Clinical Focus

  • Pediatrics

Professional Education

  • Fellowship:Stanford University Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship (2016) CA
  • Residency:University of Washington Pediatric Residency (2011) WA
  • Medical Education:Stanford University School of Medicine Registrar (2008) CA
  • Board Certification: Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (2011)
  • MA, University of California Berkeley, Molecular Biology (2004)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Over the last thirty years, our fundamental understanding of the genetics and pathogenesis of congenital heart disease has lagged the tremendous advances in the surgical and clinical care of infants with this group of disorders. With my combined research training in genomics and clinical training in pediatric cardiology I endeavor to close this gap with investigation into the genetic basis of congenital heart malformations and developing new models of disease. My goal is translate an improved molecular genetic and developmental understanding of congenital heart disease from the laboratory into clinically actionable models, diagnostics, and ultimately therapeutic interventions.


2018-19 Courses

Stanford Advisees

Graduate and Fellowship Programs


All Publications

  • IMPACT OF CARDIAC ALGORITHM ON CYTOGENETIC TESTING Floyd, B. J., Hintz, S. R., Suarez, C. J., Cherry, A., Yu, L., Benitz, W., Priest, J. R., Wright, G. E., Bhombal, S., Davis, A., Chock, V. Y., Weigel, N., Kobayashi, D., Fluharty, B., Stevenson, D. BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. 2019: 207
  • Loss of function, missense, and intronic variants in NOTCH1 confer different risks for left ventricular outflow tract obstructive heart defects in two European cohorts. Genetic epidemiology Helle, E., Cordova-Palomera, A., Ojala, T., Saha, P., Potiny, P., Gustafsson, S., Ingelsson, E., Bamshad, M., Nickerson, D., Chong, J. X., University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics, Ashley, E., Priest, J. R. 2018


    Loss of function variants in NOTCH1 cause left ventricular outflow tract obstructive defects (LVOTO). However, the risk conferred by rare and noncoding variants in NOTCH1 for LVOTO remains largely uncharacterized. In a cohort of 49 families affected by hypoplastic left heart syndrome, a severe form of LVOTO, we discovered predicted loss of function NOTCH1 variants in 6% of individuals. Rare or low-frequency missense variants were found in 16% of families. To make a quantitative estimate of the genetic risk posed by variants in NOTCH1 for LVOTO, we studied associations of 400 coding and noncoding variants in NOTCH1 in 1,085 cases and 332,788 controls from the UK Biobank. Two rare intronic variants in strong linkage disequilibrium displayed significant association with risk for LVOTO amongst European-ancestry individuals. This result was replicated in an independent analysis of 210 cases and 68,762 controls of non-European and mixed ancestry. In conclusion, carrying rare predicted loss of function variants in NOTCH1 confer significant risk for LVOTO. In addition, the two intronic variants seem to be associated with an increased risk for these defects. Our approach demonstrates the utility of population-based data sets in quantifying the specific risk of individual variants for disease-related phenotypes.

    View details for PubMedID 30511478

  • Expansion of the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) knowledge base and resources. Nucleic acids research Kohler, S., Carmody, L., Vasilevsky, N., Jacobsen, J. O., Danis, D., Gourdine, J., Gargano, M., Harris, N. L., Matentzoglu, N., McMurry, J. A., Osumi-Sutherland, D., Cipriani, V., Balhoff, J. P., Conlin, T., Blau, H., Baynam, G., Palmer, R., Gratian, D., Dawkins, H., Segal, M., Jansen, A. C., Muaz, A., Chang, W. H., Bergerson, J., Laulederkind, S. J., Yuksel, Z., Beltran, S., Freeman, A. F., Sergouniotis, P. I., Durkin, D., Storm, A. L., Hanauer, M., Brudno, M., Bello, S. M., Sincan, M., Rageth, K., Wheeler, M. T., Oegema, R., Lourghi, H., Della Rocca, M. G., Thompson, R., Castellanos, F., Priest, J., Cunningham-Rundles, C., Hegde, A., Lovering, R. C., Hajek, C., Olry, A., Notarangelo, L., Similuk, M., Zhang, X. A., Gomez-Andres, D., Lochmuller, H., Dollfus, H., Rosenzweig, S., Marwaha, S., Rath, A., Sullivan, K., Smith, C., Milner, J. D., Leroux, D., Boerkoel, C. F., Klion, A., Carter, M. C., Groza, T., Smedley, D., Haendel, M. A., Mungall, C., Robinson, P. N. 2018


    The Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO)-a standardized vocabulary of phenotypic abnormalities associated with 7000+ diseases-is used by thousands of researchers, clinicians, informaticians and electronic health record systems around the world. Its detailed descriptions of clinical abnormalities and computable disease definitions have made HPO the de facto standard for deep phenotyping in the field of rare disease. The HPO's interoperability with other ontologies has enabled it to be used to improve diagnostic accuracy by incorporating model organism data. It also plays a key role in the popular Exomiser tool, which identifies potential disease-causing variants from whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing data. Since the HPO was first introduced in 2008, its users have become both more numerous and more diverse. To meet these emerging needs, the project has added new content, language translations, mappings and computational tooling, as well as integrations with external community data. The HPO continues to collaborate with clinical adopters to improve specific areas of the ontology and extend standardized disease descriptions. The newly redesigned HPO website ( simplifies browsing terms and exploring clinical features, diseases, and human genes.

    View details for PubMedID 30476213

  • Ring Finger Protein 207 Degrades T613M Kv11.1 Channel Ledford, H. A., Park, S., Sirish, P., Xu, W., Emigh, A. M., Timofeyev, V., Priest, J. R., Perez, M. V., Ashley, E. A., Yarov-Yarovoy, V., Zhang, X., Chiamvimonvat, N. CELL PRESS. 2018: 625A
  • First Trimester Plasma Glucose Values in Women without Diabetes are Associated with Risk for Congenital Heart Disease in Offspring. The Journal of pediatrics Helle, E. I., Biegley, P., Knowles, J. W., Leader, J. B., Pendergrass, S., Yang, W., Reaven, G. R., Shaw, G. M., Ritchie, M., Priest, J. R. 2018; 195: 275–78


    In a retrospective study of 19 171 mother-child dyads, elevated random plasma glucose values during early pregnancy were directly correlated with increased risk for congenital heart disease in offspring. Plasma glucose levels proximal to the period of cardiac development may represent a modifiable risk factor for congenital heart disease in expectant mothers without diabetes.

    View details for PubMedID 29254757

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5869072

  • Birthweight, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Cardiovascular Disease: Addressing the Barker Hypothesis With Mendelian Randomization. Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine Zanetti, D., Tikkanen, E., Gustafsson, S., Priest, J. R., Burgess, S., Ingelsson, E. 2018; 11 (6): e002054


    Low birthweight has been associated with a higher risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and cardiovascular disease. The Barker hypothesis posits that intrauterine growth restriction resulting in lower birthweight is causal for these diseases, but causality is difficult to infer from observational studies.We performed regression analyses to assess associations of birthweight with cardiovascular disease and T2D in 237 631 individuals from the UK Biobank. Further, we assessed the causal relationship of such associations using Mendelian randomization.In the observational analyses, birthweight showed inverse associations with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (β, -0.83 and -0.26; per raw unit in outcomes and SD change in birthweight; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.90 to -0.75 and -0.31 to -0.22, respectively), T2D (odds ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.79-0.87), lipid-lowering treatment (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81-0.86), and coronary artery disease (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.94), whereas the associations with adult body mass index and body fat (β, 0.04 and 0.02; per SD change in outcomes and birthweight; 95% CI, 0.03-0.04 and 0.01-0.02, respectively) were positive. The Mendelian randomization analyses indicated inverse causal associations of birthweight with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 2-hour glucose, coronary artery disease, and T2D and positive causal association with body mass index but no associations with blood pressure.Our study indicates that lower birthweight, used as a proxy for intrauterine growth retardation, is causally related with increased susceptibility to coronary artery disease and T2D. This causal relationship is not mediated by adult obesity or hypertension.

    View details for PubMedID 29875125

  • Beyond Gene Panels: Whole Exome Sequencing for Diagnosis of Congenital Heart Disease. Circulation. Genomic and precision medicine Paige, S. L., Saha, P., Priest, J. R. 2018; 11 (3): e002097

    View details for PubMedID 29555674

  • A primer to clinical genome sequencing. Current opinion in pediatrics Priest, J. R. 2017; 29 (5): 513–19


    Genome sequencing is now available as a clinical diagnostic test. There is a significant knowledge and translation gap for nongenetic specialists of the processes necessary to generate and interpret clinical genome sequencing. The purpose of this review is to provide a primer on contemporary clinical genome sequencing for nongenetic specialists describing the human genome project, current techniques and applications in genome sequencing, limitations of current technology, and techniques on the horizon.As currently implemented, genome sequencing compares short pieces of an individual's genome with a reference sequence developed by the human genome project. Genome sequencing may be used for obtaining timely diagnostic information, cancer pharmacogenomics, or in clinical cases when previous genetic testing has not revealed a clear diagnosis. At present, the implementation of clinical genome sequencing is limited by the availability of clinicians qualified for interpretation, and current techniques in used clinical testing do not detect all types of genetic variation present in a single genome.Clinicians considering a genetic diagnosis have wide array of testing choices which now includes genome sequencing. Although not a comprehensive test in its current form, genome sequencing offers more information than gene-panel or exome sequencing and has the potential to replace targeted single-gene or gene-panel testing in many clinical scenarios.

    View details for PubMedID 28786837

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5590671

  • Transcriptomic Profiling Maps Anatomically Patterned Subpopulations among Single Embryonic Cardiac Cells DEVELOPMENTAL CELL Li, G., Xu, A., Sim, S., Priest, J. R., Tian, X., Khan, T., Quertermous, T., Zhou, B., Tsao, P. S., Quake, S. R., Wu, S. M. 2016; 39 (4): 491-507


    Embryonic gene expression intricately reflects anatomical context, developmental stage, and cell type. To address whether the precise spatial origins of cardiac cells can be deduced solely from their transcriptional profiles, we established a genome-wide expression database from 118, 949, and 1,166 single murine heart cells at embryonic day 8.5 (e8.5), e9.5, and e10.5, respectively. We segregated these cells by type using unsupervised bioinformatics analysis and identified chamber-specific genes. Using a random forest algorithm, we reconstructed the spatial origin of single e9.5 and e10.5 cardiomyocytes with 92.0% ± 3.2% and 91.2% ± 2.8% accuracy, respectively (99.4% ± 1.0% and 99.1% ± 1.1% if a ±1 zone margin is permitted) and predicted the second heart field distribution of Isl-1-lineage descendants. When applied to Nkx2-5(-/-) cardiomyocytes from murine e9.5 hearts, we showed their transcriptional alteration and lack of ventricular phenotype. Our database and zone classification algorithm will enable the discovery of novel mechanisms in early cardiac development and disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.devcel.2016.10.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389162800013

    View details for PubMedID 27840109

  • Early somatic mosaicism is a rare cause of long-QT syndrome PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Priest, J. R., Gawad, C., Kahlig, K. M., Yu, J. K., O'Hara, T., Boyle, P. M., Rajamani, S., Clark, M. J., Garcia, S. T., Ceresnak, S., Harris, J., Boyle, S., Dewey, F. E., Malloy-Walton, L., Dunn, K., Grove, M., Perez, M. V., Neff, N. F., Chen, R., Maeda, K., Dubin, A., Belardinelli, L., West, J., Antolik, C., Macaya, D., Quertermous, T., Trayanova, N. A., Quake, S. R., Ashley, E. A. 2016; 113 (41): 11555-11560


    Somatic mosaicism, the occurrence and propagation of genetic variation in cell lineages after fertilization, is increasingly recognized to play a causal role in a variety of human diseases. We investigated the case of life-threatening arrhythmia in a 10-day-old infant with long QT syndrome (LQTS). Rapid genome sequencing suggested a variant in the sodium channel NaV1.5 encoded by SCN5A, NM_000335:c.5284G > T predicting p.(V1762L), but read depth was insufficient to be diagnostic. Exome sequencing of the trio confirmed read ratios inconsistent with Mendelian inheritance only in the proband. Genotyping of single circulating leukocytes demonstrated the mutation in the genomes of 8% of patient cells, and RNA sequencing of cardiac tissue from the infant confirmed the expression of the mutant allele at mosaic ratios. Heterologous expression of the mutant channel revealed significantly delayed sodium current with a dominant negative effect. To investigate the mechanism by which mosaicism might cause arrhythmia, we built a finite element simulation model incorporating Purkinje fiber activation. This model confirmed the pathogenic consequences of cardiac cellular mosaicism and, under the presenting conditions of this case, recapitulated 2:1 AV block and arrhythmia. To investigate the extent to which mosaicism might explain undiagnosed arrhythmia, we studied 7,500 affected probands undergoing commercial gene-panel testing. Four individuals with pathogenic variants arising from early somatic mutation events were found. Here we establish cardiac mosaicism as a causal mechanism for LQTS and present methods by which the general phenomenon, likely to be relevant for all genetic diseases, can be detected through single-cell analysis and next-generation sequencing.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1607187113

    View details for PubMedID 27681629

  • Standards of Evidence and Mechanistic Inference in Autosomal Recessive Hypercholesterolemia ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY Priest, J. R., Knowles, J. W. 2016; 36 (8): 1465-1466

    View details for DOI 10.1161/ATVBAHA.116.307714

    View details for Web of Science ID 000381474000002

    View details for PubMedID 27466618

  • Prepregnancy Diabetes and Offspring Risk of Congenital Heart Disease A Nationwide Cohort Study CIRCULATION Oyen, N., Diaz, L. J., Leirgul, E., Boyd, H. A., Priest, J., Mathiesen, E. R., Quertermous, T., Wohlfahrt, J., Melbye, M. 2016; 133 (23): 2243-2253


    Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of offspring congenital heart defects (CHD); however, the causal mechanism is poorly understood. We further investigated this association in a Danish nationwide cohort.In a national cohort study, we identified 2 025 727 persons born from 1978 to 2011; among them were 7296 (0.36%) persons exposed to maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus. Pregestational diabetes mellitus was identified by using the National Patient Register and individual-level information on all prescriptions filled in Danish pharmacies. Persons with CHD (n=16 325) were assigned to embryologically related cardiac phenotypes. The CHD prevalence in the offspring of mothers with pregestational diabetes mellitus was 318 per 10 000 live births (n=232) in comparison with a baseline risk of 80 per 10 000; the adjusted relative risk for CHD was 4.00 (95% confidence interval, 3.51-4.53). The association was not modified by year of birth, maternal age at diabetes onset, or diabetes duration, and CHD risks associated with type 1 (insulin-dependent) and type 2 (insulin-independent) diabetes mellitus did not differ significantly. Persons born to women with previous acute diabetes complications had a higher CHD risk than those exposed to maternal diabetes mellitus without complications (relative risk, 7.62; 95% confidence interval, 5.23-10.6, and relative risk, 3.49; 95% confidence interval, 2.91-4.13, respectively; P=0.0004). All specific CHD phenotypes were associated with maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus (relative risk range, 2.74-13.8).The profoundly increased CHD risk conferred by maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus neither changed over time nor differed by diabetes subtype. The association with acute pregestational diabetes complications was particularly strong, suggesting a role for glucose in the causal pathway.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.017465

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377439900007

    View details for PubMedID 27166384

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4890838

  • De Novo and Rare Variants at Multiple Loci Support the Oligogenic Origins of Atrioventricular Septal Heart Defects. PLoS genetics Priest, J. R., Osoegawa, K., Mohammed, N., Nanda, V., Kundu, R., Schultz, K., Lammer, E. J., Girirajan, S., Scheetz, T., Waggott, D., Haddad, F., Reddy, S., Bernstein, D., Burns, T., Steimle, J. D., Yang, X. H., Moskowitz, I. P., Hurles, M., Lifton, R. P., Nickerson, D., Bamshad, M., Eichler, E. E., Mital, S., Sheffield, V., Quertermous, T., Gelb, B. D., Portman, M., Ashley, E. A. 2016; 12 (4)


    Congenital heart disease (CHD) has a complex genetic etiology, and recent studies suggest that high penetrance de novo mutations may account for only a small fraction of disease. In a multi-institutional cohort surveyed by exome sequencing, combining analysis of 987 individuals (discovery cohort of 59 affected trios and 59 control trios, and a replication cohort of 100 affected singletons and 533 unaffected singletons) we observe variation at novel and known loci related to a specific cardiac malformation the atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). In a primary analysis, by combining developmental coexpression networks with inheritance modeling, we identify a de novo mutation in the DNA binding domain of NR1D2 (p.R175W). We show that p.R175W changes the transcriptional activity of Nr1d2 using an in vitro transactivation model in HUVEC cells. Finally, we demonstrate previously unrecognized cardiovascular malformations in the Nr1d2tm1-Dgen knockout mouse. In secondary analyses we map genetic variation to protein-interaction networks suggesting a role for two collagen genes in AVSD, which we corroborate by burden testing in a second replication cohort of 100 AVSDs and 533 controls (p = 8.37e-08). Finally, we apply a rare-disease inheritance model to identify variation in genes previously associated with CHD (ZFPM2, NSD1, NOTCH1, VCAN, and MYH6), cardiac malformations in mouse models (ADAM17, CHRD, IFT140, PTPRJ, RYR1 and ATE1), and hypomorphic alleles of genes causing syndromic CHD (EHMT1, SRCAP, BBS2, NOTCH2, and KMT2D) in 14 of 59 trios, greatly exceeding variation in control trios without CHD (p = 9.60e-06). In total, 32% of trios carried at least one putatively disease-associated variant across 19 loci,suggesting that inherited and de novo variation across a heterogeneous group of loci may contribute to disease risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005963

    View details for PubMedID 27058611

  • Medical implications of technical accuracy in genome sequencing. Genome medicine Goldfeder, R. L., Priest, J. R., Zook, J. M., Grove, M. E., Waggott, D., Wheeler, M. T., Salit, M., Ashley, E. A. 2016; 8 (1): 24-?


    As whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) transition from research tools to clinical diagnostic tests, it is increasingly critical for sequencing methods and analysis pipelines to be technically accurate. The Genome in a Bottle Consortium has recently published a set of benchmark SNV, indel, and homozygous reference genotypes for the pilot whole genome NIST Reference Material based on the NA12878 genome.We examine the relationship between human genome complexity and genes/variants reported to be associated with human disease. Specifically, we map regions of medical relevance to benchmark regions of high or low confidence. We use benchmark data to assess the sensitivity and positive predictive value of two representative sequencing pipelines for specific classes of variation.We observe that the accuracy of a variant call depends on the genomic region, variant type, and read depth, and varies by analytical pipeline. We find that most false negative WGS calls result from filtering while most false negative WES variants relate to poor coverage. We find that only 74.6% of the exonic bases in ClinVar and OMIM genes and 82.1% of the exonic bases in ACMG-reportable genes are found in high-confidence regions. Only 990 genes in the genome are found entirely within high-confidence regions while 593 of 3,300 ClinVar/OMIM genes have less than 50% of their total exonic base pairs in high-confidence regions. We find greater than 77 % of the pathogenic or likely pathogenic SNVs currently in ClinVar fall within high-confidence regions. We identify sites that are prone to sequencing errors, including thousands present in publicly available variant databases. Finally, we examine the clinical impact of mandatory reporting of secondary findings, highlighting a false positive variant found in BRCA2.Together, these data illustrate the importance of appropriate use and continued improvement of technical benchmarks to ensure accurate and judicious interpretation of next-generation DNA sequencing results in the clinical setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s13073-016-0269-0

    View details for PubMedID 26932475

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4774017

  • Maternal Midpregnancy Glucose Levels and Risk of Congenital Heart Disease in Offspring JAMA PEDIATRICS Priest, J. R., Yang, W., Reaven, G., Knowles, J. W., Shaw, G. M. 2015; 169 (12): 1112-1116


    There is a well-described association between maternal diabetes mellitus and risk of congenital heart disease (CHD) in offspring. Although the clinical diagnoses of type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes are strong risk factors for CHD, subclinical abnormalities of glucose and insulin metabolism are common within the general population and could also confer risk for CHD. We hypothesize that continuous measures of blood analytes related to maternal diabetes are related to odds of cardiac malformations.To explore the potential association of 2 different CHD phenotypes in offspring with maternal midpregnancy measures of glucose and insulin.Case-control study from a population-based cohort of 277 pregnant women in southern and central California carrying infants with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (n = 55), dextrotransposition of the great arteries (dTGA) (n = 42), or healthy infants without CHD (n = 180). Serum samples were collected from 2003 through 2007. The analysis was conducted from March through June 2015.Blood analytes related to maternal glucose metabolism were measured from random nonfasting second-trimester blood samples. We measured serum insulin levels by a validated radioimmunoassay, and we measured glucose levels. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the association between these levels and case status.Serum glucose values were elevated in the maternal samples for offspring with TOF (median, 97.0 mg/dL [to convert to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.0555]) relative to controls (median, 91.5 mg/dL) (P = .01, Wilcoxon rank sum test), a phenomenon not observed in the maternal samples for offspring with dTGA (median, 90.0 mg/dL) relative to controls (P = .18, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Serum insulin levels were significantly different between controls (median, 18.8 μIU/mL [to convert to picomoles per liter, multiply by 6.945]) and maternal samples for offspring with dTGA (median, 13.1 μIU/mL; P = .048, Wilcoxon rank sum test) but not with TOF (median, 14.3 μIU/mL; P = .35, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Relative to maternal blood glucose levels of infants without cardiac malformations, we observed that maternal blood glucose levels in models including insulin were strongly associated with odds of TOF (adjusted odds ratio = 7.54; 95% CI, 2.30-24.69) but not with dTGA (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16; 95% CI, 0.28-4.79).These results represent a direct correlation of glucose as a continuous variable to odds of specific cardiac malformations. The association between serum glucose and odds of TOF indicates the need for additional epidemiological and mechanistic investigations into the risk conferred by insulin signaling and glucose metabolism during early pregnancy.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.2831

    View details for Web of Science ID 000366334600014

    View details for PubMedID 26457543

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4996656

  • Activating Mutations Affecting the Dbl Homology Domain of SOS2 Cause Noonan Syndrome HUMAN MUTATION Cordeddu, V., Yin, J. C., Gunnarsson, C., Virtanen, C., Drunat, S., Lepri, F., De Luca, A., Rossi, C., Ciolfi, A., Pugh, T. J., Bruselles, A., Priest, J. R., Pennacchio, L. A., Lu, Z., Danesh, A., Quevedo, R., Hamid, A., Martinelli, S., Pantaleoni, F., Gnazzo, M., Daniele, P., Lissewski, C., Bocchinfuso, G., Stella, L., Odent, S., Philip, N., Faivre, L., Vlckova, M., Seemanova, E., Digilio, C., Zenker, M., Zampino, G., Verloes, A., Dallapiccola, B., Roberts, A. E., Cave, H., Gelb, B. D., Neel, B. G., Tartaglia, M. 2015; 36 (11): 1080-1087


    The RASopathies constitute a family of autosomal-dominant disorders whose major features include facial dysmorphism, cardiac defects, reduced postnatal growth, variable cognitive deficits, ectodermal and skeletal anomalies, and susceptibility to certain malignancies. Noonan syndrome (NS), the commonest RASopathy, is genetically heterogeneous and caused by functional dysregulation of signal transducers and regulatory proteins with roles in the RAS/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathway. Mutations in known disease genes account for approximately 80% of affected individuals. Here, we report that missense mutations altering Son of Sevenless, Drosophila, homolog 2 (SOS2), which encodes a RAS guanine nucleotide exchange factor, occur in a small percentage of subjects with NS. Four missense mutations were identified in five unrelated sporadic cases and families transmitting NS. Disease-causing mutations affected three conserved residues located in the Dbl homology (DH) domain, of which two are directly involved in the intramolecular binding network maintaining SOS2 in its autoinhibited conformation. All mutations were found to promote enhanced signaling from RAS to ERK. Similar to NS-causing SOS1 mutations, the phenotype associated with SOS2 defects is characterized by normal development and growth, as well as marked ectodermal involvement. Unlike SOS1 mutations, however, those in SOS2 are restricted to the DH domain.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/humu.22834

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362991400011

    View details for PubMedID 26173643

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4604019

  • Sequence to Medical Phenotypes: A Framework for Interpretation of Human Whole Genome DNA Sequence Data PLOS GENETICS Dewey, F. E., Grove, M. E., Priest, J. R., Waggott, D., Batra, P., Miller, C. L., Wheeler, M., Zia, A., Pan, C., Karzcewski, K. J., Miyake, C., Whirl-Carrillo, M., Klein, T. E., Datta, S., Altman, R. B., Snyder, M., Quertermous, T., Ashley, E. A. 2015; 11 (10)


    High throughput sequencing has facilitated a precipitous drop in the cost of genomic sequencing, prompting predictions of a revolution in medicine via genetic personalization of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. There are significant barriers to realizing this goal that are related to the difficult task of interpreting personal genetic variation. A comprehensive, widely accessible application for interpretation of whole genome sequence data is needed. Here, we present a series of methods for identification of genetic variants and genotypes with clinical associations, phasing genetic data and using Mendelian inheritance for quality control, and providing predictive genetic information about risk for rare disease phenotypes and response to pharmacological therapy in single individuals and father-mother-child trios. We demonstrate application of these methods for disease and drug response prognostication in whole genome sequence data from twelve unrelated adults, and for disease gene discovery in one father-mother-child trio with apparently simplex congenital ventricular arrhythmia. In doing so we identify clinically actionable inherited disease risk and drug response genotypes in pre-symptomatic individuals. We also nominate a new candidate gene in congenital arrhythmia, ATP2B4, and provide experimental evidence of a regulatory role for variants discovered using this framework.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005496

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364401600008

    View details for PubMedID 26448358

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4598191

  • Molecular diagnosis of long QT syndrome at 10 days of life by rapid whole genome sequencing HEART RHYTHM Priest, J. R., Ceresnak, S. R., Dewey, F. E., Malloy-Walton, L. E., Dunn, K., Grove, M. E., Perez, M. V., Maeda, K., Dubin, A. M., Ashley, E. A. 2014; 11 (10): 1707-1713


    The advent of clinical next generation sequencing is rapidly changing the landscape of rare disease medicine. Molecular diagnosis of long QT syndrome (LQTS) can impact clinical management, including risk stratification and selection of pharmacotherapy based on the type of ion channel affected, but results from current gene panel testing requires 4 to 16 weeks before return to clinicians.A term female infant presented with 2:1 atrioventricular block and ventricular arrhythmias consistent with perinatal LQTS, requiring aggressive treatment including epicardial pacemaker, and cardioverter-defibrillator implantation and sympathectomy on day of life two. We sought to provide a rapid molecular diagnosis for optimization of treatment strategies.We performed CLIA-certified rapid whole genome sequencing (WGS) with a speed-optimized bioinformatics platform to achieve molecular diagnosis at 10 days of life.We detected a known pathogenic variant in KCNH2 that was demonstrated to be paternally inherited by followup genotyping. The unbiased assessment of the entire catalog of human genes provided by whole genome sequencing revealed a maternally inherited variant of unknown significance in a novel gene.Rapid clinical WGS provides faster and more comprehensive diagnostic information by 10 days of life than standard gene-panel testing. In selected clinical scenarios such as perinatal LQTS, rapid WGS may be able to provide more timely and clinically actionable information than a standard commercial test.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hrthm.20l4.06.030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343112200012

  • Self-reported history of childhood smoking is associated with an increased risk for peripheral arterial disease independent of lifetime smoking burden. PloS one Priest, J. R., Nead, K. T., Wehner, M. R., Cooke, J. P., Leeper, N. J. 2014; 9 (2)


    Atherosclerotic disorders are well known to be associated with obesity, lipid profile, smoking, hypertension and other medical comorbidities, and large cohort studies have explored the childhood correlates to these adult risk factors. However, there has been little investigation into the childhood risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We endeavored to better understand the role of smoking in childhood in the risk for PAD in a well described cohort of 1,537 adults at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In a multivariate regression model, we observed an increased risk of PAD among those who reported a history of smoking during childhood (OR = 2.86; 95% CI, 1.99-4.11; P<0.001), which remained statistically significant after controlling for lifetime smoking burden (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.00-2.41; P = 0.049). Our novel observation of disproportionate risk of PAD conferred by a history of childhood smoking may reflect an unrecognized biological mechanism such as a unique susceptibility to vascular injury or an unaccounted for covariate such as secondhand smoke exposure in childhood. This observation suggests further investigation is required into the pathophysiology of smoking in the developing vasculature and the need for detailed clinical data about patterns of childhood smoking and smoke exposure.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0088972

    View details for PubMedID 24558458

  • Self-reported history of childhood smoking is associated with an increased risk for peripheral arterial disease independent of lifetime smoking burden. PloS one Priest, J. R., Nead, K. T., Wehner, M. R., Cooke, J. P., Leeper, N. J. 2014; 9 (2)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0088972

    View details for PubMedID 24558458

  • Ebstein anomaly and Trisomy 21: A rare association. Annals of pediatric cardiology Siehr, S. L., Punn, R., Priest, J. R., Lowenthal, A. 2014; 7 (1): 67-69


    This is a case report of a patient with Trisomy 21 with Ebstein anomaly, a ventricular septal defect, and acquired pulmonary vein stenosis; a rare combination, diagnosed during a routine neonatal examination.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/0974-2069.126569

    View details for PubMedID 24701093

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3959069

  • Triiodothyronine supplementation and cytokines during cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Priest, J. R., Slee, A., Olson, A. K., Ledee, D., Morrish, F., Portman, M. A. 2012; 144 (4): 938-?


    The Triiodothyronine Supplementation in Infants and Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass (TRICC) study demonstrated a shortened time to extubation in children younger than 5 months old undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart surgery with triiodothyronine supplementation. Cardiopulmonary bypass precipitates a systemic inflammatory response that affects recovery, and triiodothyronine is related to cytokine mediators of inflammation. We sought to investigate the preoperative cytokine levels by age and relationship to the triiodothyronine levels and to examine the effect of the cytokine levels on the time to extubation.We measured 6 cytokines at preoperative time 0 and 6 and 24 hours after crossclamp removal in 76 subjects.The preoperative cytokine levels were related to both the triiodothyronine levels and the patient age. The postoperative cytokine levels were predictive of the triiodothyronine levels at 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours. Preoperative CCL4 was associated with an increased chance of early extubation. Inclusion of the cytokines did not change the relationship of triiodothyronine to the time to extubation, and the postoperative course of interleukin-6 was independently associated with a decreased chance of early extubation.The preoperative and postoperative cytokine levels, in particular, interleukin-1β, showed complex time-dependent relationships with triiodothyronine. The data suggest that cytokine-mediated suppression of triiodothyronine plays an important role in determining the clinical outcome after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.05.063

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309111600030

    View details for PubMedID 22743177

  • Rare copy number variants in isolated sporadic and syndromic atrioventricular septal defects AMERICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL GENETICS PART A Priest, J. R., Girirajan, S., Vu, T. H., Olson, A., Eichler, E. E., Portman, M. A. 2012; 158A (6): 1279-1284


    Atrioventricular septal defects (AVSDs) are a frequent but not universal component of Down syndrome (DS), while AVSDs in otherwise normal individuals have no well-defined genetic basis. The contribution of copy number variation (CNV) to specific congenital heart disease (CHD) phenotypes including AVSD is unknown. We hypothesized that de novo CNVs on chromosome 21 might cause isolated sporadic AVSDs, and separately that CNVs throughout the genome might constitute an additional genetic risk factor for AVSD in patients with DS. We utilized a custom oligonucleotide arrays targeted to CNV hotspots that are flanked by large duplicated segments of high sequence identity. We assayed 29 euploid and 50 DS individuals with AVSD, and compared to general population controls. In patients with isolated-sporadic AVSD we identified two large unique deletions outside of chromosome 21 not seen in the expanded set of 8,635 controls, each overlapping with larger deletions associated with similar CHD reported in the DECIPHER database. There was a small duplication in one patient with DS and AVSD. We conclude that isolated sporadic AVSDs may be occasionally associated with large de novo genomic structural variation outside of chromosome 21. The absence of CNVs on chromosome 21 in patients with isolated sporadic AVSD suggests that sub-chromosomal duplications or deletions of greater than 150 kbp on chromosome 21 do not cause sporadic AVSDs. Large CNVs do not appear to be an additive risk factor for AVSD in the DS population.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajmg.a.35315

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304133700007

    View details for PubMedID 22529060

  • Relationships of the Location and Content of Rounds to Specialty, Institution, Patient-Census, and Team Size PLOS ONE Priest, J. R., Bereknyei, S., Hooper, K., Braddock, C. H. 2010; 5 (6)


    Existing observational data describing rounds in teaching hospitals are 15 years old, predate duty-hour regulations, are limited to one institution, and do not include pediatrics. We sought to evaluate the effect of medical specialty, institution, patient-census, and team participants upon time at the bedside and education occurring on rounds.Between December of 2007 and October of 2008 we performed 51 observations at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Seattle Children's Hospital, Stanford University Hospital, and the University of Washington Medical Center of 35 attending physicians. We recorded minutes spent on rounds in three location and seven activity categories, members of the care team, and patient-census.Results presented are means. Pediatric rounds had more participants (8.2 vs. 4.1 physicians, p<.001; 11.9 vs. 2.4 non-physicians, p<.001) who spent more minutes in hallways (96.9 min vs. 35.2 min, p<.001), fewer minutes at the bedside (14.6 vs. 38.2 min, p = .01) than internal medicine rounds. Multivariate regression modeling revealed that minutes at the bedside per patient was negatively associated with pediatrics (-2.77 adjusted bedside minutes; 95% CI -4.61 to -0.93; p<.001) but positively associated with the number of non-physician participants (0.12 adjusted bedside minutes per non physician participant; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.17; p = <.001). Education minutes on rounds was positively associated with the presence of an attending physician (2.70 adjusted education minutes; 95% CI 1.27 to 4.12; p<.001) and with one institution (1.39 adjusted education minutes; 95% CI 0.26 to 2.53; p = .02).Pediatricians spent less time at the bedside on rounds than internal medicine physicians due to reasons other than patient-census or the number of participants in rounds. Compared to historical data, internal medicine rounds were spent more at the bedside engaged in patient care and communication, and less upon educational activities.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0011246

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279058300029

    View details for PubMedID 20574534

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2888591

  • A near null variant of 12/15-LOX encoded by a novel SNP in ALOX15 and the risk of coronary artery disease ATHEROSCLEROSIS Assimes, T. L., Knowles, J. W., Priest, J. R., Basu, A., Borchert, A., Volcik, K. A., Grove, M. L., Tabor, H. K., Southwick, A., Tabibiazar, R., Sidney, S., Boerwinkle, E., Go, A. S., Iribarren, C., Hlatky, M. A., Fortmann, S. P., Myers, R. M., Kuhn, H., Riseh, N., Quertermous, T. 2008; 198 (1): 136-144


    Murine genetic models suggest that function of the 12/15-LOX enzyme promotes atherosclerosis. We tested the hypothesis that exonic and/or promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human 12/15-LOX gene (ALOX15) alter the risk of symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD).We resequenced ALOX15 and then genotyped a common promoter and a less common novel coding SNP (T560M) in 1809 subjects with CAD and 1734 controls from Kaiser Permanente including a subset of participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study. We found no association between the promoter SNP and the risk of CAD. However, heterozygote carriers of the 560M allele had an increased risk of CAD (adjusted OR, 1.62; P=0.02) compared to non-carriers. In vitro studies demonstrated a 20-fold reduction in the catalytic activity of 560M when compared to 560T. We then genotyped T560M in 12,974 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and similarly found that heterozygote carriers had an increased risk of CAD compared to non-carriers (adjusted HR, 1.31; P=0.06). In both population studies, homozygote carriers were rare and associated with a non-significant decreased risk of CAD compared to non-carriers (adjusted OR, 0.55; P=0.63 and HR, 0.93; P=0.9).A coding SNP in ALOX15 (T560M) results in a near null variant of human 12/15-LOX. Assuming a co-dominant mode of inheritance, this variant does not protect against CAD. Assuming a recessive mode of inheritance, the effect of this mutation remains unclear, but is unlikely to provide a protective effect to the degree suggested by mouse knockout studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.atheroscierosis.2007.09.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255491800016

    View details for PubMedID 17959182

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2440699

  • Common polymorphisms of ALOX5 and ALOX5AP and risk of coronary artery disease HUMAN GENETICS Assimes, T. L., Knowles, J. W., Priest, J. R., Basu, A., Volcik, K. A., Southwick, A., Tabor, H. K., Hartiala, J., Allayee, H., Grove, M. L., Tabibiazar, R., Sidney, S., Fortmann, S. P., Go, A., Hlatky, M., Iribarren, C., Boerwinkle, E., Myers, R., Risch, N., Quertermous, T. 2008; 123 (4): 399-408


    Recent human genetic studies suggest that allelic variants of leukotriene pathway genes influence the risk of clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. We sequenced the promoter, exonic, and splice site regions of ALOX5 and ALOX5AP and then genotyped 7 SNPs in ALOX5 and 6 SNPs in ALOX5AP in 1,552 cases with clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and 1,583 controls from Kaiser Permanente including a subset of participants of the coronary artery risk development in young adults study. A nominally significant association was detected between a promoter SNP in ALOX5 (rs12762303) and CAD in our subset of white/European subjects (adjusted odds ratio per minor allele, log-additive model, 1.32; P = 0.002). In this race/ethnic group, rs12762303 has a minor allele frequency of 15% and is tightly linked to variation at the SP1 variable tandem repeat promoter polymorphism. However, the association between CAD and rs12762303 could not be reproduced in the atherosclerosis risk in communities study (hazard rate ratio per minor allele; 1.08, P = 0.1). Assuming a recessive mode of inheritance, the association was not significant in either population study but our power to detect modest effects was limited. No significant associations were observed between all other SNPs and the risk of CAD. Overall, our findings do not support a link between common allelic variation in or near ALOX5 or ALOX5AP and the risk of CAD. However, additional studies are needed to exclude modest effects of promoter variation in ALOX5 on the risk of CAD assuming a recessive mode of inheritance.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00439-008-0489-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254959600008

    View details for PubMedID 18369664

  • Brucellosis and sacroiliitis: A common presentation of an uncommon pathogen JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN BOARD OF FAMILY MEDICINE Priest, J. R., Low, D., Wang, C., Bush, T. 2008; 21 (2): 158-161


    Musculoskeletal problems are the most common chief complaint in ambulatory medicine across all specialties, and back pain is one of the top 10 problems encountered by the general practitioner. The differential diagnosis of lower back pain is exhaustive, but a history significant for constitutional symptoms or unusual exposures should prompt a work-up for an infectious cause. We describe the case of a 25-year-old man with a Brucella abortus sacroiliitis and possible orchiitis after consumption of unpasteurized cheese imported from El Salvador. The patient was successfully treated with gentamycin, rifampin, and doxycycline. Though the presentations of brucellosis are myriad, osteoarticular involvement of the axial skeleton is the most common presentation of this zoonotic infection. In the United States brucellosis is rarely encountered and is typically limited to people who are exposed during travel to endemic areas. Here we review briefly the epidemiology and presentation of a Brucella infection and current recommendations for treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.3122/jabfm.2008.02.070170

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253993300012

    View details for PubMedID 18343865

  • Polymorphisms in hypoxia inducible factor 1 and the initial clinical presentation of coronary disease AMERICAN HEART JOURNAL Hlatky, M. A., Quertermous, T., Boothroyd, D. B., Priest, J. R., Glassford, A. J., Myers, R. M., Fortmann, S. P., Iribarren, C., Tabor, H. K., Assimes, T. L., Tibshirani, R. J., Go, A. S. 2007; 154 (6): 1035-1042


    Only some patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop acute myocardial infarction (MI), and emerging evidence suggests vulnerability to MI varies systematically among patients and may have a genetic component. The goal of this study was to assess whether polymorphisms in genes encoding elements of pathways mediating the response to ischemia affect vulnerability to MI among patients with underlying CAD.We prospectively identified patients at the time of their initial clinical presentation of CAD who had either an acute MI or stable exertional angina. We collected clinical data and genotyped 34 polymorphisms in 6 genes (ANGPT1, HIF1A, THBS1, VEGFA, VEGFC, VEGFR2).The 909 patients with acute MI were significantly more likely than the 466 patients with stable angina to be male, current smokers, and hypertensive, and less likely to be taking beta-blockers or statins. Three polymorphisms in HIF1A (Pro582Ser, rs11549465; rs1087314; and Thr418Ile, rs41508050) were significantly more common in patients who presented with stable exertional angina rather than acute MI, even after statistical adjustment for cardiac risk factors and medications. The HIF-mediated transcriptional activity was significantly lower when HIF1A null fibroblasts were transfected with variant HIF1A alleles than with wild-type HIF1A alleles.Polymorphisms in HIF1A were associated with development of stable exertional angina rather than acute MI as the initial clinical presentation of CAD.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ahj.2007.07.042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251396200006

    View details for PubMedID 18035072

  • Comparative genomics: a tool to functionally annotate human DNA. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Cheng, J., Priest, J. R., Pennacchio, L. A. 2007; 366: 229-251


    The availability of an increasing number of vertebrate genomes has enabled comparative methods to infer functional sequences based on evolutionary constraint. Although this has proved powerful for gene identification, significant progress has also been made in uncovering gene regulatory sequences such as distant acting transcriptional enhancers. These pursuits have led to the development of a variety of valuable databases and resources that should serve as a routine toolbox for biological discovery.

    View details for PubMedID 17568128

  • Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears SCIENCE Noonan, J. P., Hofreiter, M., Smith, D., Priest, J. R., Rohland, N., Rabeder, G., KRAUSE, J., Detter, J. C., Paabo, S., Rubin, E. M. 2005; 309 (5734): 597-600


    Despite the greater information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies have largely been limited to the amplification of mitochondrial sequences. Here we describe metagenomic libraries constructed with unamplified DNA extracted from skeletal remains of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of approximately 1 megabase of sequence from each library showed that despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 and 1.1% of clones contained cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 base pairs of cave bear genome sequence. Comparison of cave bear and modern bear sequences revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. The metagenomic approach used here establishes the feasibility of ancient DNA genome sequencing programs.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1113485

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230735200044

    View details for PubMedID 15933159

  • Human-zebrafish non-coding conserved elements act in vivo to regulate transcription NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH Shin, J. T., Priest, J. R., Ovcharenko, I., Ronco, A., Moore, R. K., Burns, C. G., MacRae, C. A. 2005; 33 (17): 5437-5445


    Whole genome comparisons of distantly related species effectively predict biologically important sequences--core genes and cis-acting regulatory elements (REs)--but require experimentation to verify biological activity. To examine the efficacy of comparative genomics in identification of active REs from anonymous, non-coding (NC) sequences, we generated a novel alignment of the human and draft zebrafish genomes, and contrasted this set to existing human and fugu datasets. We tested the transcriptional regulatory potential of candidate sequences using two in vivo assays. Strict selection of non-genic elements which are deeply conserved in vertebrate evolution identifies 1744 core vertebrate REs in human and two fish genomes. We tested 16 elements in vivo for cis-acting gene regulatory properties using zebrafish transient transgenesis and found that 10 (63%) strongly modulate tissue-specific expression of a green fluorescent protein reporter vector. We also report a novel quantitative enhancer assay with potential for increased throughput based on normalized luciferase activity in vivo. This complementary system identified 11 (69%; including 9 of 10 GFP-confirmed elements) with cis-acting function. Together, these data support the utility of comparative genomics of distantly related vertebrate species to identify REs and provide a scaleable, in vivo quantitative assay to define functional activity of candidate REs.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gki853

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232593700016

    View details for PubMedID 16179648

  • The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5 NATURE Schmutz, J., Martin, J., Terry, A., Couronne, O., Grimwood, J., Lowry, S., Gordon, L. A., Scott, D., Xie, G., Huang, W., Hellsten, U., Tran-Gyamfi, M., She, X. W., Prabhakar, S., Aerts, A., Altherr, M., Bajorek, E., Black, S., Branscomb, E., Caoile, C., Challacombe, J. F., Chan, Y. M., Denys, M., Detter, J. C., Escobar, J., Flowers, D., Fotopulos, D., Glavina, T., Gomez, M., Gonzales, E., Goodstein, D., Grigoriev, I., Groza, M., Hammon, N., Hawkins, T., Haydu, L., Israni, S., Jett, J., Kadner, K., Kimball, H., Kobayashi, A., LOPEZ, F., Lou, Y. N., Martinez, D., Medina, C., Morgan, J., Nandkeshwar, R., Noonan, J. P., Pitluck, S., Pollard, M., Predki, P., Priest, J., Ramirez, L., Retterer, J., Rodriguez, A., Rogers, S., Salamov, A., Salazar, A., Thayer, N., Tice, H., Tsai, M., Ustaszewska, A., Vo, N., Wheeler, J., Wu, K., Yang, J., Dickson, M., Cheng, J. F., Eichler, E. E., Olsen, A., Pennacchio, L. A., Rokhsar, D. S., Richardson, P., Lucas, S. M., Myers, R. M., Rubin, E. M. 2004; 431 (7006): 268-274


    Chromosome 5 is one of the largest human chromosomes and contains numerous intrachromosomal duplications, yet it has one of the lowest gene densities. This is partially explained by numerous gene-poor regions that display a remarkable degree of noncoding conservation with non-mammalian vertebrates, suggesting that they are functionally constrained. In total, we compiled 177.7 million base pairs of highly accurate finished sequence containing 923 manually curated protein-coding genes including the protocadherin and interleukin gene families. We also completely sequenced versions of the large chromosome-5-specific internal duplications. These duplications are very recent evolutionary events and probably have a mechanistic role in human physiological variation, as deletions in these regions are the cause of debilitating disorders including spinal muscular atrophy.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature02919

    View details for PubMedID 15372022