61; P=0.005) resulted in a dose-dependent increase in major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding. Apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.44 to 1.19; P=0.21) and 10 mg once daily (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.35 to 1.04; P=0.07) resulted in lower rates of ischemic events compared with placebo. The increase in bleeding was more pronounced and the reduction in ischemic events was less evident in patients taking aspirin plus clopidogrel than in those taking aspirin alone.We observed a dose-related increase in bleeding and a trend toward a reduction in ischemic events with the addition of apixaban to antiplatelet therapy in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome. The safety and efficacy of apixaban may vary depending on background antiplatelet therapy. Further testing of apixaban in patients at risk of recurrent ischemic events is warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.832139

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266777900004

    View details for PubMedID 19470889

  • Careers for Clinician Investigators CIRCULATION Harrington, R. A., Califf, R. M., Hodgson, P. K., Peterson, E. D., Roe, M. T., Mark, D. B. 2009; 119 (22): 2945-2950
  • Early versus Delayed, Provisional Eptifibatide in Acute Coronary Syndromes NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Giugliano, R. P., White, J. A., Bode, C., Armstrong, P. W., Montalescot, G., Lewis, B. S., van't Hof, A., Berdan, L. G., Lee, K. L., Strony, J. T., Hildemann, S., Veltri, E., Van de Werf, F., Braunwald, E., Harrington, R. A., Califf, R. M., Newby, L. K. 2009; 360 (21): 2176-2190

    Abstract

    Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are indicated in patients with acute coronary syndromes who are undergoing an invasive procedure. The optimal timing of the initiation of such therapy is unknown.We compared a strategy of early, routine administration of eptifibatide with delayed, provisional administration in 9492 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation and who were assigned to an invasive strategy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either early eptifibatide (two boluses, each containing 180 microg per kilogram of body weight, administered 10 minutes apart, and a standard infusion > or = 12 hours before angiography) or a matching placebo infusion with provisional use of eptifibatide after angiography (delayed eptifibatide). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization, or the occurrence of a thrombotic complication during percutaneous coronary intervention that required bolus therapy opposite to the initial study-group assignment ("thrombotic bailout") at 96 hours. The key secondary end point was a composite of death or myocardial infarction within the first 30 days. Key safety end points were bleeding and the need for transfusion within the first 120 hours after randomization.The primary end point occurred in 9.3% of patients in the early-eptifibatide group and in 10.0% in the delayed-eptifibatide group (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.06; P=0.23). At 30 days, the rate of death or myocardial infarction was 11.2% in the early-eptifibatide group, as compared with 12.3% in the delayed-eptifibatide group (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.01; P=0.08). Patients in the early-eptifibatide group had significantly higher rates of bleeding and red-cell transfusion. There was no significant difference between the two groups in rates of severe bleeding or nonhemorrhagic serious adverse events.In patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation, the use of eptifibatide 12 hours or more before angiography was not superior to the provisional use of eptifibatide after angiography. The early use of eptifibatide was associated with an increased risk of non-life-threatening bleeding and need for transfusion. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00089895.)

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa0901316

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266206000005

    View details for PubMedID 19332455

  • Prior polyvascular disease: risk factor for adverse ischaemic outcomes in acute coronary syndromes EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Bhatt, D. L., Peterson, E. D., Harrington, R. A., Ou, F., Cannon, C. P., Gibson, C. M., Kleiman, N. S., Brindis, R. G., Peacock, W. F., Brener, S. J., Menon, V., Smith, S. C., Pollack, C. V., Gibler, W. B., Ohman, E. M., Roe, M. T. 2009; 30 (10): 1195-1202

    Abstract

    The presence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is associated with higher likelihood of significant coronary artery disease (CAD). We sought to assess the prevalence of PAD, CVD, prior CAD, or pre-existent disease in multiple arterial territories ('polyvascular' disease) in patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome and its impact on adverse events.Data from 95 749 patients enrolled from February 2003 to September 2006 at 484 sites in the CRUSADE registry were analysed. Patients were categorized as having prior 0, 1, 2, or 3 affected arterial beds. The rates of in-hospital mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, and congestive heart failure were analysed, as were the rates of non-bypass surgery-related red blood cell transfusion and major bleeding. On presentation, 11,345 (11.9%) patients had established PAD, 9973 (10.4%) had documented CVD, and 41,404 (43.2%) had prior CAD. In this cohort, 0, 1, 2, and 3 arterial bed disease before presentation was present in 46 814 (48.9%, 95% CI 48.6-49.2%), 36 704 (38.3%, 95% CI 37.8-39.0%), 10 675 (11.2%, 95% CI 10.9-11.9%), and 1556 (1.6%, 95% CI 1.5-1.8%) patients, respectively. The rates of ischaemic events increased with the number of affected vascular beds. The adjusted odds ratio for the composite of in-hospital ischaemic events for pre-existent disease in 1, 2, or 3 arterial beds (compared with 0 arterial bed involvement) increased from 1.07 to 1.26 to 1.31 (P < 0.001). Similarly, the adjusted odds ratio for transfusion increased with greater disease burden from 1.11 to 1.28 to 1.30 (P < 0.001), although the adjusted rates of protocol-defined non-bypass surgery-related major bleeding did not.Prior polyvascular disease increases the risk of in-hospital adverse events, including mortality. Identification of these patients in clinical trial and real world populations may provide an opportunity to reduce their excess risk with intensive secondary prevention efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp099

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266115200009

    View details for PubMedID 19339264

  • Incidence, distribution, and prognostic impact of occluded culprit arteries among patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes undergoing diagnostic angiography AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Wang, T. Y., Zhang, M., Fu, Y., Armstrong, P. W., Newby, L. K., Gibson, C. M., Moliterno, D. J., de Werf, F. V., White, H. D., Harrington, R. A., Roe, M. T. 2009; 157 (4): 716-723

    Abstract

    Because acute occlusion of coronary arteries supplying the inferolateral myocardium frequently eludes standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnosis, these patients may present as non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS).We examined culprit artery occlusion among 1,957 NSTE-ACS patients in the Platelet IIb/IIIa Antagonism for the Reduction of Acute Coronary Syndrome Events in a Global Organization Network trial who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. We compared baseline characteristics, electrocardiographic findings, in-hospital treatment, and long-term outcomes between patients with and without occluded culprit arteries.The culprit artery was occluded in 528 (27%) patients. Culprit lesions were more frequently identified in the inferolateral territory among patients with an occluded culprit artery (63%) compared with those with a nonoccluded artery (45%, P < .0001). Patients with an occluded culprit artery were younger, more often male, and more likely to have had a prior myocardial infarction. Despite similar in-hospital treatment, patients with an occluded culprit artery had larger infarcts (median peak creatine kinase-MB 4.3 vs 2.1 x upper limit of normal, P < .0001) and higher risk-adjusted 6-month mortality (hazard ratio 1.72, 95% CI 1.07-2.79).More than 25% of NSTE-ACS patients had an occluded culprit artery on angiography. These patients may represent ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction equivalents; thus, improved early risk stratification techniques would help more rapidly triage these high-risk patients to an early invasive management strategy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.01.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265110100020

    View details for PubMedID 19332201

  • Bleeding risk with AZD6140, a reversible P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, vs. clopidogrel in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in the DISPERSE2 trial INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PRACTICE Husted, S., Harrington, R. A., Cannon, C. P., Storey, R. F., Mitchell, P., Emanuelsson, H. 2009; 63 (4): 667-670

    Abstract

    AZD6140, the first reversible oral P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, exhibits greater and more consistent inhibition of platelet aggregation than the irreversible thienopyridine clopidogrel. As a result of its reversible effect, AZD6140 may pose less risk for bleeding when antiplatelet treatment cannot be stopped at least 5 days before coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery or other invasive procedures. The Dose conflrmation Study assessing anti-Platelet Effects of AZD6140 vs. clopidogRel in NSTEMI (DISPERSE2) trial showed overall comparable bleeding rates with antiplatelet treatment with AZD6140 90 mg twice daily or 180 mg twice daily vs. clopidogrel 75 mg once daily in 984 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes. A post hoc exploratory analysis of bleeding outcomes in the subset of 84 patients undergoing CABG in DISPERSE2 suggests reduced risk for total bleeding (41% and 58% vs. 62%), all major bleeding (38% and 50% vs. 62%), and life-threatening bleeding (22% and 38% vs. 54%) with AZD6140 90 mg (n = 32) and 180 mg (n = 26) vs. clopidogrel (n = 26) respectively. Trends suggested that major bleeding rates were reduced with AZD6140 (combined groups) vs. clopidogrel when treatment was stopped < or = 5 days prior to surgery (39% vs. 63%, p = 0.15) but not when treatment was stopped > 5 days before surgery (50% vs. 60%). This observation is consistent with the reversible binding of AZD6140 to the P2Y(12) receptor. Further prospective studies are planned to assess the relationship between this potential clinical benefit of AZD6140 and the reversibility of its antiplatelet effects.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02030.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264241100020

    View details for PubMedID 19335707

  • Safety and tolerability of SCH 530348 in patients undergoing non-urgent percutaneous coronary intervention: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II study LANCET Becker, R. C., Moliterno, D. J., Jennings, L. K., Pieper, K. S., Pei, J., Niederman, A., Ziada, K. M., Berman, G., Strony, J., Joseph, D., Mahaffey, K. W., Van de Werf, F., Veltri, E., Harrington, R. A. 2009; 373 (9667): 919-928

    Abstract

    An antithrombotic drug is needed that safely reduces cardiovascular events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We therefore assessed the tolerability and safety of SCH 530348-an oral platelet protease-activated receptor-1 antagonist.We randomly assigned patients aged 45 years or older and undergoing non-urgent PCI or coronary angiography with planned PCI to an oral loading dose of SCH 530348 (10 mg, 20 mg, or 40 mg) or matching placebo in a 3:1 ratio in a multicentre international study. Those in the SCH 530348 group who subsequently underwent PCI (primary PCI cohort) continued taking an oral maintenance dose (0.5 mg, 1.0 mg, or 2.5 mg per day), and patients in the placebo group continued placebo for 60 days. The primary endpoint was the incidence of clinically significant major or minor bleeding according to the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) scale. Both investigators and patients were unaware of treatment allocation. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00132912.257 patients were assigned to placebo and 773 to SCH 530348. The primary endpoint occurred in 2 (2%) of 129, 3 (3%) of 120, and 7 (4%) of 173 patients, respectively, in the SCH 530348 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg groups compared with 5 (3%) of 151 patients in the placebo group (p=0.5786). TIMI major plus minor bleeding occurred in 3 (2%) of 136, 5 (4%) of 139, and 4 (3%) of 138 patients given SCH 530348 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg, and 2.5 mg once per day, respectively (p=0.7561).Oral SCH 530348 was generally well tolerated and did not cause increased TIMI bleeding, even when administered concomitantly with aspirin and clopidogrel. Further testing in phase III trials to accurately define the safety and efficacy of SCH 530348 is warranted.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264158700033

    View details for PubMedID 19286091

  • Relation Between Aspirin Dose, All-Cause Mortality, and Bleeding in Patients With Recent Cerebrovascular or Coronary Ischemic Events (from the BRAVO Trial) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Aronow, H. D., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Vallee, M., Graffagnino, C., Shuaib, A., Fitzgerald, D. J., Easton, J. D., Van de Werf, F., Diener, H., Ferguson, J., Koudstaal, P. J., Amarenco, P., Theroux, P., Davis, S., Topol, E. J. 2008; 102 (10): 1285-1290

    Abstract

    Despite aspirin's established role in the treatment of atherosclerotic vascular disease, considerable controversy exists regarding its most effective dosing strategy. In a retrospective observational study, we examined the relation between prescribed aspirin dose (<162 mg vs > or =162 mg/day aspirin) and clinical outcome in 4,589 placebo-treated patients enrolled in the Blockage of the Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor to Avoid Vascular Occlusion (BRAVO) trial over a median follow-up of 366 days. Standard Cox regression analysis was employed because propensity analysis was not feasible. Compared with lower aspirin doses, higher doses were associated with lower unadjusted all-cause mortality (2.9 vs 1.6%, respectively; log rank chi-square 8.6, p = 0.0034). Higher aspirin dose remained independently predictive of lower all-cause mortality in a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model (hazard ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.97, p = 0.037). However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of the composite endpoint death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke (6.1% vs 6.2%, p = 0.74). Higher aspirin dose was a significant independent predictor of any (hazard ratio 1.32, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.55, p = 0.001) but not serious bleeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that aspirin doses of > or =162 mg/day may be more beneficial than those <162 mg/day at preventing death.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.07.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261194000001

    View details for PubMedID 18993142

  • Rationale and design of IMPROVE-IT (IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial): Comparison of ezetimbe/simvastatin versus simvastatin monotherapy on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Cannon, C. P., Giugliano, R. P., Blazing, M. A., Harrington, R. A., Peterson, J. L., Sisk, C. M., Strony, J., Musliner, T. A., McCabe, C. H., Veltri, E., Braunwald, E., Califf, R. M. 2008; 156 (5): 826-832

    Abstract

    Reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) improves clinical outcomes in patients with chronic coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). The combination of ezetimibe/simvastatin produces greater reductions in LDL-C compared to simvastatin monotherapy. The IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-control trial designed to test the hypothesis that the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy, using ezetimibe/simvastatin, will translate into increased clinical benefit on cardiovascular outcomes relative to simvastatin monotherapy in patients with ACS.The study will recruit up to 18,000 moderate- to high-risk patients stabilized after ACS. Patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to once-daily doses of either ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40 mg or simvastatin monotherapy 40 mg. Follow-up visits are at 1 and 4 months, and every 4 months thereafter. If consecutive measures of LDL-C are >79 mg/dL at follow-up visits, the simvastatin dose will be increased to 80 mg in a double-blind manner. The primary end point is the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, rehospitalization for unstable angina, coronary revascularization (occurring at least 30 days after randomization), or stroke. Patients will be followed for a minimum of 2.5 years and until at least 5,250 patients experience a primary end point.IMPROVE-IT will determine whether the addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy, using ezetimibe/simvastatin, improves cardiovascular outcomes compared with simvastatin monotherapy in patients after ACS. In addition, the difference in achieved LDL-C levels between the groups will provide data on whether the target for LDL-C lowering should be reduced further.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.07.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260700100007

    View details for PubMedID 19061694

  • Relation Between Previous Lipid-Lowering Therapy and Infaret Size (Creatine Kinase-MB Level) in Patients Presenting With Acute Myocardial Infarction AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Aronow, H. D., Lincoff, A. M., Quinn, M. J., McRae, A. T., Gurm, H. S., Houghtaling, P. L., Granger, C. B., Harrington, R. A., de Werf, F. V., Topol, E. J., Lauer, M. S. 2008; 102 (9): 1119-1124

    Abstract

    Animal experimental data have shown that lipid-lowering agents reduce myocardial infarct size. This association has not been well studied in humans. We compared infarct size in 10,548 patients in the GUSTO IIb and PURSUIT trials who were (n = 1,028) or were not (n = 9,520) on lipid-lowering therapy before an enrolling myocardial infarction (MI). Patients using lipid-lowering agents before their index MI had smaller infarcts than those who were not using these agents (median peak creatine kinase [CK]-MB 4.2 vs 5.2 times the upper limit of normal [ULN]; p <0.0001). Similarly, in an unadjusted model, patients on previous lipid-lowering therapy were less likely to have a peak CK-MB >3 times the ULN (620 of 1,028 [60.3%] vs 6,486 of 9,520 patients [68.1%]; p <0.001; relative risk 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.93, p <0.0001). In a covariate- and propensity-adjusted multivariable model, the association between pretreatment with lipid-lowering agents and smaller infarct size persisted (relative risk for CK-MB >3 times the ULN 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.99, p = 0.04). In conclusion, patients on lipid-lowering agents before an MI had significantly smaller infarcts. These findings suggest that lipid-lowering therapy may exert additional salutary effects in the setting of acute coronary syndromes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.06.032

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261007500001

    View details for PubMedID 18940276

  • Influence of preoperative renal dysfunction on one-year bypass graft patency and two-year outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Mehta, R. H., Hafley, G. E., Gibson, M., Harrington, R. A., Peterson, E. D., Mack, M. J., Kouchoukos, N. T., Califf, R. M., Ferguson, T. B., Alexander, J. H. 2008; 136 (5): 1149-1155

    Abstract

    Limited information exists on the impact of preoperative renal dysfunction on internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein graft failure and 2-year clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.We studied the impact of preoperative renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance < 60 mL/min) on 1-year internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein graft failure (defined as > or = 75% angiographic stenosis) and 2-year clinical events (death; death or myocardial infarction; and death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization) in 3014 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery enrolled in the Project of Ex-vivo Vein Graft Engineering via Transfection-IV study.Of 2973 patients (98.6%) with preoperative measurement of renal function, 440 (14.8%) had renal dysfunction. Most baseline comorbidities were higher in these patients. Two-year clinical events were higher in patients with preoperative renal dysfunction (adjusted death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization, hazard ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.97-1.50; adjusted death or myocardial infarction, hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.05-1.74; adjusted death, hazard ratio 1.47, 95% confidence interval 0.98-2.21). However, saphenous vein graft (odds ratio 1.02, 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.33) and internal thoracic artery (odds ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.40-1.44) failure were similar in the 2 groups.Although the risk of adverse clinical events is higher in patients with preoperative renal dysfunction, that of internal thoracic artery and saphenous vein graft failure is not. This suggests that factors other than graft failure account for the worse clinical outcomes in this high-risk cohort. Further studies are needed to identify other mechanisms of these worse outcomes so that appropriate measures can be developed to improve long-term outcomes in patients with renal dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2008.02.085

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261162400006

    View details for PubMedID 19026795

  • Impact of perioperative myocardial infarction on angiographic and clinical outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting (from PRoject of Ex-vivo Vein Graft ENgineering via Transfection [PREVENT] IV) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Yau, J. M., Alexander, J. H., Hafley, G., Mahaffey, K. W., Mack, M. J., Kouchoukos, N., Goyal, A., Peterson, E. D., Gibson, C. M., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Ferguson, T. B. 2008; 102 (5): 546-551

    Abstract

    Myocardial infarction (MI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Frequency, management, mechanisms, and angiographic and clinical outcomes associated with perioperative MI remain poorly understood. PREVENT IV was a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of edifoligide in 3,014 patients undergoing CABG. Angiographic and 2-year clinical follow-up were complete for 1,920 and 2,956 patients, respectively. Perioperative MI was defined as creatinine kinase-MB increase >or=10 times the upper limit of normal or >or=5 times the upper limit of normal with new 30-ms Q waves within 24 hours of surgery. Baseline characteristics, in-hospital management, and angiographic and clinical outcomes of patients with and without perioperative MI were compared. Perioperative MI occurred in 294 patients (9.8%). Patients with perioperative MI had longer surgery (250 vs 230 minutes; p <0.001), more on-pump surgery (83% vs 78%; p = 0.048), and worse target-artery quality (p <0.001). Patients with perioperative MI more frequently underwent angiography within 30 days of enrollment (1.7% vs 0.6%; p = 0.021). One-year angiographic vein graft failure occurred in 62.4% of patients with and 43.8% of patients without perioperative MI (p <0.001). Two-year composite clinical outcome (death, MI, or revascularization) was worse in patients with perioperative MI before (19.4% vs 15.2%; p = 0.039) and after (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.76, p = 0.046) adjusting for differences in significant predictors. In conclusion, perioperative MI was relatively common, was associated with worse outcomes, and mechanisms other than vein graft failure accounted for a substantial proportion of these MIs. Further research is needed into the prevention and treatment of perioperative MI in patients undergoing CABG.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.04.069

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258784500008

    View details for PubMedID 18721510

  • Smoking status and antithrombin therapy in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Leung, S., Gallup, D., Mahaffey, K. W., Cohen, M., Antman, E. M., Goodman, S. G., Harrington, R. A., Langer, A., Aylward, P., Ferguson, J. J., Califf, R. M. 2008; 156 (1): 177-184

    Abstract

    Smoking remains a major public health issue. We investigated the incidence of smoking and outcomes in high-risk patients with acute coronary syndromes. Differences in treatment effect of antithrombin therapies were also investigated.Using data from SYNERGY, patients were categorized by their self-reported smoking status. They were followed at 30 days and 6 months for death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), revascularization procedures, stroke, and need for rehospitalization, and at 1 year for occurrences of death.Overall, 9,971 patients were evaluated, of whom 2,404 (24%) were current smokers, 3,491 (35%) were former smokers, and 4076 (41%) had never smoked. Current smokers were younger (median age 61 years, interquartile range [IQR] 52-67) than former smokers (median age 69 years, IQR 63-75) and never smokers (median age 70 years, IQR 64-77) and had fewer additional coronary artery disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia). The 30-day death/MI rate was similar for former versus never smokers (15% vs 13.6%, P = .079) and for current versus never smokers (14% vs 13.6%, P = .585). Adjusted odds ratios for 30-day death/MI in patients receiving enoxaparin compared with those receiving unfractionated heparin were 1.065 (95% CI 0.883-1.283, P = .51) in never smokers, 1.034 (95% CI 0.853-1.254, P = .733) in former smokers, and 0.742 (95% CI 0.582-0.948, P = .017) in current smokers. A significant interaction for treatment and smoking status was found at 30 days (P = .0215), but not at 6 months (P = .1381) or 1 year (P = .1054). One-year unadjusted mortality rates were higher for former versus never smokers (9.1% vs 6.7%, P = .0002) but were similar for current versus never smokers (6.5% vs 6.7%, P = .7226). On follow-up at 30 days, 62.3% (n =1397) of current smokers reported not smoking.Smokers with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome are generally younger and have fewer cardiac risk factors. A significant interaction of smoking and enoxaparin was seen at 30 days, but not sustained at 6 months and 1 year. More than 60% of smokers quit within 30 days of their cardiac event. There was little difference in outcomes from 30 days to 1 year for these smokers who quit versus those who did not.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.02.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257329900025

    View details for PubMedID 18585514

  • Phase 1b randomized study of antidote-controlled modulation of factor IXa activity in patients with stable coronary artery disease CIRCULATION Chan, M. Y., Cohen, M. G., Dyke, C. K., Myles, S. K., Aberle, L. G., Lin, M., Walder, J., Steinhubl, S. R., Gilchrist, I. C., Kleiman, N. S., Vorchheimer, D. A., Chronos, N., Melloni, C., Alexander, J. H., Harrington, R. A., Tonkens, R. M., Becker, R. C., Rusconi, C. P. 2008; 117 (22): 2865-2874

    Abstract

    Whether selective factor IXa inhibition produces an appropriate anticoagulant effect when combined with platelet-directed therapy in patients with stable coronary artery disease is unknown. REG1 consists of RB006 (drug), an injectable RNA aptamer that specifically binds and inhibits factor IXa, and RB007 (antidote), the complementary oligonucleotide that neutralizes its anti-IXa activity.We evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamic profile of REG1 in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, assigning 50 subjects with coronary artery disease taking aspirin and/or clopidogrel to 4 dose levels of RB006 (15, 30, 50, and 75 mg) and RB007 (30, 60, 100, and 150 mg). The median age was 61 years (25th and 75th percentiles, 56 and 68 years), and 80% of patients were male. RB006 increased the activated partial thromboplastin time dose dependently; the median activated partial thromboplastin time at 10 minutes after a single intravenous bolus of 15, 30, 50, and 75 mg RB006 was 29.2 seconds (25th and 75th percentiles, 28.1 and 29.8 seconds), 34.6 seconds (25th and 75th percentiles, 30.9 and 40.0 seconds), 46.9 seconds (25th and 75th percentiles, 40.3 and 51.1 seconds), and 52.2 seconds (25th and 75th percentiles, 46.3 and 58.6) (P<0.0001; normal 25th and 75th percentiles, 27 and 40 seconds). RB007 reversed the activated partial thromboplastin time to baseline levels within a median of 1 minute (25th and 75th percentiles, 1 and 2 minutes) with no rebound increase through 7 days. No major bleeding or other serious adverse events occurred.This is the first experience of an RNA aptamer drug-antidote pair achieving inhibition and active restoration of factor IXa activity in combination with platelet-directed therapy in stable coronary artery disease. The preliminary clinical safety and predictable pharmacodynamic effects form the basis for ongoing studies in patients undergoing elective revascularization procedures.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.745687

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256376200005

    View details for PubMedID 18506005

  • Antithrombotic therapy for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes CHEST Harrington, R. A., Becker, R. C., Cannon, C. P., Gutterman, D., Lincoff, A. M., Popma, J. J., Steg, G., Guyatt, G. H., Goodman, S. G. 2008; 133 (6): 670S-707S

    Abstract

    This chapter about antithrombotic therapy for coronary artery disease is part of the Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: American College of Chest Physicans Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Grade 1 recommendations are strong and indicate that the benefits do, or do not, outweigh risks, burden, and costs. Grade 2 suggestions are weaker as there is uncertainty regarding the benefits, risks and costs such that individual patients' values may lead to different choices (for a full understanding of the grading see the "Grades of Recommendation for Antithrombotic Agents" chapter by Guyatt et al, CHEST 2008; 133[suppl]:123S-131S). Among the key recommendations are the following: for all patients presenting with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndrome (ACS), without a clear allergy to aspirin, we recommend immediate aspirin (162 to 325 mg po) and then daily oral aspirin (75 to 100 mg) [Grade 1A]. For NSTE ACS patients who are at at least moderate risk for an ischemic event and who will undergo an early invasive management strategy, we recommend "upstream" treatment either with clopidogrel (300 mg po bolus, followed by 75 mg/d) or a small-molecule IV glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor (eptifibatide or tirofiban) [Grade 1A]. For NSTE ACS patients who are at least moderate risk for an ischemic event and for whom an early conservative or a delayed invasive strategy of management is to be used, we recommend "upstream" treatment with clopidogrel (300 mg oral bolus, followed by 75 mg/d) [Grade 1A]. For NSTE ACS patients who undergo PCI, we recommend treatment with both clopidogrel and an IV GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor (Grade 1A). We recommend a loading dose of 600 mg of clopidogrel given at least 2 h prior to planned PCI followed by 75 mg/d (Grade 1B). For all patients presenting with NSTE ACS, we recommend anticoagulation with UFH or LMWH or bivalirudin or fondaparinux over no anticoagulation (Grade 1A). For NSTE ACS patients who will undergo an early invasive strategy of management, we recommend UFH (with a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor) over either LMWH or fondaparinux (Grade 1B). For NSTE ACS patients in whom an early conservative or a delayed invasive strategy of management is to be used, we recommend fondaparinux over enoxaparin (Grade 1A) and LMWH over UFH (Grade 1B). We recommend continuing LMWH during PCI treatment of patients with NSTE ACS when it has been started as the "upstream" anticoagulant (Grade 1B). In low- to moderate-risk patients with NSTE ACS undergoing PCI, we recommend either bivalirudin with provisional ("bail-out") GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors or UFH plus a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor over alternative antithrombotic regimens (Grade 1B).

    View details for DOI 10.1378/chest.08-0691

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257151800018

    View details for PubMedID 18574276

  • The primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease CHEST Becker, R. C., Meade, T. W., Berger, P. B., Ezekowitz, M., O'Connor, C. M., Vorchheimer, D. A., Guyatt, G. H., Mark, D. B., Harrington, R. A. 2008; 133 (6): 776S-814S

    Abstract

    The following chapter devoted to antithrombotic therapy for chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) is part of the Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition). Grade 1 recommendations are strong and indicate that the benefits do or do not outweigh risks, burden, and costs. Grade 2 suggests that individual patient values may lead to different choices (for a full understanding of the grading see the "Grades of Recommendation" chapter by Guyatt et al in this supplement, CHEST 2008; 133[suppl]:123S-131S). Among the key recommendations in this chapter are the following: for patients with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE)-acute coronary syndrome (ACS) we recommend daily oral aspirin (75-100 mg) [Grade 1A]. For patients with an aspirin allergy, we recommend clopidogrel, 75 mg/d (Grade 1A). For patients who have received clopidogrel and are scheduled for coronary bypass surgery, we suggest discontinuing clopidogrel for 5 days prior to the scheduled surgery (Grade 2A). For patients after myocardial infarction, after ACS, and those with stable CAD and patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we recommend daily aspirin (75-100 mg) as indefinite therapy (Grade 1A). We recommend clopidogrel in combination with aspirin for patients experiencing ST-segment elevation (STE) and NSTE-ACS (Grade 1A). For patients with contraindications to aspirin, we recommend clopidogrel as monotherapy (Grade 1A). For long-term treatment after PCI in patients who receive antithrombotic agents such as clopidogrel or warfarin, we recommend aspirin (75 to 100 mg/d) [Grade 1B]. For patients who undergo bare metal stent placement, we recommend the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel for at least 4 weeks (Grade 1A). We recommend that patients receiving drug-eluting stents (DES) receive aspirin (325 mg/d for 3 months followed by 75-100 mg/d) and clopidogrel 75 mg/d for a minimum of 12 months (Grade 2B). For primary prevention in patients with moderate risk for a coronary event, we recommend aspirin, 75-100 mg/d, over either no antithrombotic therapy or vitamin K antagonist (Grade 1A).

    View details for DOI 10.1378/chest.08-0685

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257151800020

    View details for PubMedID 18574278

  • Prognostic value of troponins in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes and chronic kidney disease CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY Metioni, C., Alexander, K. P., Milford-Beland, S., Newby, L. K., Szczech, L. A., Pollack, C. V., Kirk, J. D., Christenson, R. H., Harrington, R. A., Gibter, W. B., Ohman, E. M., Peterson, E. D., Roe, M. T. 2008; 31 (3): 125-129

    Abstract

    The prognostic value of cardiac troponins (cTn) in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is debated.We tested the performance of cTnI and cTnT for risk stratification in patients with CKD and evaluated the prognostic significance of cTnI and cTnT elevations by their magnitude across the range of CKD severity.We examined correlations among cTn elevation, CKD, and in-hospital mortality in 31,586 high-risk patients with NSTE ACS included in the Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress ADverse Outcomes with Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines initiative (CRUSADE). Cardiac tropinins I and T levels were categorized as ratios of each site's upper limit of normal (ULN) for myocardial necrosis: normal (cTn ratio < or =1 x ULN), mild (cTn ratio > 1-3 x ULN), and major (cTn ratio > 3 x ULN) elevation. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. Stages of CKD were categorized as normal to mild (eGFR > 60 mL/min), moderate (eGFR 30-60 mL/min), or severe (eGFR < 30 mL/min).Mortality increased more steeply across CKD stages (2.0%-12.9%) than across cTn ratio categories (2.7%-5.4%). In normal or mild CKD, mortality was low regardless of cTn elevations. In moderate CKD, mortality increased incrementally with cTnI (3.3% versus 5.4% versus 7.4%) and cTnT (3.7% versus 5.3% versus 7.3%) elevation. Among severe CKD patients, only major cTn elevations further distinguished risk (cTnI: 10.1% versus 9.7% versus 14.6%; cTnT: 7.0% versus 5.7% versus 14.0%).In patients with CKD, cTnI and cTnT perform equally in differentiating short-term prognosis following NSTE ACS; however, the prognostic impact of cTn is dependent upon the degree of CKD severity.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/clc.20210

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254128600006

    View details for PubMedID 18383049

  • Coronary artery bypass graft failure after on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass: findings from PREVENT IV ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Magee, M. J., Alexander, J. H., Hafley, G., Ferguson, T. B., Gibson, C. M., Harrington, R. A., Peterson, E. D., Califf, R. M., Kouchoukos, N. T., Herbert, M. A., Mack, M. J. 2008; 85 (2): 494-500

    Abstract

    This analysis compares 1-year vein graft patency and major adverse cardiac and cerebral events (MACCE [death, myocardial infarction, or stroke]) in on-pump and off-pump patients enrolled in PREVENT IV (the PRoject of Ex-vivo Vein graft ENgineering via Transfection IV).The PREVENT IV was a multicenter (107 sites) randomized trial of edifoligide to prevent vein graft failure from neointimal hyperplasia in 3,014 patients undergoing primary, isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with at least two vein grafts. One-year angiographic follow-up was completed on 1,920 patients (4,736 grafts) with MACCE follow-up on 99.4% of enrolled patients.In all, 2,377 procedures (78.9%) were on pump and 637 (21.1%) were off pump. On-pump patients had more chronic lung disease (17% versus 11%; p < 0.001), congestive heart failure (10% versus 7%; p = 0.03), lower mean ejection fraction (50% versus 55%; p < 0.001), and worse target artery quality (good 63.8% versus 68.1%; fair 26.4% versus 22.7%; poor 9.8% versus 9.2%; p < 0.001). Vein graft failure (more than 75% graft stenosis) in on- versus off-pump patients was 25.3% versus 25.7% (p = 0.62). After adjusting for differences in significant predictors of vein graft failure (target artery quality, surgery time, endoscopic vein harvest, more than 1 distal anastomosis/graft, and patient weight), the odds of vein graft failure was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.67 to 1.00; p = 0.05) for on-pump versus off-pump patients. One-year mortality for on- versus off-pump patients was 3.3% versus 2.5% (p = 0.30); and MACCE was 15.4% versus 11.3% (p = 0.01). The adjusted hazard ratio for 1-year MACCE was 1.31 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.69; p = 0.01) for on pump versus off pump.Observed saphenous vein failure rate was 25% in both groups. One-year clinical outcomes (MACCE) were better with off-pump than with on-pump CABG, suggesting benefits not related to vein graft patency.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2007.10.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252664900023

    View details for PubMedID 18222251

  • Time to coronary angiography and outcomes among patients with high-risk non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndromes: Results from the SYNERGY trial CIRCULATION Tricoci, P., Lokhnygina, Y., Berdan, L. G., Steinhubl, S. R., Gulba, D. C., White, H. D., Kleiman, N. S., Aylward, P. E., Langer, A., Califf, R. M., Ferguson, J. J., Antman, E. M., Newby, L. K., Harrington, R. A., Goodman, S. G., Mahaffey, K. W. 2007; 116 (23): 2669-2677

    Abstract

    Optimal timing for an early invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome remains unclear. We evaluated the relationship between time from hospital admission to coronary angiography and outcomes in high-risk patients with non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome who underwent angiography within 48 hours of admission.Data from 10 027 patients enrolled in the Superior Yield of the New Strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization, and Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors (SYNERGY) trial were analyzed. Patients were grouped by 6-hour intervals of time from hospital admission to coronary angiography. Primary outcomes were 30-day death or myocardial infarction, in-hospital Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) major bleeding, and blood transfusion. Adjusted estimates of event rates were obtained by use of a multivariable methodology that included possible confounders through baseline and accounted for propensity of time to angiography. The landmark method was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of outcomes for each time period adjusted for baseline and postbaseline clinical events. Overall, 9216 patients (92%) underwent angiography, 6352 (63%) within 48 hours. Unadjusted and adjusted rates of death/myocardial infarction increased with increasing time to angiography. The adjusted odds ratio for death/myocardial infarction in patients receiving angiography in <6 hours was 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.41 to 0.74), whereas after 30 hours, there was no significant benefit compared with further delayed angiography. Major bleeding and transfusion did not vary significantly across time-to-angiography intervals.A decrease in the time to coronary angiography was associated with fewer ischemic outcomes and no increase in bleeding. Randomized clinical trials are needed to provide definitive evidence on optimal timing of coronary angiography but are difficult to design and conduct. Ongoing trials should instead clarify whether delaying angiography to administer aggressive upstream antithrombotic therapies is effective in the current setting of non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome management.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.690081

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251361400005

    View details for PubMedID 18025532

  • Safety, tolerability, and initial efficacy of AZD6140, the first reversivle oral adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist, compared with clopidigrel, in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome - Primary results of the DISPERSE-2 trial JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Cannon, C. P., Husted, S., Harrington, R. A., Scirica, B. M., Emanuelsson, H., Storey, R. F. 2007; 50 (19): 1844-1851
  • Timing of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use and outcomes among patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (Results from CRUSADE) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Tricoci, P., Peterson, E. D., Chen, A. Y., Newby, L. K., Harrington, R. A., Greenbaum, A. B., Cannon, C. P., Gibson, C. M., Hoekstra, J. W., Pollack, C. V., Ohman, E. M., Gibler, W. B., Roe, M. T. 2007; 99 (10): 1389-1393

    Abstract

    Although glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors are recommended for patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines do not specify optimal timing for their initiation. We compared patient characteristics and clinical outcomes in 30,830 patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction included in the CRUSADE initiative (January 2001 to December 2004) who underwent PCI with upstream (>1 hour before PCI) or periprocedural use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors were administered upstream in 43% of patients versus periprocedurally in 57%. Time from arrival to PCI was longer for patients who received GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors upstream (median 25.6 hours) compared with periprocedurally (18.2 hours). Unadjusted incidence of in-hospital death or reinfarction was lower with upstream GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor use (3.8% vs 4.3%, p = 0.046), but after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics, this difference was not statistically significant. Treatment with upstream GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors was associated with a lower incidence of unadjusted death or reinfarction in patients who underwent PCI <12 hours from hospital arrival. In conclusion, in this observational analysis, overall ischemic outcomes were similar between the 2 groups, but clinical trials are needed to solve the controversy over optional timing of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor use.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.12.066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246715900009

    View details for PubMedID 17493466

  • Changes in patterns of coronary revascularization strategies for patients with acute coronary syndromes (from the CRUSADE Quality Improvement Initiative) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Gogo, P. B., Dauerman, H. L., Mulgund, J., Ohman, E. M., Patel, M. R., Cohen, D. J., Saucedo, J. F., Harrington, R. A., Gibler, W. B., Smith, S. C., Peterson, E. D., Roe, M. T. 2007; 99 (9): 1222-1226

    Abstract

    Since the introduction of drug-eluting stents (DESs), patterns of revascularization strategies for patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes have not been assessed. We studied 82,924 patients from the CRUSADE Initiative who presented with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes and underwent coronary angiography at 365 United States hospitals that had capabilities for surgical (coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG]) and percutaneous (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]) revascularization from January 2002 to June 2005. Temporal trends in the use of PCI, CABG, and medical management without revascularization were analyzed with respect to the introduction of DESs. In total, 73,577 patients (89%) had >50% stenosis in > or =1 coronary artery, and there was a significant increase in the use of PCI (vs CABG or medical management without revascularization) during the study period (38.3% vs 52.5%). By quarter 2 of 2005, 80% of patients who underwent PCI received a DES. In total, 18,462 of 25,068 patients (73.6%) with 3-vessel disease (3VD) underwent revascularization and use of CABG decreased for these patients (48.9% to 39.9%, p <0.001), whereas use of PCI increased (51.1% to 60.1%, p <0.001). Factors significantly associated with use of PCI for patients with 3VD who underwent any revascularization included previous PCI, previous CABG, cardiology inpatient care, care at an academic hospital, renal insufficiency, and previous congestive heart failure. In conclusion, coinciding with the introduction of DESs, there has been a significant increase in the use of PCI and, in those patients with 3VD, a decrease in the use of CABG with a shift toward increasing use of PCI. Long-term implications of this shift remain uncertain, especially in patients with 3VD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2006.12.037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246168600010

    View details for PubMedID 17478146

  • Outcomes associated with the use of secondary prevention medications after coronary artery bypass graft surgery ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Goyal, A., Alexander, J. H., Hafley, G. E., Graham, S. H., Mehta, R. H., Mack, M. J., Wolf, R. K., Cohn, L. H., Kouchoukos, N. T., Harrington, R. A., Gennevois, D., Gibson, C. M., Califf, R. M., Ferguson, T. B., Peterson, E. D. 2007; 83 (3): 993-1001

    Abstract

    Secondary prevention medications are beneficial after acute coronary syndromes, but these benefits are less clear after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. We investigated whether greater use of secondary prevention medications after coronary artery bypass graft surgery is associated with improved clinical outcomes.Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery in the PREVENT IV trial (n = 2970) were surveyed for use of antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and lipid-lowering agents after hospital discharge and at 1 year. Patients were categorized based on their percentage use of indicated medications after hospital discharge. Cox modeling was used to determine the association between medication use categories and rates of death or myocardial infarction through 2 years after adjustment for clinical factors, the number of indicated medications, and treatment propensity.Rates of use of antiplatelet agents and lipid-lowering agents were high at discharge and at 1 year, but use of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers was suboptimal. There was a stepwise association between medication use at discharge and patient outcomes (p for trend = 0.014). Patients taking 50% or less of indicated medications at discharge had a significantly higher 2-year rate of death or myocardial infarction (8.0% versus 4.2%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.69; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.55; p = 0.013) than those taking all indicated medications.Greater use of indicated secondary prevention medications after coronary artery bypass graft surgery is associated with a lower 2-year rate of death or myocardial infarction. These data underscore the importance of appropriate secondary prevention measures to improve long-term clinical outcomes after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2006.10.046

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244648100016

    View details for PubMedID 17307447

  • Creatine kinase-MB elevation after coronary artery bypass grafting surgery in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes predict worse outcomes: results from four large clinical trials EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Mahaffey, K. W., Roe, M. T., Kilaru, R., Alexander, J. H., Van de Werf, F., Califf, R. M., Simoons, M. L., Topol, E. J., Harrington, R. A. 2007; 28 (4): 425-432

    Abstract

    To assess the significance of creatine kinase (CK)-MB elevations in outcomes of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) who have undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery.This analysis includes data from 26 465 patients with NSTE ACS enrolled in four major trials. In total, 4626 (17.5%) of patients had CABG within 30 days. Patients were excluded if CK-MB was elevated within 24 h before surgery and there was no CK-MB measured after surgery. Overall, 4401 patients were included in these analyses. The incidence of mortality increased with peak CK-MB ratios of 0-1, >1-3, >3-5, >5-10, and>10x the upper limit of normal measured at the local lab (P<0.001 across categories): 1.1, 2.8, 2.4, 3.1, and 10.8% in hospital; 1.1, 3.0, 2.9, 3.5, and 10.2% at 30 days; and 1.6, 4.4, 4.7, 6.0, and 10.9% at 180 days. Multivariable predictors of 6-month mortality included age, heart rate and randomization, peak CK-MB ratio, time to CABG, prior angina, signs of congestive heart failure and randomization, three- and two-vessel coronary disease, enrolment infarction, ST-segment depression at enrolment, female sex, experimental treatment, and systolic blood pressure.CK-MB elevations after CABG are independently associated with increased risk of mortality in patients with NSTE ACS.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/ehl483

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245177000010

    View details for PubMedID 17267458

  • First-in-human experience of an antidote-controlled anticoagulant using RNA aptamer technology - A phase 1a pharmacodynamic evaluation of a drug-antidote pair for the controlled regulation of factor IXa activity CIRCULATION Dyke, C. K., Steinhubl, S. R., Kleiman, N. S., Cannon, R. O., Aberle, L. G., Lin, M., Myles, S. K., Melloni, C., Harrington, R. A., Alexander, J. H., Becker, R. C., Rusconi, C. P. 2006; 114 (23): 2490-2497

    Abstract

    Selectivity, titratability, rapidity of onset, and active reversibility are desirable pharmacological properties of anticoagulant therapy administered for acute indications and collectively represent an attractive platform to maximize patient safety. A novel anticoagulation system (REG1, Regado Biosciences), developed using a protein-binding oligonucleotide to factor IXa (drug, RB006) and its complementary oligonucleotide antidote (RB007), was evaluated in healthy volunteers. The primary objective was to determine the safety profile and to characterize the pharmacodynamic responses in this first-in-human study.Regado 1a was a subject-blinded, dose-escalation, placebo-controlled study that randomized 85 healthy volunteers to receive a bolus of drug or placebo followed 3 hours later by a bolus of antidote or placebo. Pharmacodynamic samples were collected serially. Subject characteristics were the following: median age, 32 years (interquartile range, 23 to 39 years); female gender, 35%; and median weight, 79 kg (interquartile range, 70 to 87 kg). No significant differences were found in median hemoglobin, platelet, creatinine, or liver function studies. There were no significant bleeding signals associated with RB006, and overall, both drug and antidote were well tolerated. One serious adverse event, an episode of transient encephalopathy, occurred in a subject receiving the low intermediate dose of RB006. The subject's symptoms resolved rapidly, and no further sequelae occurred. A predictable dose-pharmacodynamic response, reflected in activated partial thromboplastin time measurements, was seen after administration of the bolus of drug, with a clear correlation between the peak posttreatment activated partial thromboplastin time and post hoc weight-adjusted dose of drug (correlation coefficient, 0.725; P<0.001). In subjects treated with drug, antidote administration reversed the pharmacological activity of the drug, with a rapid (mean time, 1 to 5 minutes across all dose levels) and sustained return of activated partial thromboplastin time to within the normal range. The activated clotting time followed a similar anticoagulant response and reversal pattern. As anticipated, prothrombin time remained unchanged compared with baseline.These observations represent a first-in-human experience of an RNA aptamer and its complementary oligonucleotide antidote used as an anticoagulant system. The findings contribute to an emerging platform of selective, actively reversible anticoagulant drugs for use among patients with thrombotic disorders of the venous and arterial circulations.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRUCLATIONAHA.106.668434

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243477500013

    View details for PubMedID 17101847

  • Efficacy and safety of enoxaparin compared with unfractionated heparin in high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention in the Superior Yield of the New Strategy of Enoxaparin, Revascularization and Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors (SYNERGY) trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL White, H. D., Kleiman, N. S., Mahaffey, K. W., Lokhnygina, Y., Pieper, K. S., Chiswell, K., Cohen, M., Harrington, R. A., Chew, D. P., Petersen, J. L., Berdan, L. G., Aylward, P. E., Nessel, C. C., Ferguson, J. J., Califf, R. M. 2006; 152 (6): 1042-1050

    Abstract

    Enoxaparin reduces ischemic events more effectively than unfractionated heparin (UFH) in patients treated conservatively for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. The SYNERGY trial compared these agents in high-risk patients undergoing early invasive treatment. Enoxaparin was noninferior to UFH for the 30-day primary end point of death/myocardial infarction (MI), but modestly increased bleeding.This article compares the outcomes of the 4687 SYNERGY patients (47%) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, who were randomized to receive enoxaparin or UFH. Antithrombotic therapy was administered prerandomization in 78%. Crossover (usually in the catheterization laboratory) to the alternative antithrombotic occurred in 14.6% of enoxaparin patients and 2.9% of UFH-treated patients (P < .0001). Stenting was performed in 86.3%. Abrupt vessel closure occurred in 1.3% of enoxaparin patients and 1.7% of UFH-treated patients (P = .318). The rates of death/MI were similar at 30 days (13.1% with enoxaparin vs 14.2% with UFH, P = .289). GUSTO severe bleeding occurred with similar frequency in both groups (1.5% vs 1.6%, P = .688). TIMI major bleeding was more common with enoxaparin (3.7% vs 2.5% with UFH, P = .028). Transfusions were more frequent with enoxaparin than with UFH (6.8% vs 5.4%, P = .047). TIMI major bleeding increased with crossover from enoxaparin to UFH (from 3.7% to 7.8%) and from UFH to enoxaparin (from 2.5% to 8.6%). Statistical adjustment to model reasons for crossover did not affect the overall safety and efficacy outcomes.In high-risk patients undergoing early percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome, enoxaparin avoids the need for monitoring and achieves similar effectiveness to UFH but is associated with more bleeding.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2006.08.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243110400008

    View details for PubMedID 17161049

  • The influence of peripheral arterial disease on outcomes - A pooled analysis of mortality in eight large randomized percutaneous coronary intervention trials JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Saw, J., Bhatt, D. L., Moliterno, D. J., Brener, S. J., Steinhubl, S. R., Lincoff, A. M., Tcheng, J. E., Harrington, R. A., Simoons, M., Hu, T., Sheikh, M. A., Kereiakes, D. J., Topol, E. J. 2006; 48 (8): 1567-1572

    Abstract

    We aimed to evaluate clinical outcomes among peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).A significant proportion of patients with coronary artery disease undergoing PCI have concomitant PAD, which may be associated with worse outcomes.We performed a pooled analysis of 8 randomized PCI trials. We included multicenter PCI trials that compared antiplatelet therapies (EPIC, EPILOG, EPISTENT, RAPPORT, CAPTURE, IMPACT-II, TARGET, and CREDO) and had baseline PAD status recorded. Multivariable analyses were performed with stepwise logistic regression for 7- and 30-day outcomes and Cox regression for 6-month and 1-year events.In our pooled analysis of 19,867 patients undergoing PCI, 1,602 (8.1%) were previously diagnosed with PAD. Patients with PAD had higher incidences of 7-day death (1.0% vs. 0.4%; p < 0.001) or myocardial infarction (MI) (6.8% vs. 5.6%; p = 0.047), 30-day death (1.7% vs. 0.7%; p < 0.001) or MI (7.4% vs. 6.1%; p = 0.05), 6-month death (4.2% vs. 1.5%; p < 0.001) or MI (9.1%, vs. 7.7%; p = 0.048), and 1-year death (5.0% vs. 2.1%; p < 0.001). There was a trend toward higher major bleeding risk with PAD (4.8% vs. 3.9%; p = 0.06). With multivariable analyses, PAD remains a significant predictor of mortality at 30 days (hazard ratio [HR] 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03 to 2.70; p = 0.039), 6 months (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.31 to 2.37; p < 0.001), and 1 year (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.96; p = 0.013).The presence of PAD is associated with higher rates of post-PCI death and MI, and is an independent predictor of short- and long-term mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2006.03.067

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241414600007

    View details for PubMedID 17045889

  • Recent trends in the care of patients with non- ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes - Insights from the CRUSADE initiative ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Mehta, R. H., Roe, M. T., Chen, A. Y., Lytle, B. L., Pollack, C. V., Brindis, R. G., Smith, S. C., Harrington, R. A., Fintel, D., Fraulo, E. S., Califf, R. M., Gibler, W. B., Ohman, E. M., Peterson, E. D. 2006; 166 (18): 2027-2034

    Abstract

    The extent to which national health quality improvement initiatives have altered reported treatment gaps among patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) is unknown. We sought to determine recent trends in adherence to guideline-based therapies for NSTE ACS.We evaluated the treatment of patients with high-risk (positive cardiac markers and/or ischemic ST-segment changes) NSTE ACS enrolled in the Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of the ACC/AHA (American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association) Guidelines (CRUSADE) Quality Improvement Initiative from 2002 through 2004 (a total of 113 595 patients over 11 calendar quarters). We analyzed adherence to guideline-recommended therapies, including medications used in the acute care period (<24 hours after presentation), invasive procedures, in-hospital outcomes, and discharge therapies and interventions.The use of each class I guideline recommendation, as well as overall adherence to the guidelines, improved significantly (P<.001) during the study period. In the acute care setting, the use of antiplatelet agents increased by 5% and beta-blockers by 12%; at hospital discharge, the use of antiplatelet agents increased by 3% and beta-blockers by 8%. Heparin use in the acute care period increased by 6%, largely owing to a 9% increase in the use of low-molecular-weight heparin. Use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in the acute care period also increased by more than 13%. At discharge, clopidogrel use increased by 22%, lipid-lowering agents by 11%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors by 5%. While adherence improved, many patients still failed to receive 100% indicated treatments at the end of the study period.During the 4 years since the initial release of the ACC/AHA guidelines for NSTE ACS, adherence to class I recommendations has significantly improved among hospitals participating in CRUSADE. Still, further improvements are needed for optimal implementation of the these guidelines.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241057300015

    View details for PubMedID 17030838

  • Clinical correlates of long-term mortality after percutaneous interventions of saphenous vein grafts AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Mehta, R. H., Honeycutt, E., Shaw, L. K., Glower, D., Harrington, R. A., Sketch, M. H. 2006; 152 (4): 801-806

    Abstract

    Increasing number of patients undergo percutaneous intervention of saphenous vein grafts (SVGs). However, the clinical factors associated with long-term mortality after SVG interventions are currently less known. Accordingly, the goal of present study was to evaluate clinical correlates of long-term mortality and to develop a simple bedside tool for risk stratification in patients undergoing SVG interventions.We analyzed 1019 patients undergoing SVG interventions from the Duke Cardiovascular Disease Database (1986-2003). Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify baseline variables associated with long-term mortality, and the model variables were then used to construct a nomogram for survival probability at 4 years.At a median follow-up of 4 years, 24% of those undergoing SVG interventions died (interquartile range 2-7 years). Independent correlates of death at follow-up on multivariable analysis included presenting heart rate (hazard ratio [HR] 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), diabetes (HR 1.73, 95% CI 1.37-2.18), presenting heart failure (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.27-2.06), age (per 10-year increase, HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.13-1.46), peripheral vascular disease (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.23-2.04), renal insufficiency (HR 2.01, 95% CI 1.36-2.97), patent internal mammary graft (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.86), body mass index < or = 25 kg/m2 (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97), carotid bruit (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.12-1.85), S3 ventricular gallop (HR 1.83, 95% CI 1.11-3.03), and hypertension (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.04-1.83) (c-index 0.83). Bootstrap validation confirmed excellent internal validity of the model (mean c-index 0.84, 95% CI 0.80-0.85).Long-term survival after SVG intervention is poor, with one fourth of patients dying at median follow-up of 4 years. The nomogram developed using the model variables provides a method for clinicians to advise patients undergoing SVG interventions regarding their long-term prognosis, thereby enhancing discharge and long-term follow-up planning and setting up of realistic expectations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2006.06.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241719300041

    View details for PubMedID 16996861

  • Impact of internal mammary artery conduit on long-term outcomes after percutaneous intervention of saphenous vein graft CIRCULATION Mehta, R. H., Honeycutt, E., Peterson, E. D., Granger, C. B., Halabi, A. R., Shaw, L. K., Smith, P. K., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Sketch, M. H. 2006; 114: I396-I401

    Abstract

    The influence of an internal mammary artery (IMA) graft on long-term outcomes after percutaneous saphenous vein graft (SVG) intervention is currently unknown.To examine the impact of IMA on outcomes in patients undergoing SVG interventions, we analyzed 2119 patients from the Duke Cardiovascular Disease Database (1986-2003) with prior coronary artery bypass surgery undergoing cardiac catheterization who had at least 1 SVG graft. Patients were categorized into 4 groups: group I, SVG intervention and patent IMA; group II, no SVG intervention and patent IMA; group III, SVG intervention without patent IMA; and group IV, no SVG intervention without patent IMA. At a median follow-up of 4.8 years (interquartile range, 2.1 to 8.8 years), adjusted survival rates in groups I, II, III, and IV were 72.8%, 72.3%, 64.5%, and 58.9%, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling showed similar survival for groups I and II (P=0.63) and for groups III and IV (P=0.33). The presence of IMA graft was related to lower long-term mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.82), whereas SVG intervention was not associated with long-term mortality (adjusted HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.10). In contrast, the adjusted event-free rates for nonfatal myocardial infarction were lower in the SVG intervention groups (groups I and III) than in the non-SVG intervention groups (groups II and IV) (HR for SVG intervention versus no SVG intervention, 3.19; 95% CI, 2.18 to 4.66), with the presence of patent IMA conferring no significant benefit on this outcome (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.91 to 2.08).In patients undergoing SVG interventions, survival, but not nonfatal myocardial infarction, is favorably influenced by the presence of patent IMA. In contrast, SVG intervention had no measurable survival benefit but was associated with an increased risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.000349

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238688200064

    View details for PubMedID 16820607

  • Low-molecular-weight heparin compared with unfractionated heparin for patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes treated with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors: Results from the CRUSADE initiative JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND THROMBOLYSIS Singh, K. P., Roe, M. T., Peterson, E. D., Chen, A. Y., Mahaffey, K. W., Goodman, S. G., Harrington, R. A., Smith, S. C., Gibler, W. B., Ohman, E. M., Pollack, C. V. 2006; 21 (3): 211-220

    Abstract

    Both heparin and glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy and early invasive management strategies are recommended by the American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for the treatment of patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS). However, controversy exists about which form of heparin-unfractionated (UF) or low-molecular-weight (LMW)-is preferable. We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of these treatment strategies in a large contemporary population of patients with NSTE ACS.Using data from the CRUSADE Initiative, we evaluated LMWH and UFH in high-risk NSTE ACS patients (positive cardiac markers and/or ischemic ST-segment changes) who had received early (< 24 hours) GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy and underwent early invasive management. In-hospital outcomes were compared among treatment groups.From a total of 11,358 patients treated at 407 hospitals in the US from January 2002-June 2003, 6881 (60.6%) received UFH and 4477 (39.4%) received LMWH. Patients treated with UFH were more often admitted to a cardiology inpatient service (73.6% vs. 65.5%, P < 0.0001) and more frequently underwent diagnostic catheterization (91.8% vs. 85.9%, P < 0.0001) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (69.7% vs. 56.9%, P < 0.0001) than patients treated with LMWH. The point estimate of the adjusted risk of in-hospital death or reinfarction was slightly lower among patients treated with LMWH (odds ratio [OR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67-0.99) and the risk of red blood cell transfusion was similar (OR 1.01, 95% CI 0.89-1.15). Among patients who underwent PCI within 48 hours, adjusted rates of death (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.71-1.85), death or reinfarction (OR 0.93, 0.67-1.31), and transfusion (OR 1.16, 0.89-1.50) were similar. Patients who underwent PCI more than 48 hours into hospitalization had reduced rates of death (OR 0.64, 0.46-0.88), death or reinfarction (OR 0.57, 0.44-0.73), and transfusion (OR 0.66, 0.52-0.84).In routine clinical practice, patients treated with GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors have slightly improved outcomes and similar bleeding risks with LMWH than with UFH. These findings are consistent with current ACC/AHA guidelines but raise important questions about the safety and effectiveness of antithrombotic therapy in real-world clinical practice. Using data from the CRUSADE Initiative, we evaluated low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin (UFH) in high-risk patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS) who received early (<24 hours) glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors and early invasive management. In-hospital outcomes were compared among treatment groups. LMWH was associated with slightly improved clinical outcomes and similar rates of transfusion compared with UFH. Our results support the current ACC/AHA guidelines recommendations but raise concerns about the safety and efficacy of UFH in the setting of background use of upstream GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors for patients with NSTE ACS in routine clinical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11239-006-5708-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237437200001

    View details for PubMedID 16683212

  • Outcomes of patients in clinical trials with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction among countries with different gross national incomes EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Orlandini, A., Diaz, R., Wojdyla, D., Pieper, K., Van de Werf, F., Granger, C. B., Harrington, R. A., Boersma, E., Califf, R. M., ARMSTRONG, P., White, H., Simes, J., PAOLASSO, E. 2006; 27 (5): 527-533

    Abstract

    To evaluate whether there is an association between 30-day mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) included in clinical trials and country gross national income (GNI).A retrospective analysis of the databases of five randomized trials including 50 310 patients with STEMI (COBALT 7169, GIK-2 2931, HERO-2 17,089, ASSENT-2 17,005, and ASSENT-3 6116 patients) from 53 countries was performed. Countries were divided into three groups according to their GNI based on the World Bank data: low (less than 2900 US dollars), medium (between 2900 US dollars and 9000 US dollars), and high GNI (more than 9000 US dollars per capita). Baseline characteristics, in-hospital management variables, and 30-day outcomes were evaluated. A previously defined logistic regression model was used to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and to predict mortality. The observed mortality was higher than the predicted mortality in the low (12.1 vs. 11.8%) and in the medium income groups (9.4 vs. 7.9%), whereas it was lower in the high income group (4.9 vs. 5.6%).An inverse relationship between mortality and GNI was observed in STEMI clinical trials. Most of the variability in mortality can be explained by differences in baseline characteristics; however, after adjustment, lower income countries have higher mortality than the expected.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi701

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235605100008

    View details for PubMedID 16410369

  • Frequency and clinical implications of discordant creatine kinase-MB and troponin measurements in acute coronary syndromes JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Newby, L. K., Roe, M. T., Chen, A. Y., Ohman, E. M., Christenson, R. H., Pollack, C. V., Hoekstra, J. W., Peacock, W. F., Harrington, R. A., Jesse, R. L., Gibler, W. B., Peterson, E. D. 2006; 47 (2): 312-318

    Abstract

    We sought to evaluate the association between discordant cardiac marker results and in-hospital mortality and treatment patterns in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS).Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponins (cTn) are often measured concurrently in patients with NSTE ACS. The significance of discordant CK-MB and cTn results is unknown.Among 29,357 ACS patients in the CRUSADE initiative who had both CK-MB and cTn measured during the first 36 hours, we examined relationships of four marker combinations (CK-MB-/cTn-, CK-MB+/cTn-, CK-MB-/cTn+, and CK-MB+/cTn+) with mortality and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines-recommended acute care.The CK-MB and cTn results were discordant in 28% of patients (CK-MB+/cTn-, 10%; CK-MB-/cTn+, 18%). In-hospital mortality was 2.7% among CK-MB-/cTn- patients; 3.0%, CK-MB+/cTn-; 4.5%, CK-MB-/cTn+; and 5.9%, CK-MB+/cTn+. After adjustment for other presenting risk factors, patients with CK-MB+/cTn- had a mortality odds ratio (OR) of 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75 to 1.38), those with CK-MB-/cTn+ had an OR of 1.15 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.54), and those with CK-MB+/cTn+ had an OR of 1.53 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.98). Despite variable risk, patients with CK-MB+/cTn- and CK-MB-/cTn+ were treated similarly with early antithrombotic agents and catheter-based interventions.Among patients with NSTE ACS, an elevated troponin level identifies patients at increased acute risk regardless of CK-MB status, but an isolated CK-MB+ status has limited prognostic value. Recognition of these risk differences may contribute to more appropriate early use of antithrombotic therapy and invasive management for all cTn+ patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2005.08.062

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234667100007

    View details for PubMedID 16412853

  • Elevated creatine kinase-MB with normal creatine kinase predicts worse outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes: Results from 4 large clinical trials AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Galla, J. M., Mahaffey, K. W., Sapp, S. K., Alexander, J. H., Roe, M. T., Ohman, E. M., Granger, C. B., Armstrong, P. W., Harrington, R. A., White, H. D., Simoons, M. L., Newby, L. K., Califf, R. M., Topol, E. J. 2006; 151 (1): 16-24

    Abstract

    The degree to which elevated creatine kinase (CK)-MB in the presence of normal CK is predictive of outcome is not well understood despite having been studied for decades. This analysis examined whether normal CK with elevated CK-MB in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE ACS) is an independent predictor of worse outcomes. A concomitant goal was to contribute insight to the debate over how patients with NSTE ACS should be managed.Data for 25,960 patients from the GUSTO IIb, PARAGON A and B, and PURSUIT trials were analyzed. Of these patients, 6402 were excluded from primary analysis because of missing (unmeasured) biomarkers. Patients with complete laboratory data (n = 19,558) were grouped by CK and CK-MB results. To confirm the primary analysis results, data from patients with missing biomarkers were used in an imputation model.Patients were categorized in 1 of 4 groups: normal CK + normal CK-MB; normal CK + elevated CK-MB; elevated CK + normal CK-MB; or elevated CK + elevated CK-MB. For the primary outcome, 180-day death, or myocardial infarction, Kaplan-Meier estimates were 14.9%, 20.8%, 14.5%, and 18.2%, respectively. Regardless of total CK, elevated CK-MB was associated with a 25% to 49% increased relative risk of worse outcomes. Findings from the analyses were verified by the multivariable model.CK-MB remains a reliable marker for myocardial necrosis and a strong predictor of worse prognosis. All patients with ACS should have CK-MB measurement to search for cardiac ischemia. Patients with elevated CK-MB should receive aggressive management commensurate with their increased risks.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2005.01.045

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234485100003

    View details for PubMedID 16368286

  • The PRoject of ex-vivo vein graft ENgineering via Transfection IV (PREVENT IV) trial: Study rationale, design, and baseline patient characteristics AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Alexander, J. H., Ferguson, T. B., Joseph, D. M., Mack, M. J., Wolf, R. K., Gibson, M., Gennevois, D., Lorenz, T. J., Harrington, R. A., Peterson, E. D., Lee, K. L., Califf, R. M., Kouchoukos, N. T. 2005; 150 (4): 643-649

    Abstract

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with autologous vein graft (VG) conduit is one of the most frequently performed operations in the United States. Unfortunately, many VGs become occluded during long-term follow-up largely because of neointimal hyperplasia. A novel approach to preventing neointimal hyperplasia is with the double-stranded oligonucleotide edifoligide (Corgentech Inc, South San Francisco, Calif). Edifoligide inhibits E2F, a transcription factor that activates cell-cycle genes responsible for neointimal hyperplasia.PREVENT IV is a phase-III, multicenter, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of ex vivo treatment of autologous VGs with edifoligide in patients undergoing initial CABG surgery. The primary end point is VG failure, defined as death or > or =75% stenosis in a treated VG at 12- to 18-month angiographic follow-up. Secondary end points include major adverse cardiac events through at least 5 years and adverse events through 30 days.Enrollment of 3014 patients from 107 sites was completed on October 22, 2003. The baseline and procedural characteristics of the PREVENT IV population are generally well matched to a contemporary population of patients undergoing initial CABG from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database. Angiographic follow-up is ongoing and scheduled to be completed in March 2005.The PREVENT IV data will establish whether VG pretreatment with an E2F transcription factor decoy, edifoligide, can improve graft patency and reduce the long-term morbidity and mortality of patients undergoing CABG surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2005.05.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232953300004

    View details for PubMedID 16209958

  • Comparison of ST-segment resolution with combined fibrinolytic and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy versus fibrinolytic alone (data from four clinical trials) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Rebeiz, A. G., Johanson, P., Green, C. L., Crater, S. W., Roe, M. T., Langer, A., Giugliano, R. P., Lincoff, A. M., Newby, L. K., Harrington, R. A., Topol, E. J., Califf, R. M., Wagner, G. S., Krucoff, M. W. 2005; 95 (5): 611-614

    Abstract

    We compared combination fibrinolytic plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor therapy with stand-alone fibrinolysis with respect to speed and stability of reperfusion in patients who had acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction; data were obtained from 654 patients in 4 trials (Integrilin to Manage Platelet Aggregation to Combat Thrombosis in Acute Myocardial Infarction, Platelet Aggregation Receptor Antagonist Dose Investigation and Reperfusion Gain in Myocardial Infarction, Integrilin and Tenecteplase in Acute Myocardial Infarction, and the Fifth Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries) that compared thrombolytics plus lamifiban, eptifibatide, or abciximab with standard thrombolysis. We found significantly faster and more stable ST-segment recovery with combination therapy starting at 60 minutes (56.7% vs 48.0% with >/=50% ST-segment resolution, p = 0.03) and sustained over 180 minutes after drug administration; this transient benefit may suggest a time frame when more optimal percutaneous coronary intervention can be performed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.10.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227156400012

    View details for PubMedID 15721101

  • Outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndromes and prior percutaneous coronary intervention: a pooled analysis of three randomized clinical trials EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL Labinaz, M., Mathias, J., Pieper, K., Granger, C. B., Lincoff, A. M., Moliterno, D. J., Van de Werf, F., Simes, J., White, H. D., Simoons, M. L., Califf, R. M., Topol, E. J., Armstrong, P. W., Harrington, R. A. 2005; 26 (2): 128-136

    Abstract

    We sought to characterize the outcomes of patients with a prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who presented with a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS).We analysed the 30 and 180 day outcomes of 3012 patients with prior PCI and 21 154 patients without prior PCI enrolled in three randomized ACS trials (GUSTO IIb, PURSUIT, and PARAGON-B). The median (25th, 75th percentile) interval between the prior PCI and randomization was 647 (123, 1585) days. Patients with prior PCI had significantly more adverse baseline clinical characteristics, left ventricular dysfunction, and multi-vessel coronary artery disease. After adjusting for baseline characteristics and treatment, we found that patients with prior PCI had a significantly lower mortality rate at 30 days [hazard ratio (HR), 0.60; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.45-0.80; P=0.0006] and 180 days (HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66-0.98; P=0.029). However, no difference was observed in the composite of death or myocardial infarction (MI) at 30 days (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.83-1.08; P=0.42) or 180 days (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13; P=0.90). Patients with prior PCI had a higher rate of MI at 180 days (13.3 vs. 12.0%; P=0.045). Prior-PCI patients had lower incidences of in-hospital cardiogenic shock, congestive heart failure (CHF), and atrial fibrillation.Patients with prior PCI who present with non-ST-segment elevation ACS have a lower mortality rate than those without prior PCI.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/eurheartj/ehi061

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228892000007

    View details for PubMedID 15618068

  • Care of non-ST-segment elevation patients: Insights from the CRUSADE national quality improvement initiative AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Ohman, E. M., Roe, M. T., Smith, S. C., Brindis, R. G., Christenson, R. H., Harrington, R. A., Gibler, W. B., Peterson, E. D. 2004; 148 (5): S34-S39

    Abstract

    Acute coronary syndromes (ACS), including non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) ACS, represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the United States. To address this widespread, serious health problem, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) published guidelines for the treatment of NSTE ACS, which include unstable angina (UA) and NSTE myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). These ACC/AHA guidelines are intended to help physicians make appropriate decisions when diagnosing and treating patients with NSTE ACS.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.09.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225160900003

    View details for PubMedID 15514632

  • Antithrombotic therapy for coronary artery disease CHEST Harrington, R. A., Becker, R. C., Ezekowitz, A., Meade, T. W., O'Connor, C. M., Vorchheimer, D. A., Guyatt, G. H. 2004; 126 (3): 513S-548S
  • Antithrombotic therapy during percutaneous coronary intervention - The seventh ACCP Conference on antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy CHEST Popma, J. J., Berger, P., Ohman, E. M., Harrington, R. A., Grines, C., Weitz, J. I. 2004; 126 (3): 576S-599S

    Abstract

    This chapter about antithrombotic therapy during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is part of the seventh ACCP Conference on Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic Therapy: Evidence Based Guidelines. Grade 1 recommendations are strong and indicate that the benefits do, or do not, outweigh risks, burden, and costs. Grade 2 suggests that individual patients' values may lead to different choices (for a full understanding of the grading, see Guyatt et al, CHEST 2004;126:179S-187S). Among the key recommendations in this chapter are the following: For patients undergoing PCI, we recommend pretreatment with aspirin, 75 to 325 mg (Grade 1A). For long-term treatment after PCI, we recommend aspirin, 75 to 162 mg/d (Grade 1A). For long-term treatment after PCI in patients who receive antithrombotic agents such as clopidogrel or warfarin, we recommend lower-dose aspirin, 75 to 100 mg/d (Grade 1C+). For patients who undergo stent placement, we recommend the combination of aspirin and a thienopyridine derivative (ticlopidine or clopidogrel) over systemic anticoagulation therapy (Grade 1A). We recommend clopidogrel over ticlopidine (Grade 1A). For all patients undergoing PCI, particularly those undergoing primary PCI, or those with refractory unstable angina or other high-risk features, we recommend use of a glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa antagonist (abciximab or eptifibatide) [Grade 1A]. In patients undergoing PCI for ST-segment elevation MI, we recommend abciximab over eptifibatide (Grade 1B). In patients undergoing PCI, we recommend against the use of tirofiban as an alternative to abciximab (Grade 1A). In patients after uncomplicated PCI, we recommend against routine postprocedural infusion of heparin (Grade 1A). For patients undergoing PCI who are not treated with a GP IIb-IIIa antagonist, we recommend bivalirudin over heparin during PCI (Grade 1A). In PCI patients who are at low risk for complications, we recommend bivalirudin as an alternative to heparin as an adjunct to GP IIb-IIIa antagonists (Grade 1B). In PCI patients who are at high risk for bleeding, we recommend that bivalirudin over heparin as an adjunct to GP IIb-IIIa antagonists (Grade 1B). In patients who undergo PCI with no other indication for systemic anticoagulation therapy, we recommend against routine use of vitamin K antagonists after PCI (Grade 1A).

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224298900017

    View details for PubMedID 15383485

  • Dynamic prognostication in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: Insights from GUSTO-llb and PURSUIT AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Chang, W. C., Boersma, E., Granger, C. B., Harrington, R. A., Califf, R. M., Simoons, M. L., Kleiman, N. S., Armstrong, P. W. 2004; 148 (1): 62-71

    Abstract

    Risk assessment in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) traditionally focuses on and is limited to admission findings. The objective of the current study was to develop an approach to predicting outcome in NSTE-ACS that could account for the changing nature of risk.In 7294 of 8010 patients with NSTE-ACS and complete electrocardiographic data in the GUSTO-IIb trial, we predicted the mortality probability at days 0-2, 0-30, 3-30, 5-30, and 7-30 using multiple logistic regression. Resulting risk estimates were incorporated into a composite, dynamic model to estimate the effects of changing probabilities over time. These models were validated against an independent sample of 9461 patients from the PURSUIT trial.As time passed after admission, the risk of 30-day death declined in stable patients. This risk, which was 3.72% at baseline, declined to 1.92% in 6-day survivors, and the risk reduction was greatest for those with the highest baseline risk. Importantly, however, the development of inhospital complications modified these trends. The use of dynamic models not only allowed us to estimate early (<48 h) mortality with a high degree of accuracy (C-index of 0.87), but also to continuously update the longer-term prognosis with increasing accuracy: the C-index increased from 0.75 for the day 0-30 model to 0.81 and 0.82 for the composite and day 7-30 models, respectively.Dynamic risk assessment is feasible and reliable. This approach can improve risk assessment and provide valuable guidance for management of patients with NSTE-ACS.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2003.05.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222357700010

    View details for PubMedID 15215793

  • Combined assessment of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow grade, myocardial perfusion grade, and st-segment resolution to evaluate epicardial and myocardial reperfusion AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Giugliano, R. P., Sabatine, M. S., Gibson, C. M., Roe, M. T., Harrington, R. A., Murphy, S. A., Morrow, D. A., Antman, E. M., Braunwald, E. 2004; 93 (11): 1362-1367

    Abstract

    The restoration of epicardial and myocardial flow remains the primary goal of reperfusion therapy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, but the optimal method to assess this goal has not been defined. Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade (TFG), myocardial perfusion grade (MPG), and ST-segment resolution (STRes) were combined to formulate a new measure of successful reperfusion in 649 patients who received pharmacologic reperfusion therapy in 3 recent phase II clinical trials of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiograms and electrocardiograms were analyzed at 60 minutes (before any intervention) after the initiation of reperfusion therapy. The complete restoration of perfusion, or the "trifecta," defined as the presence of TFG 3, MPG 3, and complete (> or =70%) STRes, occurred in 117 patients (18%). The achievement of this trifecta was associated with low rates of 30-day mortality (0% vs 3.9%, p = 0.02), congestive heart failure (CHF) (0.9% vs 7.1%, p = 0.01), and the combination of death or CHF (0.9% vs 10.7%, p = 0.001). When the results were stratified with respect to subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from 60 to 120 minutes, attainment of the trifecta at 60 minutes remained a strong predictor of better clinical outcomes, particularly in those patients who underwent early PCI. The achievement of TFG 3, MPG 3, and complete STRes at 60 minutes after fibrinolytic therapy and before PCI occurred in only 18% of patients but was associated with very low rates of death and CHF at 30 days. This new end point is proposed to evaluate the success of reperfusion therapy in patients who undergo early angiography.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.02.031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221815100006

    View details for PubMedID 15165915

  • Six-month outcomes of percutaneous coronary balloon angioplasty in acute coronary syndromes: Results from the PURSUIT trial CANADIAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Labinaz, M., Kaul, P., Harrington, R. A., Chang, W. C., Kleiman, N. S., Simoons, M. L., Boersma, E., Akkerhuis, M., Califf, R. M., Armstrong, P. W. 2004; 20 (8): 773-778

    Abstract

    Potent inhibition of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor has improved the acute outcome of patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). For patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous balloon angioplasty without coronary stenting in the era of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade, the long-term prognosis is less clear.To examine the six-month outcome of patients who received eptifibatide within a randomized clinical trial and subsequently underwent balloon angioplasty.Patients included in this substudy were enrolled in the Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy (PURSUIT) trial, a randomized study evaluating the efficacy of eptifibatide in reducing the incidence of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) in non-ST segment elevation ACS. During the index hospitalization, 1151 (12.2%) of the PURSUIT patients underwent percutaneous balloon angioplasty without coronary stenting.Eptifibatide was associated with a significant reduction in the adjudicated composite end point of death or MI at six months after randomization in patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) (P=0.037). A trend toward a beneficial effect was evident before the procedure (4.7% versus 6.9%; P=0.13) and at 30 days (12.1% versus 15.3%; P=0.12). The incidence of repeat revascularization was relatively low for patients undergoing PTCA, with no difference observed between the eptifibatide and placebo groups (16.3% versus 14.8%; P=0.51).Eptifibatide was associated with a sustained beneficial effect to six months in patients with ACS undergoing PTCA. It reduced the incidence of preprocedural MI. The rate of repeat revascularization at six months was low and was not significantly altered by eptifibatide.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222287100005

    View details for PubMedID 15229770

  • Association of a pulsatile blood flow pattern on coronary arteriography and short-term clinical outcomes in acute myocardial infarction JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Gibson, C. M., Karha, J., Murphy, S. A., de Lemos, J. A., Morrow, D. A., Giugliano, R. P., Roe, M. T., Harrington, R. A., Cannon, C. P., Antman, E. M., Califf, R. M., Braunwald, E. 2004; 43 (7): 1170-1176

    Abstract

    We hypothesized that recognition of systolic flow reversal (pulsatile flow) after thrombolytic administration on coronary angiography is associated with angiographic and electrocardiogram findings reflecting impaired myocardial perfusion, as well as poorer clinical outcomes.Reversal of systolic flow on Doppler velocity wire recordings has been associated with impaired tissue perfusion on myocardial contrast echocardiography in the setting of myocardial infarction (MI).Patients (n = 1,062) with a patent infarct-related artery were drawn from the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 10, TIMI 14, and Integrillin and Tenecteplase acute MI trials.Pulsatile flow (systolic flow reversal with cessation of antegrade contrast-dye motion or frank reversal of contrast-dye motion during systole) at 60 min after fibrinolytic administration was present in 11.0% of patients. Pulsatile flow was associated with higher corrected TIMI frame counts (slower epicardial flow) (median 40.1 frames, IQ 30 of 63 vs. 30 frames, interquartile 22 of 42, p < 0.0001), a closed microvasculature (TIMI myocardial perfusion grades 0 of 1, 57.1% vs. 37.8%, p = 0.03) and less complete (> or =70%) ST-segment resolution (23.5% vs. 58.9%, p = 0.008). Patients with pulsatile flow had a higher risk of death or reinfarction at 30 days (10.3% vs. 5.0%, p = 0.019). After controlling for age, pulse, blood pressure, anterior MI location, epicardial flow, and creatine kinase, pulsatile flow remained associated with an increased risk of death/MI (odds ratio 3.1, p = 0.006).A pulsatile pattern of flow is associated with impaired myocardial perfusion and poorer clinical outcomes independent of the velocity of antegrade flow in the epicardial artery. This simple and easily identifiable angiographic flow pattern may be useful in clinical risk stratification.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2003.11.035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220640400007

    View details for PubMedID 15063425

  • Improved clinical outcomes with abciximab therapy in acute myocardial infarction: A systematic overview of randomized clinical trials AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Kandzari, D. E., Hasselblad, V., Tcheng, J. E., Stone, G. W., Califf, R. M., Kastrati, A., Neumann, F. J., Brener, S. J., Montalescot, G., Kong, D. F., Harrington, R. A. 2004; 147 (3): 457-462

    Abstract

    Investigations of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibition in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have suggested the efficacy of abciximab in improving clinical and angiographic outcomes, but sample-size limitations and variability in trial design preclude the ability to generalize these results to a broader patient population.Meta-analytic techniques were used to evaluate clinical outcomes from randomized trials comparing GP IIb/IIIa inhibition with placebo or control therapy in primary PCI for acute myocardial infarction (MI).In 3266 patients, treatment with abciximab significantly reduced the 30-day composite end point of death, reinfarction, or ischemic or urgent target-vessel revascularization (TVR; odds ratio [OR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.40-0.72), with trends toward reduced 30-day death and death or reinfarction. Abciximab resulted in an increased likelihood of major bleeding (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11-2.72). By 6 months, abciximab significantly reduced the occurrence of death, reinfarction, or any TVR (OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.67-0.97), and there were positive trends favoring a decrease in mortality alone and the composite of death or reinfarction.Treatment with abciximab significantly reduces early adverse ischemic events, a clinical benefit that is maintained at 6-month follow-up. These findings support the use of adjunctive GP IIb/IIIa inhibition in primary PCI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2003.08.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220539400017

    View details for PubMedID 14999194

  • Feasibility of endovascular cooling as an adjunct to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (results of the LOWTEMP pilot study) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Kandzari, D. E., Chu, A., Brodie, B. R., Stuckey, T. A., Hermiller, J. B., Vetrovec, G. W., Hannan, K. L., Krucoff, M. W., Christenson, R. H., Gibbons, R. J., Sigmon, K. N., Garg, J., Hasselblad, V., Collins, K., Harrington, R. A., Berger, P. B., Chronos, N. A., Hochman, J. S., Califf, R. M. 2004; 93 (5): 636-639

    Abstract

    In a nonrandomized feasibility study of therapeutic hypothermia in acute myocardial infarction, 18 patients were treated with endovascular cooling (Alsius, Irvine, California) as adjunctive therapy to primary percutaneous coronary intervention to assess measures of infarct size (area under the curve creatinine kinase-MB and technetium-99m single-photon emission computed tomography sestamibi) and the quality of myocardial perfusion (continuous ST-segment monitoring). Periprocedural endovascular cooling successfully decreased core body temperature (median 33.5 degrees C) and was well tolerated, which supports the evaluation of adjunctive hypothermia in pivotal trials to limit infarct size and decrease reperfusion injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2003.11.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220075800027

    View details for PubMedID 14996598

  • Improved speed and stability of ST-segment recovery with reduced-dose tenecteplase and eptifibatide compared with full-dose tenecteplase for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Roe, M. T., Green, C. L., Giugliano, R. P., Gibson, C. M., Baran, K., Greenberg, M., Palmeri, S. T., Crater, S., Trollinger, K., Hannan, K., Harrington, R. A., Krucoff, M. W. 2004; 43 (4): 549-556

    Abstract

    This sub-study of the Integrilin and Tenecteplase in Acute Myocardial Infarction (INTEGRITI) trial evaluated of the impact of combination reperfusion therapy with reduced-dose tenecteplase plus eptifibatide on continuous ST-segment recovery and angiographic results.Combination therapy with reduced-dose fibrinolytics and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction improves biomarkers of reperfusion success but has not reduced mortality when compared with full-dose fibrinolytics.We evaluated 140 patients enrolled in the INTEGRITI trial with 24-h continuous 12-lead ST-segment monitoring and angiography at 60 min. The dose-combination regimen of 50% of standard-dose tenecteplase (0.27 microg/kg) plus high-dose eptifibatide (2 boluses of 180 microg/kg separated by 10 min, 2.0 microg/kg/min infusion) was compared with full-dose tenecteplase (0.53 microg/kg).The dose-confirmation regimen of reduced-dose tenecteplase plus high-dose eptifibatide was associated with a faster median time to stable ST-segment recovery (55 vs. 98 min, p = 0.06), improved stable ST-segment recovery by 2 h (89.6% vs. 67.7%, p = 0.02), and less recurrent ischemia (34.0% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.05) when compared with full-dose tenecteplase. Continuously updated ST-segment recovery analyses demonstrated a modest trend toward greater ST-segment recovery at 30 min (57.7% vs. 40.6%, p = 0.13) and 60 min (82.7% vs. 65.6%, p = 0.08) with this regimen. These findings correlated with improved angiographic results at 60 min.Combination therapy with reduced-dose tenecteplase and eptifibatide leads to faster, more stable ST-segment recovery and improved angiographic flow patterns, compared with full-dose tenecteplase. These findings question the relationship between biomarkers of reperfusion success and clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2003.09.039

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188944600008

    View details for PubMedID 14975462

  • Conflict of interest AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Holmes, D. R., Firth, B. G., James, A., Winslow, R., Hodgson, P. K., Gamble, G. L., Popp, R. L., Harrington, R. A. 2004; 147 (2): 228-237

    Abstract

    The clinical research enterprise is increasingly scrutinized, in part because of the issue of conflict of interest. The issue is broad and its implications touch on a wide range of concerns, from the safety of patient care to the viability of a large industry. Numerous constituencies are affected by conflict of interest, and representatives of all of them convened in November 2002 for a one-and-a-half day discussion of the issues as well as possible solutions to both the perception and the actuality of such conflict. Participants included medical journal editors, news reporters, physician investigators, representatives of institutional conflict-of-interest oversight committees, representatives of the medical products industry, and Federal regulators. The resulting manuscript provides a review of the issues as well as desirable ways for each of the players to monitor themselves; each section thus contains provocative recommendations for eliminating conflict of interest to ensure that our vibrant health care system continues to foster exciting new advances to improve patient care.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2003.12.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220253900011

    View details for PubMedID 14760318

  • GP IIb/IIIa blockade in elective percutaneous coronary intervention CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL DESIGN Dery, J. P., Harrington, R. A., Tcheng, J. E. 2004; 10 (4): 387-398

    Abstract

    Cumulative scientific evidence gathered over the past ten years has confirmed the role of platelet GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in reducing ischemic complications of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Recently, mortality data available on more than 20,000 patients enrolled in randomized clinical trials suggest that GP IIb/IIIa blockade also improves short and long-term survival after PCI. Despite convincing arguments, GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors are still inconsistently administered in patients undergoing coronary intervention. The following review will discuss the scientific grounds and the principal controversies surrounding the use of these compounds in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188439200007

    View details for PubMedID 14965200

  • Meta-analysis of survival with platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists for percutaneous coronary interventions AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Kong, D. F., Hasselblad, V., Harrington, R. A., White, H. D., Tcheng, J. E., Kandzari, D. E., Topol, E. J., Califf, R. M. 2003; 92 (6): 651-655

    Abstract

    We performed a cumulative meta-analysis of available studies to evaluate the effect of intravenous platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonists on survival at 30 days and 6 months after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Compounds that block the GP IIb/IIIa receptor substantially reduce myocardial infarctions (MIs) and repeat revascularization. We included 12 trials, which enrolled 20,186 patients in all, in the analysis. Overall, 30-day mortality was significantly reduced with GP IIb/IIIa inhibition (odds ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 0.96, p = 0.024). Although 10 of the 12 trials showed a beneficial effect of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor treatment on mortality, no individual trial detected a statistically significant mortality benefit. The 30-day mortality benefit became significant at the p <0.05 level with addition of the ADMIRAL trial and was further enhanced by the CADILLAC trial. No significant heterogeneity was detected in the collection of trials. At 6 months, the odds ratio was 0.84 (95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.03, p = 0.087). This survival benefit amounts to preventing approximately 1 of every 3 deaths that occur within 30 days after PCI, saving 2.8 lives/1,000 patients treated (number needed to treat, 357). Thus, patients who undergo PCI can expect significantly lower 30-day mortality, in addition to known reductions in nonfatal MI and repeat procedures, with GP IIb/IIa inhibition. There also is increasing evidence that mortality reductions are preserved at 6 months.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S002-9149(03)00816-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185330800001

    View details for PubMedID 12972100

  • Reduction of myocardial ischemic injury following coronary intervention (The MC-1 to eliminate necrosis and damage trial) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Kandzari, D. E., Labinaz, M., Cantor, W. J., Madan, M., Gallup, D. S., Hasselblad, V., Joseph, D., Allen, A., Green, C., Hidinger, K. G., Krucoff, M. W., Christenson, R. H., Harrington, R. A., Tcheng, J. E. 2003; 92 (6): 660-664

    Abstract

    Myocardial ischemic injury complicating acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary revascularization procedures remains an unresolved clinical dilemma. In preclinical studies, treatment with pyridoxal-5'-phosphate monohydrate (MC-1), a vitamin B6 metabolite, has demonstrated cardioprotective effects. Sixty patients scheduled for elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) who had clinically high-risk characteristics for ischemic complications were randomized to treatment with MC-1 or placebo in a 2:1 double-blinded fashion. The primary end point was defined as infarct size as measured by area under the curve creatine kinase MB (CK-MB) enzymes. Secondary end points included periprocedural ischemia as assessed by continuous electrocardiographic monitoring, 30-day major adverse cardiac events, and net clinical safety, which included liver function testing. The primary end point, median periprocedural CK-MB area under the curve, was reduced from 32.9 ng/ml in the placebo group to 18.6 ng/ml with MC-1 treatment (p = 0.038), reflecting a shift in the distribution of CK-MB. By categorical classification, the occurrence of 30-day nonfatal AMI did not differ between groups. There were no deaths, and 30-day composite adverse event rates were similar (17.9% MC-1 vs 15.0% placebo, p = 1.0). There were no significant differences in ischemia parameters per continuous electrocardiographic monitoring, and no safety issues were identified. In this phase II pilot study, treatment of high-risk patients who underwent PCI with MC-1 was associated with a decrease in the total amount of CK-MB released after PCI. These results support the evaluation of MC-1 in pivotal trials of patients at risk for developing myocardial ischemia, infarction, or reperfusion injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0002-91-9149(03)00818-X

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185330800003

    View details for PubMedID 12972102

  • Association between admission white blood cell count and one-year mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Yen, M. H., Bhatt, D. L., Chew, D. P., Harrington, R. A., Newby, L. K., Ardissino, D., Van de Werf, F., White, J. A., Moliterno, D. J., Topol, E. J. 2003; 115 (4): 318-321
  • Distance from the coronary ostium to the culprit lesion in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction and its implications regarding the potential prevention of proximal plaque rupture JOURNAL OF THROMBOSIS AND THROMBOLYSIS Gibson, C. M., Kirtane, A. J., Murphy, S. A., Karha, J., Cannon, C. P., Giugliano, R. P., Roe, M. T., Harrington, R. A., Ohman, E. M., Antman, E. M. 2003; 15 (3): 189-196

    Abstract

    Shorter distances from the coronary ostia to culprit lesions have been associated with a higher incidence of adverse outcomes in ST elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI). As drug-eluting stents are associated with low rates of restenosis and formation of a stable intima, we sought to develop a mathematical model to estimate how far down the coronary artery a drug-eluting stent would have to be placed to theoretically mitigate the risk of proximal plaque rupture.Distances from the ostia to the end of the culprit lesions were planimetered in 1,914 patients from the TIMI 14, INTEGRITI, FASTER and ENTIRE/TIMI 23 trials.The first 60 mm of the coronary artery contained 75% of STEMI culprit lesions. The median distance from the vessel ostium to the end of the culprit lesion was 43 mm (mean 50 +/- 34) and the relative distance from the vessel ostium to the end of the lesion was 29% (mean 33 +/- 17%) of the total culprit artery length. Diabetes was the only baseline clinical characteristic associated with a longer absolute distance to the end of the culprit lesion (46 mm vs. 43 mm, p = 0.03) as well as relative to total artery length (31% vs. 29%, p = 0.04). Median distances from the artery ostium to the end of the culprit lesion were shortest among the left anterior descending culprits (40 mm), followed by circumflex lesions (43 mm) and then right coronary artery lesions (47 mm, 3-way p < 0.0001).The majority of culprit lesions in STEMI are contained within the proximal 30% of the major epicardial coronary arteries, but the distance varies depending upon which epicardial artery is involved. Cumulative distribution functions are presented to allow estimation of the percent of culprit lesions lying proximal to any given distance from the ostium to model the feasibility of prophylactic drug-eluting stenting to minimize the risk of subsequent proximal plaque rupture.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187940500007

    View details for PubMedID 14739628

  • Sustained ventricular arrhythmias among patients with acute coronary syndromes with no ST-segment elevation - Incidence, predictors, and outcomes CIRCULATION Al-Khatib, S. M., Granger, C. B., Huang, Y., Lee, K. L., Califf, R. M., Simoons, M. L., Armstrong, P. W., Van de Werf, F., White, H. D., Simes, R. J., Moliterno, D. J., Topol, E. J., Harrington, R. A. 2002; 106 (3): 309-312

    Abstract

    The prognosis of ventricular arrhythmias among patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes is unknown. We studied the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of sustained ventricular arrhythmias in 4 large randomized trials of such patients.We pooled the datasets of the Global Use of Streptokinase and tPA for Occluded Arteries (GUSTO)-IIb, Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy (PURSUIT), Platelet IIb/IIIa Antagonism for the Reduction of Acute Coronary Syndrome Events in a Global Organization Network (PARAGON)-A, and PARAGON-B trials (n=26 416). We identified independent predictors of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) and compared the 30-day and 6-month mortality rates of patients who did (n=552) and did not (n=25 864) develop these arrhythmias during the index hospitalization. Independent predictors of in-hospital VF included prior hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, prior myocardial infarction, and ST-segment changes at presentation. Except for hypertension, these variables also independently predicted in-hospital VT. In Cox proportional-hazards modeling, in-hospital VF and VT were independently associated with 30-day mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 23.2 [95% CI, 18.1 to 29.8] for VF and HR, 7.6 [95% CI, 5.5 to 10.4] for VT) and 6-month mortality (HR, 14.8 [95% CI, 12.1 to 18.3] for VF and HR, 5.0 [95% CI, 3.8 to 6.5] for VT). These differences remained significant after excluding patients with heart failure or cardiogenic shock and those who died <24 hours after enrollment.Despite the use of effective therapies for non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes, ventricular arrhythmias in this setting are associated with increased 30-day and 6-month mortality. More effective therapies are needed to improve the survival of patients with these arrhythmias.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000022692.49934.E3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176944300009

    View details for PubMedID 12119245

  • Misreporting of myocardial infarction end points: Results of adjudication by a central clinical events committee in the PARAGON-B trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Mahaffey, K. W., Roe, M. T., Dyke, C. K., Newby, L. K., Kleiman, N. S., Connolly, P., Berdan, L. G., Sparapani, R., Lee, K. L., Armstrong, P. W., Topol, E. J., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A. 2002; 143 (2): 242-248
  • Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of all major randomised clinical trials LANCET Boersma, E., Harrington, R. A., Moliterno, D. J., White, H., Theroux, P., Van de Werf, F., De Torbal, A., Armstrong, P. W., Wallentin, L. C., Wilcox, R. G., Simes, J., Califf, R. M., Topol, E. J., Simoons, M. L. 2002; 359 (9302): 189-198

    Abstract

    Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors have been shown to reduce cardiac complications in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The clinical efficacy of these drugs in acute coronary syndromes, however, is still unclear. We did a meta-analysis of all large randomised trials designed to study the clinical efficacy and safety of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with acute coronary syndromes who were not routinely scheduled to undergo early coronary revascularisation.Inclusion criteria were: randomisation of patients with acute coronary syndromes but without persistent ST elevation; comparison of a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor with placebo or control therapy; non-recommendation of early coronary revascularisation during study-drug infusion; and enrollment of at least 1000 patients. Data on individual patients were obtained from all participants in these trials.Six trials, enrolling 31402 patients, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 30 days after randomisation, 3530 (11.2%) patients died or developed a myocardial infarction. At 30 days, a 9% reduction in the odds of death or myocardial infarction was seen with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors compared with placebo or control (10.8% [1980/18297] vs 11.8% [1550/13105] events; odds ratio 0.91 [95% CI 0.84-0.98]; p=0.015). The relative treatment benefit was similar in subgroups of patients according to important clinical baseline characteristics; hence, the absolute treatment benefit was largest in high-risk patients. An unexpected and significant interaction was seen between sex and allocated treatment, with a treatment benefit in men (0.81 [0.75-0.89] but not in women (1.15 [1.01-1.30]). However, once patients were stratified according to troponin concentration, there was no evidence of a sex difference in treatment response, and a risk reduction was seen in men and women with raised troponin concentrations. Major bleeding complications were increased by glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (2.4% [445/18297] vs 1.4% [180/13105]; p<0.0001), but intracranial bleeding was not (16 [0.09%] vs 8 [0.06%]; p=0.40).Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors reduce the occurrence of death or myocardial infarction in patients with acute coronary syndromes not routinely scheduled for early revascularisation. The event reduction is greatest in patients at high risk of thrombotic complications. Treatment with a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor might therefore be considered especially in such patients early after admission, and continued until a decision about early coronary revascularisation has been made.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173350800008

    View details for PubMedID 11812552

  • Comparison of two aspirin doses on ischemic stroke in post-myocardial infarction patients in the warfarin (Coumadin) Aspirin Reinfarction Study (CARS) AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY O'Connor, C. M., Gattis, W. A., Hellkamp, A. S., Langer, A., Larsen, R. L., Harrington, R. A., Berkowitz, S. D., O'Gara, P. T., Kopecky, S. L., Gheorghiade, M., DALY, R., Califf, R. M., Fuster, V. 2001; 88 (5): 541-546

    Abstract

    The Coumadin Aspirin Reinfarction Study demonstrated that combination treatment with fixed dose warfarin (1 or 3 mg) + aspirin 80 mg was not superior to aspirin 160 mg alone after myocardial infarction for reducing nonfatal reinfarction, nonfatal stroke, and cardiovascular death. In this analysis, we examined the importance of aspirin dose in the protection against the secondary end point of ischemic stroke. The comparison arms for this analysis were warfarin 1 mg + aspirin 80 mg versus aspirin 160 mg. In the Coumadin Aspirin Reinfarction Study, 2,028 patients were randomized to aspirin 80 mg plus warfarin 1 mg, and 3,393 were randomized to aspirin 160 mg alone. A predictive model for ischemic stroke was developed using the Cox proportional-hazards model. A reduced Cox proportional-hazards model was developed to test for the effect of aspirin dose on ischemic stroke in predefined subgroups. The incidence of ischemic stroke was lower in patients treated with aspirin 160 mg than in patients treated with aspirin 80 mg + warfarin 1 mg (0.6% vs 1.1%; p = 0.0534). Age, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, and aspirin dose were independent predictors of ischemic stroke. In addition, the highest risk patients, those with Q-wave myocardial infarction and male patients, appeared to receive greater benefit from aspirin 160 mg than from aspirin 80 mg + warfarin 1 mg. The results of this secondary analysis suggest that aspirin 160 mg is more effective than aspirin 80 mg + warfarin 1 mg in preventing ischemic stroke in post-myocardial infarction patients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170652400015

    View details for PubMedID 11524065

  • Initiation of hormone replacement therapy after acute myocardial infarction is associated with more cardiac events during follow-up JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Alexander, K. P., Newby, L. K., Hellkamp, A. S., Harrington, R. A., Peterson, E. D., Kopecky, S., Langer, A., O'Gara, P., O'Connor, C. M., Daly, R. N., Califf, R. M., Khan, S., Fuster, V. 2001; 38 (1): 1-7

    Abstract

    This study explored the association between the initiation of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and early cardiac events (<1 year) in women with a recent myocardial infarction (MI).Observational studies have linked postmenopausal hormone use with a reduced risk of death from heart disease. However, a recent randomized trial of HRT found no long-term benefit, primarily due to an increase in cardiac events in the first year.The Coumadin Aspirin Reinfarction Study (CARS) database contains information on HRT use and menopausal status for women with a recent MI. We classified the 1,857 postmenopausal women in CARS as prior/current HRT users if they took HRT before enrollment, new users if they began HRT during the study period or never users. We assessed the incidence of cardiac events (death, MI, unstable angina [UA]) during follow-up.In our cohort, 28% (n = 524) used HRT at some point. Of these, 21% (n = 111) began HRT after their MI. New users had a higher incidence of death/MI/UA (41% vs. 28%, p = 0.001) during follow-up than never users, largely due to a higher incidence of UA (39% vs. 20%, p = 0.001). After adjustment, new users still had a significantly higher risk of death/MI/UA than never users during follow-up (relative risk [RR] = 1.44 [1.05-1.99]). Prior/current users had no excess risk of the composite end point after adjustment. Users of estrogen/progestin had a lower incidence of death/MI/UA during follow-up than users of estrogen only (RR = 0.56 [0.37-0.85]).Postmenopausal women who initiated HRT after a recent MI had an increased risk of cardiac events largely due to excess UA during follow-up.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169625400001

    View details for PubMedID 11451256

  • Atrial fibrillation and mortality among patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation: Results from the PURSUIT trial AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY Al-Khatib, S. M., Pieper, K. S., Lee, K. L., Mahaffey, K. W., Hochman, J. S., Pepine, C. J., Kopecky, S. L., Akkerhuis, M., Stepinska, J., Simoons, M. L., Topol, E. J., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A. 2001; 88 (1): 76-79
  • Systematic adjudication of myocardial infarction end-points in an international clinical trial CURRENT CONTROLLED TRIALS IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE Mahaffey, K. W., Harrington, R. A., Akkerhuis, M., Kleiman, N. S., Berdan, L. G., Crenshaw, B. S., Tardiff, B. E., Granger, C. B., DeJong, I., Bhapkar, M., Widimsky, P., Corbalon, R., Lee, K. L., Deckers, J. W., Simoons, M. L., Topol, E. J., Califf, R. M. 2001; 2 (4): 180-186
  • Disagreements between central clinical events committee and site investigator assessments of myocardial infarction endpoints in an international clinical trial: review of the PURSUIT study CURRENT CONTROLLED TRIALS IN CARDIOVASCULAR MEDICINE Mahaffey, K. W., Harrington, R. A., Akkerhuis, M., Kleiman, N. S., Berdan, L. G., Crenshaw, B. S., Tardiff, B. E., Granger, C. B., DeJong, I., Bhapkar, M., Widimsky, P., Corbalon, R., Lee, K. L., Deckers, J. W., Simoons, M. L., Topol, E. J., Califf, R. M. 2001; 2 (4): 187-194
  • Shifting the open-artery hypothesis downstream: The quest for optimal reperfusion JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Roe, M. T., Ohman, E. M., Maas, A. C., Christenson, R. H., Mahaffey, K. W., Granger, C. B., Harrington, R. A., Califf, R. M., Krucoff, M. W. 2001; 37 (1): 9-18

    Abstract

    Successful reperfusion after acute myocardial infarction (MI) has traditionally been considered to be restoration of epicardial patency, but increasing evidence suggests that disordered microvascular function and inadequate myocardial tissue perfusion are often present despite infarct vessel patency. Thus, optimal reperfusion is being redefined to include intact microvascular flow and restored myocardial perfusion, as well as sustained epicardial patency. Coronary angiography has been used as the gold standard to define failed reperfusion, according to the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grades. However, new angiographic techniques, including the corrected TIMI frame count and myocardial blush grade, have been used to show that epicardial TIMI flow grade 3 may be an incomplete measure of reperfusion success. Furthermore, evolving noninvasive diagnostic techniques, including measurement of infarct size with cardiac marker release patterns or technetium-99m-sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging and analysis of ST segment resolution appear to be useful complements to angiography for the assessment of myocardial tissue reperfusion. Promising adjunctive therapies that target microvascular dysfunction, including platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors, and agents designed to improve tissue perfusion and attenuate reperfusion injury are being evaluated to further improve clinical outcomes after acute MI. To accelerate development of these new reperfusion regimens, an integrated approach to phase II clinical trials that incorporates multiple efficacy variables, including angiography and noninvasive biomarkers of microvascular dysfunction, should be considered. Thus, as the reperfusion era moves into the next millennium, the open-artery hypothesis is expected to shift downstream and guide efforts to further improve myocardial salvage and clinical outcomes after acute MI.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166238100002

    View details for PubMedID 11153779

  • Enhanced efficacy of eptifibatide administration in patients with acute coronary syndrome requiring in-hospital coronary artery bypass grafting CIRCULATION Marso, S. P., Bhatt, D. L., Roe, M. T., Houghtaling, P. L., Labinaz, M., Kleiman, N. S., Dyke, C., Simmoons, M. L., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A., Topol, E. J. 2000; 102 (24): 2952-2958

    Abstract

    Patients with a recent episode of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome before CABG have higher rates of operative morbidity and mortality than patients with stable coronary syndromes. The efficacy of administering eptifibatide to these patients undergoing in-hospital CABG is unknown.The Platelet Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy (PURSUIT) trial randomized 10 948 patients to receive either eptifibatide or placebo. There were 1558 study participants who underwent in-hospital CABG: 692 received placebo, and 866 received eptifibatide. The main substudy analysis end point was death or myocardial infarction (MI) rates at the 6-month follow-up. The 30-day death or MI rates were 30. 8% and 26.1% for the placebo and eptifibatide groups, respectively (P:=0.041). The benefit of eptifibatide administration persisted through 6-months of follow-up (32.7% versus 27.6% for placebo versus eptifibatide, respectively; P:=0.029). There was a greater reduction in the 6-month death or MI rate for patients who received eptifibatide within 72 hours of CABG (33.6% versus 23.8%; P:=0.002) compared with the >72-hour group (31.6% versus 32%; P:=1.0). The incidence of major bleeding was 56.6% for placebo-treated patients versus 58.2% for eptifibatide-treated patients (P:=0.7).Eptifibatide administration in patients undergoing in-hospital CABG with a recent episode of a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome results in a significant reduction in death or MI that is evident at 7 days and persists through the 6-month follow-up without a significant increase in perioperative bleeding rates.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165813600015

    View details for PubMedID 11113045

  • Management of patients with acute coronary syndromes in the United States by platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition - Insights from the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in unstable angina: Receptor suppression using integrilin therapy (PURSUIT) trial CIRCULATION Lincoff, A. M., Harrington, R. A., Califf, R. M., Hochman, J. S., Guerci, A. D., Ohman, E. M., Pepine, C. J., Kopecky, S. L., Kleiman, N. S., Pacchiana, C. M., Berdan, L. G., Kitt, M. M., Simoons, M. L., Topol, E. J. 2000; 102 (10): 1093-1100

    Abstract

    A multinational, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy, PURSUIT) demonstrated that the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist eptifibatide reduced the incidence of death or myocardial infarction among patients with acute ischemic syndromes without ST-segment elevation. Because of expected differences in practice patterns, a prospectively planned analysis of outcomes as a function of regions of the world was performed. The current study provides a detailed assessment of eptifibatide among the subgroup of patients enrolled within the United States.Patients presenting with chest pain within the previous 24 hours and ischemic ECG changes or creatine kinase-MB elevation were eligible for enrollment. Of the 10 948 patients randomized worldwide, 4035 were enrolled within the United States. Patients were allocated to placebo or eptifibatide infusion for up to 72 to 96 hours. Other medical therapies and revascularization strategies were at the discretion of the treating physician. Eptifibatide reduced the rate of the primary end point of death or myocardial infarction by 30 days from 15.4% to 11.9% (P=0.003) among patients in the United States. The treatment effect was achieved early and maintained over a period of 6 months (18.9% versus 15.2%; P=0.004). Bleeding events were more common in patients receiving eptifibatide but were predominantly associated with invasive procedures. The magnitude of clinical benefit from eptifibatide was greater among patients in the United States than elsewhere in the world.Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor blockade with eptifibatide reduces the incidence of death or myocardial infarction among patients treated for acute ischemic syndromes without ST-segment elevation within the United States.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089157400006

    View details for PubMedID 10973836

  • Immediate coronary artery bypass surgery after platelet inhibition with eptifibatide: Results from PURSUIT ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Dyke, C. M., Bhatia, D., Lorenz, T. J., Marso, S. P., Tardiff, B. E., Hogeboom, C., Harrington, R. A. 2000; 70 (3): 866-871

    Abstract

    The platelet GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide improves outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Patients requiring emergent coronary artery bypass grafting, however, may be at increased risk for bleeding if exposed to eptifibatide. Data from the PURSUIT trial were reviewed to assess this risk in patients undergoing coronary surgery immediately after exposure to eptifibatide.In PURSUIT, 10,948 patients who presented with non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes were prospectively randomized to receive eptifibatide (180 microg/kg bolus plus 2 microg/kg/min infusion) or placebo. A total of 78 patients underwent immediate coronary artery bypass surgery within 2 hours of cessation of study drug (placebo, n = 46; eptifibatide, n = 32). Clinical outcome, bleeding, and transfusion requirements within this subset were examined.Major bleeding was not different between groups, occurring in 64% of patients receiving placebo and 63% of patients receiving eptifibatide. The incidence of blood transfusion was similar as well (57% vs 59%). Postoperative thrombocytopenia occurred less often after eptifibatide exposure. Perioperative myocardial infarction was significantly reduced in patients who received eptifibatide (46% vs 22%, p < 0.05). There was no difference in perioperative stroke (2.2% vs 6.3%) or mortality (6.3% vs 6.5%).Patients may safely undergo coronary artery bypass surgery within 2 hours of discontinuation of eptifibatide. Eptifibatide infusion in the immediate preoperative period had no adverse clinical effects, but did significantly decrease the incidence of perioperative myocardial infarction. Additionally, platelet counts after surgery were higher in the group of patients who received eptifibatide, perhaps indicative of a platelet-sparing effect during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000089447400046

    View details for PubMedID 11016325

  • Dose-finding, safety, and tolerability study of an oral platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, lotrafiban, in patients with coronary or cerebral atherosclerotic disease CIRCULATION Harrington, R. A., Armstrong, P. W., Graffagnino, C., Van de Werf, F., Kereiakes, D. J., Sigmon, K. N., Card, T., Joseph, D. M., Samuels, R., Granett, J., Chan, R., Califf, R. M., Topol, E. J. 2000; 102 (7): 728-735

    Abstract

    Antiplatelet therapy is the mainstay of the treatment and secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemic events. We assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of lotrafiban, an oral platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, as a secondary prevention strategy in patients with cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease.Overall, 451 patients with a recent cardiovascular or cerebrovascular acute ischemic event were randomized in a double-blind fashion to 1 of 5 dosing regimens for 12 weeks: placebo or 5, 20, 50, or 100 mg lotrafiban, both twice daily with 300 to 325 mg/d aspirin. The primary end point was the incidence and tolerability of major and minor bleeding during treatment. Secondary end points included inhibition of platelet aggregation and clinical events. The placebo and lotrafiban 5-mg groups had similarly low rates of minor and major bleeding, but the 100-mg arm was terminated early because of excess major bleeding. Protocol-defined thrombocytopenia (<100 000 platelets/microL) occurred in 5 lotrafiban-treated patients (1.4%, 95% CI 0.2% to 2.7%) and 1 placebo patient (1.1%, 95% CI 0% to 3.1%). Three lotrafiban-treated patients had a nadir platelet count <20 000/microL (0.9%, 95% CI 0% to 1.8%). Lotrafiban produced dose-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation; 5 mg lotrafiban did not differ significantly from placebo, whereas 100 mg inhibited aggregation by nearly 100%.-Lotrafiban provides dose-dependent platelet inhibition when administered to a range of patients with atherosclerosis. The level of platelet inhibition appears to correlate with bleeding risk and drug tolerability.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088748100003

    View details for PubMedID 10942739

  • Design of the blockade of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor to avoid vascular occlusion (BRAVO) trial AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Topol, E. J., Easton, J. D., Amarenco, P., Califf, R., Harrington, R., Graffagnino, C., Davis, S., Diener, H. C., Ferguson, J., Fitzgerald, D., Shuaib, A., Koudstaal, P. J., Theroux, P., Van de Werf, F., Willerson, J. T., Chan, R., Samuels, R., Ilson, B., Granett, J. 2000; 139 (6): 927-933

    Abstract

    Platelets play a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and acute coronary and cerebrovascular syndromes. Inhibition of platelet function by acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) has been shown to reduce the incidence atherothrombotic events in patients with coronary, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular disease. Thienopyridine agents, however, including ticlopidine and clopidogrel, inhibit the adenosine diphosphate receptor and have modestly superior effects compared with aspirin on reduction of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke among a broad group of patients with vascular disease. More effective antithrombotic agents are still required to treat patients at high risk for recurrent vascular events.Lotrafiban, a selective, nonpeptide antagonist of the human platelet fibrinogen receptor (glycoprotein [GP] IIb/IIIa [alphaIIb/beta3 integrin]), blocks the binding of fibrinogen to the GP IIb/IIIa receptor, which is the final common pathway of platelet aggregation. Lotrafiban at doses of up to 50 mg twice daily was well-tolerated in a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study in patients with recent myocardial infarction, unstable angina, transient ischemic attack, or stroke when added to aspirin therapy. On the basis of these results, a dosing regimen was selected for the phase III Blockage of the Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Receptor to Avoid Vascular Occlusion (BRAVO) trial based on pharmacodynamics and drug tolerability. In the pivotal BRAVO study, lotrafiban therapy is being evaluated in patients who have had a recent myocardial infarction, unstable angina, transient ischemic attack, or ischemic stroke, or who present at any time after a diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease combined with either cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease.The efficacy evaluation will be based on a composite end point of clinical events (death by any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, recurrent ischemia requiring hospitalization, or urgent ischemia-driven revascularization). The target enrollment is 9200 patients worldwide. Approximately 700 centers will participate and will be distributed within 30 countries across North America, Europe, Australia, and Asia.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087467600001

    View details for PubMedID 10827369

  • Association between minor elevations of creatine kinase-MB level and mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Alexander, J. H., Sparapani, R. A., Mahaffey, K. W., Deckers, J. W., Newby, L. K., Ohman, E. M., Corbalan, R., Chierchia, S. L., Boland, J. B., Simoons, M. L., Califf, R. M., Topol, E. J., Harrington, R. A. 2000; 283 (3): 347-353

    Abstract

    Controversy surrounds the diagnostic and prognostic importance of slightly elevated cardiac markers in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation.To investigate the relationship between peak creatine kinase (CK)-MB level and outcome and to determine whether a threshold CK-MB level exists below which risk is not increased.Retrospective observational analysis of data from the international Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy (PURSUIT) trial, conducted from November 1995 to January 1997.A total of 8250 patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation who had at least 1 CK-MB sample collected during their index hospitalization.Mortality at 30 days and 6 months, was assessed by category of index-hospitalization peak CK-MB level (0-1, >1-2, >2-3, >3-5, >5-10, or >10 times the upper limit of normal). Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the independent prognostic significance of peak CK-MB level after adjustment for baseline predictors of 30-day and 6-month mortality.Mortality at 30 days and 6 months increased from 1.8% and 4.0%, respectively, in patients with normal peak CK-MB levels, to 3.3% and 6.2 % at peak CK-MB levels 1 to 2 times normal, to 5.1% and 7.5% at peak CK-MB levels 3 to 5 times normal, and to 8.3% and 11.0% at peak CK-MB levels greater than 10 times normal. Log-transformed peak CK-MB levels were predictive of adjusted 30-day and 6-month mortality (P<.001 for both).Our data show that elevation of CK-MB level is strongly related to mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation, and that the increased risk begins with CK-MB levels just above normal. In the appropriate clinical context, even minor CK-MB elevations should be considered indicative of myocardial infarction.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084732400026

    View details for PubMedID 10647797

  • Clinical significance of thrombocytopenia during a non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome - The platelet glycoprotein IIb IIIa in unstable angina: Receptor suppression using integrilin therapy (PURSUIT) trial experience CIRCULATION McClure, M. W., Berkowitz, S. D., Sparapani, R., Tuttle, R., Kleiman, N. S., Berdan, L. G., Lincoff, A. M., Deckers, J., Diaz, R., Karsch, K. R., Gretler, D., Kitt, M., Simoons, M., Topol, E. J., Califf, R. M., Harrington, R. A. 1999; 99 (22): 2892-2900

    Abstract

    The significance of thrombocytopenia in patients experiencing an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has not been examined systematically. We evaluated this condition in a large non-ST-elevation ACS clinical trial, with particular interest paid to its correlation with clinical outcomes.Patients presenting without persistent ST elevation during an ACS were randomized to receive a double-blind infusion of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor eptifibatide or placebo in addition to other standard therapies including heparin and aspirin. The primary end point was death/nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) at 30 days, whereas bleeding and stroke were the main safety outcomes. Thrombocytopenia (nadir platelet count <100x10(9)/L or <50% of baseline) occurred in 7.0% of enrolled patients. The time to onset was a median of 4 days in both treatment arms. Patients with thrombocytopenia were older, weighed less, were more likely nonwhite, and had more cardiac risk factors. These patients experienced significantly more bleeding events: they were more than twice as likely to experience moderate/severe bleeding after adjustment for confounders. Univariably, ischemic events (stroke, MI, and death) occurred significantly (P<0.001) more frequently in patients with thrombocytopenia; multivariable regression modeling preserved this association with death/nonfatal MI at 30 days. Neither the use of heparin or eptifibatide was found to independently increase thrombocytopenic risk.Although causality between thrombocytopenia and adverse clinical events could not be established definitively, thrombocytopenia was highly correlated with both bleeding and ischemic events, and the presence of this condition identified a more-at-risk patient population.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080662900010

    View details for PubMedID 10359733

  • Clinical outcomes of therapeutic agents that block the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa integrin in ischemic heart disease CIRCULATION Kong, D. F., Califf, R. M., Miller, D. P., Moliterno, D. J., White, H. D., Harrington, R. A., Tcheng, J. E., Lincoff, A. M., Hasselblad, V., Topol, E. J. 1998; 98 (25): 2829-2835

    Abstract

    Several platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists have been evaluated in clinical trials. We conducted a systematic overview (meta-analysis) to assess the effect of these compounds on death, myocardial infarction (MI), and revascularization.ORs were calculated for 16 randomized, controlled trials of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. An empirical Bayesian random-effects model combined the outcomes of 32 135 patients. There was a significant mortality reduction by GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors at 48 to 96 hours, with an OR of 0.70 (95% CI, 0. 51 to 0.96; P<0.03), equivalent to a reduction of 1 death per 1000 patients treated. Mortality benefits at 30 days (OR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0. 74 to 1.02; P=0.08) and 6 months (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.10; P=0.67) were not statistically significant. For the combined end point of death or MI, there was a highly significant (P<0.001) benefit for GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors at each time point. The 30-day OR was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.87), or 20 fewer events per 1000 patients treated. For the composite end point of death, MI, or revascularization, there was also a highly significant (P<0.001) benefit for GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors. At 30 days, the OR was 0.77 (95% CI, 0.68 to 0.86), or 30 fewer events per 1000 patients treated. The risk differences for death, death or MI, and composite outcomes were similar at 6 months, indicating a sustained absolute improvement. Similar benefit was seen when trials were subgrouped by therapeutic indication (percutaneous intervention versus acute coronary syndromes).Application of this new therapeutic class to clinical practice promises substantial benefit for both indications.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077606900009

    View details for PubMedID 9860783

  • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors in acute coronary syndromes: Pathophysiologic foundation and clinical findings AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Kleiman, N. S., Lincoff, A. M., Ohman, E. M., Harrington, R. A. 1998; 136 (4): S32-S42

    Abstract

    The pathophysiologic basis for potent platelet inhibition in the acute coronary syndromes has been established. In the setting of PTCA for unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, there are clear data for a benefit of GP IIb/IIIa inhibition, whereas for primary PTCA in evolving myocardial infarction, preliminary data are very encouraging and a large-scale clinical trial is nearly completed. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition as an adjunct to medical therapy for unstable angina is also the subject of encouraging preliminary data, and 3 large-scale clinical trials have just been completed. Preliminary data have also been accrued for GP IIb/IIIa inhibition as conjunctive therapy with thrombolytic agents, and large clinical trials are now commencing.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076408000004

    View details for PubMedID 9778086

  • Relation between inhibition of platelet aggregation and clinical outcomes AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Harrington, R. A., Kleiman, N. S., Granger, C. B., Ohman, E. M., Berkowitz, S. D. 1998; 136 (4): S43-S50

    Abstract

    Despite a clinical trials experience in excess of 30,000 randomized patients, there is no definitive answer or agreement as to the relation between the level of inhibition of platelet aggregation and clinical outcome. Work with abciximab in the setting of percutaneous intervention would suggest that a level of platelet inhibition in excess of 80% provides the most favorable clinical benefit. Whether this applies to the small molecule inhibitors such as eptifibatide, tirofiban, and lamifiban is unknown and will require testing of the hypothesis in large-scale clinical trials. In the acute coronary syndromes, only the peptide and nonpeptide inhibitors have been studied independent of a need for percutaneous intervention. The level of platelet inhibition required to achieve maximal clinical benefit is unknown and awaits data from the large-scale unstable angina and myocardial infarction trials. Issues of combining heparin with GP IIb/IIIa inhibition and the platelet-altering effects of thrombolysis must be considered when examining what might be the optimal level of platelet inhibition that provides maximal efficacy while maintaining safety. Long-term therapy with the oral platelet inhibitors poses a particular challenge in determining an optimal level of treatment that renders clinical effectiveness while preserving safety. Large, ongoing clinical trials with these agents should provide insight into this question. Finally, given the complexity of using such potent therapies in any individual patient, there is a need for improved monitoring of the platelet inhibitory effect. Standard platelet aggregometry has its problems and limitations, as described, and is not a test that has wide-scale applicability. Whole blood aggregometry and other methods of rapidly assessing platelet function at the point of care have promise in this arena. In a clinical trial, such technology might allow better delineation of the population's pharmacodynamic response to an agent because it could be more widely applied and therefore more patients would be studied. In clinical practice, patients could be dosed individually so that a range of platelet inhibition could be achieved that was believed to provide optimal benefit and safety.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076408000005

    View details for PubMedID 9778087

  • Prognostic value of congestive heart failure history in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Anderson, R. D., Ohman, E. M., Holmes, D. R., Harrington, R. A., Barsness, G. W., Wildermann, N. M., Phillips, H. R., Topol, E. J., Califf, R. M. 1998; 32 (4): 936-941

    Abstract

    We sought to determine the prognostic significance of a history of congestive heart failure above that provided by baseline ejection fraction in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions.Left ventricular function is a known predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease, as is a history of congestive heart failure. The contribution of heart failure history independent of left ventricular function is unknown.Data were pooled from four interventional trials and the Duke University database. The combined dataset included 5,260 patients undergoing percutaneous interventions, 334 with and 4,926 without a history of heart failure. Patients were defined by the treating physician as having a clinical history of heart failure at the time of enrollment.The 30-day and 6-month mortality were higher in patients with a clinical history of congestive heart failure than in those without such a history (2% vs. <1%, p=0.002 at 30 days, 5% vs. 1%, p=0.001 at 6 months). Heart failure history did not influence the incidence of myocardial infarction, use of angioplasty or the use of bypass surgery during follow-up. Multivariable analysis revealed that heart failure history added significantly to ejection fraction in predicting intermediate-term (6-month) mortality (p=0.01). Stepwise logistic regression also revealed heart failure history to be an independent predictor of 6-month mortality (odds risk 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 3.5).A clinical history of congestive heart failure is associated with increased early and intermediate-term mortality in patients undergoing percutaneous revascularization. Congestive heart failure history appears to provide prognostic information independent of that available from a patient's left ventricular function. These findings suggest that patients with a clinical history of congestive heart failure who undergo a percutaneous intervention should be closely monitored, especially those with the lowest ejection fractions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076214000011

    View details for PubMedID 9768714

  • Occurrence and clinical significance of thrombocytopenia in a population undergoing high-risk percutaneous coronary revascularization JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Berkowitz, S. D., Sane, D. C., Sigmon, K. N., Shavender, J. H., Harrington, R. A., Tcheng, J. E., Topol, E. J., Califf, R. M. 1998; 32 (2): 311-319

    Abstract

    This study sought to determine the frequency of thrombocytopenia and its relation with clinical outcomes in high risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization who received either the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist abciximab (ReoPro, c7E3 Fab) or conventional therapy.The development of thrombocytopenia on exposure to GPIIb/IIIa antagonists threatens the utility and economic viability of this drug class for patients with vascular disease.We analyzed data from the Evaluation of c7E3 for the Prevention of Ischemic Complications trial (EPIC), a 2,099-patient, randomized trial of placebo, abciximab bolus or abciximab bolus plus a 12-h infusion during high-risk coronary revascularization.Thrombocytopenia (nadir platelet count <100 x 10(9)/ liter) developed in 81 patients (3.9%) during their hospital stay, with 19 (0.9%) developing severe (<50 x 10(9)/liter) thrombocytopenia. Both thrombocytopenia and severe thrombocytopenia were more frequent in the bolus-plus-infusion arm (5.2% and 1.6%, respectively) than in the bolus-only and placebo arms combined (p = 0.020 and p = 0.025, respectively). Acute profound thrombocytopenia developed in two patients in the bolus-plus-infusion arm. Patients with thrombocytopenia experienced more unfavorable clinical outcomes than those who did not develop thrombocytopenia, regardless of treatment assignment, but those with thrombocytopenia who received abciximab had fewer worse outcomes at 30 days. Multivariable logistic modeling revealed a lower baseline platelet count, older age and lighter weight to be important predictors of thrombocytopenia. In a logistic regression model, bolus-plus-infusion treatment was a significant predictor of thrombocytopenia (p = 0.016) and remained so after adjustment for procedures and baseline risk factors (p = 0.0077).Thrombocytopenia was associated with adverse clinical outcomes and excessive bleeding, but patients receiving abciximab fared better than those receiving placebo.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075273200003

    View details for PubMedID 9708455

  • Myonecrosis after revascularization procedures JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Califf, R. M., Abdelmeguid, A. E., Kuntz, R. E., Popma, J. J., Davidson, C. J., Cohen, E. A., Kleiman, N. S., Mahaffey, K. W., Topol, E. J., Pepine, C. J., Lipicky, R. J., Granger, C. B., Harrington, R. A., Tardiff, B. E., Crenshaw, B. S., Bauman, R. P., Zuckerman, B. D., Chaitman, B. R., Bittl, J. A., Ohman, E. M. 1998; 31 (2): 241-251

    Abstract

    The detection of elevated cardiac enzyme levels and the occurrence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities after revascularization procedures have been the subject of recent controversy. This report represents an effort to achieve a consensus among a group of researchers with data on this subject. Creatine kinase (CK) or CK-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) elevations occur in 5% to 30% of patients after a percutaneous intervention and commonly during coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Although Q wave formation is rare, other ECG changes are common. The rate of detection is highly dependent on the intensity of enzyme and ECG measurement. Because most events occur without the development of a Q wave, the ECG will not definitively diagnose them; even the ECG criteria for Q wave formation signifying an important clinical event have been variable. At least 10 studies evaluating > 10,000 patients undergoing percutaneous intervention have demonstrated that elevation of CK or CK-MB is associated not only with a higher mortality, but also with a higher risk of subsequent cardiac events and higher cost. Efforts to identify a specific cutoff value below which the prognosis is not impaired have not been successful. Rather, the risk of adverse outcomes increases with any elevation of CK or CK-MB and increases further in proportion to the level of intervention. This information complements similar previous data on CABG. Obtaining preprocedural and postprocedural ECGs and measurement of serial cardiac enzymes after revascularization are recommended. Patients with enzyme levels elevated more than threefold above the upper limit of normal or with ECG changes diagnostic for Q wave myocardial infarction (MI) should be treated as patients with an MI. Patients with more modest elevations should be observed carefully. Clinical trials should ensure systematic evaluation for myocardial necrosis, with attention paid to multivariable analysis of risk factors for poor long-term outcome, to determine the extent to which enzyme elevation is an independent risk factor after considering clinical history, coronary anatomy, left ventricular function and clinical evidence of ischemia. In addition, tracking of enzyme levels in clinical trials is needed to determine whether interventions that reduce periprocedural enzyme elevation also improve mortality.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071796900001

    View details for PubMedID 9462562

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