Clinical Teaching Program

Each year six medical faculty were selected to attend the Stanford Faculty Development Program for training as Clinical Teaching seminar facilitators. The 1-month training, held annually or semi-annually, provided participants with background knowledge and seminar leadership skills required to deliver a series of seven 2-hour seminars to their colleagues and to residents. Extensive opportunities to practice teaching skills were provided.

The facilitator-training program offered career development opportunties for individual faculty participants, and simultaneously provided a mechanism for institutional improvement.

Core Curriculum for Clinical Teaching Seminars

The Clinical Teaching curriculum covers seven educational categories:
  • Learning Climate
  • Control of Session
  • Communication of Goals
  • Promotion of Understanding & Retention
  • Evaluation
  • Feedback
  • Promotion of Self-Directed Learning

CT PROGRAM MATERIALS
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The seminars are designed to:

  • Enhance participants' versatility as teachers
  • Enhance their ability to analyze clinical teaching using an educational framework
  • Provide a forum for collegial exchange.

The seminars consist of didactic presentations, group discussions, application exercises (role plays, worksheets), video vignette review, and personal and institutional goal setting. During a follow-up session, participants are encouraged to develop a set of recommendations for improving their institution's environment for clinical teaching.

In acknowledgment of the complexity of teaching, the seminars embody a non-prescriptive behavioral approach for improving teaching. Faculty must be able to select effective teaching strategies while taking into account many variables simultaneously, including the content, the learners, and the context in which the teaching takes place. Thus, the seminars focus on principles, guidelines, and behavioral alternatives that teachers can use to improve their teaching effectiveness. The behavioral approach stems from the belief that intellectual understanding of general principles and processes is not necessarily sufficient to improve teaching. Knowledge and practice of teaching skills are essential. Although the content of teaching (e.g., the subject matter being taught) may be discussed during the seminars, the primary focus is on the process of teaching.

The seminars also embrace the philosophy that teaching improvement programs do not have to be primarily remedial in function. Alternatively, these seminars reflect the belief that teachers at all levels of experience and expertise can benefit from an organized review of their teaching.

Facilitator Training at Stanford

Training activities at Stanford included:

  • Instruction in the Clinical Teaching curriculum by SFDC faculty
  • Review of background education literature
  • Presentations by Stanford School of Education faculty
  • Review and practice of the seminars, focusing on mastering the seminar content and process
  • Practice teaching of the seminars to local faculty, fellows, and residents
  • Sessions on homesite program implementation and data collection for program evaluation

 

Program Faculty: Kelley Skeff, MD, PhD; Georgette Stratos, PhD; and program alumni.

Trained CT Facilitators 1986 - 2018 & Institutional Affiliations at Time of Training

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112 Institutions 215 Facilitators Year
Alameda County Medical Center, Oakland, CA Judith Wofsy 1991
  Davida Flattery 2012
Albert Einstein Medical Center, Bronx, NY Jeong Oh 1998
  Karin Ouchida 2008
  Tom Kwiatkowski 2009
  Cristina Gonzalez 2011
Al-Nahrain College of Medicine, Baghdad, IRAQ Amal Swidan 2013
Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX Andrew Wilking 1994
Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA Lynn Manfred* 1989
Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA David Battinelli 1989
  Sharon Levine* 1998
  Subha Ramani 2001
Brooke Army Medical Center, 
San Antonio, TX
Fred Goldner 1991
  Kevin McMains** 2016
Brown University Providence, RI Michele Cyr 1988
  Jennifer Jeremiah 1995
  Chandan Lakhiani 2000

/ Southcoast Health System, Fall River, RI

Thomas Doyle 2014
Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC Allen Lloyd 2010
Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, CHILE Carlos Reyes Abarca* 2003
  Carlos Aravena 2009
  Pablo Florenzano 2011
Chicago Medical School, Chicago, IL Julia Ashenhurst 1994
Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH Brian Mandell 2000
  Kathleen Franco 2001
Columbia University, New York, NY Susana Morales 1994
The Commonwealth Medical College, Williamsport, PA Margrit Shoemaker 2014
Creighton University, Omaha, NE Henry Sakowski 2000
Dartmouth College, Lebanon, NH Joseph Perras 2002
Duke University, Durham, NC John Kihm 1988
  Jeffrey Wong* 1992
  Lawrence Greenblatt 1997
  Mamata Yanamadala 2008
East Carolina University, Greenville, NC Wilhelmine Wiese 2008
Emory University, Atlanta, GA J. Richard Pittman 2018
Georgetown University, Washington, DC Stephen Ray Mitchell 1994
  Craig Cheifetz* 2000
The George Washington University, Washington, DC Jehan El-Bayoumi* 2007
H. Heine University, Dusseldorf, GERMANY Matthias Hofer* 2001
Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QATAR Khalid Al-Ejji 2012
Harvard University, Boston, MA Diane Brockmeyer 2002
Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI John Buckley* 2003
Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN Debra Litzelman* 1990
  Glenda Westmoreland 1997
  Robert Vu 2003
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD Laura Mumford 1989
Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Oakland, CA Jeffrey Ilfeld 2006
  Pratima Gupta 2013
Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Santa Clara, CA Elliott Wolfe 1986
Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SWEDEN Jonas Sunden-Cullberg 2006
Keesler USAF Medical Center, Biloxi, MS Ron Kirschling 1990
King Saud bin Abdulaziz University, Riyadh, SAUDI ARABIA Mohammed Abosoudah 2013
  Nasser Al Hamdan* 2013
  Bandar Alharthi 2013
  Naji Aljohani* 2013
  Mushira Enani 2013
Lackland Air Force Base Medical Center, San Antonio, TX Clinton Polhamus 1987
Letterman Army Medical Center, Presidio of San Francisco, CA Leslie B. Branch 1986
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Charles Rohren 1992
  Linda Ward 1992

/ Jacksonville, FL

Marc Cohen 1996
  Mark Lee 2002
  Jason Szostek* 2010

/ Scottsdale, AZ

Farouk Mookadam 2016
McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, CANADA John Cunnington 1995
Medical College of Ohio at Toledo, OH Earl Campbell 1990
Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA Carolyn Clancy 1988
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY Jeremy Boal 1998
  Lisa Coplit (Bensinger) * 2003
  Martine Sanon 2013
Naval Medical Center Portsmouth, VA Eric Holmboe 1996
North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY Saima Chaudhry 2007
Northwestern University, Chicago, IL Jeremy Smith 2003
Oakland University, Rochester, MI Francisco Davila Grijalva 2013
  Michael Barnes* 2013
  Aimee Espinosa* 2013
  Nicholas Maddens 2013
  Ovidiu Niculescu 2013
  Kathy Schlecht 2013
  Robert Starr 2013
Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR Diane Elliot 1986

/ Portland VAMC

Elizabeth Allen 1998

/ Portland VAMC

Andrea Cedfeldt 2005
Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, CANADA Dianne Delva 2002
Quinnipiac University, Hamden, CT Khuram Ghumman 2015
Rush University, Chicago, IL Andem Ekpenyong 2007
Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO Nandini Calamur 2014
Santa Clara Valley Medical Center, San Jose, CA Thomas Kelsey 1999
Southern Illinois University, Springfield, IL Gary Rull 2011
St. Joseph's Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI Kevin Taylor 1996
Stanford University, Stanford, CA Paul Ford 1993

/ Lucille Packard Children's Hospital

Elisa Zenni 1995
  Matilde Nino-Murcia 1997
  Peter Pompei* 2006
  Sallie DeGolia* 2008
  Anna Messner 2013
  Shashank Joshi 2015
Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY Kaveh Sadigh 2017
SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY Lynn Cleary 1990
  Peter Cronkright 2004
Texas A & M University / Scott & White Clinic, Temple, TX Jeffrey Clark 1996
Travis Air Force Base Medical Center, CA Tonya Fancher 2000
Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA Mary Lee 1991
  Laura K. Snydman* 2008
  Sora Al Rowas 2016

/ Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME

Marybeth Ford 2016
Tulane University, New Orleans, LA Chad Miller 2009
Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD Louis Pangaro* 1987
  Thomas Grau 1999
  Clifton Yu 2002
  Dodd Denton* 2004
  Rechell Rodriguez 2010
  Joshua Hartzell 2013
University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL F. Stanford Massie, Jr. 1999
  Peter Phan 2017
University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ William Johnson 1990
University of Bern, Bern, SWITZERLAND Robert Greif* 2007
  Natalie Urwyler 2011
  Kai Schnabel* 2012
University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA Eduardo Durante CT 1996
University of California, Davis, CA Mark Servis CT 1993
  Mithu Molla 2011
University of California, Irvine, CA Samuel Lai 2017
University of California, Los Angeles, CA / West LA VAMC Judith Delafield 1992

/ Olive View UCLA Medical Center, Sylmar

Soma Wali 2006

/ Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Westwood

Brandon Ito 2018

/ Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Westwood

Deborah Lehman 2018

/ Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Westwood

Erica Oberman 2018

/ Harbor - UCLA Medical Center, Torrance

Ryan Pedigo 2018

/ Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Westwood

Jennifer Singer 2018

/ Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Westwood

Lisa Skinner 2018
University of California, San Diego, CA Shawn Harrity 1993
  Alina Popa 2013
University of California, San Francisco, CA Robert Wachter 1992
  Richard Haber 1997

/ UCSF Fresno Medical Education & Research

Edward Moreno 1999

/ UCSF Fresno Medical Education & Research

Melissa Aguirre 2005
  Bradley Sharpe 2006

/ Children's Hospital, Oakland, CA

Christine Cho 2009

/ UCSF Fresno Medical Education Program

Susan Roberts 2009
  Bradley Monash 2016
University of Chicago, Chicago, IL Krista Johnson 1999
  Sandra Valaitis 2005
University of Colorado, Denver, CO / Denver VAMC Sylvia Oboler 1987
  Mark Earnest 1994
  Shale Wong 1998
University of Florida, Jacksonville, FL Elisa Sottile 2005
University of Hawaii / Honolulu VAMC, Oahu, HI Steven MacBride 1992
University of Illinois, Peoria, IL Jacqueline Fischer 2010
  Kelvin Wynn 2011
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL Jennie Hsu-Lumetta* 2004
University of Kansas, Kansas City, KS Mary McDonald* 2006
University of Kentucky Medical Center, Lexington, KY Thomas Montgomery 1991
  Mary Duke (Burke)* 1996
University of Louisville, Louisville, KY Stephanie Call* 2001
University of Massachusetts, Worcester, MA James Florek 1988
University of Miami, Miami, FL / Miami VAMC Miguel Paniagua 2004
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI Scott Furney 1997
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN Karyn Baum 2001
University of Mississippi, Jackson, MI Lyssa Weatherly 2018
University of Missouri, Columbia, MO / Springfield Clinical Campus
Andrew Evans 2016

 

Elizabeth Garrett 2016

/ Springfield Clinical Campus

Shelby Hahn 2016
University of Nebraska, Omaha, NE Lance Schupbach 2004
University of Nevada, Reno, NV Nageshwara Gullapalli* 2010
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM Patrick Rendon 2016
University of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City, OK Bryan Struck 2001
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA Amy Westcott (Corcoran) 2008
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA Karen Barnard 2000
University of Rochester, Rochester, NY Elizabeth Cyran 1994
University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC O'Neill, Barrett, Jr. 1988
University of South Florida, Tampa, FL Cuc Mai 2012
University of Sydney / Westmead Sydney Local Health District, NSW, AUSTRALIA Kavita Varshney 2018
University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN / Knoxville Carol Ellis 1993

 

Julie Vannerson* 2005
University of Texas at San Antonio, TX / So TX Veterans Health Care System Kevin McMains** 2016
University of Texas, Southwestern, Dallas, TX Chia-Ying Wang 2003
University of Toronto, Ontario, CANADA Daniel Panisko 2002
  Debaroti Borschel 2010
  Umberin Najeeb 2018
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT Joshua LaBrin 2015
University of Vermont / Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME Robert Bing-You 1993

/ Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME

Robert Trowbridge 2005
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA Eugene Corbett, Jr. 1987
University of Washington, Seattle, WA / Boise VAMC, ID C. Scott Smith 1993
University of Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI Mark Gennis 1991
Uppsala University, Uppsala, SWEDEN Jonas Boberg 1989
  Jakob Johansson 2004
  Mia Ramklint 2012
Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Lier Psychiatric Hospital, Drammen, NORWAY Lise Grondahl 2017
Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA    

/ Innova Fairfax Campus, Falls Church, VA

Gregory Trimble 2012
  Reena Hemrajani 2015
  Spencer Liebman 2016
Wayne State University, Detroit, MI Nicholas Gettas 1995
  James Kruer* 1997
  Elizabeth Bankstahl 2015
  Michael Kern 2018
Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY Carol Storey-Johnson* 1995
  Sharda Ramsaroop 2007

/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR

Elizabeth Alger* 2007

/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR

Samar Al-Emadi 2007

/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR

Ismail Helmi 2007

/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR

Ibrahim Janahi 2007

/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR

Marcellina Mian 2007

/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR

Leopold Streletz 2007

/ Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, QATAR

Thurayya Arayssi 2009
  Ernie Esquivel 2016
Western University of Health Sciences, OR Campus, Corvallis, OR Charlene Carroll (Clark) 2014

/ Good Samaritan Regional Medical Center

Robert Hughes 2014
Western University, London, Ontario, CANADA Josee Paradis 2015
Wright State University, Dayton, OH Cynthia Ledford 1999
Wright-Patterson Air Force Medical Center, OH Robert Hawkins* 1989
Yale University, New Haven, CT Nicholas Fiebach 1995
  Dana Dunne 2014
  Kevin Pei 2017
  Viji Kurup 2018
     

*Re-trained in Basic Science Teaching in May and November 2007; September 2008; September 2010; May 2012 and March 2015.

   

Home-site Seminars

The teaching of seminars in subsequent years is based on the size and need of individual home site institutions. Trained facilitators deliver seminars at their home sites to meet local faculty development needs. They also serve as regional and national faculty development resources for instructional improvement.

Results of Program Evaluation

  • Participants highly recommended the seminars to other faculty.
  • Participants reported increased teaching ability across several settings (inpatient, outpatient, lecturing).
  • Participants reported enhanced teaching performance across all seven educational categories.

Comments from SFDC-trained Clinical Teaching Facilitators

Several factors contribute to the success of the program. First, the framework for clinical teaching has proven to be valid, durable, and accepted by faculty and housestaff as a means to analyze their teaching methods. [S]econd ... is the ability of the SFDC to address the ongoing needs of the participants, providing support, problem solving, and networking. A third feature is the meticulous attention to details of the process of faculty development and its outcomes; at each step of the way, the program has been assessed, modifications made, and the program improved. A final critical factor is the uniqueness of the faculty coordinating the SFDP. They were enthusiastic four years ago, and that enthusiasm has increased. Their commitment, willingness to share and allow participants ownership of the program at their own institution, while maintaining strong collegial and resource support, have been important in the program's success." "While I was going through the ... course at Stanford I was getting a great deal of insight, not only into teaching but also into behavioral psychology, my own limitations as a teacher and as a human being, and learner limitations as human beings. The overall effect was extremely stimulating and very insightful ... one of the most significant events in my life."

"On a personal level, the training has also given me some incredibly powerful tools for analysis of my own teaching, and I find myself regularly more cognizant of why one method or technique may be successful and another may not in any given teaching circumstance. The tools of analyzing effectiveness seem to cross over into non-teaching settings and I think have afforded me with some additional communication and administrative skills."

Comments from Faculty Participants in Home-site Seminars

Comments from Faculty Participants in Home-site Seminars

The course made me effectively analyze the set of behaviors that make up effective teaching. Previously, I envisioned effective teaching as a 'gift' that you either had or didn't."

"I thoroughly enjoyed the role plays and thought they were most helpful."

"Having a framework for what was merely intuitive before is very helpful."

"The framework gave me a ... systematic way to 'experiment' in various teaching settings."

"Enhancing cooperative interactions was very special because in our institution this provided rare and positive interaction between departments."

"Helped build self confidence and collegial atmosphere."

Comments from Residents

It was the first time that someone had talked to me about teaching, what it means to be a teacher, and how to do it."

"To see oneself on videotape and to see all the mannerisms and the interactions, and even the failure of interactions, I thought was very valuable. It was powerful in the seminar to look at (teaching) behaviors and to have the opportunity to see one's own behaviors, to reflect on them, and then to reproduce them in a better way."

"The seminars gave me a vocabulary and the concepts to understand and describe what goes on in my teaching and I think that a more specific vocabulary yields a more precise and a richer understanding."

"The role play was the most valuable. It really became evident when one tried to apply what had been talked about; it really underscored the points that were taught and made it much more interesting. It ingrained it much more deeply. And, for me, it was fun to do that."

"It was a learning experience in the sense of learning how to be more self-aware and how to be more conscious of what I do (as a teacher)."