Bio

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Cardiac Surgeon-in-Charge, Johns Hopkins Hospital (1982 - 1992)
  • Chairman, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery - Stanford (1993 - 2005)

Professional Education


  • MD, Yale School of Medicine, Medicine (1970)
  • BS, Stanford University, Physiology (1966)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Mechanism of allograft rejection for the heart and, lung; late chronic effects of rejection, such as graft coronary, atherosclerosis in the heart and bronchiolitis obliterans in the, lung; treatment of rejection, including pharmacologic agents, total, lymphoid irradiation, and the induction of tolerance in fetal, animals; clinical studies include the results of lung and heart-lung, transplantation, modification of immunosuppressive protocols, and, factors contributing to late chronic rejection.

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Transplantation for Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Improvement in the Lung Allocation Score Era CIRCULATION Schaffer, J. M., Singh, S. K., Joyce, D. L., Reitz, B. A., Robbins, R. C., Zamanian, R. T., Mallidi, H. R. 2013; 127 (25): 2503-2513

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Lung transplant (LUT) and heart-lung transplant (HLT) represent surgical options for treating medically refractory idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). The effect of the lung allocation score (LAS) on waitlist and transplant outcomes in IPAH patients is poorly described. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults diagnosed with IPAH and listed for transplant in the 80 months before and after the LAS algorithm was implemented (N=1430) were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing thoracic registry. Patients were stratified by organ listed and pre- and post-LAS era. The cumulative incidences of transplant and mortality for waitlisted patients in both eras were appraised with competing outcomes analysis. Post-transplant survival was assessed with the Kaplan-Meier method. These analyses were repeated in propensity-matched subgroups. Cox proportional hazards analysis evaluated the effect of pre-listing and pre-transplant characteristics on mortality. We found that post-LAS-era patients had significantly worse comorbidities; nevertheless, both LUT and HLT candidates in this era enjoyed lower waitlist mortality and a higher incidence of transplant in our unmatched and propensity-matched analyses. On multivariable analysis, HLT and double-lung transplant (DLT) were associated with improved survival from the time of waitlisting, as was being listed at a medium-to-high-volume institution. Donor/recipient gender matching predicted post-transplant survival. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of transplant has increased while waitlist mortality has decreased in IPAH patients waitlisted for transplant in the post-LAS era. Both HLT and DLT are predictive of survival in transplant candidates with IPAH, as is being listed at a medium-to-high-volume institution. Donor/recipient gender-matching is associated with better post-transplant survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.001080

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320916900014

    View details for PubMedID 23697910

  • Heart transplant graft survival is improved after a reduction in panel reactive antibody activity. journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery Schaffer, J. M., Singh, S. K., Reitz, B. A., Oyer, P. E., Robbins, R. C., Mallidi, H. R. 2013; 145 (2): 555-564

    Abstract

    Allosensitization in potential orthotopic heart transplant recipients is evaluated with the panel reactive antibody assay. Sensitized patients have prolonged wait times and increased waitlist and post-transplant mortality. Although low panel reactive antibody activity at the time of orthotopic heart transplantation is associated with improved outcomes, literature regarding the survival benefit of a panel reactive antibody reduction in the sensitized orthotopic heart transplant recipient remains limited.Adult orthotopic heart transplant recipients listed in the United Network for Organ Sharing database (October 1, 1987, to June 29, 2004) were stratified by peak panel reactive antibody activity and whether a substantial decline from peak to most recent panel reactive antibody activity occurred before transplant. Propensity matching adjusted for differences in recipient and donor characteristics. Graft survival was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression determined predictors of graft survival.Pretransplant characteristics differed between sensitized patients who had a substantial decline in panel reactive antibody activity and those who did not. Propensity matching compensated for these differences. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of matched groups showed that the median graft survival was 120 months in patients with a significant panel reactive antibody reduction and 103 months in patients with a trivial reduction (P = .007, log-rank). In Cox proportional hazards modeling, a significant reduction in panel reactive antibody activity had an independent protective effect on graft survival (hazard ratio, 0.88; confidence interval, 0.80-0.96; P = .006).Sensitized patients who had a substantial reduction in panel reactive antibody activity had an associated decline in the incidence of graft failure compared with those without a panel reactive antibody activity reduction. These results support efforts to reduce panel reactive antibody activity before orthotopic heart transplantation in patients with high panel reactive antibody activity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.10.025

    View details for PubMedID 23246047

  • The first successful combined heart-lung transplantation JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Reitz, B. A. 2011; 141 (4): 867-869

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.12.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288541300003

    View details for PubMedID 21419898

  • Case report: a thrombus in the venous reservoir while using bivalirudin in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia undergoing heart transplantation. Anesthesia and analgesia Wong, J. K., Tian, Y., Shuttleworth, P., Caffarelli, A. D., Reitz, B. A., Mora-Mangano, C. T. 2010; 111 (3): 609-612

    Abstract

    Direct thrombin inhibitors are heparin alternatives for anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. We report a case of a large thrombus forming in the venous reservoir while using bivalirudin. We suggest that blood stasis associated with the full venous reservoir maintained in this case led to formation of a large thrombus at the top of the venous canister. Furthermore, activated clotting times may not accurately reflect the magnitude of anticoagulation when using direct thrombin inhibitors.

    View details for DOI 10.1213/ANE.0b013e3181e9ead3

    View details for PubMedID 20686010

  • Review of Heart-Lung Transplantation at Stanford ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Deuse, T., Sista, R., Weill, D., Tyan, D., Haddad, F., Dhillon, G., Robbins, R. C., Reitz, B. A. 2010; 90 (1): 329-337

    Abstract

    Long-term survival after heart-lung transplantation was first achieved in 1981 at Stanford and a total of 217 heart-lung transplantations had been performed by June 2008. This review summarizes Stanford's cumulative experience with heart-lung transplantation, demonstrates the progress that has been made, and discusses past and persistent problems. Diagnostic tools and treatment options for infectious diseases and rejection have changed and patient survival markedly improved over the almost three decades. Eight patients lived longer than 20 years. Further options to treat infections and strategies to control bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, the main causes of early and long-term mortality, respectively, are required to achieve routine long-term survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.01.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278998400070

    View details for PubMedID 20609821

  • Heart transplantation in situs inversus totalis JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Deuse, T., Reitz, B. A. 2010; 139 (2): 501-503

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2008.12.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274014300037

    View details for PubMedID 19660287

  • Alternative Technique for Salvage of Donor Lungs With Insufficient Atrial Cuffs ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Yarbrough, W. M., Bates, M. J., Deuse, T., Tang, D. G., Robbins, R. C., Reitz, B. A., Mallidi, H. R. 2009; 88 (4): 1374-1376

    Abstract

    Inadequate left atrial cuff surrounding donor pulmonary veins may present a technical challenge for successful lung transplantation. A simple technique for construction of venous anastomoses during lung transplantation when donor atrial cuff is lacking involves circumferential incorporation of surrounding donor pericardium into the anastomosis without directly suturing or augmenting donor venous structures.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2008.11.031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270388500066

    View details for PubMedID 19766854

  • Heart-Lung Transplantation In Situs Inversus Totalis ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Deuse, T., Reitz, B. A. 2009; 88 (3): 1002-1003

    Abstract

    Situs inversus totalis is a condition with left-to-right reversal of the viscera combined with dextrocardia. It has long been regarded a contraindication for thoracic transplantation. Reconstruction of the mirror-image systemic venous pathways to accommodate normal donor organs remains the main surgical challenge. Here we present our simplified surgical technique for combined heart-lung transplantation and provide a concise review of the literature.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2009.01.060

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269150500050

    View details for PubMedID 19699943

  • Dexmedetomidine and the Reduction of Postoperative Delirium after Cardiac Surgery PSYCHOSOMATICS Maldonado, J. R., Wysong, A., van der Starre, P. J., Block, T., Miller, C., Reitz, B. A. 2009; 50 (3): 206-217

    Abstract

    Delirium is a neurobehavioral syndrome caused by the transient disruption of normal neuronal activity secondary to systemic disturbances.The authors investigated the effects of postoperative sedation on the development of delirium in patients undergoing cardiac-valve procedures.Patients underwent elective cardiac surgery with a standardized intraoperative anesthesia protocol, followed by random assignment to one of three postoperative sedation protocols: dexmedetomidine, propofol, or midazolam.The incidence of delirium for patients receiving dexmedetomidine was 3%, for those receiving propofol was 50%, and for patients receiving midazolam, 50%. Patients who developed postoperative delirium experienced significantly longer intensive-care stays and longer total hospitalization.The findings of this open-label, randomized clinical investigation suggest that postoperative sedation with dexmedetomidine was associated with significantly lower rates of postoperative delirium and lower care costs.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267537700004

    View details for PubMedID 19567759

  • Twenty-year survivors of heart transplantation at Stanford University AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Deuse, T., Haddad, F., Pham, M., Hunt, S., Valantine, H., BATES, M. J., Mallidi, H. R., Oyer, P. E., Robbins, R. C., Reitz, B. A. 2008; 8 (9): 1769-1774

    Abstract

    Human heart transplantation started 40 years ago. Medical records of all cardiac transplants performed at Stanford were reviewed. A total of 1446 heart transplantations have been performed between January 1968 and December 2007 with an increase of 1-year survival from 43.1% to 90.2%. Sixty patients who were transplanted between 1968 and 1987 were identified who survived at least 20 years. Twenty-year survivors had a mean age at transplant of 29.4 +/- 13.6 years. Rejection-free and infection-free 1-year survivals were 14.3% and 18.8%, respectively. At their last follow-up, 86.7% of long-term survivors were treated for hypertension, 28.3% showed chronic renal dysfunction, 6.7% required hemodialysis, 10% were status postkidney transplantation, 13.3% were treated for diabetes mellitus, 36.7% had a history of malignancy and 43.3% had evidence of allograft vasculopathy. The half-life conditional on survival to 20 years was 28.1 years. Eleven patients received a second heart transplant after 11.9 +/- 8.0 years. The most common causes of death were allograft vasculopathy (56.3%) and nonlymphoid malignancy (25.0%). Twenty-year survival was achieved in 12.5% of patients transplanted before 1988. Although still associated with considerable morbidity, long-term survival is expected to occur at much higher rates in the future due to major advances in the field over the past decade.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2008.02310.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258401700004

    View details for PubMedID 18557718

  • Pneumatic paracorporeal ventricular assist device in infants and children: Initial Stanford experience JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Malaisrie, S. C., Pelletier, M. P., Yun, J. J., Sharma, K., Timek, T. A., Rosenthal, D. N., Wright, G. E., Robbins, R. C., Reitz, B. A. 2008; 27 (2): 173-177

    Abstract

    Mechanical circulatory support with the Berlin Heart EXCOR pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) has been used successfully in Europe for children with cardiac failure. Eighty-seven devices have been placed in North America through February 2007. We describe our single-center experience in 8 children.Eight children (ages 4 to 55 months), with median weight of 9.6 kg and body surface area of 0.48 m(2), received the Berlin Heart VAD as a bridge to transplantation. All patients were in cardiogenic shock requiring multiple inotropes. Primary diagnoses were idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 4), congenital heart disease (n = 3) and restrictive cardiomyopathy (n = 1). After device insertion, all patients were treated with an anti-coagulant (heparin or coumadin) and one or more platelet inhibitors (aspirin with clopidogrel or dipyridamole).Five patients received support with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and 3 with a biventricular device (BiVAD). Duration of support ranged from 2 to 234 days (median 57 days). Five patients (63%) were successfully bridged to transplantation; of these, 4 were discharged home and 1 died from early graft failure. Five patients developed post-operative neurologic events. Of these 5 events, 4 could be explained by embolism or hemorrhage. Device exchange was performed in 4 patients in the intensive care unit.In selected children, the Berlin Heart VAD can be used as a bridge to transplantation. In contrast to the published European experience, neurologic events occur frequently. Anti-coagulation and platelet inhibition strategies continue to evolve. Device exchange is technically feasible at the bedside and should be considered at the earliest visualization of thrombus formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2007.11.567

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253258800005

    View details for PubMedID 18267223

  • Plasma cefazolin levels during cardiovascular surgery: Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass and profound hypothermic circulatory arrest JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Caffarelli, A. D., Holden, J. P., Baron, E. J., Lemmens, H. J., D'Souza, H., Yau, V., Olcott, C., Reitz, B. A., Miller, D. C., van der Starre, P. J. 2006; 131 (6): 1338-1343

    Abstract

    We sought to assess the effects of cardiopulmonary bypass and profound hypothermic circulatory arrest on plasma cefazolin levels administered for antimicrobial prophylaxis in cardiovascular surgery.Four groups (10 patients per group) were prospectively studied: vascular surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass (group A), cardiac surgery with a cardiopulmonary bypass time of less than 120 minutes (group B), cardiac surgery with a cardiopulmonary bypass time of greater than 120 minutes (group C), and cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and profound hypothermic circulatory arrest (group D). Subjects received cefazolin at induction and a second dose before wound closure. Arterial blood samples were obtained preceding cefazolin administration, at skin incision, hourly during the operation, and before redosing. Cefazolin plasma concentrations were determined by using a radial diffusion assay, with Staphylococcus aureus as the indicator microorganism. Cefazolin plasma concentrations were considered noninhibitory at 8 microg/mL or less, intermediate at 16 mug/mL, and inhibitory at 32 microg/mL or greater.In group A cefazolin plasma concentrations remained greater than 16 microg/mL during the complete surgical procedure. In group B cefazolin plasma concentrations diminished to 16 microg/mL or less in 30% of the patients but remained greater than 8 microg/mL. In group C cefazolin plasma concentrations decreased to less than 16 microg/mL in 60% of patients and were less than 8 microg/mL in 50% of patients. In group D cefazolin plasma concentrations reached 16 microg/mL in 66% of the patients but decreased to 8 microg/mL in only 1 patient.For patients undergoing cardiac surgery with a cardiopulmonary bypass time of greater than 120 minutes, a single dose of cefazolin before skin incision with redosing at wound closure does not provide targeted antimicrobial cefazolin plasma levels during the entire surgical procedure. Patients undergoing profound hypothermic circulatory arrest are better protected, but the described protocol of prophylaxis is not optimal.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2005.11.047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238023300024

    View details for PubMedID 16733167

  • Heterotopic heart transplant combined with postoperative sildenafil use for the treatment of restrictive cardiomyopathy ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Al-Khaldi, A., Reitz, B. A., Zhu, H., Rosenthal, D. 2006; 81 (4): 1505-1507

    Abstract

    We report successful management of a 22-month-old child with restrictive cardiomyopathy and severe pulmonary hypertension using the heterotopic heart transplant technique. Additional lessons learned from postoperative management, including the novel use of Sildenafil (Viagra, Pfizer, NY) for controlling pulmonary arterial pressure are described.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2005.02.069

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236239200062

    View details for PubMedID 16564308

  • Are heart-lung transplant recipients protected from developing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome? ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Moffatt-Bruce, S. D., Karamichalis, J., Robbins, R. C., Whyte, R. I., Theodore, J., Reitz, B. A. 2006; 81 (1): 286-291

    Abstract

    Heart-lung transplant recipients, when compared with heart transplant recipients, are relatively spared from allograft coronary artery disease. This study was undertaken to investigate whether heart-lung transplant recipients are also spared from experiencing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) when compared with double-lung transplant recipients. In addition, the risk factors for developing BOS after lung transplantation were analyzed.Heart-lung and bilateral sequential double-lung transplant recipients were reviewed retrospectively from 1990 to 2000 using the Stanford Transplant Database. The heart-lung transplant group consisted of 77 heart-lung transplant recipients and the double-lung transplant group consisted of 51 double-lung transplant recipients. The rates of BOS, survival, acute rejection, and cytomegalovirus infection at 1, 3, and 5 years were measured.There were no significant differences in patient demographics between the two groups. Rates of survival and acute rejection were similar in the two transplant groups. The incidence of cytomegalovirus infection was significantly higher in heart-lung transplant recipients. Freedom from BOS was similar in the two transplant groups. Risk factors for the development of BOS in the heart-lung and double-lung transplant recipients included male donor, younger recipient age, a diagnosis other than cystic fibrosis, nonuse of cardiopulmonary bypass, and the use of OKT3 induction therapy.Heart-lung transplant recipients exhibit BOS at a rate similar to double-lung transplant recipients. The immunoprotective effect the lung allograft presumably provides the heart is not reciprocated by the heart in preventing the development of BOS.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2005.08.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234585400041

    View details for PubMedID 16368382

  • "One-and-half ventricle" cardiac transplantation for complex congenital heart disease. Clinical transplants Sharma, K., Reitz, B. A. 2006: 564-565

    View details for PubMedID 18365436

  • Combined use of the JAK3 inhibitor CP-690,550 with mycophenolate mofetil to prevent kidney allograft rejection in nonhuman primates TRANSPLANTATION Borie, D. C., Larson, M. J., Flores, M. G., Campbell, A., Rousvoal, G., Zhang, S., Higgins, J. P., Ball, D. J., Kudlacz, E. M., Brissette, W. H., Elliott, E. A., Reitz, B. A., Changelian, P. S. 2005; 80 (12): 1756-1764

    Abstract

    Immunosuppression via Janus kinase (JAK) 3 inhibition affords significant prolongation of allograft survival. We investigated the effects of an immunosuppressive regimen combining the JAK3 inhibitor CP-690,550 with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in nonhuman primates (NHPs).Life-supporting kidney transplantations were performed between ABO-compatible, MLR-mismatched NHPs. Animals were treated orally twice a day with CP-690,550 and MMF (n=8) or MMF alone (n=2) and were euthanized at day 90 or earlier due to allograft rejection.Mean survival time (+/-SEM) in animals treated with MMF alone (23+/-1 days) was significantly extended in animals that concurrently received CP-690,550 (59.5+/-9.8 days, P=0.02). Combination animals exposed to higher levels of CP-690,550 had a significantly better survival (75.2+/-8.7 days) than animals that received less CP-690,550 (33.3+/-12.6 days, P=0.02). Three combination therapy animals were euthanized at day 90 with a subnormal renal function and early-stage acute graft rejection. Rejection, delayed by treatment, ultimately developed in other animals. Anemia and gastrointestinal intolerance was seen in combination therapy animals that otherwise did not show evidence of viral or bacterial infection besides signs consistent with subclinical pyelonephritis (n=3). One incidental lymphosarcoma was noted.Addition of CP-690,550 to MMF significantly improved allograft survival. The observed side effects appear amenable to improvements upon alteration of dosing strategies. Efficacy of this combination regimen suggests that it could become the backbone of calcineurin inhibitor-free regimens.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.tp.0000184634.25042.ea

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234364200021

    View details for PubMedID 16378072

  • Effects of JAK3 inhibition with CP-690,550 on immune cell populations and their functions in nonhuman primate recipients of kidney allografts TRANSPLANTATION Paniagua, R., Si, M. S., Flores, M. G., Rousvoal, G., Zhang, S., Aalami, O., Campbell, A., Changelian, P. S., Reitz, B. A., Borie, D. C. 2005; 80 (9): 1283-1292

    Abstract

    Janus Kinase (JAK) 3 is a tyrosine kinase essential for proper signal transduction downstream of selected cytokine receptors and for robust T-cell and natural killer cells activation and function. JAK3 inhibition with CP-690,550 prevents acute allograft rejection. To provide further insight into the mechanisms of efficacy, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of CP-690,550 in vitro and in vivo in nonhuman primates.Pharmacodynamic assessments of lymphocyte activation, function, proliferation and phenotype were performed in three settings: in vitro in whole blood isolated from untransplanted cynomolgus monkeys (cynos), in vivo in blood from untransplanted cynos dosed with CP-690,550 for 8 days, and in vivo in blood from transplanted cynos immunosuppressed with CP-690,550. Cell surface activation markers expression, IL-2- enhanced IFN-gamma production, lymphocyte proliferation and immune cell phenotype analyzes were performed with multiparametric flow cytometry.In vitro exposure to CP-690,550 resulted in significant reduction of IL-2-enhanced IFN-gamma production by T-cells (maximum inhibition of 55-63%), T-cell surface expression of CD25 (50% inhibitory concentration (IC50); 0.18 microM) and CD71 (IC50; 1.6 microM), and T-cell proliferative capacities measured by proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression (IC50; 0.87 microM). Similar results were observed in animals dosed with CP-690,550. In addition, transplanted animals displayed significant reduction of NK cell (90% from baseline) and T-cell numbers whereas CD8 effector memory T-cell populations were unaffected.Potent in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects of the JAK3 inhibitor CP-690,550 likely contribute to its efficacy in the prevention of organ allograft rejection.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.tp.0000177643.05739.cd

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233732600021

    View details for PubMedID 16314797

  • Immunosuppression by the JAK3 inhibitor CP-690,550 delays rejection and significantly prolongs kidney allograft survival in nonhuman primates TRANSPLANTATION Borie, D. C., Changelian, P. S., Larson, M. J., Si, M. S., Paniagua, R., Higgins, J. P., Holm, B., Campbell, A., Lau, M., Zhang, S., Flores, M. G., Rousvoal, G., Hawkins, J., Ball, D. A., Kudlacz, E. M., Brissette, W. H., Elliott, E. A., Reitz, B. A., Morris, R. E. 2005; 79 (7): 791-801

    Abstract

    Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) mediates signal transduction from cytokine receptors using the common chain (gammac). Because mutations in genes encoding gammac or JAK3 result in immunodeficiency, we investigated the potential of a rationally designed inhibitor of JAK3, CP-690,550, to prevent renal allograft rejection in nonhuman primates.Life-supporting kidney transplantations were performed between mixed leukocyte reaction-mismatched, ABO blood group-matched cynomolgus monkeys. Animals were treated with CP-690,550 (n = 18) or its vehicle (controls, n = 3) and were euthanized at day 90 or earlier if there was allograft rejection.Mean survival time (+/- standard error of mean) in animals treated with CP-690,550 (53 +/- 7 days) was significantly longer than in control animals (7 +/- 1 days, P=0.0003) and was positively correlated with exposure to the drug (r = 0.79, P < 0.01). Four treated animals were euthanized at 90 days with a normal renal function and low-grade rejection at final pathology. Occurrence of rejection was significantly delayed in treated animals (46 +/- 7 days from transplantation vs. 7 +/- 1 days in controls, P = 0.0003). Persistent anemia, polyoma virus-like nephritis (n = 2), and urinary calcium carbonate accretions (n = 3) were seen in animals with high exposure. Natural killer cell and CD4 and CD8 T-cell numbers were significantly reduced in treated animals. Blood glucose, serum lipid levels, and arterial blood pressure were within normal range in treated animals, and no cancers were demonstrated.CP-690,550 is the first reported JAK3 inhibitor combining efficacy and good tolerability in a preclinical model of allotransplantation in nonhuman primates and thus has interesting potential for immunosuppression in humans.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.TP.0000157117.30290.6F

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228373100006

    View details for PubMedID 15818321

  • Lung transplantation: A decade of experience JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Moffatt, S. D., Demers, P., Robbins, R. C., Doyle, R., Wienacker, A., Henig, N., Theodore, J., Reitz, B. A., Whyte, R. I. 2005; 24 (2): 145-151

    Abstract

    Over the past 3 decades, the field of lung transplantation has been refined. However, many barriers exist that limit long-term success. The purpose of this study was to review a single institution's long-term experience with single and double lung transplantation and to assess the effect of different immunosuppressive therapies on outcomes.Lung transplant recipients, both single and double, were reviewed, retrospectively. Patients were divided into five groups: group I, all lung transplants (n = 127); group II, single lung transplants (n = 73); group III, double lung transplants (n = 54); group IV, OKT3 induction therapy recipients (n = 27); and group V, RATG induction therapy recipients (n = 100). Rates of survival, rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and infection were analyzed at 1, 3, and 5 years.There were no significant differences in survival, acute rejection rate, freedom from BOS, nor infection between single and double lung transplant recipients. Induction therapy with RATG (group V) was associated with significantly improved survival and freedom from acute rejection, BOS, and infection when compared to OKT3 induction therapy (group IV).An earlier impression that RATG is superior to OKT3 induction therapy has borne true in terms of overall survival and incidence of BOS, acute rejection and infection rates. Lung transplantation, using RATG induction therapy, remains an important modality for end-stage pulmonary disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.healun.2003.10.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226922800005

    View details for PubMedID 15701428

  • What's new in cardiac surgery JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Reitz, B. A. 2004; 198 (5): 784-797
  • Identifying cardiac transplant rejection in children: Diagnostic utility of echocardiography, right heart catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy data JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Rosenthal, D. N., Chin, C., Nishimura, K., Perry, S. B., Robbins, R. C., Reitz, B., Bernstein, D., Feinstein, J. A. 2004; 23 (3): 323-329

    Abstract

    There has been a continued search for alternative diagnostic techniques that do not necessitate endomyocardial biopsy for diagnosing rejection in cardiac transplant recipients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of echocardiography and hemodynamic catheterization data compared with endomyocardial biopsy results, in rejection surveillance for the pediatric heart transplant recipient.A prospective, blinded evaluation was performed utilizing echocardiographic and standard right heart catheterization parameters to predict acute rejection episodes.Forty-nine patients underwent 281 biopsies. Two groups were defined: those with Grade <2 rejection and those with grade > or =2 rejection. None of the echocardiographic variables showed significant differences between the study groups and all group data were within normal limits. Mixed venous saturation, mean right atrial pressure, right ventricular end-diastolic pressure and mean pulmonary artery pressure were found to be statistically significant between groups. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the extent to which the various parameters were clinically useful. The ROC found little clinical usefulness for all variables, including those found to be statistically significant.Differences in both echocardiographic and hemodynamic data were not clinically significant between the 2 groups of patients. Although many of the catheterization-derived parameters were statistically significant, they did not permit effective discrimination between groups. This is the only clinically relevant application of such data and may explain the conflicting previous reports. It is only through analyses such as ROC that the clinical application (or lack thereof) can be appreciated in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1053-2498(03)00209-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220155700009

    View details for PubMedID 15019642

  • Acute type A aortic dissection complicated by aortic regurgitation: Composite valve graft versus separate valve graft versus conservative valve repair JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Lai, D. T., Miller, D. C., Mitchell, R. S., Oyer, P. E., Moore, K. A., Robbins, R. C., Shumway, N. E., Reitz, B. A. 2003; 126 (6): 1978-1986

    Abstract

    To clarify the merits of various surgical approaches, we studied the outcome after composite valve graft versus separate valve and graft replacement versus conservative valve treatment with replacement of the ascending aorta in patients with acute type A aortic dissection complicated by aortic regurgitation.Between 1967 and 1999, 123 patients (mean age 56 +/- 15 years) underwent composite valve graft replacement (n = 21), separate valve and graft replacement (n = 20), or conservative valve treatment (n = 82 [commissural resuspension in 46]); follow-up averaged 6.5 years (95% complete).The 30-day, 1-year, and 6-year survival estimates of 85% +/- 4%, 79% +/- 5%, and 69% +/- 5% (+/-1 standard error of mean), respectively, after conservative valve treatment were similar to 86% +/- 8%, 81% +/- 9%, and 65% +/- 16%, respectively, with composite valve graft replacement and better (but insignificantly so) than 70% +/- 10%, 70% +/- 10%, and 45% +/- 11%, respectively, with separate valve and graft replacement. The 6-year freedom from proximal reoperation was 95% +/- 3%, 89% +/- 10%, and 100% in conservative valve graft, separate valve and graft, and composite valve graft subgroups, respectively (P = not significant). Cox regression multivariable analysis identified that previous sternotomy (hazard ratio [or e(beta)] 95% confidence interval 1.4-10.9, P =.006), hypertension (0.99-2.9, P =.05), cardiac tamponade (1.1-4.0, P =.03), and stroke (1.7-7.0, P =.001) increased the hazard of death. No factors predicting a higher likelihood of late proximal reoperation were identified.In patients with acute type A aortic dissection and aortic regurgitation, there was no significant difference in overall survival or reoperation rates among these surgical approaches. We try to save the valve whenever possible unless the aortic root is pathologically dilated (eg, Marfan syndrome or annuloaortic ectasia) or destroyed by the dissection process, when composite valve graft or valve-sparing aortic root replacement is indicated.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0022-5223(03)01279-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187560400047

    View details for PubMedID 14688716

  • JAK3 inhibition as a new concept for immune suppression. Current opinion in investigational drugs Borie, D. C., Si, M., Morris, R. E., Reitz, B. A., Changelian, P. S. 2003; 4 (11): 1297-1303

    Abstract

    Although current immunosuppressive drugs are effective, they have numerous severe side effects that mandate the search for new agents. Mutations in the gene for janus kinase (JAK)3 result in severe combined immune deficiency with severely impaired humoral and cellular immunity, an observation that has prompted the development of JAK3 inhibitors. Due to its central role in lymphocyte activation, proliferation and homeostasis, targeting the JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway may provide the required efficacy, without the toxicities associated with current therapies. Several studies conducted in rodents have validated the proof-of-concept, with a variety of JAK3 inhibitors demonstrating efficacy for immune suppression. In addition, the selective JAK3 inhibitor CP-690550 (Pfizer Inc) significantly improved allograft survival in a stringent preclinical model in primates and exhibited a good safety profile in non-human primates. This, along with studies of protein kinase inhibitors for cancer treatment, could demonstrate that development of effective, safe and selective kinase inhibitors for immunosuppression is possible.

    View details for PubMedID 14758768

  • Immunomodulatory effects of docetaxel on human lymphocytes INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUGS Si, M. S., Imagawa, D. K., Ji, P., Wei, X. B., Holm, B., Kwok, J., Lee, M., Reitz, B. A., Borie, D. C. 2003; 21 (3): 281-290

    Abstract

    Docetaxel is an antineoplastic taxoid that interferes with microtubule polymerization dynamics and is used clinically to treat advanced cancers. Because microtubules play significant roles in T lymphocyte activation and function we characterized the in vitro immunomodulatory properties of docetaxel. Effects of docetaxel on lectin-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation were measured by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining. In addition, apoptosis was measured by annexin V staining and cell activation by determination of CD25 and CD71 cell surface expression. Intracellular calcium kinetics in lectin-activated Jurkat T lymphocytes exposed to docetaxel were investigated. Th1 cytokine production was assessed in T lymphocytes by intracellular cytokine staining. Docetaxel significantly inhibited PBMC proliferation and promoted apoptosis of lectin-activated PBMCs. Docetaxel significantly decreased expression of CD71 but not that of CD25. Docetaxel altered intracellular calcium homeostasis but did not affect Th1 cytokine production in T lymphocytes. In conclusion we demonstrate that docetaxel, although exerting significant antiproliferative effects on lymphocytes and promoting activation-induced apoptosis does affect only partially lymphocyte activation and function and does not affect Th1 cytokine production. These results suggest maintenance of lymphocyte functions important for host tumor surveillance and suggest that this compound may have a role in the treatment of cancer arising organ transplant recipients.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185010800003

    View details for PubMedID 14578678

  • Simplified technique for correction of anomalous origin of left coronary artery from the anterior aortic sinus ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Karamichalis, J. M., Vricella, L. A., Murphy, D. J., Reitz, B. A. 2003; 76 (1): 266-267

    Abstract

    Anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right anterior coronary sinus has been associated with high incidence of sudden death in young adults. We describe a simplified approach to this rare congenital anomaly, which avoids the need for commissural post resuspension or relocation of the coronary button.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183968400059

    View details for PubMedID 12842554

  • Long-term results of heart transplantation in patients older than 60 years JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Demers, P., Moffatt, S., Oyer, P. E., Hunt, S. A., Reitz, B. A., Robbins, R. C. 2003; 126 (1): 224-231

    Abstract

    Advanced age has been traditionally considered a relative contraindication for heart transplantation. Older patients are now considered as potential candidates for heart transplantation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of heart transplantation in patients older than 60 years.Between 1986 and 2001, 81 patients aged between 60 and 70 years (mean, 63 +/- 2 years) underwent heart transplantation. These patients were compared with 403 adult recipients younger than 60 years (mean, 47 +/- 11 years) who underwent transplantation during the same period.Thirty-day mortality was 6% (5/81) and 6% (25/403) in the older and younger patients, respectively (P = NS). Actuarial survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 88% +/- 4% versus 83% +/- 2%, 75% +/- 5% versus 69% +/- 2%, and 50% +/- 9% versus 51% +/- 3% in the older and younger patients, respectively (P = NS). Older patients had significantly fewer rejection episodes (P =.003). Freedom from allograft coronary artery disease at 1, 5, and 10 years was 98% +/- 2% versus 92% +/- 2%, 85% +/- 6% versus 76% +/- 3%, and 81% +/- 7% versus 68% +/- 3% (P =.1). The incidences of infectious complication, cytomegalovirus infection, and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder were similar between the 2 groups, but older recipients were more likely to have a nonposttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder cancer (P =.002). Age at transplantation was not identified as an independent risk factor for early and late death.Heart transplantation in selected patients aged 60 years and older results in survival comparable with that of younger patients. Older patients have a lower risk of rejection but an increased risk of development of a nonposttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder cancer. Advanced age per se should not be considered as an exclusion criterion for transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0022-5223(03)00055-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184365400028

    View details for PubMedID 12878959

  • Is medical therapy still the optimal treatment strategy for patients with acute type B aortic dissections? JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Umana, J. P., Lai, D. T., Mitchell, R. S., Moore, K. A., Rodriguez, F., Robbins, R. C., Oyer, P. E., Dake, M. D., Shumway, N. E., Reitz, B. A., Miller, D. C. 2002; 124 (5): 896-910

    Abstract

    The optimal treatment of patients with acute type B dissections continues to be debated.A 36-year clinical experience of medical and surgical treatments in 189 patients was retrospectively analyzed (multivariable Cox proportional hazards model) with respect to three outcome end points: all deaths, freedom from reoperation, and freedom from late aortic complications or death. Propensity score analysis identified 2 quintiles (quintiles I and II, consisting of 142 comparable patients) for further comparison of the effects of surgical versus medical treatment.Shock (hazard ratio 14.5, 95% confidence interval 4.7-44.5, P <.001) and visceral ischemia (hazard ratio 10.9, 95% confidence interval 3.9-30.3, P <.001) largely predominated as determinants of death, along with 6 other risk factors (arch involvement, rupture, stroke, previous sternotomy, and coronary or lung disease), which roughly doubled the hazard of death. Female sex was a significant but weaker predictor of death. Renal dysfunction, year of presentation, age, and mode of therapy (medical vs surgical) had no important bearing on overall survival. The actuarial survival estimates for all patients were 71%, 60%, 35%, and 17% at 1, 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively, and were similar for the medical and surgical patients. Reoperation and late aortic complications were predicted by the presence of Marfan syndrome. For the propensity-matched patients in quintiles I and II, survival, freedom from reoperation, and freedom from aortic complications were almost identical in the medically treated and surgical subsets.The prognosis for patients with acute type B aortic dissection is bleak and determined primarily by dissection-related and patient-specific risk factors, which do not appear to be readily modifiable.

    View details for DOI 10.1067/mtc.2002.123131

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179012300006

    View details for PubMedID 12407372

  • Does profound hypothermic circulatory arrest improve survival in patients with acute type a aortic dissection? Circulation Lai, D. T., Robbins, R. C., Mitchell, R. S., Moore, K. A., Oyer, P. E., Shumway, N. E., Reitz, B. A., Miller, D. C. 2002; 106 (12): I218-28

    Abstract

    No evidence exists that profound hypothermic circulatory arrest (PHCA) improves survival or reduces the likelihood of distal aortic reoperation in patients with acute type A aortic dissection.Records of 307 patients with acute type A aortic dissection from 1967 to 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. The influence of repair using PHCA (n=121) versus without PHCA (n=186) on death and freedom from distal aortic reoperation was analyzed using multivariable Cox regression models. Propensity score analysis identified a subset of 152 comparable patients in 3 quintiles (QIII-V) in which the effects of PHCA (n=113) versus no PHCA (n=39) were further compared.For all patients, 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year survival estimates were 81+/-2%, 74+/-3%, and 63+/-3% (+/-1 SE). Survival rates and actual freedom from distal aortic reoperation was not significantly different between treatment methods in the entire patient cohort nor in the matched patients in quintiles III-V. Treatment method was not associated with differences in early major complications, late survival, or distal aortic reoperation rates in the entire patient sample or in quintiles III-V.Aortic repair with or without circulatory arrest was associated with comparable early complications, survival, and distal aortic reoperation rates in patients with acute type A aortic dissection. Despite the lack of concrete evidence favoring the use of PHCA, it does no harm, and most of our group uses PHCA regularly because of its practical technical advantages and theoretical potential merit.

    View details for PubMedID 12354737

  • Lung and heart-lung transplantation in patients with end-stage cystic fibrosis: The Stanford experience ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Vricella, L. A., Karamichalis, J. M., Ahmad, S., Robbins, R. C., Whyte, R. I., Reitz, B. A. 2002; 74 (1): 13-17

    Abstract

    Bilateral lung (BLTx) and heart-lung transplantation have gained wide acceptance as treatment of end-stage lung disease from cystic fibrosis. We reviewed our 13-year experience with thoracic transplantation for cystic fibrosis with an operative approach that favors use of cardiopulmonary bypass for BLTx.Sixty-four patients with cystic fibrosis underwent heart-lung transplantation (n = 22, 34.4%) or BLTx (n = 42, 65.6%) between 1988 and 2000. Mean age and weight at transplantation were 29 +/- 8 years and 51 +/- 11 kg, respectively. Mean follow-up for survivors was 4.4 +/- 3.6 years. Immunosuppression regimen included cyclosporine, tapered corticosteroids, azathioprine, and induction therapy with OKT3 (murine monoclonal antibodies) or rabbit antithymocyte globulin. Cardiopulmonary bypass was used in all but 5 patients (7.8%). However, in 8 (19%) of the 42 patients having BLTx, only the grafting of the second lung was performed with cardiopulmonary bypass.The operative mortality rate was 1.6%. The actuarial survival rates at 1 year, 3 years, 5 years and 10 years were 93.2%, 77.7%, 61.8%, and 48.1%, respectively, with no significant difference between BLTx and heart-lung transplantation. The major hospital complications were pneumonia (n = 11, 17.2%) and bleeding (n = 8, 12.5%). Clinically significant reperfusion injury was observed in 6 patients, 3 of whom required reintubation. Freedom from acute lung rejection beyond 1 year was 47.7%. One patient underwent late retransplantation, and 4 required bronchial stenting. Obliterative bronchiolitis accounted for eight (50.0%) of 16 late deaths.Though postoperative bleeding and pneumonia are still of concern, satisfactory early and intermediate-term results can be expected in patients undergoing BLTx or heart-lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis. Cardiopulmonary bypass can be used for BLTx with no adverse impact on intermediate and long-term outcomes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176622500003

    View details for PubMedID 12118744

  • What cardiothoracic surgeons in the 21st century should be? Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery Reitz, B. A. 2002; 55 (8): 710-714

    View details for PubMedID 12174663

  • Long-term follow-up after total lymphoid irradiation in pediatric heart transplant recipients JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Chin, C., Hunt, S., Robbins, R., Hoppe, R., Reitz, B., Bernstein, D. 2002; 21 (6): 667-673

    Abstract

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) is used to treat recurrent allograft rejection. Short-term success and complication rates have been reported in pediatric and adult cardiac transplant populations. We report the long-term efficacy and safety of TLI in treating intractable rejection in pediatric patients.Eight pediatric patients were treated with TLI (7 for recurrent rejection, 1 for risk of medication non-compliance). Therapy consisted of a mid-plane dose of 8 Gy administered with a 6-MeV linear accelerator using an anterior-posterior opposed technique. We reviewed outcomes for a total of 40 patient-years of follow-up.We encountered rejection (>Grade 2 by International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation criteria) in 56.7% +/- 34.7% of biopsies performed within 90 days before TLI. Rejection rates dropped to 3.1% +/- 8.8% within the first 90 days (p < 0.005) after therapy and remained low at 5.6% +/- 1.3% (p < 0.05) during the first year after completion of TLI. Median time from TLI to the first subsequent rejection episode was 305 days (range, 77-1,920 days). Long-term follow-up (>3 years) of 5 patients demonstrated a continuing low incidence of rejection. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was diagnosed in 1 of 8 patients, graft coronary artery disease in 4 of 8 patients, and restrictive cardiomyopathy in 1 of 8 patients after TLI.Total lymphoid irradiation is an effective treatment for recurrent rejection and has short- and long-term efficacy. Morbid events may include cancer, graft coronary artery disease, and restrictive cardiomyopathy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176074500008

    View details for PubMedID 12057700

  • Impact of cytomegalovirus hyperimmune globulin on outcome after cardiothoracic transplantation - A comparative study of combined prophylaxis with CMV hyperimmune globulin plus ganciclovir versus ganciclovir alone TRANSPLANTATION Valantine, H. A., Luikart, H., Doyle, R., Theodore, J., Hunt, S., Oyer, P., Robbins, R., Berry, G., Reitz, B. 2001; 72 (10): 1647-1652

    Abstract

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease was previously shown to be unaltered by a 28-day course of ganciclovir compared with placebo in seronegative recipients of hearts from seropositive donors (D+/R-). This study tests the hypothesis that a combination of ganciclovir plus CMV hyperimmune globulin (CMVIG) is more effective than ganciclovir alone for preventing acute CMV illness and its long-term sequelae.The study population receiving CMVIG (n=80) included 27 heart transplant recipients (D+/R-) and 53 heart-lung and lung transplant recipients (R+ and/or D+). Each group was matched with historical controls who underwent transplantation within the preceding 2-3 years. Outcome measures compared were as follows: 3-year incidence of CMV disease; fungal infection; acute rejection; survival; rates and severity of transplant coronary artery disease (in heart patients) defined by intimal thickness (ultrasound) and coronary artery stenosis (angiographic); and incidence and death from obliterative bronchiolitis defined by pathological criteria on endobronchial biopsy specimens (in heart-lung/lung patients).Patients treated with CMVIG had a higher disease-free incidence of CMV, lower rejection incidence, and higher survival rate compared with the patients treated with ganciclovir alone. The coronary artery intimal thickness and the prevalence of intimal thickening were lower in the patients receiving CMVIG. Heart-lung and lung transplant patients treated with CMVIG had lower incidences of obliterative bronchiolitis and death from obliterative bronchiolitis and longer survival compared with the patients treated with ganciclovir alone.CMVIG plus ganciclovir seems to be more effective that ganciclovir alone for preventing the sequelae of CMV infection. A prospective randomized study is required to confirm these observations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172614200012

    View details for PubMedID 11726825

  • Treatment of endocarditis with valve replacement: The question of tissue versus mechanical prosthesis ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Moon, M. R., Miller, D. C., Moore, K. A., Oyer, P. E., Mitchell, R. S., Robbins, R. C., Stinson, E. B., Shumway, N. E., Reitz, B. A. 2001; 71 (4): 1164-1171

    Abstract

    It remains unknown whether there is any important clinical advantage to the use of either a bioprosthetic or mechanical valve for patients with native or prosthetic valve endocarditis.Between 1964 and 1995, 306 patients underwent valve replacement for left-sided native (209 patients) or prosthetic (97 patients) valve endocarditis. Mechanical valves were implanted in 65 patients, bioprostheses in 221 patients, and homografts in 20 patients.Operative mortality was 18+/-2% and was independent of replacement valve type (p > 0.74). Long-term survival was superior for patients with native valve endocarditis (44+/-5% at 20 years) compared with those with prosthetic valve endocarditis (16+/-7% at 20 years) (p < 0.003). Survival was independent of valve type (p > 0.27). The long-term freedom from reoperation for patients who received a biologic valve who were younger than 60 years of age was low (51+/-5% at 10 years, 19+/-6% at 15 years). For patients older than 60 years, however, freedom from reoperation with a biological valve (84+/-7% at 15 years) was similar to that for all patients with mechanical valves (74+/-9% at 15 years) (p > 0.64).Mechanical valves are most suitable for younger patients with native valve endocarditis; however, tissue valves are acceptable for patients greater than 60 years of age with native or prosthetic valve infections and for selected younger patients with prosthetic valve infections because of their limited life expectancy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168590600017

    View details for PubMedID 11308154

  • A report of two hundred twenty cases of regional anesthesia in pediatric cardiac surgery ANESTHESIA AND ANALGESIA Peterson, K. L., DeCampli, W. M., Pike, N. A., Robbins, R. C., Reitz, B. A. 2000; 90 (5): 1014-1019

    Abstract

    The use of regional anesthesia (ie, epidural, spinal, or caudal) has been reported in a few small series of children undergoing cardiac surgery, but not in larger studies. In this retrospective, descriptive study, we report the results of the use of regional anesthesia in 220 pediatric cardiac operations. We reviewed the records of children receiving a regional anesthetic for cardiothoracic surgery at Stanford Medical Center between January 1993 and February 1997. All patients were targeted for early tracheal extubation. A variety of regional techniques were used. Time to extubation, control of pain, incidence of respiratory depression and other complications, and length of hospital stay were determined. There were no deaths. Eighty-nine percent of the patients were tracheally extubated in the operating room; 4.1% of whom required reintubation within 24 h. Ninety-five percent +/-2.5% of the patients had pain scores < or =4.0 at all intervals postoperatively. Adverse effects of regional anesthesia included emesis (39%), pruritus (10%), urinary retention (7%), postoperative transient paresthesia (3%), and respiratory depression (1.8%). The incidence of peridural hematoma was zero. The rate of adverse effects was lower in the thoracic catheter epidural approach as compared with various caudal, lumbar epidural, and spinal approaches. Hospital duration of stay was not effected by the presence of regional anesthetic complications. In this study, regional anesthesia was safe and effective in the management of pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086764200002

    View details for PubMedID 10781445

  • The use of advanced-age donor hearts adversely affects survival in pediatric heart transplantation. Pediatric transplantation Chin, C., Miller, J., Robbins, R., Reitz, B., Bernstein, D. 1999; 3 (4): 309-314

    Abstract

    There is a limited supply of adequate donor hearts for cardiac transplantation. The safety of using advanced-age donor hearts has been debated in adult transplantation but has not been studied previously in pediatric recipients. In this retrospective study, survival of 79 pediatric heart transplant recipients was reviewed. Pediatric recipient groups were stratified based on donor age (group 1 donor age > 40 yr, n = 5; group 2 donor age < or = 40 yr, n = 74). Survival of 267 adolescent (ages 11-17) heart transplant recipients in the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database was also reviewed. Patients were likewise divided into two groups based on donor age (> 40 yr, n = 12; < or = 40 yr, n = 255). Survival at one yr was 20% in group 1 vs. 78% in group 2 (p < 0.005). Cause of death in all group 1 patients was graft failure secondary to acute rejection. Analysis of risk of death was only significantly attributable to the age of the donor. The increased risk attributable to advanced donor age was also supported by the UNOS data. The UNOS one and two-year Kaplan-Meier survival curves were significantly lower in adolescent patients who received donor hearts > 40 yr of age. One-year survival was 58% (older donors) vs. 85% (younger donors, p < 0.005) and two-year survival was 44% (older donors) vs. 79% (younger donors, p < 0.005). Advanced-age donor hearts should be contraindicated in pediatric transplantation with the exception of critically ill patients who may not be able to wait for a younger heart.

    View details for PubMedID 10562976

  • Combined heart and single-lung transplantation in complex congenital heart disease ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Fann, J. I., Wilson, M. K., Theodore, J., Reitz, B. A. 1998; 65 (3): 823-825

    Abstract

    We present a patient with a history of tricuspid and pulmonary atresia who underwent a classic Glenn shunt and a Potts shunt during childhood, resulting in different right and left pulmonary physiology. Because of progression of cardiopulmonary disease and the fact that the right lung was "protected," the patient underwent combined heart-left single-lung transplantation. The postoperative course was uneventful. Potential early and late advantages of this approach include simplifying of the operative procedure and mitigating the potential effects of obliterative bronchiolitis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072586100048

    View details for PubMedID 9527222

  • Arrhythmias and thromboembolic complications after the extracardiac Fontan operation JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Shirai, L. K., Rosenthal, D. N., Reitz, B. A., Robbins, R. C., Dubin, A. M. 1998; 115 (3): 499-505

    Abstract

    Late morbidity and mortality after the Fontan operation are largely due to atrial arrhythmias, ventricular failure, and thrombus formation. The extracardiac Fontan procedure avoids extensive atrial manipulation and suture lines, theoretically minimizing the impetus for these events. We examined our experience with the extracardiac Fontan operation with particular attention to thromboembolism and arrhythmias.We retrospectively reviewed the medical and surgical records of all 16 patients who underwent an extracardiac Fontan operation between July 1993 and May 1996. Fifteen patients (94%) were in sinus rhythm before the operation. In the immediate postoperative period, seven (44%) had arrhythmias consisting of accelerated junctional rhythm and ectopic atrial rhythm. No associated hemodynamic compromise and no early deaths occurred. Patients were followed up for 3 to 34 months after the Fontan operation. Arrhythmias were detected in eight patients (50%) on surface electrocardiograms, and seven (44%) showed evidence of sinus node dysfunction on 24-hour Holter monitor studies. Thrombi were found in three patients (19%). All patients were asymptomatic, with no evidence of conduit obstruction by echocardiogram.The incidence of hemodynamically significant tachyarrhythmias appears to be reduced after the extracardiac Fontan operation. A significant percentage of patients have evidence of sinus node dysfunction, suggesting the presence of other surgical or nonsurgical factors responsible for this finding. Our incidence of thrombotic events is similar to previous reports with other Fontan modifications. It appears to be a reasonable option to maintain these patients on anticoagulation indefinitely.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072718800002

    View details for PubMedID 9535435

  • Composite valve graft versus separate aortic valve and ascending aortic replacement: is there still a role for the separate procedure? Circulation Yun, K. L., Miller, D. C., Fann, J. I., Mitchell, R. S., Robbins, R. C., Moore, K. A., Oyer, P. E., Stinson, E. B., Shumway, N. E., Reitz, B. A. 1997; 96 (9): II-368 75

    Abstract

    To ascertain if operative technique has any bearing on outcome, the surgical results after aortic root replacement using either a composite valve graft (CVG) or a separate graft and valve (GV) were analyzed.Three hundred and ninety consecutive, nonrandomized patients treated for aortic valve disease and ascending aortic aneurysm (n=278) or type A dissection (n=112 [45 acute]) between 1965 and 1995 were analyzed retrospectively. One hundred and thirty-five patients received a CVG, and 255 had separate GV replacement. Mean age was 52+/-16 years (+/-1 SD). Eighty-two patients (44% of the CVG group) had the Marfan syndrome (MFS). Follow-up (96% complete) totaled 2247 patient-years and extended to 27 years. The operative mortality rate was 10+/-3% (+/-70% confidence limits) for patients receiving a CVG and 15+/-2% for GV replacement (P=NS). The 15-year actuarial survival estimate was higher for the CVG group (53+/-14% [+/-SEM] versus 36+/-4%, P=.037). Seven patients in the CVG group required reoperation on the aortic valve or ascending aorta, as did 49 in the GV group. The probabilities of freedom from reoperation on the aortic rootwere 82+/-9% and 75+/-4% at 10 years for the CVG and GV group (P=NS). Thirty variables were analyzed in a multivariate model: pulmonary disease, higher New York Heart Association functional class, and longer cardiopulmonary bypass time were linked with higher operative mortality risk; older age, emergency operation, coronary artery disease, and liver dysfunction were independent determinants of late death. Younger age and use of a bioprosthesis were predictors of late reoperation. Type of procedure (GV versus CVG) was not a significant predictor of any outcome variable.The long-term results after CVG or GV were similar, which reflects proper patient selection. Use of a composite valve graft theoretically confers more protection against recurrent aortic root aneurysm, and, unless one opts for a valve-sparing aortic root replacement procedure, is most appropriate for younger patients, those with the MFS (including acute dissections), and others with marked pathological involvement of the sinuses. On the other hand, use of a separate GV should not be abandoned; in carefully selected patients (and if properly performed, eg, excision of the sinuses), GV also provides satisfactory results.

    View details for PubMedID 9386126

  • Obliterative airway disease after heterotopic tracheal xenotransplantation: Pathogenesis and prevention using new immunosuppressive agents TRANSPLANTATION Reichenspurner, H., Soni, V., Nitschke, M., Berry, G. J., Brazelton, T. R., Shorthouse, R., Huang, X. F., Reitz, B. A., Morris, R. E. 1997; 64 (3): 373-383

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether obliterative bronchiolitis might occur after xenogenic pulmonary transplantation. A model for obliterative airway disease (OAD) after tracheal allograft transplantation in the rat undergoes tracheal obliteration with histologic features characteristic of obliterative bronchiolitis in human lung transplant recipients. Using this model, the pathogenesis of OAD and its prevention with immunosuppressive drugs was studied in rat recipients of hamster tracheal grafts.Tracheae from 30 hamsters (xenografts) or 23 Brown-Norway rats (allografts) were implanted and wrapped in the greater omentum of untreated Lewis rats. The grafts were removed on day 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, or 28 after transplantation and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome and by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence (IFL) techniques. In addition, 25 recipients were treated with cyclosporine (CsA, 10 mg/kg p.o.), leflunomide (LFM, 20 mg/kg p.o.), or rapamycin (RPM, 6 mg/kg i.p.) for 14 or 21 days (5 animals per treatment group). Visual and morphometric analyses were used to evaluate the extent of airway obliteration, luminal coverage by respiratory or flattened cuboidal epithelium, and extent and density of peritracheal cellular inflammation.In all xenografts, a neutrophilic infiltration of the mucosa and submucosa was observed from day 1 until day 14 and was associated with complete loss of tracheal epithelium by day 14. A marked peritracheal mononuclear cellular infiltrate mixed with plasma cells and eosinophils was seen on days 7 and 14. Both the extent of peritracheal inflammation and the density of the mononuclear cell infiltrate were significantly increased in xenograft tracheae when compared with the allografts. Tracheal obliteration began on day 14 and reached a maximum of 43% on day 21 with evidence of intraluminal fibrosis. In contrast to IFL of allografts, IFL of xenografts demonstrated marked deposition of rat immunoglobulin in the peritracheal tissue on days 7 and 14. The effects of treatment with immunosuppressive drugs on tracheal graft narrowing and protection of respiratory epithelium were as follows: After 14 days of treatment, the percentage of tracheal graft narrowing was 12%, 23%, and 19% in the no treatment, CsA, and LFM groups, respectively; the percentage of respiratory epithelium at 14 days was 0%, 21%, and 95%. After 21 days of treatment, the percentage of tracheal graft narrowing was 43%, 49%, 12%, and 5% for the no treatment, CsA, LFM, and RPM groups, respectively; the percentage of respiratory epithelium at 21 days was 0%, 39%, 86%, and 0%. Using computerized morphometry, the extent and densities of the peritracheal cellular infiltrates were significantly reduced in LFM- and CsA-treated groups when compared with untreated xenograft controls. LFM and RPM, but not CsA, significantly reduced the degree of luminal obliteration compared with no treatment (P<0.05). LFM and, to a lesser extent, CsA were able to prevent the loss of normal respiratory epithelium. Analysis by IFL revealed a marked decrease in rat immunoglobulin deposition in xenografts from LFM- and RPM-treated groups compared with xenografts from CsA-treated or untreated rats.(1) OAD occurs not only after tracheal allotransplantation but also after xenotransplantation. (2) Subepithelial infiltration of neutrophils and the appearance of plasma cells and eosinophils in the peritracheal infiltrates distinguished the histology of rejected xenografts from allografts. (3) Antibody deposition was detected by IFL only in xenografts. (4) Treatment with LFM or RPM significantly decreased the severity of luminal obliteration. Importantly, LFM also prevented the loss of respiratory epithelium.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XR62400001

    View details for PubMedID 9275099

  • Monitoring considerations for port-access cardiac surgery CIRCULATION Siegel, L. C., STGOAR, F. G., Stevens, J. H., Pompili, M. F., Burdon, T. A., Reitz, B. A., Peters, W. S. 1997; 96 (2): 562-568

    Abstract

    A method for monitoring patients was evaluated in a clinical trial of minimally invasive port-access cardiac surgery with closed chest endovascular cardiopulmonary bypass.Cardiopulmonary bypass was conducted in 25 patients through femoral cannulas. An endovascular pulmonary artery vent was placed in the main pulmonary artery through a jugular vein. For mitral valve surgery, a catheter was placed in the coronary sinus for delivery of cardioplegia. A balloon catheter ("endoaortic clamp," EAC) used for occlusion of the ascending aorta, delivery of cardioplegia, aortic root venting, and pressure measurement was inserted through a femoral artery and initially positioned by use of fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). Potential migration of the EAC was monitored by (1) TEE of the ascending aorta, (2) pulsed-wave Doppler of the right carotid artery, (3) balloon pressure, (4) comparison of aortic root pressure and right radial artery pressure, and (5) fluoroscopy. TEE, fluoroscopy, and pressure measurement were effective in monitoring catheter insertion and position. With inadequate balloon inflation, migration of the EAC toward the aortic valve could be detected with TEE. During administration of cardioplegia, TEE showed movement of the balloon away from the aortic valve, and migration into the aortic arch was detectable with loss of carotid Doppler flow. Stability of EAC position was demonstrated with appropriate balloon volume. Cardioplegic solution was visualized in the aortic root, and aortic root pressure changed appropriately during administration of cardioplegia. Venous cannula position was optimized with TEE and endopulmonary vent flow measurement.An effective method has been developed for monitoring patients and the catheter system during port-access cardiac surgery.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XM00300034

    View details for PubMedID 9244226

  • Perinatal induction of immunotolerance to cardiac and pulmonary allografts JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Yuh, D. D., Gandy, K. L., Reitz, B. A., Hoyt, G., Robbins, R. C. 1997; 114 (1): 64-75

    Abstract

    Tolerance appears to be more easily induced in the fetus before full immunocompetence is established, but elucidation of this process is needed. A model of perinatal tolerance induction to neonatal skin allografts followed by cardiac and pulmonary allografts is described.Sixty Lewis (RT11) rat fetuses were inoculated intraperitoneally at 18 days gestation with 1 x 10(7) ACI (RT1a) rat fetal liver cells (group I); 20 Lewis fetuses were inoculated with 2 x 10(7) ACI fetal liver cells (Group II). control groups consisted of Lewis fetuses inoculated with saline solution (n = 25, group III) and fetuses that were not inoculated (n = 25, group IV). Twenty-five of the 50 surviving group I rats received ACI skin (< 24 hours old) and heart (8 to 10 weeks old) allografts (group IA); the remaining 25 rats received only ACI heart grafts (group IB). Groups II, III, and IV received ACI skin and cardiac allografts. Recipients tolerant to both skin and cardiac grafts received orthotopic ACI lung grafts and third-party skin grafts. Tolerance was indicated by graft survival for more than 100 days. Limiting dilution and flow cytometric analyses were performed.Abortion rates in groups I, II, III, and IV were 17% (10/60), 65% (13/20), 8% (2/25), and 4% (1/25), respectively. Specific tolerance to skin, cardiac, and lung allografts was observed in seven of 25 group IA recipients (28%) and seven of seven group II recipients (100%) compared with no tolerance in any group IB, III, or IV recipients (p = 0.03, chi 2 test). A 100-fold reduction of precursor cytotoxic T lymphocytes and significant splenocyte and bone marrow chimerism in tolerant versus nontolerant rats were noted (p = 0.0001, Student's t test).Using donor-strain fetal liver cells and neonatal skin grafts, we achieved higher frequencies of tolerance to solid organ grafts in adulthood with lower cell inocula and abortion rates than previously described. Chimerism and depressed precursor cytotoxic T lymphocyte frequencies in tolerant recipients suggest that hematopoietic stem cell engraftment and clonal deletion/anergy are involved in induction of perinatal tolerance.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XM02300010

    View details for PubMedID 9240295

  • Perfusion during coronary and mitral valve surgery utilizing minimally invasive Port-Access technology. The Journal of extra-corporeal technology Toomasian, J. M., Williams, D. L., Colvin, S. B., Reitz, B. A. 1997; 29 (2): 66-72

    Abstract

    Minimally invasive surgery has been used in the treatment of some cardiovascular diseases. Port-Access surgery is a new minimally invasive technique that utilizes cardiopulmonary by-pass and a specialized catheter system that provides cardiopulmonary support and myocardial preservation. Extrathoracic cardiopulmonary support is established with femero-femoral bypass with kinetic assisted venous drainage. An endovascular catheter system allows for all the benefits of mechanical support as well as myocardial preservation. This catheter system includes an endoaortic balloon catheter which functions as an aortic cross clamp and antegrade cardioplegia delivery catheter, endopulmonary vent, and endocoronary sinus catheter used for administration of retrograde cardioplegia. An initial cohort of 20 patients was treated by the Port-Access surgical approach with cardiopulmonary bypass. Ten patients had coronary artery surgery and 10 patients had mitral valve surgery. The average bypass times were 94.4 min (coronary artery) and 152.8 min (mitral valve). The mean aortic occlusion times were 49.7 min (coronary artery) and 112.6 min (mitral valve). All patients were weaned from bypass. This initial patient series demonstrated that Port-Access surgery was feasible in selected patients.

    View details for PubMedID 10173052

  • A rodent model of in utero chimeric tolerance induction JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Yuh, D. D., Gandy, K. L., Hoyt, G., Reitz, B. A., Robbins, R. C. 1997; 16 (2): 222-230

    Abstract

    In utero tolerance induction has potential application in pediatric heart transplantation. Immunotolerance appears to be more easily induced in the fetus before full immunocompetence is established; however, the mechanisms behind this phenomenon are still undefined.One hundred thirty Lewis (RT1l) rat fetuses from 10 litters were inoculated intraperitoneally at 18 days gestation with 1 x 10(7) ACI (RT1a) rat fetal liver cells. Fifty of the 100 viable neonates successfully brought to term were grafted with neonatal ACI skin within 24 hours of birth and heterotopic ACI hearts at 8 to 10 weeks of age (group 1A); the remaining 50 neonates only received heterotopic ACI heart grafts at 8 to 10 weeks (group 1B). Control groups consisted of 50 Lewis fetuses (five litters) inoculated in utero with phosphate-buffered saline solution (group 2) and 50 Lewis fetuses (five litters) that received no inoculum (group 3); all of these surviving progeny received both neonatal ACI skin and adult ACI cardiac allografts. Skin and cardiac grafts were monitored by daily visual inspection and palpation, respectively. Limiting dilution analysis was performed among all groups to assess precursor cytotoxic lymphocyte frequencies. Likewise, peripheral blood lymphocyte and splenocyte populations were analyzed with flow cytometry to detect allogeneic chimerism.Abortion rates among groups 1, 2, and 3 were 23% (30/130 abortions), 10% (5/50 abortions), and 6% (3/50 abortions), respectively. Tolerance to both ACI skin and cardiac allografts was induced in 14 of the 50 group 1A Lewis recipients (28%). Tolerance was not achieved in any of the recipients in groups 1B, 2, or 3. Limiting dilution analysis among all groups revealed a marked reduction of precursor cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in tolerant allograft recipients compared with recipients in the other groups. Flow cytometry detected significant splenocyte chimerism among tolerant rats; significant peripheral blood chimerism was not noted.We describe allogeneic tolerance induction in utero to both rat skin and heart tissue by use of donor-strain fetal liver cells. Compared with previous studies with adult splenocytes as the tolerogen, we achieved a higher frequency of tolerance with a markedly lower cell inoculum and lower abortion rate. Allogeneic chimerism was noted in the tolerant recipients, suggesting hematopoietic stem cell engraftment. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte precursor frequencies were markedly depressed in tolerant animals. Interestingly, both donor-strain fetal liver cells and neonatal skin grafts were required to induce tolerance. These data suggest a period of hematopoietic "education" during and shortly after hematopoietic stem cell engraftment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WL96500009

    View details for PubMedID 9059934

  • Risk factors for the development of obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Girgis, R. E., Tu, I. P., Berry, G. J., Reichenspurner, H., Valentine, V. G., Conte, J. V., Ting, A., Johnstone, I., Miller, J., Robbins, R. C., Reitz, B. A., Theodore, J. 1996; 15 (12): 1200-1208

    Abstract

    Acute rejection has emerged as an important risk factor for obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation. We performed a multivariate analysis to assess the impact of additional variables.Seventy-four recipients (48 heart-lung, 18 single-lung, and 8 bilateral-lung recipients) who survived longer than 90 days and underwent transplantation more than 15 months before data analysis were included in this study. Several variables were entered into a Cox regression analysis to determine their association with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome.Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome developed in 48 (65%) of 74 patients. Significant correlations were detected for acute rejection score, defined as the sum of pathologic grades of each separate acute rejection episode (p = 0.0004, likelihood ratio test value = 12.4) and for lymphocytic bronchiolitis (p = 0.03). In a bivariate model, episodes of organizing pneumonia and bacterial or fungal pneumonia significantly increased the likelihood ratio test value of the acute rejection score. The addition of the cytomegalovirus infection score, reflecting the frequency and severity of infection, to the combination of the acute rejection score and episodes of bacterial or fungal pneumonia resulted in a further significant increase in the likelihood ratio test value. Significant risk factors for moderate to severe stages of airflow limitation were at least one episode of acute rejection of grade > or = 2, younger recipient age, and any acute rejection episode 180 days or longer after transplantation.Increasing frequency and severity of acute rejection episodes are strongly associated with the development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Lymphocytic bronchiolitis appeared to be significant by univariate analysis, but in a two-risk factor model, it did not augment the influence of acute rejection. Organizing pneumonia, bacterial or fungal pneumonia, and increasing severity and frequency of cytomegalovirus infections potentiate the effect of acute rejection. Late episodes of acute rejection and younger recipient age increase the risk for development of advanced disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996WA94600005

    View details for PubMedID 8981205

  • Tolerance to cardiac allografts induced in utero with fetal liver cells. Circulation Yuh, D. D., Gandy, K. L., Hoyt, G., Reitz, B. A., Robbins, R. C. 1996; 94 (9): II304-7

    Abstract

    Induction of immunological tolerance in utero has potential application in pediatric cardiac transplantation. We describe an inexpensive, reproducible, and well-characterized model of allogeneic tolerance induction in utero using donorstrain fetal liver cells.Each of 9 Lewis (LEW, RTl1) rat fetuses in one litter (group 1) and 10 LEW fetuses in another litter (group 2) were inoculated intraperitoneally at 17 to 18 days of gestation with 1 x 10(6) ACI (RTla) rat fetal liver cells. Ten LEW fetuses in a third litter inoculated with PBS (group 3) and 10 LEW noninoculated fetuses in a fourth litter (group 4) served as controls. The LEW rats were brought to term, and groups 1, 3, and 4 were grafted with neonatal ACI skin within 24 hours of birth and with heterotopic ACI hearts at 8 to 10 weeks of age; group 2 rats received only an ACI heart graft at 8 to 10 weeks. Skin and cardiac grafts were monitored by daily visual inspection and palpation, respectively. Peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) populations in all LEW recipients were analyzed with flow cytometry. All LEW fetuses survived to term and developed normally. The ACI skin and cardiac allografts on 3 of the 9 LEW rats in group 1 are viable to date (skin, > 170 days; cardiac, > 100 days). The remaining 6 recipients of this group and all animals in groups 2, 3, and 4 rejected their skin and cardiac grafts by postgrafting day 7. Significant PBL chimerism (1.57%) was observed in only 1 tolerant rat.We describe allogeneic tolerance induction in utero to both rat skin and cardiac tissue with donor-strain fetal liver cells. Compared with previous studies using adult splenocytes as the tolerogen, we achieved a higher frequency of tolerance with a markedly lower cell inoculum and no abortions. Interestingly, both donor-strain fetal liver cells and neonatal skin grafts were required to maintain tolerance into adulthood. Immunocompetence sufficient to reject allografts was noted in neonates, and PBL chimerism was not prominent in tolerant recipients.

    View details for PubMedID 8901765

  • Port-access coronary artery bypass grafting: A proposed surgical method JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Stevens, J. H., Burdon, T. A., Peters, W. S., Siegel, L. C., Pompili, M. F., Vierra, M. A., STGOAR, F. G., Ribakove, G. H., Mitchell, R. S., Reitz, B. A. 1996; 111 (3): 567-573

    Abstract

    Minimally invasive surgical methods have been developed to provide patients the benefits of open operations with decreased pain and suffering. We have developed a system that allows the performance of cardiopulmonary bypass and myocardial protection with cardioplegic arrest without sternotomy or thoracotomy. In a canine model, we successfully used this system to anastomose the internal thoracic artery to the left anterior descending coronary artery in nine of 10 animals. The left internal thoracic artery was dissected from the chest wall, and the pericardium was opened with the use of thoracoscopic techniques and single lung ventilation. The heart was arrested with a cold blood cardioplegic solution delivered through the central lumen of a balloon occlusion catheter (Endoaortic Clamp; Heartport, Inc., Redwood City, Calif.) in the ascending aorta, and cardiopulmonary bypass was maintained with femorofemoral bypass. An operating microscope modified to allow introduction of the 3.5x magnification objective into the chest was positioned through a 10 mm port over the site of the anastomosis. The anastomosis was performed with modified surgical instruments introduced through additional 5 mm ports. In the cadaver model (n = 7) the internal thoracic artery was harvested and the pericardium opened by means of similar techniques. A precise arteriotomy was made with microvascular thoracoscopic instruments under the modified microscope on four cadavers. In three other cadavers we assessed the exposure provided by a small anterior incision (4 to 6 cm) over the fourth intercostal space. This anterior port can assist in dissection of the distal internal thoracic artery and provides direct access to the left anterior descending, circumflex, and posterior descending arteries. We have demonstrated the potential feasibility of grafting the internal thoracic artery to coronary arteries with the heart arrested and protected, without a major thoracotomy or sternotomy.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UB98000013

    View details for PubMedID 8601971

  • Obliterative bronchiolitis after lung and heart-lung transplantation ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Reichenspurner, H., Girgis, R. E., Robbins, R. C., Conte, J. V., Nair, R. V., Valentine, V., Berry, G. J., Morris, R. E., Theodore, J., Reitz, B. A. 1995; 60 (6): 1845-1853

    Abstract

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) has emerged as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in the long-term follow-up after lung and heart-lung transplantation. The pathogenesis of OB is multifactorial, with acute rejection and cytomegalovirus infection being the main risk factors for the development of OB. The final common pathway of all inciting events seems to be an alloimmune injury, with subsequent release of immunologic mediators and production of growth factors leading to luminal obliteration and fibrous scarring of the small airways. Analyzing the 14 years of experience in 163 patients at Stanford University, we found a current incidence of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome or histologically proven OB within the first 3 years after lung and heart-lung transplantation of 36.3%, with an overall prevalence of 58.1% after heart-lung and 51.4% after lung transplantation. Both pulmonary function indices (forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second) and transbronchial biopsies have proven helpful in diagnosing bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome or OB at an early stage. Early diagnosis of OB and improved management have achieved survival rates in patients with OB after 1, 3, 5, and 10 years of 83%, 66%, 46%, and 22%, compared with 86%, 83%, 67%, and 67% in patients without OB. Recently, different experimental models have been developed to investigate the cellular and molecular events leading to OB and to evaluate new treatment strategies for this complication, which currently limits the long-term success of heart-lung and lung transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TV39200074

    View details for PubMedID 8787504

  • Leflunomide prolongs pulmonary allograft and xenograft survival JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Yuh, D. D., Gandy, K. L., Morris, R. E., Hoyt, G., Gutierrez, J., Reitz, B. A., Robbins, R. C. 1995; 14 (6): 1136-1144

    Abstract

    Leflunomide, an isoxazole derivative, has been shown to effectively prolong rodent allograft and cardiac xenograft survival. In vitro studies suggest that leflunomide inhibits the production of donor-specific antibodies and is capable of blocking both T- and B-cell proliferation. In light of the significant role that humoral immunity is believed to play in chronic pulmonary allograft rejection as well as hyperacute and accelerated acute xenograft rejection, we examined the efficacy of leflunomide in prolonging pulmonary allografts and xenografts and its effect on donor-specific antibody production.Lungs from Brown Norway rats or Golden Syrian hamsters were orthotopically transplanted into Lewis rat recipients. Allograft recipients were treated daily for 14 days with vehicle, leflunomide (15 mg/kg/day orally), or cyclosporine (7.5 mg/kg/day orally) starting on the day of grafting (day 0). In xenograft recipients, leflunomide (20 mg/kg/day orally) or cyclosporine (7.5 mg/kg/day orally) treatment initiated on day 0 was continued until complete graft rejection; the leflunomide dosage was reduced to 10 mg/kg/day after day 14 because of weight loss and leukopenia. Graft viability was assessed with chest radiography in conjunction with open lung biopsies. Toxicity was monitored with body weight measurements, complete blood counts, and serum chemistries. Flow cytometric analysis of serum samples taken from graft recipients on day 7 was used to measure donor-specific immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibody titers.Allograft and xenograft control animals receiving vehicle yielded graft survival times of 6.0 +/- 0.0 and 5.4 +/- 0.6 days, respectively. Although xenograft recipients treated with cyclosporine (7.5 mg/kg/day orally) showed no significant graft prolongation, pulmonary allograft survival in recipients receiving cyclosporine alone was significantly prolonged to 28.2 +/- 0.7 days. Leflunomide-treated allograft (15 mg/kg/day orally) and xenograft (20 mg/kg/day orally) recipients displayed significant graft prolongation to 28.2 +/- 0.7 days and 15.8 +/- 3.3 days, respectively. Cyclosporine (7.5 mg/kg/day orally) enhanced the effect of leflunomide (20 mg/kg/day orally) in xenograft recipients with a mean graft survival time of 36.0 +/- 3.0 days achieved when both drugs were administered concomitantly. Cyclosporine significantly suppressed donor-specific immunoglobulin G antibody titers in both pulmonary allograft and xenograft recipients while not affecting immunoglobulin M levels. Leflunomide markedly suppressed both immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M donor-specific antibody titers in allograft and xenograft recipients. Except for mild leukopenia and anemia, both cyclosporine- and leflunomide-treated allograft recipients showed no evidence of toxic side effects after 14 days of therapy. However, leflunomide-treated xenograft recipients displayed significant weight loss, anemia, and leukopenia after 14 days of treatment with one death in each treatment group.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TM55700018

    View details for PubMedID 8719461

  • Surgical management of aortic dissection during a 30-year period. Circulation Fann, J. I., Smith, J. A., Miller, D. C., Mitchell, R. S., Moore, K. A., Grunkemeier, G., Stinson, E. B., Oyer, P. E., Reitz, B. A., Shumway, N. E. 1995; 92 (9): II113-21

    Abstract

    Certain recent studies have demonstrated improved surgical outcome in patients with aortic dissection. We analyzed the surgical survival rates of patients with acute aortic dissections and the late prognosis of those with aortic dissection during a 30-year period.Between 1963 and 1992, 360 patients (256 men and 104 women; mean +/- 1 SD age, 57 +/- 14 years) underwent surgery for aortic dissection: 174 patients had an acute type A (AcA), 46 an acute type B (AcB), 106 a chronic type A (ChA), and 34 a chronic type B (ChB) aortic dissection. The overall operative mortality rate was 24 +/- 8% (26 +/- 3% for AcA, 39 +/- 8% for AcB, 17 +/- 4% for ChA, and 15 +/- 6% for ChB, [+/- 70% confidence limit]). The operative mortality rates for patients with acute aortic dissection (AcA or AcB) were assessed for five time "windows": 1963 to 1972 (42 +/- 8%), 1973 to 1977 (37 +/- 8%), 1978 to 1982 (15 +/- 6%), 1983 to 1987 (27 +/- 6%), and 1988 to 1992 (26 +/- 6%). Logistic regression analysis suggested that the low operative mortality rate during the 1978-to-1982 interval occurred by chance. Multivariate analysis showed earlier operative year, hypertension, cardiac tamponade, renal dysfunction, and older age were independent determinants of operative death. Actuarial survival rates (including early deaths) after 5, 10, and 15 years for AcA patients were 55%, 37%, and 24%; for AcB, 48%, 29%, and 11%; for ChA, 65%, 45%, and 27%; and for ChB, 59%, 45%, and 27%. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age and previous operation were significant predictors for late death. Freedom from reoperation for all patients was 84%, 67%, and 57% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively.Although the operative mortality rate decreased over time for patients with aortic dissection, the risk for those with acute aortic dissection during the last 10 years (1983 to 1992) is probably more realistic than that observed in the preceding 5-year interval (1978 to 1982). The operative mortality rates for patients with chronic aortic dissection have remained relatively static. Earlier diagnosis of acute aortic dissection before development of cardiac tamponade and renal impairment is critical to improve the operative salvage rate. Long-term outcome still is not optimal, which emphasizes the need for better serial postoperative aortic imaging surveillance and medical follow-up and blood pressure control.

    View details for PubMedID 7586393

  • HEART RETRANSPLANTATION - THE 25-YEAR EXPERIENCE AT A SINGLE INSTITUTION JOURNAL OF HEART AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION Smith, J. A., Ribakove, G. H., Hunt, S. A., Miller, J., Stinson, E. B., Oyer, P. E., Robbins, R. C., Shumway, N. E., Reitz, B. A. 1995; 14 (5): 832-839

    Abstract

    The current critical shortage of cardiac allograft donors means that the decision to offer a patient repeat heart transplantation must be carefully considered. Since 1968, a total of 66 heart retransplantation procedures (63 first-time and three second-time) have been performed in 63 patients at Stanford.There were 52 male and 11 female patients, ranging in age from 3 to 62 years with a mean age of 41 years. Indications for retransplantation were primary allograft failure in nine patients, acute rejection in 17, graft atherosclerosis in 37, and constrictive disease in three. Six of the seventeen patients (35%) who underwent retransplantation before 1981 died in the hospital, and none are currently alive. Of the 46 patients who underwent retransplantation since 1981 treated with cyclosporine-based immunosuppression, 11 (24%) died in the hospital. Actuarial survival estimates for the whole retransplantation group at 1, 5, and 10 years were 55% +/- 8%, 33% +/- 8%, and 22% +/- 7%, respectively.This survival was significantly worse (p < 0.05) than that in patients undergoing primary heart transplantation (81% +/- 2%, 62% +/- 2%, 44% +/- 13% at 1, 5, and 10 years). Those patients who underwent retransplantation for graft atherosclerosis since 1981 had a significantly better 1-year survival (p < 0.05) than those who underwent retransplantation for allograft rejection (69% +/- 10% versus 33% +/- 16%), but the 5-year survival was similar in both groups (34% +/- 11% versus 33% +/- 16%). Since 1981, actuarial freedoms from infection and rejection were 22% +/- 8% and 41% +/- 9%, respectively, at 1 year, and 7% +/- 7% and 36% +/- 9% at 5 years. Patients with cyclosporine-induced renal dysfunction (serum creatinine level of greater than 2.0 mg/dl) had a high probability of requiring postoperative dialysis and also of death after retransplantation. Three patients with significant cyclosporine-induced renal dysfunction underwent simultaneous kidney transplantation and heart retransplantation, and all were alive and well at the time this article was written. Sixteen patients were also currently alive at a mean follow-up of 44 months, and 15 were in New York Heart Association functional class I.We continue to list carefully selected candidates with good rehabilitation potential for heart retransplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RY62700004

    View details for PubMedID 8800717

  • ARTERIAL SWITCH AND RESECTION OF HEPATIC HEMANGIOENDOTHELIOMA ANNALS OF THORACIC SURGERY Robbins, R. C., Chin, C., Yun, K. L., Berry, G. J., Bernstein, D., Reitz, B. A. 1995; 59 (6): 1575-1577

    Abstract

    We report on the management of a neonate undergoing arterial switch for transposition of the great arteries and concomitant resection of a hepatic infantile hemangioendothelioma. A preoperative aortogram demonstrated the arterial supply of the hepatic hemangioendothelioma. Pulmonary artery hypertension and myocardial ischemia were noted after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass. Resection of the hepatic malformation produced an immediate reduction in pulmonary hypertension and resolution of the myocardial ischemia. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RB62100052

    View details for PubMedID 7771849

  • IN-VIVO STUDIES OF THE MAINTENANCE OF PERIPHERAL TRANSPLANT TOLERANCE AFTER CYCLOSPORINE - RADIOSENSITIVE ANTIGEN-SPECIFIC SUPPRESSOR CELLS MEDIATE LASTING GRAFT PROTECTION AGAINST PRIMED EFFECTOR-CELLS TRANSPLANTATION Nisco, S. J., Hissink, R. J., Vriens, P. W., Hoyt, E. G., Reitz, B. A., CLAYBERGER, C. 1995; 59 (10): 1444-1452

    Abstract

    Cellular mechanisms responsible for maintenance of peripheral transplant tolerance in a rodent model were evaluated. Donor-specific tolerance was established in ACI rats given a vascularized heterotopic cardiac allograft followed by a 10-day course of cyclosporine. Tolerance was associated with a reduction in donor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors and the presence within the spleen of cells capable of transferring suppression in adoptive transfer assays. Experiments using thymectomized animals revealed that the establishment and maintenance of tolerance occurred peripherally, independently of the thymus. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that ongoing graft tolerance was mediated by suppressor cells that were antigen-restricted, radiosensitive, and capable of preventing allograft rejection by naive as well as sensitized cells in vivo. Studies designed to disrupt tolerance demonstrated a remarkable durability of graft protection once established, and give insight into the identity and mechanism of action of suppressor cells generated in this model.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RB42900015

    View details for PubMedID 7539554

  • DEVELOPMENTS IN CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION CURRENT OPINION IN CARDIOLOGY Nisco, S. J., Reitz, B. A. 1994; 9 (2): 237-246

    Abstract

    Cardiac transplantation has matured as a therapeutic intervention, allowing definitive treatment of critically ill children and adults with end-stage heart disease. The ongoing critical shortage of donor organs continues to deny hundreds of individuals access to this intervention. Accordingly, many of the most meaningful recent advances made in the field of cardiac transplantation involve means of expanding our donor pool. While current immunosuppressive regimens have been considerably successful in the management of acute cellular rejection, management of the problems of acute and chronic vascular rejection remains disappointing. Advances in this arena remain particularly urgent for physicians and surgeons involved in the care of heart transplant recipients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NC26700014

    View details for PubMedID 8199391

  • Randomized, prospective assessment of bioprosthetic valve durability. Hancock versus Carpentier-Edwards valves. Circulation Sarris, G. E., Robbins, R. C., Miller, D. C., Mitchell, R. S., Moore, K. A., Stinson, E. B., Oyer, P. E., Reitz, B. A., Shumway, N. E. 1993; 88 (5): II55-64

    Abstract

    Although the major limitation of porcine valves is their finite durability, no controlled clinical data exist regarding the relative durability of the two porcine bioprostheses implanted most commonly today, the Carpentier-Edwards (C-E) and Medtronic Hancock I (H) valves.To assess this question, 174 patients undergoing aortic (AVR) or mitral (MVR) valve replacement with a bioprosthesis between March 1980 and March 1982 were randomized to receive either a C-E or a H valve. There were 102 AVRs (54 C-E and 48 H) and 74 MVRs (39 C-E and 35 H). For both the AVR and MVR cohorts, the average patient age was 58 +/- 14 years (+/- SD). The male/female ratio was 2.2:1 for AVR and 0.57:1 for MVR. Clinical follow-up was undertaken periodically; the most recent follow-up closing interval was July through October 1992, and current follow-up was 96% complete. Cumulative follow-up totaled 1369 patient-years (mean, 7.7 +/- 3.6 years; median, 9.1 years; maximum, 12.0 years). The main focus of this analysis was bioprosthetic durability, using the AATS/STS guidelines defining "Structural Valve Deterioration" (SVD). Multivariate analysis revealed that (younger) age was the only significant (P = .024) independent predictor of SVD. Valve manufacturer (C-E versus H) and valve site (aortic versus mitral) did not emerge as significant independent risk factors for SVD. Actuarial rates (Cutler-Ederer) expressed as percent free of SVD (+/- SEM) at 10 years (n = number of patients remaining at risk) were 71 +/- 7% and 59 +/- 9% for the C-E (n = 26) and H (n = 17) groups, respectively, for the AVR cohort; for the MVR cohort, these estimates were 60 +/- 10% (n = 12) and 72 +/- 10% (n = 11), respectively, but these differences were not statistically significant (P = NS, Lee-Desu).After 10 years, there was no statistically significant difference in durability or other valve-related complications between the H and C-E aortic or mitral valves. Based on current information, the choice of a porcine bioprosthesis should be based on factors other than durability, including ease of implantation, hemodynamic performance, and cost.

    View details for PubMedID 8222197

  • PEDIATRIC HEART-LUNG AND LUNG TRANSPLANTATION PROGRESS IN PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY Nisco, S. J., Reitz, B. A. 1993; 2 (4): 47-58

Conference Proceedings


  • Heart-lung versus double-lung transplantation for suppurative lung disease Barlow, C. W., Robbins, R. C., Moon, M. R., Akindipe, O., Theodore, J., Reitz, B. A. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2000: 466-475

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes after heart-lung or double-lung transplantation in patients undergoing transplantation because of end-stage suppurative lung disease.We reviewed our experience in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis who had heart-lung or double-lung transplantation between January 1988 and September 1997. Twenty-three patients (14 male, 21 cystic fibrosis) had heart-lung transplantation and 24 patients (8 male, 19 cystic fibrosis) had double-lung transplantation. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in age, weight, preoperative creatinine level, cytomegalovirus status, maintenance immunosuppression, or donor demographics. Patients received induction therapy with monoclonal (OKT3) or polyclonal (rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin) antibody.Sixteen of 24 patients had double-lung transplantation after 1994 whereas 13 of 22 patients had heart-lung transplantation before 1991, allowing longer follow-up for the heart-lung group. Mean waiting times for transplantation were 270 +/- 245 days (heart-lung) and 361 +/- 229 days (double-lung; P =.20). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival figures were respectively 86%, 82%, and 65% (heart-lung) and 96%, 75%, and unavailable (double-lung; P = no significant difference). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year rates of freedom from obliterative bronchiolitis were respectively 77%, 61%, and 45% (heart-lung) and 86%, 78%, and unavailable (double-lung; P = no significant difference). Linearized overall infection rates (events/100 patient-days) were 2.05 +/- 0.33 (heart-lung) and 2.34 +/- 0.34 (double-lung; P = NS) at 3 months. Thirty-day survival was 100% (heart-lung) and 96% (double-lung). There were 7 late deaths among heart-lung recipients (3 obliterative bronchiolitis, 2 infection, 0 graft coronary artery disease, 2 other) whereas 2 late deaths related to obliterative bronchiolitis occurred in double-lung recipients. Graft coronary artery disease (all stenoses < 50%) affected 15% of heart-lung survivors, whereas 3 double-lung recipients (12.5%) required either bronchial dilatation or stenting.Heart-lung and double-lung transplantation provide similar palliation for patients with end-stage suppurative lung disease. Therefore double-lung transplantation should be the preferred operation for most patients with end-stage suppurative lung disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085766600015

    View details for PubMedID 10694605

  • Heart-lung transplantation for primary pulmonary hypertension Whyte, R. I., Robbins, R. C., Altinger, J., Barlow, C. W., Doyle, R., Theodore, J., Reitz, B. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1999: 937-941

    Abstract

    The operation of choice for primary pulmonary hypertension remains controversial, as heart-lung transplantation, single-lung transplantation, and double-lung transplantation have all been advocated.We reviewed our institution's experience with heart-lung transplantation for primary pulmonary hypertension.Thirty-nine patients had heart-lung transplantation for primary pulmonary hypertension. Operative mortality rate was 18%, and actuarial survival was 72% at 1 year, 67% at 2 years, and 42% at 5 years. Freedom from obliterative bronchiolitis was 91% at 1 year, 83% at 2 years, and 70% at 5 years. Freedom from obliterative bronchiolitis-related death was 100% at 1 year, 90% at 2 years, and 87% at 5 years. Freedom from accelerated graft coronary disease was 92% at 5 years. The most frequent causes of death were infection, obliterative bronchiolitis, and accelerated graft coronary disease.Heart-lung transplantation results in survival comparable to that reported for single or double lung transplantation. Obliterative bronchiolitis is a significant cause of late death but seems to occur less frequently with heart-lung transplantation than with lung transplantation alone. Accelerated coronary graft disease is rare in the first 5 years after transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080115300010

    View details for PubMedID 10320232

  • Significant reduction in the number of fungal infections after lung-, heart-lung, and heart transplantation using aerosolized amphotericin B prophylaxis Reichenspurner, H., Gamberg, P., Nitschke, M., Valantine, H., Hunt, S., Oyer, P. E., Reitz, B. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1997: 627-628

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WM12700260

    View details for PubMedID 9123449

  • Port-access mitral valve replacement in dogs Pompili, M. F., Stevens, J. H., Burdon, T. A., Siegel, L. C., Peters, W. S., Ribakove, G. H., Reitz, B. A. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 1996: 1268-1274

    Abstract

    The objective was to assess mitral valve replacement in a minimally invasive fashion by means of port-access technology.Fifteen dogs, 28 +/- 3 kg (mean +/- standard deviation), were studied with the port-access mitral valve replacement system (Heartport, Inc., Redwood City, Calif.). Eleven dogs underwent acute studies and were sacrificed immediately after the procedure. Four dogs were allowed to recover and then were sacrificed 4 weeks after operation. Cardiopulmonary bypass was conducted by femoral cannulation with an endovascular balloon catheter for aortic occlusion, root venting, and antegrade delivery of cardioplegic solution. Catheters were inserted in the jugular vein for pulmonary artery venting and retrograde delivery of cardioplegic solution. Through the oval port, a prosthesis (St. Jude Medical, Inc., St. Paul, Minn., or CarboMedics, Inc., Austin, Texas) was inserted through the left atrial appendage and secured to the anulus with sutures. Deairing was performed.Cardiopulmonary bypass duration was 114 +/- 24 minutes and aortic crossclamp time was 68 +/- 14 minutes. All animals were weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass in sinus rhythm. Cardiac output and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure were unchanged (2.8 +/- 0.7 L/min and 7 +/- 3 mm Hg before operation vs 2.6 +/- 0.6 L/min and 9 +/- 4 mm Hg after operation). There was no mitral regurgitation according to left ventriculography in 13 of 15 dogs. In two dogs there was interference with prosthetic valve closure by residual native anterior leaflet tissue. Pathologic examination otherwise showed normal healing without perivalvular discontinuity. Microscopic studies showed no damage to the valve surfaces. Transthoracic echocardiography of the four dogs in the long-term study showed normal ventricular and prosthetic valve function 4 weeks after the operation.Mitral valve replacement with a minimally invasive method has been demonstrated in dogs. A clinical trial is in progress.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VV63200028

    View details for PubMedID 8911323

  • Stanford experience with obliterative bronchiolitis after lung and heart lung transplantation Reichenspurner, H., Girgis, R. E., Robbins, R. C., Yun, K. L., Nitschke, M., Berry, G. J., Morris, R. E., Theodore, J., Reitz, B. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1996: 1467-1472

    Abstract

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is the main chronic complication after heart-lung (HLTx) and lung transplantation (LTx), limiting the long-term success of both transplant procedures.Since 1981, 135 HLTxs and 61 isolated LTxs were performed in 184 patients at Stanford University.The overall prevalence of OB in patients surviving longer than 3 months postoperatively was 64% after HLTx and 68% after LTx. The actuarial freedom from OB was 72%, 51%, 44%, and 29% at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years, respectively, after HLTx and LTx. An analysis of potential risk factors revealed that the frequency and severity of acute rejection episodes (p < 0.001) and the appearance of lymphocytic bronchiolitis on biopsy (p < 0.05) were significantly associated with the development of OB. With regard to diagnosis of OB, pulmonary function tests show early reductions of the forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the forced vital capacity with subsequent decreases in the forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The sensitivity of transbronchial biopsies has increased to 71% since 1993. Current treatment consists of augmented immunosuppression. Concurrent acute rejection episodes or active OB on biopsy have been treated aggressively with high-dose steroid pulses. Analysis of data from 73 patients with OB after HLTx and LTx revealed actuarial 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year survival of 89%, 71%, 44%, and 17% versus 86%, 77%, 63% and 56% in patients without OB (p < 0.05 by log-rank analysis). The main complication and cause of death in patients with OB was superimposed respiratory tract infection, which was treated aggressively.Early diagnosis of OB using pulmonary function tests or transbronchial biopsy is possible and important, because immediate treatment initiation has led to acceptable survival rates, with nearly 50% of affected patients still alive 5 years after transplantation. Current experimental research on OB suggests that immune injury is the main pathogenetic event of airway obliteration in animal models; rapamycin and leflunomide are new immunosuppressive agents that may have the potential to prevent and treat airway obliteration.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VQ16700050

    View details for PubMedID 8893585

  • Twenty-year clinical experience with porcine bioprostheses Fann, J. I., Miller, D. C., Moore, K. A., Mitchell, R. S., Oyer, P. E., Stinson, E. B., Robbins, R. C., Reitz, B. A., Shumway, N. E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1996: 1301-1311

    Abstract

    For the past 25 years, porcine valves have been the most widely implanted bioprosthesis, thereby becoming the standard for comparison with newer bioprosthetic valves.We retrospectively analyzed 2,879 patients who underwent aortic (AVR; n = 1,594) or mitral (MVR; n = 1,285) valve replacement between 1971 and 1990. Follow-up was 97% complete and extended to 20 years (total, 17,976 patient-years). Patient age ranged from 16 to 94 years; mean age in patients who underwent AVR was 60 +/- 15 (+/- standard deviation) years; that for patients who underwent MVR was 58 +/- 13 years.The operative mortality rates were 7% +/- 1% (70% confidence limits) for AVR and 10% +/- 1% for MVR. Actuarial estimates of freedom from structural valve deterioration at 10 and 15 years were 78% +/- 2% (SE) and 49% +/- 4%, respectively, for the AVR subgroup; and 69% +/- 2% and 32% +/- 4%, respectively, for the MVR subgroup (AVR > MVR; p < 0.05). Estimates of freedom from reoperation at 10 and 15 years were 76% +/- 2% and 53% +/- 4%, respectively, for the AVR subgroup and 70% +/- 2% and 33% +/- 4%, respectively, for the MVR subgroup (AVR > MVR; p < 0.05). Estimates of freedom from thromboembolism at 10 and 15 years were 92% +/- 1% and 87% +/- 2%, respectively, for the AVR subgroup and 86% +/- 1% and 77% +/- 3%, respectively, for the MVR subgroup (AVR > MVR; p < 0.05). Estimates of freedom from anticoagulant-related hemorrhage at 10 and 15 years were both 96% +/- 1% for the AVR subgroup and 93% +/- 1% and 90% +/- 2%, respectively, for the MVR subgroup (AVR > MVR; p < 0.05). Estimates of freedom from valve-related mortality at 10 and 15 years were 86% +/- 1% and 78% +/- 3%, respectively, for the AVR subgroup and 84% +/- 2% and 70% +/- 4%, respectively, for the MVR subgroup (p = not significant). Multivariate analysis (Cox model) showed younger age, later year of operation, and valve site (MVR > AVR) to be significant risk factors for structural valve deterioration. Younger age, later year of operation, valve site (MVR > AVR), and renal insufficiency were the significant, independent risk factors for reoperation. Multivariate analysis revealed that higher New York Heart Association functional class, longer cardiopulmonary bypass time, congestive heart failure, renal insufficiency, and longer cross-clamp time were significant risk factors for valve-related mortality. Valve manufacturer did not emerge as a factor in any analysis.These long-term results with porcine bioprostheses were satisfactory, particularly in older patients and those undergoing AVR. As expected, younger age was a significant risk factor for structural valve deterioration and reoperation in both groups. Surprisingly, the durability of porcine bioprosthetic valves has not improved over time, which possibly can be attributed to more enhanced postoperative surveillance and earlier reintervention. These first-generation Hancock and Carpentier-Edwards porcine bioprostheses achieved similar long-term performance.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VQ16700014

    View details for PubMedID 8893561

  • Port-access coronary artery bypass with cardioplegic arrest: Acute and chronic canine studies Stevens, J. H., Burdon, T. A., Siegel, L. C., Peters, W. S., Pompili, M. F., STGOAR, F. G., Berry, G. J., Ribakove, G. H., Vierra, M. A., Mitchell, R. S., Toomasian, J. M., Reitz, B. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1996: 435-440

    Abstract

    Our goal is to perform minimally invasive coronary artery bypass grafting without sacrificing the benefits of myocardial protection with cardioplegia.Twenty-three dogs underwent acute studies and 4 dogs underwent survival studies. The left internal mammary artery was taken down using a thoracoscope. Cardiopulmonary bypass was conducted via femoral cannulas and using an endovascular balloon catheter for ascending aortic occlusion, root venting, and delivery of antegrade blood cardioplegia. Pulmonary artery venting was achieved with a jugular vein catheter. An internal mammary artery-to-coronary artery anastomosis was performed using a microscope through a 10 mm port.All animals were weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass in sinus rhythm without inotropes. Cardiopulmonary bypass duration was 104 +/- 28 minutes and aortic clamp duration was 61 +/- 22 minutes. Cardiac output and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure were unchanged. The internal mammary artery was anastomosed to the left anterior descending artery (25) or the first diagonal (2) with patency shown in 25 of 27. One dog in the survival study had a very short internal mammary artery pedicle under tension and was euthanized for excessive postoperative hemorrhage. Three weeks postoperatively the remaining dogs had angiographically patent anastomoses, normal transthoracic echocardiograms, and histologically normal healing and patent grafts.Endovascular cardiopulmonary bypass using a balloon catheter is effective in arresting and protecting the heart to allow thoracoscopic internal mammary artery-to-coronary artery anastomosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VA28700026

    View details for PubMedID 8694602

  • Obliterative airway disease after heterotopic tracheal xenotransplantation in a concordant rodent model: Pathogenesis and treatment Reichenspurner, H., Adams, B., Soni, V., Brazelton, T., Shorthouse, R., Reitz, B. A., Berry, G. J., Morris, R. E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1996: 729-730

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UG38300121

    View details for PubMedID 8623368

  • The utility of annual surveillance bronchoscopy in heart-lung transplant recipients Girgis, R. E., Reichenspurner, H., Robbins, R. C., Reitz, B. A., Theodore, J. WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 1995: 1458-1461

    Abstract

    Bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy (TBBx) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has an appreciable yield in detecting asymptomatic abnormalities in heart-lung transplant recipients (HLTR) during the early postoperative period. The utility of annual surveillance procedures has not been critically evaluated. We reviewed all annual bronchoscopies performed on 29 HLTR to determine the frequency of asymptomatic abnormalities. Surveillance bronchoscopies (SB) were performed on asymptomatic subjects with unchanged lung function compared with baseline. Surveillance/clinical bronchoscopies (SCB) were those performed in patients with stable decrements in lung function. Nineteen patients underwent 48 SB and 8 had 18 SCB. Five of 15 (33%) SB performed at one year yielded an abnormal TBBx (1 grade 2 acute rejection [AR], 1 grade 1 AR, 1 grade 1 AR with obliterative bronchiolitis [OB] and 2 Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia). At 2 or more years, TBBx was abnormal in 2 of 33 (6%, p = 0.024 compared with first year TBBx) (1 grade 1 AR, 1 lymphocytic bronchiolitis). Pathogens were identified in BAL in 19 (40%) SB. Fourteen (78%) SCB were abnormal. Nine (50%) revealed an abnormal TBBx (all OB), but only 2 (11%) of these altered patient management. Seven (39%) demonstrated pathogens in BAL. We conclude that in HLTR (1) surveillance TBBx rarely yields positive findings 2 or more years posttransplant, (2) surveillance TBBx seldom alters management in patients with stable decrements in lung function, and (3) BAL is useful to screen for potential pathogens.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TN23000015

    View details for PubMedID 8545874

  • DURABILITY OF THE HANCOCK-MO BIOPROSTHESIS COMPARED WITH STANDARD AORTIC-VALVE BIOPROSTHESES Yun, K. L., Miller, D. C., Moore, K. A., Mitchell, R. S., Oyer, P. E., Stinson, E. B., Robbins, R. C., Reitz, B. A., Shumway, N. E. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1995: S221-S228

    Abstract

    To compare the durability of the Hancock modified orifice (Hancock MO, model 250 [H-MO]) valve with two other commonly used standard aortic valve bioprostheses, a cohort of 1,602 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement using porcine valves between 1971 and 1990 (excluding simultaneous mitral valve replacement) was analyzed retrospectively using Cox model multivariate techniques. Five hundred sixty-one patients received a composite H-MO valve, 652 received a standard Hancock model 242 (H) valve, and 389 received a Carpentier-Edwards model 2625 (C-E) valve. Mean age was 60 +/- 15 years (+/- 1 standard deviation) (71% male). Follow-up (10,247 patient-years) extended to 15 years and was 97% complete. The main focus of this study was bioprosthetic durability, using The American Association for Thoracic Surgery/The Society of Thoracic Surgeons guidelines to define structural valve deterioration (SVD). Multivariate analysis revealed that (younger) age (p < 10(-5), liver disease (p = 0.02), and 1981 to 1985 operative period (p = 0.012) were the only significant, independent predictors of SVD. In concordance with previous reports, the SVD freedom estimate was greater than 90% at 15 years for patients older than 70 years of age. Hepatic dysfunction had an adverse effect on SVD (estimated freedom from event at 10 years was 34 +/- 17% [standard error of mean] versus 78 +/- 2% for those without liver disease), but this affected only 3% of patients. Interestingly, one operative period (1981 to 1985) was associated with a slightly higher risk of SVD compared to the three other 5-year time windows. Valve type did not emerge as a significant risk factor for SVD.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RT15700035

    View details for PubMedID 7646163

  • LONG-TERM RESULTS OF COMBINED HEART-LUNG TRANSPLANTATION - THE STANFORD EXPERIENCE Sarris, G. E., Smith, J. A., Shumway, N. E., Stinson, E. B., Oyer, P. E., Robbins, R. C., Billingham, M. E., Theodore, J., Moore, K. A., Reitz, B. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1994: 940-949

    Abstract

    We assessed the long-term results of our experience with 109 patients with end-stage cardiopulmonary disease who underwent primary combined heart-lung transplantation at Stanford University Medical Center between March 1981 and January 1994. Average recipient age was 31 +/- 10 years (mean +/- standard deviation) median, 31 years; range, 1 month to 52 years. Recipient diagnoses included primary pulmonary hypertension (31%), Eisenmenger's syndrome (39%), complex congenital heart disease (8%), cystic fibrosis (14%), bronchiectasis (2%), and emphysema (3%). Immunosuppression was with cyclosporine and a tapering regimen of corticosteroids. In 1986 azathioprine was added, and since 1987 induction therapy with OKT3 has been employed. Actuarial survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 68% +/- 4.6%, 43% +/- 5.4%, and 23% +/- 8.1%, respectively (mean +/- 1 standard error of the mean). Fourteen deaths occurred in the hospital for an operative mortality rate of 12.8% +/- 3.3%, and 61 deaths occurred overall. Causes of death included hemorrhage (five patients), infection (21), rejection (one), nonspecific pulmonary failure (four), graft coronary artery disease (six), and obliterative bronchiolitis (eight). Infection, rejection, and obliterative bronchiolitis were the major complications. Only 20% +/- 3.9% of patients were free from any infection 3 months after transplantation. Heart and lung rejection commonly occurred asynchronously; actuarial estimates of freedom from isolated lung rejection at 1 and 5 years were 47% +/- 5.2% and 40% +/- 5.6%, respectively. For simultaneous heart and lung rejection these estimates were 87% +/- 3.5% and 86% +/- 3.8%, and for isolated heart rejection 63% +/- 5.1% and 51% +/- 6.4%, respectively. Although graft coronary artery disease developed less frequently than in patients after isolated heart transplantation (90% +/- 4.6% of patients were free of graft coronary artery disease at 5 years), obliterative bronchiolitis remains a major long-term complication and cause of morbidity and mortality. Actuarial estimates of freedom from obliterative bronchiolitis at 1, 5, and 10 years were 71% +/- 5.1%, 51% +/- 6.1%, and 42% +/- 7.8%, respectively. These results show satisfactory early and medium-term outcome after combined heart-lung transplantation but also underscore that much progress is needed in controlling infection, rejection, and obliterative bronchiolitis, all of which remain as major impediments to long-term survival.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PV61100002

    View details for PubMedID 7865527

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