Janus-like opposing roles of CD47 in autoimmune brain inflammation in humans and mice
JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE
2012; 209 (7): 1325-1334
Identification of Naturally Occurring Fatty Acids of the Myelin Sheath That Resolve Neuroinflammation
SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE
2012; 4 (137)
Comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from pathologically similar multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions reveals down-regulation of CD47 at the messenger RNA level and low abundance at the protein level. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that CD47 is expressed in normal myelin and in foamy macrophages and reactive astrocytes within active MS lesions. We demonstrate that CD47(-/-) mice are refractory to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), primarily as the result of failure of immune cell activation after immunization with myelin antigen. In contrast, blocking with a monoclonal antibody against CD47 in mice at the peak of paralysis worsens EAE severity and enhances immune activation in the peripheral immune system. In vitro assays demonstrate that blocking CD47 also promotes phagocytosis of myelin and that this effect is dependent on signal regulatory protein ? (SIRP-?). Immune regulation and phagocytosis are mechanisms for CD47 signaling in autoimmune neuroinflammation. Depending on the cell type, location, and disease stage, CD47 has Janus-like roles, with opposing effects on EAE pathogenesis.
View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20101974
View details for Web of Science ID 000306174300008
View details for PubMedID 22734047
Protective effect of an elastase inhibitor in a neuromyelitis optica-like disease driven by a peptide of myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS JOURNAL
2012; 18 (4): 398-408
Lipids constitute 70% of the myelin sheath, and autoantibodies against lipids may contribute to the demyelination that characterizes multiple sclerosis (MS). We used lipid antigen microarrays and lipid mass spectrometry to identify bona fide lipid targets of the autoimmune response in MS brain, and an animal model of MS to explore the role of the identified lipids in autoimmune demyelination. We found that autoantibodies in MS target a phosphate group in phosphatidylserine and oxidized phosphatidylcholine derivatives. Administration of these lipids ameliorated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by suppressing activation and inducing apoptosis of autoreactive T cells, effects mediated by the lipids' saturated fatty acid side chains. Thus, phospholipids represent a natural anti-inflammatory class of compounds that have potential as therapeutics for MS.
View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3003831
View details for Web of Science ID 000305075700005
View details for PubMedID 22674551
T helper type 1 and 17 cells determine efficacy of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis and experimental encephalomyelitis
2010; 16 (4): 406-U21
The pathology of neuromyelitis optica (NMO), in contrast to multiple sclerosis, comprises granulocyte infiltrates along extensive lengths of spinal cord, as well as optic nerve. Furthermore, IFN-? treatment worsens NMO. We recently found that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced with Th17 cells is exacerbated by IFN-?, in contrast to disease induced with Th1 where treatment attenuated symptoms.This study demonstrates the similarities between NMO and Th17 EAE and how neutrophils mediate pathology in Th17 disease.Levels of blood biomarkers in NMO were assessed by Luminex and ELISA. Effects of IFN-? on neutrophils were assessed by culture assays and immunofluorescence. EAE was induced by transfer of myelin-specific Th1 or Th17 cells and treated with Sivelestat sodium hydrate, a neutrophil elastase inhibitor.We show Th17 cytokines, granulocyte chemokines, type 1 interferon and neutrophil elastase are elevated in patients with definitive NMO. In culture, we find that IFN-? stimulates neutrophils to release neutrophil elastase. In Th17 EAE, we demonstrate neutrophilic infiltration in the optic nerve and spinal cord which was not present in Th1 EAE. Blockade of neutrophil elastase with Sivelestat had efficacy in Th17 EAE but not Th1 EAE.The similarities between Th17 EAE and NMO indicate that this model represents several aspects of NMO. Neutrophils are critical in the pathologies of both Th17-EAE and NMO, and therefore blockade of neutrophil elastase is a promising target in treating NMO.
View details for DOI 10.1177/1352458512440060
View details for Web of Science ID 000302289900006
View details for PubMedID 22343184
Blocking angiotensin-converting enzyme induces potent regulatory T cells and modulates TH1-and TH17-mediated autoimmunity
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2009; 106 (35): 14948-14953
Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is the major treatment for multiple sclerosis. However, this treatment is not always effective. Here we have found congruence in outcome between responses to IFN-beta in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). IFN-beta was effective in reducing EAE symptoms induced by T helper type 1 (T(H)1) cells but exacerbated disease induced by T(H)17 cells. Effective treatment in T(H)1-induced EAE correlated with increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) production by splenocytes. In T(H)17-induced disease, the amount of IL-10 was unaltered by treatment, although, unexpectedly, IFN-beta treatment still reduced IL-17 production without benefit. Both inhibition of IL-17 and induction of IL-10 depended on IFN-gamma. In the absence of IFN-gamma signaling, IFN-beta therapy was ineffective in EAE. In RRMS patients, IFN-beta nonresponders had higher IL-17F concentrations in serum compared to responders. Nonresponders had worse disease with more steroid usage and more relapses than did responders. Hence, IFN-beta is proinflammatory in T(H)17-induced EAE. Moreover, a high IL-17F concentration in the serum of people with RRMS is associated with nonresponsiveness to therapy with IFN-beta.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.2110
View details for Web of Science ID 000276446800044
View details for PubMedID 20348925
Activation of kinin receptor B1 limits encephalitogenic T lymphocyte recruitment to the central nervous system
2009; 15 (7): 788-793
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a major regulator of blood pressure. The octapeptide angiotensin II (AII) is proteolytically processed from the decapeptide AI by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and then acts via angiotensin type 1 and type 2 receptors (AT1R and AT2R). Inhibitors of ACE and antagonists of the AT1R are used in the treatment of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. We now show that the RAAS also plays a major role in autoimmunity, exemplified by multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using proteomics, we observed that RAAS is up-regulated in brain lesions of MS. AT1R was induced in myelin-specific CD4+ T cells and monocytes during autoimmune neuroinflammation. Blocking AII production with ACE inhibitors or inhibiting AII signaling with AT1R blockers suppressed autoreactive TH1 and TH17 cells and promoted antigen-specific CD4+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) with inhibition of the canonical NF-kappaB1 transcription factor complex and activation of the alternative NF-kappaB2 pathway. Treatment with ACE inhibitors induces abundant CD4+FoxP3+ T cells with sufficient potency to reverse paralytic EAE. Modulation of the RAAS with inexpensive, safe pharmaceuticals used by millions worldwide is an attractive therapeutic strategy for application to human autoimmune diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0903958106
View details for Web of Science ID 000269481000040
View details for PubMedID 19706421
Systems biology for identification of molecular networks in multiple sclerosis
2009; 15 (5): 529-530
Proteomic analysis of active multiple sclerosis lesions reveals therapeutic targets
2008; 451 (7182): 1076-U2
Previous proteomic and transcriptional analyses of multiple sclerosis lesions revealed modulation of the renin-angiotensin and the opposing kallikrein-kinin pathways. Here we identify kinin receptor B1 (Bdkrb1) as a specific modulator of immune cell entry into the central nervous system (CNS). We demonstrate that the Bdkrb1 agonist R838 (Sar-[D-Phe]des-Arg(9)-bradykinin) markedly decreases the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL mice, whereas the Bdkrb1 antagonist R715 (Ac-Lys-[D-betaNal(7), Ile(8)]des-Arg(9)-bradykinin) resulted in earlier onset and greater severity of the disease. Bdkrb1-deficient (Bdkrb1(-/-)) C57BL/6 mice immunized with a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein fragment, MOG(35-55), showed more severe disease with enhanced CNS-immune cell infiltration. The same held true for mixed bone marrow-chimeric mice reconstituted with Bdkrb1(-/-) T lymphocytes, which showed enhanced T helper type 17 (T(H)17) cell invasion into the CNS. Pharmacological modulation of Bdkrb1 revealed that in vitro migration of human T(H)17 lymphocytes across blood-brain barrier endothelium is regulated by this receptor. Taken together, these results suggest that the kallikrein-kinin system is involved in the regulation of CNS inflammation, limiting encephalitogenic T lymphocyte infiltration into the CNS, and provide evidence that Bdkrb1 could be a new target for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.1980
View details for Web of Science ID 000267806900032
View details for PubMedID 19561616
Understanding the neuropathology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is essential for improved therapies. Therefore, identification of targets specific to pathological types of MS may have therapeutic benefits. Here we identify, by laser-capture microdissection and proteomics, proteins unique to three major types of MS lesions: acute plaque, chronic active plaque and chronic plaque. Comparative proteomic profiles identified tissue factor and protein C inhibitor within chronic active plaque samples, suggesting dysregulation of molecules associated with coagulation. In vivo administration of hirudin or recombinant activated protein C reduced disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and suppressed Th1 and Th17 cytokines in astrocytes and immune cells. Administration of mutant forms of recombinant activated protein C showed that both its anticoagulant and its signalling functions were essential for optimal amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. A proteomic approach illuminated potential therapeutic targets selective for specific pathological stages of MS and implicated participation of the coagulation cascade.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature06559
View details for Web of Science ID 000253453600035
View details for PubMedID 18278032