Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine
  • Neonatology

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Medical Education:UC Berkeley School of Public Health (1981) CA
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (1973)
  • Fellowship:UCSD School of Medicine (1972) CA
  • Residency:Yale University School of Medicine (1968) CT
  • Internship:Yale University School of Medicine (1966) CT
  • Board Certification: Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (1975)
  • Medical Education:University of Rochester School of Medicine (1965) NY
  • MD, U.Rochester School of Medicine, Medicine (1965)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Gould is director of the Perinatal Epidemiology and Health Outcomes Research Unit in the division of Neonatology at the School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital. He also directs the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, a network of 104 California hospitals that provide intensive care to newborns that have volunteered to submit and compare uniform care processes and outcome data and conduct quality improvement initiatives for their mothers and newborns.
Gould is a leading public health researcher in population-based studies related to neonatal and perinatal diseases. Much of his research is focused on developing strategies to assess the quality of perinatal care based on risk-adjusted indicators of neonatal morbidity.

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Hospital-wide breastfeeding rates vs. breastmilk provision for very-low-birth-weight infants ACTA PAEDIATRICA Lee, H. C., Jegatheesan, P., Gould, J. B., Dudley, R. A. 2013; 102 (3): 268-272

    Abstract

    To investigate the relationship between breastmilk feeding in very-low-birth-weight infants in the neonatal intensive care unit and breastmilk feeding rates for all newborns by hospital.This was a cross-sectional study of 111 California hospitals in 2007 and 2008. Correlation coefficients were calculated between overall hospital breastfeeding rates and breastmilk feeding rates of very-low-birth-weight infants. Hospitals were categorized in quartiles by crude and adjusted very-low-birth-weight infant rates to compare rankings between measures.Correlation between breastmilk feeding rates of very-low-birth-weight infants and overall breastfeeding rates varied by neonatal intensive care unit level of care from 0.13 for intermediate hospitals to 0.48 for regional hospitals. For hospitals categorized in the top quartile according to overall breastfeeding rate, only 46% were in the top quartile for both crude and adjusted very-low-birth-weight infant rates. On the other hand, when considering the lowest quartile for overall breastfeeding hospitals, three of 27 (11%) actually were performing in the top quartile of performance for very-low-birth-weight infant rates.Reporting hospital overall breastfeeding rates and neonatal intensive care unit breastmilk provision rates separately may give an incomplete picture of quality of care.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/apa.12096

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314656600022

    View details for PubMedID 23174012

  • Therapeutic hypothermia during neonatal transport: data from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative (CPQCC) and California Perinatal Transport System (CPeTS) for 2010 JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Akula, V. P., Gould, J. B., DAVIS, A. S., Hackel, A., Oehlert, J., Van Meurs, K. P. 2013; 33 (3): 194-197

    Abstract

    To evaluate cooling practices and neonatal outcomes in the state of California during 2010 using the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative and California Perinatal Transport System databases.Database analysis to determine the perinatal and neonatal demographics and outcomes of neonates cooled in transport or after admission to a cooling center.Of the 223 infants receiving therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in California during 2010, 69% were cooled during transport. Despite the frequent use of cooling in transport, cooling center admission temperature was in the target range (33-34?°C) in only 62 (44%). Among cooled infants, gestational age was <35 weeks in 10 (4.5%). For outborn and transported infants, chronologic age at the time of cooling initiation was >6 h in 20 (11%). When initiated at the birth hospital, cooling was initiated at <6 h of age in 131 (92.9%).More than half of the infants cooled in transport do not achieve target temperature by the time of arrival at the cooling center. The use of cooling devices may improve temperature regulation on transport.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2012.144

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315664700006

    View details for PubMedID 23223159

  • Creating a Public Agenda for Maternity Safety and Quality in Cesarean Delivery OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Main, E. K., Morton, C. H., Melsop, K., Hopkins, D., Giuliani, G., Gould, J. B. 2012; 120 (5): 1194-1198

    Abstract

    Cesarean delivery rates in California and the United States rose by 50% between 1998 and 2008 and vary widely among states, regions, hospitals, and health care providers. The leading driver of both the rise and the variation is first-birth cesarean deliveries performed during labor. With the large increase in primary cesarean deliveries, repeat cesarean delivery now has emerged as the largest single indication. The economic costs, health risks, and negligible benefits for most mothers and newborns of these higher rates point to the urgent need for a new approach to working with women in labor. This commentary analyzes the high rates and wide variations and presents evidence of costs and risks associated with cesarean deliveries (complete discussion provided in the California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative White Paper at www.cmqcc.org/white_paper). All stakeholders need to ask whether society can afford the costs and complications of this high cesarean delivery rate and whether they can work together toward solutions. The factors involved in the rise in cesarean deliveries point to the need for a multistrategy approach, because no single strategy is likely to be effective or lead to sustained change. We outline complementary strategies for reducing the rates and offer recommendations including clinical improvement strategies with careful examination of labor management practices; payment reform to eliminate negative or perverse incentives; education to recognize the value of vaginal birth; and full transparency through public reporting and continued public engagement.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31826fc13d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310512500027

    View details for PubMedID 23090538

  • Missed Opportunities in the Referral of High-Risk Infants to Early Intervention PEDIATRICS Tang, B. G., Feldman, H. M., Huffman, L. C., Kagawa, K. J., Gould, J. B. 2012; 129 (6): 1027-1034

    Abstract

    Using a statewide population-based data source, we describe current neonatal follow-up referral practices for high-risk infants with developmental delays throughout California.From a cohort analysis of quality improvement data from 66 neonatal follow-up programs in the California Children's Services and California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative High-Risk Infant Follow-Up Quality of Care Initiative, 5129 high-risk infants were evaluated at the first visit between 4 and 8 months of age in neonatal follow-up. A total of 1737 high-risk infants were evaluated at the second visit between 12 and 16 months of age. We calculated referral rates in relation to developmental status (high versus low concern) based on standardized developmental testing or screening.Among infants with low concerns (standard score >70 or passed screen) at the first visit, 6% were referred to early intervention; among infants with high concerns, 28% of infants were referred to early intervention. Even after including referrals to other (private) therapies, 34% infants with high concerns did not receive any referrals. These rates were similar for the second visit.In spite of the specialization of neonatal follow-up programs to identify high-risk infants with developmental delays, a large proportion of potentially eligible infants were not referred to early intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2011-2720

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304707000036

    View details for PubMedID 22614772

  • Therapeutic Hypothermia during Neonatal Transport: Current Practices in California AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Akula, V. P., Davis, A. S., Gould, J. B., Van Meurs, K. 2012; 29 (5): 319-326

    Abstract

    Therapeutic hypothermia initiated at <6 hours of age reduces death and disability in newborns ? 36 weeks' gestation with moderate to severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. Given the limited therapeutic window, cooling during transport becomes a necessity. Our goal was to describe the current practice of therapeutic hypothermia during transport used in the state of California. All level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) were contacted to identify those units providing therapeutic hypothermia. An electronic questionnaire was sent to obtain basic information. Responses were received from 28 (100%) NICUs performing therapeutic hypothermia; 26 NICUs were cooling newborns and two were in the process of program development. Eighteen (64%) centers had cooled a patient in transport, six had not yet cooled in transport, and two do not plan to cool in transport. All 18 centers use passive cooling, except for two that perform both passive and active cooling, and 17 of 18 centers recommend initiation of cooling at the referral hospital. Reported difficulties include overcooling, undercooling, and bradycardia. Cooling on transport is being performed by majority of NICUs providing therapeutic hypothermia. Clinical protocols and devices for cooling in transport are essential to ensure safety and efficacy.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0031-1295661

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302962200001

    View details for PubMedID 22143969

  • Creating a Public Agenda for Maternity Safety and Quality in Cesarean Delivery. Obstetrics and gynecology Main, E. K., Morton, C. H., Melsop, K., Hopkins, D., Giuliani, G., Gould, J. B. 2012

    View details for PubMedID 23044535

  • Trends in Cesarean Delivery for Twin Births in the United States 1995-2008 OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B., Boscardin, W. J., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Blumenfeld, Y. J. 2011; 118 (5): 1095-1101

    Abstract

    To estimate trends and risk factors for cesarean delivery for twins in the United States.This was a cross-sectional study in which we calculated cesarean delivery rates for twins from 1995 to 2008 using National Center for Health Statistics data. We compared cesarean delivery rates by year and for vertex compared with breech presentation. The order of presentation for a given twin pair could not be determined from the available records and therefore analysis was based on individual discrete twin data. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate independent risk factors, including year of birth and maternal factors, for cesarean delivery.Cesarean delivery rates for twin births increased steadily from 53.4% to 75.0% in 2008. Rates rose for the breech twin category (81.5%-92.1%) and the vertex twin category (45.1%-68.2%). The relative increase in the cesarean delivery rate for preterm and term neonates was similar. After risk adjustment, there was an average increase noted in cesarean delivery of 5% each year during the study period (risk ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.05).Cesarean delivery rates for twin births increased dramatically from 1995 to 2008. This increase is significantly higher than that which could be explained by an increase in cesarean delivery for breech presentation of either the presenting or second twin.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182318651

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296292600018

    View details for PubMedID 22015878

  • Hypothermia in very low birth weight infants: distribution, risk factors and outcomes JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Miller, S. S., Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2011; 31: S49-S56

    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to study the epidemiology of neonatal hypothermia in preterm infants using World Health Organization (WHO) temperature criteria.A population-based cohort of 8782 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born in California neonatal intensive care units in 2006 and 2007. Associations between admission hypothermia and maternal and neonatal characteristics and outcomes were determined using logistic regression.In all, 56.2% of infants were hypothermic. Low birth weight, cesarean delivery and a low Apgar score were associated with hypothermia. Spontaneous labor, prolonged rupture of membranes and antenatal steroid administration were associated with decreased risk of hypothermia. Moderate hypothermia was associated with higher risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Moderate and severe hypothermic conditions were associated with risk of death.Hypothermia by WHO criteria is prevalent in VLBW infants and is associated with IVH and mortality. Use of WHO criteria could guide the need for quality improvement projects targeted toward the most vulnerable infants.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jp.2010.177

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289236900008

    View details for PubMedID 21448204

  • Integration of Early Physiological Responses Predicts Later Illness Severity in Preterm Infants SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Saria, S., Rajani, A. K., Gould, J., Koller, D., Penn, A. A. 2010; 2 (48)

    Abstract

    Physiological data are routinely recorded in intensive care, but their use for rapid assessment of illness severity or long-term morbidity prediction has been limited. We developed a physiological assessment score for preterm newborns, akin to an electronic Apgar score, based on standard signals recorded noninvasively on admission to a neonatal intensive care unit. We were able to accurately and reliably estimate the probability of an individual preterm infant's risk of severe morbidity on the basis of noninvasive measurements. This prediction algorithm was developed with electronically captured physiological time series data from the first 3 hours of life in preterm infants (< or =34 weeks gestation, birth weight < or =2000 g). Extraction and integration of the data with state-of-the-art machine learning methods produced a probability score for illness severity, the PhysiScore. PhysiScore was validated on 138 infants with the leave-one-out method to prospectively identify infants at risk of short- and long-term morbidity. PhysiScore provided higher accuracy prediction of overall morbidity (86% sensitive at 96% specificity) than other neonatal scoring systems, including the standard Apgar score. PhysiScore was particularly accurate at identifying infants with high morbidity related to specific complications (infection: 90% at 100%; cardiopulmonary: 96% at 100%). Physiological parameters, particularly short-term variability in respiratory and heart rates, contributed more to morbidity prediction than invasive laboratory studies. Our flexible methodology of individual risk prediction based on automated, rapid, noninvasive measurements can be easily applied to a range of prediction tasks to improve patient care and resource allocation.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001304

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288436900003

    View details for PubMedID 20826840

  • The Role of Regional Collaboratives: The California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative Model CLINICS IN PERINATOLOGY Gould, J. B. 2010; 37 (1): 71-?

    Abstract

    Improving the outcome of the infants cared for in one's neonatal intensive care unit is the main objective of improvement projects that are pursued independently or as a member of a national collaborative. Regional quality improvement collaborations represent the intersection of hospital-based and community-based medicine offering the possibility of coordinated improvement efforts conducted at both the hospital and community level. This article discusses the aspirations, workings, and achievements of the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative, a regional collaboration formed to improve perinatal care. While it is never easy to align the often differing fundamental positions held by the various member factions and stakeholder groups, the common goal of a universally agreed-upon mission statement can act as a magnet drawing the various components together. Rapid development of a first quality improvement initiative is an effective strategy to engage the participants in a way that allows them to demonstrate, share, and build upon their individual expertise, and provides them a strong sense of professional accomplishment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clp.2010.01.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277244200006

    View details for PubMedID 20363448

  • Factors Influencing Breast Milk versus Formula Feeding at Discharge for Very Low Birth Weight Infants in California JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2009; 155 (5): 657-U94

    Abstract

    To investigate incidence and factors influencing breast milk feeding at discharge for very low birth weight infants (VLBW) in a population-based cohort.We used data from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative to calculate incidence of breast milk feeding at hospital discharge for 6790 VLBW infants born in 2005-2006. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine which sociodemographic and medical factors were associated with breast milk feeding. The impact of removing risk adjustment for race was examined.At initial hospital discharge, 61.1% of VLBW infants were fed breast milk or breast milk supplemented with formula. Breast milk feeding was more common with higher birth weight and gestational age. After risk adjustment, multiple birth was associated with higher breast milk feeding. Factors associated with exclusive formula feeding were Hispanic ethnicity, African American race, and no prenatal care. Hospital risk-adjusted rates of breast milk feeding varied widely (range 19.7% to 100%) and differed when race was removed from adjustment.A substantial number of VLBW infants were not fed breast milk at discharge. Specific groups may benefit from targeted interventions to promote breast milk feeding. There may be benefit to reporting risk-adjusted rates both including and excluding race in adjustment when considering quality improvement initiatives.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.04.064

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271570900014

    View details for PubMedID 19628218

  • From Paradox to Disparity: Trends in Neonatal Death in Very Low Birth Weight non-Hispanic Black and White Infants, 1989-2004 JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Bruckner, T. A., Saxton, K. B., Anderson, E., Goldman, S., Gould, J. B. 2009; 155 (4): 482-487

    Abstract

    To examine temporal trends in race-specific neonatal death in California to determine whether the overall decline in mortality attenuated the paradoxical survival advantage of very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight < 1500 g) non-Hispanic black infants relative to VLBW non-Hispanic white infants.The data set comprised the California birth cohort file on non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white VLBW neonatal mortality for 1989-2004. Logistic regression methods were used to control for potentially confounding maternal characteristics.In 1989 and 1990, non-Hispanic black VLBW infants demonstrated a paradox of lower neonatal mortality (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-0.94). This survival advantage disappeared after 1991, however. In 2003 and 2004, the incidence of neonatal mortality increased in non-Hispanic black VLBW infants but decreased in non-Hispanic white VLBW infants, resulting in a racial disparity (aOR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.14-1.56).An initial survival paradox transformed into a disparity. The magnitude of this non-Hispanic black/non-Hispanic white VLBW disparity rose to its highest levels in the last 2 years of the study period. Moreover, the steady mortality increase in VLBW non-Hispanic black VLBW infants since 2001 reversed the secular decline in neonatal mortality in this population. Our findings underscore the need to augment strategies to improve the health trajectory of gestation in non-Hispanic black women.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.04.038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270497800008

    View details for PubMedID 19615693

  • School outcomes of late preterm infants: Special needs and challenges for infants born at 32 to 36 weeks gestation JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Chyi, L. J., Lee, H. C., Hintz, S. R., Gould, J. B., Sutcliffe, T. L. 2008; 153 (1): 25-31

    Abstract

    Because limited long-term outcome data exist for infants born at 32 to 36 weeks gestation, we compared school outcomes between 32- to 33-week moderate preterm (MP), 34-36 week late preterm (LP) and full-term (FT) infants.A total of 970 preterm infants and 13 671 FT control subjects were identified from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Test scores, teacher evaluations, and special education enrollment from kindergarten (K) to grade 5 were compared.LP infants had lower reading scores than FT infants in K to first grade (P < .05). Adjusted risk for poor reading and math scores remained elevated in first grade (P < .05). Teacher evaluations of math skills from K to first grade and reading skills from K to fifth grade were worse for LP infants (P < .05). Adjusted odds for below average skills remained higher for math in K and for reading at all grades (P < .05). Special education participation was higher for LP infants at early grades (odds ratio, 1.4-2.1). MP infants had lower test and teacher evaluation scores than FT infants and twice the risk for special education at all grade levels.Persistent teacher concerns through grade 5 and greater special education needs among MP and LP infants suggest a need to start follow-up, anticipatory guidance, and interventions for infants born at 32 to 36 weeks gestation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.01.027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257154800010

    View details for PubMedID 18571530

  • Population trends in cesarean delivery for breech presentation in the United States, 1997-2003 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Lee, H. C., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Gould, J. B. 2008; 199 (1)

    Abstract

    The objective of the study was to determine whether cesarean delivery for breech has increased in the United States.We calculated cesarean rates for term singletons in breech/malpresentation from 1997 to 2003 using National Center for Health Statistics data. We compared rates by sociodemographic groups and state. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to see whether factors associated with cesarean delivery differed over time.Breech cesarean rates increased overall from 83.8% to 85.1%. There was a significant increase in rates for most sociodemographic groups. There was little to no increase for mothers younger than 30 years old. There was wide variability in rates by state, 61.6-94.2% in 1997. Higher breech incidence correlated with lower cesarean rates, suggesting potential state bias in reporting breech.In the United States, breech infants are predominantly born by cesarean. There was a small increase in this trend from 1998 to 2002. There is wide variability by state, which is not explained by sociodemographic patterns and may be due to reporting differences.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajog.2007.11.059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257205200021

    View details for PubMedID 18295181

  • Delivery mode by race for breech presentation in the US JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Lee, H. C., El-Sayed, Y. Y., Gould, J. B. 2007; 27 (3): 147-153

    Abstract

    To determine if there are differential cesarean delivery rates by race and other socio-demographic factors for women with breech infants.We calculated cesarean delivery rates for 186 727 White, African American, Hispanic and Asian women delivering breech singletons with gestational age 26 to 41 weeks born in 1999 and 2000 using data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine differences in mode of delivery by race, adjusting for socio-demographic and medical factors.Cesarean rates for breech were >80% in most gestational age groups. In 14 of 18 groups, Whites had higher cesarean delivery rates than African Americans. However, this finding did not persist after risk adjustment. Hispanics were more likely to deliver by cesarean delivery than African Americans and Whites.Breech singleton infants are predominantly born by cesarean delivery. Although African-American women with breech presentation have lower cesarean delivery rates than Whites, this difference is not present after adjusting for socio-demographic and medical factors. Hispanics were more likely to be delivered by cesarean delivery and this difference was amplified after risk adjustment. Asians had slightly lower cesarean rates after risk adjustment, but this varied widely according to Asian subgroup.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.jp.7211668

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244420900003

    View details for PubMedID 17314983

  • Survival rates and mode of delivery for vertex preterm neonates according to small- or appropriate-for-gestational-age status PEDIATRICS Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2006; 118 (6): E1836-E1844

    Abstract

    The goal was to characterize the relationship between cesarean section delivery and death for preterm vertex neonates according to intrauterine growth.Maternal and infant data from the National Center for Health Statistics for 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. Neonates with gestational ages of 26 to 36 weeks were characterized as small for gestational age (<10th percentile) or appropriate for gestational age (10th to 90th percentile). Mortality rates at 28 days and relative risks were calculated for each gestational age group according to mode of delivery.Cesarean section rates were higher for small-for-gestational-age neonates compared with appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates, most prominently from 26 weeks to 32 weeks of gestation, at which small-for-gestational-age neonates had cesarean section rates of 50% to 67%, whereas appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates had rates of 22% to 38%. Small-for-gestational-age neonates at gestational ages of <31 weeks had increased survival rates associated with cesarean section, whereas small-for-gestational-age neonates at >33 weeks and appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates overall had decreased survival rates associated with cesarean section. After adjustment for sociodemographic and medical factors, the survival advantage for small-for-gestational-age neonates at gestational ages of 26 to 30 weeks persisted.Cesarean section delivery was associated with survival for preterm small-for-gestational-age neonates but not preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates. We speculate that vaginal delivery may be particularly stressful for small-for-gestational-age neonates. We found no evidence that prematurity alone is a valid indication for cesarean section for preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age neonates.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2006-1327

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242478900081

    View details for PubMedID 17142505

  • Operational research on perinatal epidemiology, care and outcomes JOURNAL OF PERINATOLOGY Gould, J. B. 2006; 26: S34-S37

    Abstract

    Traditionally, neonatal-perinatal medicine has been concerned with two areas of research: basic and translational. A third area, perinatal epidemiology/health outcomes research addresses those factors that impede and promote the clinical actualization of the advances developed by basic and translational research. Unfortunately, research and training in perinatal epidemiology and outcomes analysis have not kept pace with our need to understand the interplay between risk, intervention, structure and outcome. This knowledge is essential to the development of the clinical/organizational and training strategies that will enable perinatal medicine to fully realize the promise of basic and translational research.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.jp.7211444

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241844600009

    View details for PubMedID 16801967

  • Sociocultural factors that affect pregnancy outcomes in two dissimilar immigrant groups in the United States JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Madan, A., Palaniappan, L., Urizar, G., Wang, Y., Fortmann, S. P., Gould, J. B. 2006; 148 (3): 341-346

    Abstract

    To compare perinatal risks and outcomes in foreign- and U.S.-born Asian-Indian and Mexican women.We evaluated 6.4 million U.S. vital records for births during 1995-2000 to white, foreign- and U.S.-born Asian-Indian and Mexican women. Risks and outcomes were compared by use of chi2 and logistic regression.With the exception of increased teen pregnancy and tobacco use, the favorable sociodemographic profile and increased rate of adverse outcomes seen in foreign-born Asian Indians persisted in their U.S.-born counterparts. In contrast, foreign-born Mexicans had an adverse sociodemographic profile but a low incidence of low birth weight (LBW), whereas U.S.-born Mexicans had an improved sociodemographic profile and increased LBW, prematurity and neonatal death.Perinatal outcomes deteriorate in U.S.-born Mexican women. In contrast, the paradoxically increased incidence of LBW persists in U.S.-born Asian-Indian women. Further research is needed to identify the social and biologic determinants of perinatal outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.peds.2005.11.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236718700015

    View details for PubMedID 16615964

  • Survival advantage associated with cesarean delivery in very low birth weight vertex neonates. Obstetrics and gynecology Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B. 2006; 107 (1): 97-105

    Abstract

    To identify the indications for and any survival advantage associated with very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates delivered by cesarean.Maternal and infant data from the National Center for Health Statistics linked birth/death data set for 1999 to 2000 were analyzed. Maternal conditions associated with cesarean delivery were compared among birth weight groups for vertex neonates. Birth weight-specific 28-day mortality rates and relative risks were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to adjust for other factors that may be associated with survival.Cesarean delivery occurred frequently, more than 40% in most VLBW birth weight groups. Conditions associated with cesarean delivery in VLBW vertex neonates differed from those seen in non-VLBW vertex neonates. A survival advantage was associated with cesarean delivery in the birth weight analysis up to 1,300 g (P < .05). This decreased mortality for VLBW neonates delivered by cesarean persisted after adjusting for other factors associated with mortality.Very low birth weight vertex neonates are often born by cesarean delivery and have different maternal risk profiles from non-VLBW vertex neonates born by this route. Neonatal mortality was decreased in VLBW neonates delivered by cesarean. Further study is warranted to determine whether this may be a causal relationship or a marker of quality of care.II-2.

    View details for PubMedID 16394046

  • Time of birth and the risk of neonatal death OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Gould, J. B., Qin, C., Chavez, G. 2005; 106 (2): 352-358

    Abstract

    To assess whether mortality is increased in the United States in infants born at night, we compared case-mix adjusted neonatal mortality for low- and high-risk infants born during the daytime (7 am to 6 pm), early night (7 pm to 12 am), and late night (1 am to 6 am).California linked birth-death certificate data on 3,363,157 infants, weighing more than 500 g and born without lethal congenital anomalies in 1992-1999, were analyzed. Logistic regression, adjusting for birth weight, gender, prenatal care initiation, maternal hypertension, eclampsia, diabetes, and placental abruption/previa, was used to estimate the relationship between neonatal mortality and time of birth.The overall neonatal mortality was 2.08 deaths per 1,000 live births. Neonatal mortality was 1.88 for daytime births, increasing to 2.37 for early night and 2.31 for late night births. After adjusting for case mix, early night births had a 12% increase and late night births a 16% increase in the odds of neonatal death, an excess that accounts for 9.6% of all neonatal deaths. Mortality was increased for night births that were less than 1,500 g or more than 1,500 g, singletons or multiples, and those delivered vaginally or by cesarean. The increased risk was identified in hospitals that provide intermediate, community, and regional neonatal intensive care, but not in hospitals that provide primary care.Identifying the causal factors and reducing the increased burden of mortality for infants born at night should be a major priority for perinatal medicine.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230717800022

    View details for PubMedID 16055587

  • Cesarean delivery rates and neonatal morbidity in a low-risk population OBSTETRICS AND GYNECOLOGY Gould, J. B., Danielsen, B., Korst, L. M., Phibbs, R., Chance, K., Main, E., Wirtschafter, D. D., Stevenson, D. K. 2004; 104 (1): 11-19

    Abstract

    To estimate the relationship between case-mix adjusted cesarean delivery rates and neonatal morbidity and mortality in infants born to low-risk mothers.This retrospective cohort study used vital and administrative data for 748,604 California singletons born without congenital abnormalities in 1998-2000. A total of 282 institutions was classified as average-, low-, or high-cesarean delivery hospitals based on their cesarean delivery rate for mothers without a previous cesarean delivery, in labor at term, with no evidence of maternal, fetal, or placental complications. Neonatal mortality, diagnoses, and therapeutic interventions determined by International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes, and neonatal length of stay were compared across these hospital groupings.Compared with average-cesarean delivery-rate hospitals, infants born to low-risk mothers at low-cesarean delivery hospitals had increased fetal hemorrhage, birth asphyxia, meconium aspiration syndrome, feeding problems, and electrolyte abnormalities (P <.02). Infused medication, pressors, transfusion for shock, mechanical ventilation, and length of stay were also increased (P <.001). This suggests that some infants born in low-cesarean delivery hospitals might have benefited from cesarean delivery. Infants delivered at high-cesarean delivery hospitals demonstrated increased fetal hemorrhage, asphyxia, birth trauma, electrolyte abnormalities, and use of mechanical ventilation (P <.001), suggesting that high cesarean delivery rates themselves are not protective.Neonatal morbidity is increased in infants born to low-risk women who deliver at both low- and high-cesarean delivery-rate hospitals. The quality of perinatal care should be assessed in these outlier hospitals.III

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.AOG.0000127035.64602.97

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225414600004

    View details for PubMedID 15228995

  • Neonatal mortality in weekend vs weekday births JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Gould, J. B., Qin, C., Marks, A. R., Chavez, G. 2003; 289 (22): 2958-2962

    Abstract

    Increases in neonatal mortality for infants born on the weekend were last noted several decades ago. Although the current health care environment has raised concern about the adequacy of weekend care, there have been no contemporary evaluations of daily patterns of births, obstetric intervention, and case mix-adjusted neonatal mortality.To compare the neonatal mortality of infants born on weekdays and weekends.Case series of 1 615 041 live births (weight >or=500 g) in California between 1995-1997 to determine patterns of births, cesarean deliveries, and neonatal deaths. Analyses were stratified by birth weight and delivery method. To assess the role of weekend differences in case mix, observed and birth weight-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for increased weekend mortality were estimated using logistic regression.Birth weight-adjusted neonatal mortality.There was a 17.5% decrease in births on weekends, accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of cesarean deliveries from 22% on weekdays to 16% on weekends. Weekend decreases in births were least pronounced in smaller infants, resulting in a weekend concentration of high-mortality, very low-birth-weight (<1500 g) births. Observed neonatal mortality increased from 2.80 per 1000 weekday births to 3.12 per 1000 weekend births (OR, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.19; P =.001) for all births, and from 4.94 to 6.85 (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.25-1.55; P<.001) for cesarean deliveries. After adjusting for birth weight, the increased odds of death for infants born on the weekend were no longer significant.The provision of optimal care regardless of the day of week is an important goal for perinatal medicine. Comparing the neonatal mortality of infants born on weekdays and weekends provides a straightforward assessment of this goal. After controlling for birth weight, we found no evidence that the quality of perinatal care in California was compromised during the weekend.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183403400018

    View details for PubMedID 12799403

  • Perinatal outcomes in two dissimilar immigrant populations in the United States: A dual epidemiologic paradox PEDIATRICS Gould, J. B., Madan, A., Qin, C., Chavez, G. 2003; 111 (6): E676-E682

    Abstract

    Previous studies have addressed perinatal outcomes in Hispanic, black, and white non-Hispanic women and demonstrated that although foreign-born Mexican American women have many demographic and socioeconomic risk factors, their rates of low birth weight (LBW) infants and infant mortality are similar to those of white women. This phenomenon has been termed an epidemiologic paradox. There have been no population-based studies on women of Asian Indian origin, a relatively new, highly educated, and affluent immigrant group that has been reported to have a high rate of LBW infants. The objective of this study was to define the sociodemographic risk profile and perinatal outcomes in women of Asian Indian birth and to compare these outcomes to foreign-born Mexican American and US-born black and white women.The vital records for self-reported foreign-born Asian Indian (0.8%) and Mexican women (26.7%) and US-born black (31.2%) and white women (31.2%) were extracted from California's 1 622 324 births, 1995-1997. Sociodemographic risk profiles; the percentage of LBW, very low birth weight (VLBW), prematurity, and intrauterine growth retardation (less than third percentile); and percentage of fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal death rates were compared. Logistic models were used to estimate the importance of selected sociodemographic and medical factors to the prediction of LBW infants in each racial/ethnic group.When compared with whites, US-born blacks and foreign-born Mexican mothers were at increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes on the basis of higher levels of inadequate prenatal care, teen births, Medi-Cal paid delivery, and lower levels of maternal and paternal education. Foreign-born Asian Indian mothers had good prenatal care, were rarely teenagers, had dramatically higher levels of both maternal and paternal education, and had the lowest percentage of deliveries paid for by Medi-Cal. Black infants had the highest rates of prematurity; intrauterine growth retardation; LBW; and fetal, neonatal, and postneonatal mortality. Paradoxically, despite their high-risk profile, Mexicans did not have elevated levels of LBW or neonatal mortality. Conversely, Asian Indian infants, although seemingly of low sociodemographic risk, had high levels of LBW, growth retardation, and fetal mortality. Logistic regression analysis of independent risk factors for giving birth to an LBW infant showed higher maternal education, early access to prenatal care, and having private insurance to be protective in white non-Hispanic and black but not in Asian Indian and Mexican-born women.Despite their high socioeconomic status and early entry into care, foreign-born Asian Indian women have a paradoxically higher incidence of LBW infants and fetal deaths when compared with US-born whites. Factors that protect from giving birth to an LBW infant in white women were not protective among Asian Indian women. Current knowledge regarding factors that confer a perinatal advantage or disadvantage is unable to explain this new epidemiologic paradox. These findings highlight the need for additional research into both epidemiologic and biological risk factors that determine perinatal outcomes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183696000007

    View details for PubMedID 12777585

  • Risk factors for early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: Estimation of odds ratios by critical literature review PEDIATRICS Benitz, W. E., Gould, J. B., Druzin, M. L. 1999; 103 (6)

    Abstract

    To identify and to establish the prevalence of ORs factors associated with increased risk for early-onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection in neonates. streptococcal (EOGBS) infection in neonates.Literature review and reanalysis of published data.Risk factors for EOGBS infection include group B streptococcal (GBS)-positive vaginal culture at delivery (OR: 204), GBS-positive rectovaginal culture at 28 (OR: 9.64) or 36 weeks gestation (OR: 26. 7), vaginal Strep B OIA test positive at delivery (OR: 15.4), birth weight 18 hours (OR: 7.28), intrapartum fever >37.5 degrees C (OR: 4.05), intrapartum fever, PROM, or prematurity (OR: 9.74), intrapartum fever or PROM at term (OR: 11.5), chorioamnionitis (OR: 6.43). Chorioamnionitis is reported in most (88%) cases in which neonatal infection occurred despite intrapartum maternal antibiotic therapy. ORs could not be estimated for maternal GBS bacteriuria during pregnancy, with preterm premature rupture of membranes, or with a sibling or twin with invasive GBS disease, but these findings seem to be associated with a very high risk. Multiple gestation is not an independent risk factor for GBS infection.h Mothers with GBS bacteriuria during pregnancy, with another child with GBS disease, or with chorioamnionitis should receive empirical intrapartum antibiotic treatment. Their infants should have complete diagnostic evaluations and receive empirical treatment until infection is excluded by observation and negative cultures because of their particularly high risk for EOGBS infection. Either screening with cultures at 28 weeks gestation or identification of clinical risk factors, ie, PROM, intrapartum fever, or prematurity, may identify parturients whose infants include 65% of those with EOGBS infection. Intrapartum screening using the Strep B OIA rapid test identifies more at-risk infants (75%) than any other method. These risk identifiers may permit judicious selection of patients for prophylactic interventions.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080613400006

    View details for PubMedID 10353974

  • Preventing early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: Strategy development using decision analysis PEDIATRICS Benitz, W. E., Gould, J. B., Druzin, M. L. 1999; 103 (6)

    Abstract

    To evaluate recommended strategies for prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal infections (EOGBS) with reference to strategies optimized using decision analysis.The EOGBS attack rate, prevalence and odds ratios for risk factors, and expected effects of prophylaxis were estimated from published data. Population subgroups were defined by gestational age, presence or absence of intrapartum fever or prolonged rupture of membranes, and presence or absence of maternal group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization. The EOGBS prevalence in each subgroup was estimated using decision analysis. The number of EOGBS cases prevented by an intervention was estimated as the product of the expected reduction in attack rate and the number of expected cases in each group selected for treatment. For each strategy, the number of residual EOGBS cases, cost, and numbers of treated patients were calculated based on the composition of the prophylaxis group. Integrated obstetrical-neonatal strategies for EOGBS prevention were developed by targeting the subgroups expected to benefit most from intervention.Reductions in EOGBS rates predicted by this decision analysis were smaller than those previously estimated for the strategies proposed by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1992 (32.9% vs 90.7%), the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in 1992 (53.8% vs 88.8%), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1996 (75.1% vs 86.0%). Strategies based on screening for GBS colonization with rectovaginal cultures at 36 weeks or on use of a rapid test to screen for GBS colonization on presentation for delivery, combining intrapartum prophylaxis for selected mothers and postpartum prophylaxis for some of their infants, would require treatment of fewer patients and prevent more cases (78.4% or 80.1%, respectively) at lower cost.No strategy can prevent all EOGBS cases, but the attack rate can be reduced at a cost <$12 000 per prevented case. Supplementing intrapartum prophylaxis with postpartum ampicillin in a few infants is more effective and less costly than providing intrapartum prophylaxis for more mothers. Better intrapartum screening tests offer the greatest promise for increasing efficacy. Integrated obstetrical and neonatal regimens appropriate to the population served should be adopted by each obstetrical service. Surveillance of costs, complications, and benefits will be essential to guide continued iterative improvement of these strategies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080613400005

    View details for PubMedID 10353973

  • Antimicrobial prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis: Estimates of risk reduction based on a critical literature review PEDIATRICS Benitz, W. E., Gould, J. B., Druzin, M. L. 1999; 103 (6)

    Abstract

    To identify interventions that reduce the attack rate for early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis in neonates.Literature review and reanalysis of published data.The rate of early-onset GBS sepsis in high-risk neonates can be reduced by administration of antibiotics. Treatment during pregnancy (antepartum prophylaxis) fails to reduce maternal GBS colonization at delivery. With the administration of intravenous ampicillin, the risk of early-onset infection in infants born to women with preterm premature rupture of membranes is reduced by 56% and the risk of GBS infection is reduced by 36%; addition of gentamicin may increase the efficacy of ampicillin. Treatment of women with chorioamnionitis with ampicillin and gentamicin during labor reduces the likelihood of neonatal sepsis by 82% and reduces the likelihood of GBS infection by 86%. Universal administration of penicillin to neonates shortly after birth (postpartum prophylaxis) reduces the early-onset GBS attack rate by 68% but is associated with a 40% increase in overall mortality and therefore is contraindicated. Intrapartum prophylaxis, alone or combined with postnatal prophylaxis for the infants, reduces the early-onset GBS attack rate by 80% or 95%, respectively.Women with chorioamnionitis or premature rupture of membranes and their infants should be treated with intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin. Intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis may be appropriate for other women whose infants are at increased but less extreme risk, and supplemental postpartum prophylaxis may be indicated for some of their infants. Selection of appropriate candidates and prophylaxis strategies requires careful consideration of costs and benefits for each patient. group B streptococcus, neonatal sepsis, early-onset sepsis, prevention, prophylaxis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080613400007

    View details for PubMedID 10353975

Conference Proceedings


  • The Effect of Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes on Neonatal Mortality Rates Blumenfeld, Y. J., Lee, H. C., Gould, J. B., Langen, E. S., Jafari, A., El-Sayed, Y. Y. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2010: 1381-1386

    Abstract

    To estimate the effect of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) on neonatal mortality.A cross-sectional study using a state perinatal database (California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative) was performed. Prenatal data, including ruptured membranes, corticosteroid administration, maternal age, maternal race, maternal hypertension, mode of delivery, and prenatal care, were recorded. Mortality rates were compared for neonates born between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation without preterm PROM to those with recent (less than 18 hours before delivery) and prolonged (more than 18 hours before delivery) preterm PROM. Neonatal sepsis rates were also examined.Neonates born between 24 0/7 and 34 0/7 weeks of gestation from 127 California neonatal intensive care units between 2005 and 2007 were included (N=17,501). When analyzed by 2-week gestational age groups, there were no differences in mortality rates between those born with and without membrane rupture before delivery. The presence of prolonged preterm PROM was associated with decreased mortality at 24 to 26 weeks of gestation (18% compared with 31% for recent preterm PROM; odds ratio [OR] 1.79; confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.56) but increased mortality at 28 to 30 weeks of gestation (4% compared with 3% for recent preterm PROM; OR 0.44; CI 0.22, 0.88) when adjusted for possible confounding factors. Sepsis rates did not differ between those with recent or prolonged preterm PROM at any gestational age.The presence of membrane rupture before delivery was not associated with increased neonatal mortality in any gestational age group. The effects of a prolonged latency period were not consistent across gestational ages.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/AOG.0b013e3181fe3d28

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284491000021

    View details for PubMedID 21099606

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