Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology and Rheumatology

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Internship:Massachusetts General Hospital (1967) MA
  • Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine (1971) CA
  • Fellowship:Oxford University (1965) UK
  • Residency:Massachusetts General Hospital (1967) MA
  • Medical Education:Harvard Medical School (1966) MA

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Research Interests:
Our interests are in the area of cellular immunology, and the regulatory interactions between subpopulations of immune cells. In particular, we are interested in the identification, function, and molecular mechanisms by which some subpopulations of lymphocytes amplify the immune response and some such as natural killer T cells (NKT cells) and regulatory T cells (Treg cells) suppress it. Investigation into interactions of the cells during the immune response to organ and bone marrow transplants and in systemic lupus is a major focus of the laboratory research. Developing therapeutic strategies for clinical organ transplantation and lupus in humans based on these principles is a major goal. Specific areas of research are as follows:

(i) immune tolerance to organ and bone marrow transplants: Immune tolerance is recognized to be the paralysis of the immune system in its response to a given antigen, the development of anergy, or antigen-specific suppressor cells. Our research programs are studying these mechanisms at the cellular and molecular levels in laboratory animals and humans that are made tolerant to foreign organ or bone marrow transplants. In the case of bone marrow transplants, the goal is to prevent graft vs. host disease while maintaining graft anti-tumor activity.

(ii) Mechanisms of autoimmunity in systemic lupus: Many autoimmune diseases represent a breakdown of immune tolerance to self-antigens. The mechanisms by which 1) animals develop tolerance to self during ontogeny, 2) tolerance is broken in adult life resulting in systemic autoimmune diseases such as lupus, and 3) tolerance can be reestablished after the development of autoimmune disease are the subjects of investigation. Our laboratory is involved in identifying those cells (NKTcells, Treg cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells) involved in the induction and maintenance of immune tolerance with regard to their surface receptors, effector functions, and the nature of secreted molecules which mediate their function. We have shown that these cells are important suppressors of tumor immunity as well as autoimmunity, and genetic abnormalities in these cells can promote systemic lupus

Clinical Trials


  • Post T-plant Infusion of Allogeneic Cytokine Induced Killer Cells as Consolidative Therapy in Myelodysplastic Syndromes/Myeloproliferative Disorders Recruiting

    This study examines CIK (Cytokine Induced Killer Cells) as Consolidative Therapy after Non-Myeloablative Allogeneic Transplantation.

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  • Allogeneic Transplantation From Related Haploidentical Donors in Older Patients With Indolent Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of transplanting CD34+ selected hematopoietic cells from a haploidentical related donor following a nonmyeloablative regimen of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact BMT Referrals, (650) 723 - 0822.

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  • Immunostimulatory CpG SD-101 + RT in Recurrent/Progressive Lymphoma After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT) Recruiting

    Direct intratumoral injection of SD-101 with local radiation is safe in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

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  • Allogeneic Transplantation Using TL1 & ATG for Older Patients With Hematologic Malignancies Not Recruiting

    To measure how frequently and to what degree a complication of transplant cell acute graft versus host disease (GV/HD) occurs.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Physician Referrals, 650-723-0822.

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  • Combined Blood Stem Cell and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Haplotype Match Living Donor Kidney Transplantation Recruiting

    The Stanford Medical Center Program in Multi-Organ Transplantation and the Division of Bone marrow Transplantation are enrolling patients into a research study to determine if donor stem cells given after a living related one Haplotype match kidney transplantation will change the immune system such that immunosuppressive drugs can be completely withdrawn.

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  • Phase II Trial of Prophylactic Rituximab Therapy for Prevention of CGVHD Not Recruiting

    To determine if Rituximab administered after allogeneic transplantation decreases the incidence of chronic GvHD

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kate Tierney, (650) 725 - 7063.

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  • Donor Peripheral Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Hematolymphoid Malignancies Recruiting

    This phase I trial studies the side effects and the best dose of donor CD8+ memory T-cells in treating patients with hematolymphoid malignancies. Giving low dose of chemotherapy before a donor peripheral blood stem cell transplant helps stop the growth of cancer cells. It may also stop the patient's immune system from rejecting the donor's stem cells. The donated stem cells may replace the patient's immune cells and help destroy any remaining cancer cells (graft-versus-cancer effects). Giving an infusion of the donor's T cells (donor lymphocyte infusion) after the transplant may help increase this effect

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Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Identification of gene microarray expression profiles in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Clinical immunology Kohrt, H. E., Tian, L., Li, L., Alizadeh, A. A., Hsieh, S., Tibshirani, R. J., Strober, S., Sarwal, M., Lowsky, R. 2013; 148 (1): 124-135

    Abstract

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) results in significant morbidity and mortality, limiting the benefit of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Peripheral blood gene expression profiling of the donor immune repertoire following HCT may provide associated genes and pathways thereby improving the pathophysiologic understanding of chronic GVHD. We profiled 70 patients and identified candidate genes that provided mechanistic insight in the biologic pathways that underlie chronic GVHD. Our data revealed that the dominant gene signature in patients with chronic GVHD represented compensatory responses that control inflammation and included the interleukin-1 decoy receptor, IL-1 receptor type II, and genes that were profibrotic and associated with the IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 signaling pathways. In addition, we identified three genes that were important regulators of extracellular matrix. Validation of this discovery phase study will determine if the identified genes have diagnostic, prognostic or therapeutic implications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clim.2013.04.013

    View details for PubMedID 23685278

  • A distinct evolution of the T-cell repertoire categorizes treatment refractory gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease BLOOD Meyer, E. H., Hsu, A. R., Liliental, J., Loehr, A., Florek, M., Zehnder, J. L., Strober, S., Lavori, P., Miklos, D. B., Johnson, D. S., Negrin, R. S. 2013; 121 (24): 4955-4962

    Abstract

    Steroid refractory gastrointestinal (GI) acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD) is a major cause of mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) without immune markers to establish a diagnosis or guide therapy. We found that T cell receptor β (TCRβ) CDR3 repertoire sequencing reveals patterns that could eventually serve as a disease biomarker of T cell alloreactivity in aGVHD. We identified T cell clones in GI biopsies in a heterogeneous group of 15 allogeneic HCT patients with GI aGVHD symptoms. Seven steroid-refractory aGVHD patients showed a more conserved TCRβ clonal structure between different biopsy sites in the GI tract than eight primary-therapy responsive patients. Tracking GI clones identified at endoscopy longitudinally in the blood also revealed an increased clonal expansion in patients with steroid-refractory disease. Immune repertoire sequencing-based methods could enable a novel personalized way to guide diagnosis and therapy in diseases where T cell activity is a major determinant.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2013-03-489757

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321896300024

  • Characterization of direct radiation-induced immune function and molecular signaling changes in an antigen presenting cell line. Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.) Parker, J. J., Jones, J. C., Strober, S., Knox, S. J. 2013; 148 (1): 44-55

    Abstract

    Radiation therapy is a widely used cancer treatment and pre-transplantation conditioning regimen that has the potential to influence anti-tumor and post-transplantation immune responses. Although conventionally fractionated radiation doses can suppress immune responses by depleting lymphocytes, single high doses of local tumor radiation can enhance immune responses. Using phospho-flow cytometry analysis of a human monocytic cell line, we identified novel radiation-induced changes in the phosphorylation state of NF?B family members known in other cell types to maintain and regulate immune function. These phosphorylation changes were p53 independent, but were strongly dependent upon ATM activation due to DNA damage. We found that radiation promotes the activation and APC functional maturation through phosphorylation of NF?B Essential Modulator (NEMO). Our results and the analytic methods are especially well suited to the study of functional changes in APC when radiation is used for immune modulation in clinical protocols.

    View details for PubMedID 23649044

  • Rare cells predict GVHD. Blood Strober, S., Lowsky, R. 2012; 119 (21): 4820-4821

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2012-04-417311

    View details for PubMedID 22627595

  • Tolerance and Withdrawal of Immunosuppressive Drugs in Patients Given Kidney and Hematopoietic Cell Transplants AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Scandling, J. D., Busque, S., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Benike, C., Sarwal, M., Millan, M. T., Shizuru, J. A., Lowsky, R., Engleman, E. G., Strober, S. 2012; 12 (5): 1133-1145

    Abstract

    Sixteen patients conditioned with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) were given kidney transplants and an injection of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and T cells from HLA-matched donors in a tolerance induction protocol. Blood cell monitoring included changes in chimerism, balance of T-cell subsets and responses to donor alloantigens. Fifteen patients developed multilineage chimerism without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and eight with chimerism for at least 6 months were withdrawn from antirejection medications for 1-3 years (mean, 28 months) without subsequent rejection episodes. Four chimeric patients have just completed or are in the midst of drug withdrawal, and four patients were not withdrawn due to return of underlying disease or rejection episodes. Blood cells from all patients showed early high ratios of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and NKT cells versus conventional naive CD4+ T cells, and those off drugs showed specific unresponsiveness to donor alloantigens. In conclusion, TLI and ATG promoted the development of persistent chimerism and tolerance in a cohort of patients given kidney transplants and hematopoietic donor cell infusions. All 16 patients had excellent graft function at the last observation point with or without maintenance drugs.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2012.03992.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303235100012

    View details for PubMedID 22405058

  • Interactions between NKT cells and Tregs are required for tolerance to combined bone marrow and organ transplants BLOOD Hongo, D., Tang, X., Dutt, S., Nador, R. G., Strober, S. 2012; 119 (6): 1581-1589

    Abstract

    We used a model of combined bone marrow and heart transplantation, in which tolerance and stable chimerism is induced after conditioning with fractionated irradiation of the lymphoid tissues and anti-T-cell antibodies. Graft acceptance and chimerism required host CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg production of IL-10 that was in-turn enhanced by host invariant natural killer (NK) T-cell production of IL-4. Up-regulation of PD-1 on host Tregs, CD4(+)CD25(-) conventional T (Tcon) cells, and CD8(+) T cells was also enhanced by NKT cell production of IL-4. Up-regulated PD-1 expression on Tregs was linked to IL-10 secretion, on CD8(+) T cells was linked to Tim-3 expression, and on CD4(+) Tcon cells was associated with reduced IFN? secretion. Changes in the expression of PD-1 were induced by the conditioning regimen, and declined after bone marrow transplantation. In conclusion, NKT cells in this model promoted changes in expression of negative costimulatory receptors and anti-inflammatory cytokines by Tregs and other T-cell subsets in an IL-4-dependent manner that resulted in tolerance to the bone marrow and organ grafts.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-08-371948

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300420900035

    View details for PubMedID 22174155

  • Donor immunization with WT1 peptide augments antileukemic activity after MHC-matched bone marrow transplantation BLOOD Kohrt, H. E., Mueller, A., Baker, J., Goldstein, M. J., Newell, E., Dutt, S., Czerwinski, D., Lowsky, R., Strober, S. 2011; 118 (19): 5319-5329

    Abstract

    The curative potential of MHC-matched allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is in part because of immunologic graft-versus-tumor (GvT) reactions mediated by donor T cells that recognize host minor histocompatibility antigens. Immunization with leukemia-associated antigens, such as Wilms Tumor 1 (WT1) peptides, induces a T-cell population that is tumor antigen specific. We determined whether allogeneic BMT combined with immunotherapy using WT1 peptide vaccination of donors induced more potent antitumor activity than either therapy alone. WT1 peptide vaccinations of healthy donor mice induced CD8(+) T cells that were specifically reactive to WT1-expressing FBL3 leukemia cells. We found that peptide immunization was effective as a prophylactic vaccination before tumor challenge, yet was ineffective as a therapeutic vaccination in tumor-bearing mice. BMT from vaccinated healthy MHC-matched donors, but not syngeneic donors, into recipient tumor-bearing mice was effective as a therapeutic maneuver and resulted in eradication of FBL3 leukemia. The transfer of total CD8(+) T cells from immunized donors was more effective than the transfer of WT1-tetramer(+)CD8(+) T cells and both required CD4(+) T-cell help for maximal antitumor activity. These findings show that WT1 peptide vaccination of donor mice can dramatically enhance GvT activity after MHC-matched allogeneic BMT.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-05-356238

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296867100035

  • Selective Resistance of CD44(hi) T Cells to p53-Dependent Cell Death Results in Persistence of Immunologic Memory after Total Body Irradiation JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Yao, Z., Jones, J., Kohrt, H., Strober, S. 2011; 187 (8): 4100-4108

    Abstract

    Our previous studies showed that treatment of mice with total body irradiation (TBI) or total lymphoid tissue irradiation markedly changes the balance of residual T cell subsets to favor CD4(+)CD44(hi) NKT cells because of the differential resistance of the latter subset to cell death. The object of the current study was to further elucidate the changed balance and mechanisms of differential radioresistance of T cell subsets after graded doses of TBI. The experimental results showed that CD4(+) T cells were markedly more resistant than CD8(+) T cells, and CD44(hi) T cells, including NKT cells and memory T cells, were markedly more resistant than CD44(lo) (naive) T cells. The memory T cells immunized to alloantigens persisted even after myeloablative (1000 cGy) TBI and were able to prevent engraftment of bone marrow transplants. Although T cell death after 1000 cGy was prevented in p53(-/-) mice, there was progressive T cell death in p53(-/-) mice at higher doses. Although p53-dependent T cell death changed the balance of subsets, p53-independent T cell death did not. In conclusion, resistance of CD44(hi) T cells to p53-dependent cell death results in the persistence of immunological memory after TBI and can explain the immune-mediated rejection of marrow transplants in sensitized recipients.

    View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1101141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295623100022

    View details for PubMedID 21930972

  • Translational studies in hematopoietic cell transplantation: Treatment of hematologic malignancies as a stepping stone to tolerance induction SEMINARS IN IMMUNOLOGY Strober, S., Spitzer, T. R., Lowsky, R., Sykes, M. 2011; 23 (4): 273-281

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has most commonly been used to treat hematologic malignancies, where it is often the only potentially curative option available. The success of HCT has been limited by transplant-associated toxicities related to the conditioning regimens used and to the common immunologic consequence of donor T cell recognition of recipient alloantigens, graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). The frequency and severity of GVHD observed when extensive HLA barriers are transgressed has essentially precluded the routine use of extensively HLA-mismatched HCT. Allogeneic HCT also has potential as an approach to organ allograft tolerance induction, but this potential has not been previously realized because of the toxicity associated with traditional conditioning. In this paper we review two approaches to HCT involving reduced intensity conditioning regimens that have been associated with improvements in safety in patients with hematologic malignancies, even in the HLA-mismatched transplant setting. These strategies have been applied in the first successful pilot studies for the induction of organ allograft tolerance in humans. Thus, we summarize an example of vertical translational research between animal models and humans and horizontal translation between two separate goals that culminated in the use of HCT to achieve allograft tolerance in humans.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.smim.2011.05.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296403800006

    View details for PubMedID 21705229

  • CD8(+)CD44(hi) but not CD4(+)CD44(hi) memory T cells mediate potent graft antilymphoma activity without GVHD BLOOD Dutt, S., Baker, J., Kohrt, H. E., Kambham, N., Sanyal, M., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S. 2011; 117 (11): 3230-3239

    Abstract

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation can be curative in patients with leukemia and lymphoma. However, progressive growth of malignant cells, relapse after transplantation, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remain important problems. The goal of the current murine study was to select a freshly isolated donor T-cell subset for infusion that separates antilymphoma activity from GVHD, and to determine whether the selected subset could effectively prevent or treat progressive growth of a naturally occurring B-cell lymphoma (BCL(1)) without GVHD after recipients were given T cell-depleted bone marrow transplantations from major histocompatibility complex-mismatched donors. Lethal GVHD was observed when total T cells, naive CD4(+) T cells, or naive CD8(+) T cells were used. Memory CD4(+)CD44(hi) and CD8(+)CD44(hi) T cells containing both central and effector memory cells did not induce lethal GVHD, but only memory CD8(+) T cells had potent antilymphoma activity and promoted complete chimerism. Infusion of CD8(+) memory T cells after transplantation was able to eradicate the BCL(1) lymphoma even after progressive growth without inducing severe GVHD. In conclusion, the memory CD8(+) T-cell subset separated graft antilymphoma activity from GVHD more effectively than naive T cells, memory CD4(+) T cells, or memory total T cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-10-312751

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288496300035

    View details for PubMedID 21239702

  • NKT cells, Treg, and their interactions in bone marrow transplantation EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Kohrt, H. E., Pillai, A. B., Lowsky, R., Strober, S. 2010; 40 (7): 1862-1869

    Abstract

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with leukemia and lymphoma. Tumor eradication is promoted by the anti-tumor activity of donor T cells contained in the transplant; however, donor T cells also mediate the serious side effect of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Separation of GVHD from graft anti-tumor activity is an important goal of research in improving transplant outcome. One approach is to take advantage of the immunomodulatory activity of regulatory NKT cells and CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg of host and/or donor origin. Both host and donor NKT cells and donor Treg are able to prevent GVHD in murine models. In this review, we summarize the mechanisms of NKT cell- and Treg-mediated protection against GVHD in mice while maintaining graft anti-tumor activity. In addition, we also examine the interactions between NKT cells and Treg in the context of BMT, and integrate the data from murine experimental models with the observations made in humans.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eji.201040394

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280220600014

    View details for PubMedID 20583031

  • Induced Tolerance to Rat Liver Allografts Involves the Apoptosis of Intragraft T Cells and the Generation of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T Regulatory Cells LIVER TRANSPLANTATION Fujiki, M., Esquivel, C. O., Martinez, O. M., Strober, S., Uemoto, S., Krams, S. M. 2010; 16 (2): 147-154

    Abstract

    Posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation is a nonmyeloablative regimen that has been extensively studied in rodent models for the induction of tolerance to bone marrow and solid organ allografts. Previous studies of experimental models and clinical transplantation have used total lymphoid irradiation in combination with anti-lymphocyte-depleting reagents and donor cell infusion to promote graft acceptance. In a rat model of orthotopic liver transplantation, we demonstrated that total lymphoid irradiation alone induced long-term graft survival. Apoptotic T cells were detected in markedly higher numbers in the livers of the total lymphoid irradiation-treated group in comparison with the control group of liver allograft recipients. Intragraft CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) cells were increased in the total lymphoid irradiation group in the first week post-transplant and remained elevated in the graft and in the spleen. Importantly, the adoptive transfer of splenocytes from recipients that received posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation prolonged the survival of donor heart grafts, but not third-party heart grafts, whereas the depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) cells from transferred splenocytes abrogated this prolongation. We conclude that posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation significantly increases the apoptosis of T cells in the liver graft and allows the accumulation of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells, which facilitate the generation of donor-specific tolerance.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lt.21963

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274437800005

    View details for PubMedID 20104482

  • The Changed Balance of Regulatory and Naive T Cells Promotes Tolerance after TLI and Anti-T-Cell Antibody Conditioning AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Nador, R. G., Hongo, D., Baker, J., Yao, Z., Strober, S. 2010; 10 (2): 262-272

    Abstract

    The goal of the study was to determine how the changed balance of host naïve and regulatory T cells observed after conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte serum (ATS) promotes tolerance to combined organ and bone marrow transplants. Although previous studies showed that tolerance was dependent on host natural killer T (NKT) cells, this study shows that there is an additional dependence on host CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells. Depletion of the latter cells before conditioning resulted in rapid rejection of bone marrow and organ allografts. The balance of T-cell subsets changed after TLI and ATS with TLI favoring mainly NKT cells and ATS favoring mainly Treg cells. Combined modalities reduced the conventional naïve CD4(+) T cells 2800-fold. The host type Treg cells that persisted in the stable chimeras had the capacity to suppress alloreactivity to both donor and third party cells in the mixed leukocyte reaction. In conclusion, tolerance induction after conditioning in this model depends upon the ability of naturally occurring regulatory NKT and Treg cells to suppress the residual alloreactive T cells that are capable of rejecting grafts.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02942.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273884800015

    View details for PubMedID 20041865

  • Ineffective Vaccination against Solid Tumors Can Be Enhanced by Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Filatenkov, A., Mueller, A. M., Tseng, W. W., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Winer, D., Luong, R., Shizuru, J. A., Engleman, E. G., Strober, S. 2009; 183 (11): 7196-7203

    Abstract

    Vaccination with tumor Ags has not been an effective treatment for solid tumors. The goal of the current study was to determine whether a combination of vaccination and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can effectively treat primary, disseminated, or metastatic CT26 and MC38 murine colon tumors. Vaccination of tumor-bearing mice with irradiated tumor cells and CpG adjuvant failed to alter progressive tumor growth. However, mice bearing primary, disseminated lung, or metastatic liver tumors were uniformly cured after administration of total body irradiation, followed by the transplantation of hematopoietic progenitor cells and T cells from syngeneic, but not allogeneic vaccinated donors. Requirements for effective treatment of tumors included irradiation of hosts, vaccination of donors with both tumor cells and CpG, transfer of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells along with progenitor cells, and ability of donor cells to produce IFN-gamma. Irradiation markedly increased the infiltration of donor T cells into the tumors, and the combined irradiation and HCT altered the balance of tumor-infiltrating cells to favor CD8(+) effector memory T cells as compared with CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells. The combination of vaccination and autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation was also effective in treating tumors. In conclusion, these findings show that otherwise ineffective vaccination to solid nonhematologic tumors can be dramatically enhanced by HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.0900159

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272478800039

    View details for PubMedID 19890041

  • beta-galactosylceramide alters invariant natural killer T cell function and is effective treatment for lupus CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY Morshed, S. R., Takahashi, T., Savage, P. B., Kambham, N., Strober, S. 2009; 132 (3): 321-333

    Abstract

    NZB/W female mice spontaneously develop systemic lupus, an autoantibody mediated disease associated with immune complex glomerulonephritis. Natural killer (NK) T cells augment anti-dsDNA antibody secretion by NZB/W B cells in vitro, and blocking NKT cell activation in vivo with anti-CD1 mAb ameliorates lupus disease activity. In the current study, we show that beta-galactosylceramide reduces the in vivo induction of serum IFN-gamma and/or IL-4 by the potent NKT cell agonist alpha-galactosylceramide and reduces NKT cell helper activity for IgG secretion. Treatment of NZB/W mice with the beta-galactosylceramide ameliorated lupus disease activity as judged by improvement in proteinuria, renal histopathology, IgG anti-dsDNA antibody formation, and survival. In conclusion, beta-galactosylceramide, a glycolipid that reduces the cytokine secretion induced by a potent NKT cell agonist ameliorates lupus in NZB/W mice.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clim.2009.05.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268783900004

    View details for PubMedID 19564135

  • TLI and ATG conditioning with low risk of graft-versus-host disease retains antitumor reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation from related and unrelated donors BLOOD Kohrt, H. E., Turnbull, B. B., Heydari, K., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Miklos, D. B., Johnston, L. J., Arai, S., Weng, W., Hoppe, R. T., Lavori, P. W., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S., Lowsky, R. 2009; 114 (5): 1099-1109

    Abstract

    A hematopoietic cell transplantation regimen was adapted from a preclinical model that used reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and protected against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by skewing residual host T-cell subsets to favor regulatory natural killer T cells. One hundred eleven patients with lymphoid (64) and myeloid (47) malignancies received RIC using total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) followed by the infusion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized grafts. Included were 34 patients at least 60 years of age, 32 patients at high risk of lymphoma relapse after disease recurrence following prior autologous transplantation, and 51 patients at high risk of developing GVHD due to lack of a fully human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related donor. Durable chimerism was achieved in 97% of patients. Cumulative probabilities of acute GVHD (grades II-IV) were 2 and 10% of patients receiving related and unrelated donor grafts. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1 year was less than 4%. Cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 27%. The 36-month probability of overall and event-free survival was 60% and 40%, respectively. Disease status at start of conditioning and the level of chimerism achieved after transplantation significantly impacted clinical outcome. The high incidence of sustained remission among patients with active disease at time of transplantation suggests retained graft-versus-tumor reactions. Active trial registration currently at clinicaltrials.gov under IDs of NCT00185640 and NCT00186615.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-03-211441

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268491100025

    View details for PubMedID 19423725

  • Host natural killer T cells induce an interleukin-4-dependent expansion of donor CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells that protects against graft-versus-host disease BLOOD Pillai, A. B., George, T. I., Dutt, S., Strober, S. 2009; 113 (18): 4458-4467

    Abstract

    Although CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells (T regulatory cells [Tregs]) and natural killer T cells (NKT cells) each protect against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), interactions between these 2 regulatory cell populations after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) have not been studied. We show that host NKT cells can induce an in vivo expansion of donor Tregs that prevents lethal GVHD in mice after conditioning with fractionated lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and anti-T-cell antibodies, a regimen that models human GVHD-protective nonmyeloablative protocols using TLI and antithymocyte globulin (ATG), followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). GVHD protection was lost in NKT-cell-deficient Jalpha18(-/-) hosts and interleukin-4 (IL-4)(-/-) hosts, or when the donor transplant was Treg depleted. Add-back of donor Tregs or wild-type host NKT cells restored GVHD protection. Donor Treg proliferation was lost in IL-4(-/-) hosts or when IL-4(-/-) mice were used as the source of NKT cells for adoptive transfer, indicating that host NKT cell augmentation of donor Treg proliferation after TLI/antithymocyte serum is IL-4 dependent. Our results demonstrate that host NKT cells and donor Tregs can act synergistically after BMT, and provide a mechanism by which strategies designed to preserve host regulatory cells can augment in vivo donor Treg expansion to regulate GVHD after allogeneic HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-06-165506

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265846300042

    View details for PubMedID 19221040

  • Differences in Bcl-2 expression by T-cell subsets alter their balance after in vivo irradiation to favor CD4+Bcl-2(hi) NKT cells EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Yao, Z., Liu, Y., Jones, J., Strober, S. 2009; 39 (3): 763-775

    Abstract

    Although it is well known that in vivo radiation depletes immune cells via the Bcl-2 apoptotic pathway, a more nuanced analysis of the changes in the balance of immune-cell subsets is needed to understand the impact of radiation on immune function. We show the balance of T-cell subsets changes after increasing single doses of total body irradiation (TBI) or after fractionated irradiation of the lymphoid tissues (TLI) of mice due to differences in radioresistance and Bcl-2 expression of the NKT-cell and non-NKT subsets to favor CD4(+)Bcl-2(hi) NKT cells. Reduction of the Bcl-2(lo) mature T-cell subsets was at least 100-fold greater than that of the Bcl-2(hi) subsets. CD4(+) NKT cells upregulated Bcl-2 after TBI and TLI and developed a Th2 bias after TLI, whereas non-NKT cells failed to do so. Our previous studies showed TLI protects against graft versus host disease in wild-type, but not in NKT-cell-deficient mice. The present study shows that NKT cells have a protective function even after TBI, and these cells are tenfold more abundant after an equal dose of TLI. In conclusion, differential expression of Bcl-2 contributes to the changes in T-cell subsets and immune function after irradiation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eji.200838657

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264683500025

    View details for PubMedID 19197937

  • Simultaneous protection against allograft rejection and graft-versus-host disease after total lymphoid irradiation: Role of natural killer T cells TRANSPLANTATION Liu, Y. P., Li, Z., Nador, R. G., Strober, S. 2008; 85 (4): 607-614

    Abstract

    The use of combined organ and bone marrow transplantation has been studied extensively in rodent models to induce immune tolerance to organ grafts. However, bone marrow transplants with mature donor T cells can induce graft-versus-host disease even in human leukocyte antigen-matched humans. We determined whether total lymphoid irradiation can simultaneously protect against graft-versus-host disease while facilitating tolerance.To more closely model clinical studies, we added mature donor T cells to bone marrow grafts combined with heart grafts, and compared murine graft and host survival after conditioning with nonmyeloablative total body or total lymphoid irradiation and depletive anti-T-cell antibodies.Conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation protected hosts against both graft-versus-host disease and organ graft rejection. Although nonmyeloblative total body irradiation prevented organ graft rejection, all hosts succumbed to lethal graft-versus host disease. Induction of tolerance with total lymphoid irradiation and anti-T-cell antibodies was dependent on the presence of regulatory host natural killer T cells, and expression of CD1d on donor marrow but not heart graft cells.Conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation and anti-T-cell antibodies prevented host-versus-donor and donor-versus-host alloimmune responses. Tolerance required host natural killer T-cell recognition of CD1d on donor marrow cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/TP.0b013e31816361ce

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253513700017

    View details for PubMedID 18347541

  • Tolerance and chimerism after renal and hematopoietic-cell transplantation. New England journal of medicine Scandling, J. D., Busque, S., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Benike, C., Millan, M. T., Shizuru, J. A., Hoppe, R. T., Lowsky, R., Engleman, E. G., Strober, S. 2008; 358 (4): 362-368

    Abstract

    We describe a recipient of combined kidney and hematopoietic-cell transplants from an HLA-matched donor. A post-transplantation conditioning regimen of total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin allowed engraftment of the donor's hematopoietic cells. The patient had persistent mixed chimerism, and the function of the kidney allograft has been normal for more than 28 months since discontinuation of all immunosuppressive drugs. Adverse events requiring hospitalization were limited to a 2-day episode of fever with neutropenia. The patient has had neither rejection episodes nor clinical manifestations of graft-versus-host disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMoa074191

    View details for PubMedID 18216356

  • Protective conditioning against GVHD and graft rejection after combined organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation BLOOD CELLS MOLECULES AND DISEASES Strober, S. 2008; 40 (1): 48-54

    Abstract

    We have performed combined organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation using a similar conditioning regimen in mice and humans. In the mouse model of MHC-mismatched combined heart and marrow transplantation, we compared conditioning of BALB/c hosts with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI: 10 doses of 240 cGy each) targeted to the spleen, lymph nodes and thymus to conditioning with a single dose of sublethal total body irradiation (TBI; 450 cGy). Conditioning also included three injections of anti-thymocyte serum (ATS), in both groups. C57BL/6 heart grafts, marrow cells and blood mononuclear cells were transplanted 24 h after the completion of irradiation. Blood mononuclear cells were added to the marrow cells to engender severe graft versus host disease (GVHD) that is present after combined organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation in humans given non-myeloablative conditioning. Both TLI and TBI conditioned groups accepted the organ grafts and became stable chimeras. However, the TBI group all died of GVHD during the 100-day observation period. The TLI group survived during the same period without clinical signs of GVHD. These hosts were tolerized to the donor organ grafts, since third party grafts were rejected rapidly when transplanted after 100 days. When NK T-cell-deficient CD1d(-/-) BALB/c hosts were used instead of wild-type hosts in the TLI/ATS conditioned group, then all hosts survived but all rejected the organ grafts and almost all failed to develop stable chimerism. None developed GVHD. Since host NK T cells were required for graft acceptance and NK T cells are activated after recognition of CD1d on antigen presenting cells, we compared heart and marrow graft survival from wild-type versus CD1d(-/-) donors after transplantation to TLI and ATS conditioned wild-type hosts. Whereas marrow and heart grafts from wild-type donors were accepted, almost all grafts from CD1d donors were rejected. Grafts from control Jalpha18(-/-) donors that were NK T cell deficient but expressed CD1d were all accepted. The results indicate that host NK T cells facilitate graft acceptance by recognizing CD1d on donor cells. We applied the TLI conditioning regimen using 10 doses of 80 cGy each and 5 doses of rabbit ATG to human recipients of HLA-matched G-CSF "mobilized" blood mononuclear cell transplants for the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma [R. Lowsky, T. Takahashi, Y.P. Liu, et al., Protective conditioning for acute graft-versus-host disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (2005) 1321-1331.]. Currently more than 100 transplants have been performed, and the incidence of acute GVHD has been about 4% when both MRD and MUD transplants are combined. Almost all recipients became complete chimeras after receiving grafts that contained 2-3x10(8) CD3(+) T cells/kg. In further studies, we applied the same TLI and ATG conditioning regimen to combined kidney and G-CSF "mobilized" blood stem cell transplantation from HLA-matched sibling donors. The hematopoietic grafts in the latter protocol were selected CD34(+) cells with 1x10(6) CD3(+) T cells/kg added back to the hematopoietic cells. Preliminary results indicate that stable mixed chimerism can be achieved using this protocol allowing for complete immunosuppressive drug withdrawal without GVHD or subsequent rejection episodes. Thus, conditioning with TLI based regimens can simultaneously protect against organ graft rejection and GVHD. Levels of chimerism are dependent upon the content of donor T cells in the hematopoietic graft.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bcmd.2007.06.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252171800009

    View details for PubMedID 17827036

  • Natural killer T cells and innate immune B cells from lupus-prone NZB/W mice interact to generate IgM and IgG autoantibodies EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Takahashi, T., Strober, S. 2008; 38 (1): 156-165

    Abstract

    Lupus-prone NZB/W F1 mice develop glomerulonephritis after T helper cell-dependent isotype switching of autoantibody secretion from IgM to IgG at about 6 months of age. We compared innate immune natural killer (NK) T cells and conventional T cells for their capacity to help spontaneous in vitro immunoglobulin and autoantibody secretion of innate immune (B-1 and marginal zone) and conventional (follicular) B cell subsets from NZB/W F1 mice. We found that purified NKT cells not only increased spontaneous secretion of IgM and IgM anti-double-stranded (ds)DNA antibodies by B-1 and marginal zone B cells, but also facilitated secretion of IgG anti-dsDNA antibodies predominantly by B-1 B cells. Few IgM or IgG anti-dsDNA antibodies were secreted by follicular B cells, and conventional T cells failed to provide potent helper activity to any B cell subset. All combinations of T and B cell subsets from normal C57BL/6 mice failed to generate vigorous IgM and IgG secretion. NZB/W NKT cell helper activity was blocked by anti-CD1 and anti-CD40L mAb. In conclusion, direct interactions between innate immune T and B cells form a pathway for the development of IgM and IgG lupus autoantibody secretion in NZB/W mice.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eji.200737656

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252726300021

    View details for PubMedID 18050273

  • Naive and memory T cells induce different types of graft-versus-host disease JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Dutt, S., Tseng, D., Ermann, J., George, T. I., Liu, Y. P., Davis, C. R., Fathman, C. G., Strober, S. 2007; 179 (10): 6547-6554

    Abstract

    The goal of this study was to compare the ability of donor naive and alloantigen-primed effector memory T cells to induce graft-vs-host disease after bone marrow transplantation in MHC-mismatched irradiated host mice. Purified CD4(+) naive (CD62L(high)CD44(low)) T cells and CD4(+) effector memory (CD62L(low)CD44(high)) T cells obtained from unprimed donors and donors primed to host alloantigens, respectively, were injected into host mice, and the rapidity, severity, and pattern of tissue injury of graft-vs-host disease was assessed. Unexpectedly, the naive T cells induced a more acute and severe colitis than the primed memory cells. Whereas the naive T cells expressing CD62L and CCR7 lymph node homing receptors vigorously expanded in mesenteric lymph nodes and colon by day 6 after transplantation, the primed memory T cells without these receptors had 20- to 100-fold lower accumulation at this early time point. These differences were reflected in the significantly more rapid decline in survival and weight loss induced by naive T cells. The primed memory T cells had a greater capacity to induce chronic colitis and liver injury and secrete IL-2 and IFN-gamma in response to alloantigenic stimulation compared with memory T cells from unprimed donors. Nevertheless, the expected increase in potency as compared with naive T cells was not observed due to differences in the pattern and kinetics of tissue injury.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250792700021

    View details for PubMedID 17982043

  • Liver allografts are toleragenic in rats conditioned with posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation TRANSPLANTATION Nagasaki, K., Obara, H., Xiong, A., Kambham, N., Strober, S., Esquivel, C. O., Millan, M. T. 2007; 84 (5): 619-628

    Abstract

    Posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) treatment has been applied to tolerance induction protocols in heart and kidney transplantation models.We examined the efficacy and mechanism of posttransplant TLI treatment in the induction and maintenance of tolerance in a rat orthotopic liver transplantation model.Posttransplant TLI prolonged ACI (RT1(a)) liver allograft survival in Lewis (RT1(b)) hosts, with 50% long-term engraftment without immunosuppression and without evidence of chronic rejection. Injection of donor-type liver mononuclear cells (LMCs) facilitated the prolongation of graft survival, with more than 70% of grafts in LMC recipients surviving more than 100 days without chronic rejection. Recipients with long-term liver allograft survival accepted ACI but not PVG skin grafts. In TLI-conditioned recipients with accepted grafts, apoptosis occurred predominantly in graft-infiltrating leukocytes. In contrast, there were few apoptotic leukocytes in rejecting grafts. Recipients with long-term graft acceptance (>100 days of survival) demonstrated evidence of immune deviation; mixed lymphocyte reaction to ACI stimulator cells was vigorous, but secretion of interferon-gamma and interleukin-2 was reduced. In tolerant recipients, the number of Foxp3(+) CD25(+) CD4(+) regulatory T cells was increased in the liver allograft as well as in the peripheral blood.We conclude that posttransplant TLI induces tolerance to liver allografts via a mechanism involving apoptotic cell-deletion and immunoregulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.tp.0000278104.15002.64

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249574900009

    View details for PubMedID 17876275

  • Alloantigen recognition is critical for CD8 T cell-mediated graft anti-tumor activity against murine BCL1 lymphoma after myeloablative bone marrow transplantation BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Pillai, A., Teo, P., George, T., Mukhopadhyay, A., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Strober, S. 2007; 40 (5): 487-497

    Abstract

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether whole bone marrow cells or splenic CD8(+) T cells from C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donor mice, which are tolerant to BALB/c (H-2(d)) alloantigens, are capable of mediating graft anti-tumor activity against a BALB/c B-cell lymphoma after injection into irradiated BALB/c hosts. The experimental results show that high doses of splenic CD8(+) T cells mixed with T cell-depleted bone marrow cells from C57BL/6 non-tolerant (normal) donors eliminate the BCL(1) B-cell lymphoma cells and induce lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). CD8(+) T cells from tolerant donors simultaneously lose both their ability to induce GVHD and their anti-tumor activity. Whole bone marrow cell transplants from normal donors eliminated BCL(1) tumor cells without inducing GVHD, and bone marrow cells from tolerant donors failed to eliminate the tumor cells. The infused BCL(1) tumor cells expressed an immunogenic tumor-specific idiotype antigen disparate from host alloantigens, indicating that recognition of the tumor-specific antigen alone was insufficient to elicit graft anti-tumor activity from unimmunized allotolerant donor splenic CD8(+) T cells or whole bone marrow cells. We conclude that CD8(+) T cells from unimmunized normal donor mice require alloantigen recognition to mediate their anti-tumor activity following allogeneic BMT.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.bmt.1705759

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248918100013

    View details for PubMedID 17603512

  • Host NKT cells can prevent graft-versus-host disease and permit graft antitumor activity after bone marrow transplantation JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Pillai, A. B., George, T. I., Dutt, S., Teo, P., Strober, S. 2007; 178 (10): 6242-6251

    Abstract

    Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is a curative treatment for leukemia and lymphoma, but graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) remains a major complication. Using a GVHD protective nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen of total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte serum (TLI/ATS) in mice that has been recently adapted to clinical studies, we show that regulatory host NKT cells prevent the expansion and tissue inflammation induced by donor T cells, but allow retention of the killing activity of donor T cells against the BCL1 B cell lymphoma. Whereas wild-type hosts given transplants from wild-type donors were protected against progressive tumor growth and lethal GVHD, NKT cell-deficient CD1d-/- and Jalpha-18-/- host mice given wild-type transplants cleared the tumor cells but died of GVHD. In contrast, wild-type hosts given transplants from CD8-/- or perforin-/- donors had progressive tumor growth without GVHD. Injection of host-type NKT cells into Jalpha-18-/- host mice conditioned with TLI/ATS markedly reduced the early expansion and colon injury induced by donor T cells. In conclusion, after TLI/ATS host conditioning and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, host NKT cells can separate the proinflammatory and tumor cytolytic functions of donor T cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246286200030

    View details for PubMedID 17475852

  • L-selectin and beta(7) integrin on donor CD4 T cells are required for the early migration to host mesenteric lymph nodes and acute colitis of graft-versus-host disease BLOOD Dutt, S., Ermann, J., Tseng, D., Liu, Y. P., George, T. I., Fathman, C. G., Strober, S. 2005; 106 (12): 4009-4015

    Abstract

    The homing receptors L-selectin and alpha4beta7 integrin facilitate entry of T cells into the gut-associated organized lymphoid tissues such as the mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer patches. We studied the impact of inactivation of genes encoding these receptors on the ability of purified donor CD4+ T cells to induce acute lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) associated with severe colitis in irradiated major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched mice. Whereas lack of expression of a single receptor had no significant impact on the severity of colitis and GVHD, the lack of expression of both receptors markedly ameliorated colitis and early deaths observed with wild-type (WT) T cells. The changes in colitis and GVHD were reflected in a marked reduction in the early accumulation of donor T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes and subsequently in the colon. The purified WT donor CD4+ T cells did not accumulate early in the Peyer patches and failed to induce acute injury to the small intestine. In conclusion, the combination of CD62L and beta7 integrin is required to induce acute colitis and facilitate entry of CD4+ donor T cells in the mesenteric nodes associated with lethal GVHD in allogeneic hosts.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2005-06-2339

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233662400058

    View details for PubMedID 16105972

  • Stepwise development of committed progenitors in the bone marrow that generate functional T cells in the absence of the thymus JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Chatterjea-Matthes, D., Mukhopadhyay, A., Bitmansour, A., Weissman, I. L., Brown, J. M., Strober, S. 2005; 175 (7): 4363-4373

    Abstract

    We identified committed T cell progenitors (CTPs) in the mouse bone marrow that have not rearranged the TCRbeta gene; express a variety of genes associated with commitment to the T cell lineage, including GATA-3, T cell-specific factor-1, Cbeta, and Id2; and show a surface marker pattern (CD44+ CD25- CD24+ CD5-) that is similar to the earliest T cell progenitors in the thymus. More mature committed intermediate progenitors in the marrow have rearranged the TCR gene loci, express Valpha and Vbeta genes as well as CD3epsilon, but do not express surface TCR or CD3 receptors. CTPs, but not progenitors from the thymus, reconstituted the alphabeta T cells in the lymphoid tissues of athymic nu/nu mice. These reconstituted T cells vigorously secreted IFN-gamma after stimulation in vitro, and protected the mice against lethal infection with murine CMV. In conclusion, CTPs in wild-type bone marrow can generate functional T cells via an extrathymic pathway in athymic nu/nu mice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232092600027

    View details for PubMedID 16177077

  • Protective conditioning for acute graft-versus-host disease NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Lowsky, R., Takahashi, T., Liu, Y. P., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., GRUMET, F. C., Shizuru, J. A., Laport, G. G., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., JOHNSTON, L. J., Hoppe, R. T., Bloch, D. A., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Strober, S. 2005; 353 (13): 1321-1331

    Abstract

    Conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation plus antithymocyte serum protects mice against acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic-cell transplantation. We tested this strategy in humans.Thirty-seven patients with lymphoid malignant diseases or acute leukemia underwent an experimental conditioning regimen with 10 doses of total lymphoid irradiation (80 cGy each) plus antithymocyte globulin, followed by an infusion of HLA-matched peripheral-blood mononuclear cells from related or unrelated donors who received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.Of the 37 transplant recipients, only 2 had acute GVHD after hematopoietic-cell transplantation. Potent antitumor effects in patients with lymphoid malignant diseases were shown by the change from partial to complete remission. In the transplant recipients who underwent conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin, the fraction of donor CD4+ T cells that produced interleukin-4 after in vitro stimulation increased by a factor of five, and the proliferative response to alloantigens in vitro was reduced, as compared with normal control subjects and control subjects who underwent conditioning with a single dose of total-body irradiation (200 cGy).A regimen of total lymphoid irradiation plus antithymocyte globulin decreases the incidence of acute GVHD and allows graft antitumor activity in patients with lymphoid malignant diseases or acute leukemia treated with hematopoietic-cell transplantation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232146200004

    View details for PubMedID 16192477

  • Interferon-alpha-inducible proteins are novel autoantigens in murine lupus ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Hueber, W., Zeng, D. F., Strober, S., Utz, P. J. 2004; 50 (10): 3239-3249

    Abstract

    To investigate the spectrum of B cell autoimmunity in the recently described anti-CD1-autoreactive T cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic murine lupus-like (CD1 lupus-like) model.Lethally irradiated BALB/c/nu/nu mice were injected intravenously with donor BALB/c bone marrow and spleen cells expressing TCRalpha and TCRbeta transgenes that recognize CD1d. Sera from adoptive host animals that developed lupus (i.e., CD1 lupus mice) were collected at serial time points and analyzed by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation, using protein extracts prepared from NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts and EL-4 lymphocytes, respectively. Sera obtained from older animals in several models of spontaneous lupus (NZB/NZW, MRL++, and MRL/lpr mice), unmanipulated BALB/c/nu/nu mice, and normal BALB/c mice were used as controls.Analyses demonstrated that the prominent targets of autoantibodies in the CD1 lupus-like model are interferon-alpha (IFNalpha)-inducible antigens. Biochemical and serologic characterizations identified one antigen as belonging to the interferon-inducible 202 (Ifi202) subfamily of proteins within the Ifi200 family, and a second antigen as a member of the 70-kd heat-shock protein family. Autoantibodies directed against these antigens were rapidly produced at an early stage of disease. Anti-p50 autoantibodies were present in sera from 7 (78%) of 9 CD1 lupus mice that developed severe kidney disease.IFNalpha-inducible proteins represent a novel class of autoantigens in murine lupus, and the findings suggest additional roles for IFNalpha in this disease. Since Ifi202 autoantigens are encoded by the murine non-major histocompatibility complex lupus-susceptibility gene locus Ifi202, these data provide a link between recent advances in lupus genetics and the formation of autoantibodies.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/art.20508

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224508400023

    View details for PubMedID 15476221

  • Short tandem repeat analysis to monitor chimerism in Macaca fascicularis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Lau, M., Vayntrub, T., GRUMET, F. C., Lowsky, R., Strober, S., Hoppe, R., Larson, M., Holm, B., Reitz, B., Borie, D. 2004; 4 (9): 1543-1548

    Abstract

    Chimerism assessment following bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in cynomolgus monkeys (cynos) has been hampered by the lack of good engraftment markers. In human BMT, such markers have been provided by short tandem repeat (STR) loci. We tested the idea that techniques effective for detecting human STR could be readily adapted to cynos. Genomic DNA was extracted from cyno unseparated blood or peripheral cell subsets. With only slight modifications, reagents for detecting human STR alleles were used to amplify and detect cyno STRs and to quantitate allelic mixtures on an automated sequencer. Of the 15 STR loci tested, only CSF1PO, D18S51, and FGA successfully amplified, with seven, seven and two alleles, respectively. CSF1PO and D18S51 heterozygosity (80% and 55%, respectively) allowed use of these two loci for chimerism quantitation after BMT. The successful adaptation of human STR reagents to monitor chimerism in transplanted cynos will facilitate the use of this species in preclinical tolerance studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2004.00529.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223283900021

    View details for PubMedID 15307845

  • Characterization of novel antigens recognized by serum autoantibodies from anti-CD1 TCR-transgenic lupus mice EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Hueber, W., Zeng, D. F., Sharpe, O., Robinson, W. H., Strober, S., Utz, P. J. 2004; 34 (6): 1654-1662

    Abstract

    In this study, we further characterize the humoral autoimmune response in the recently described anti-CD1 autoreactive T cell receptor-transgenic mouse lupus model (CD1 lupus model). We discovered and characterized novel autoantigens, comprising a protein of 105 kDa (p105) and a novel RNA molecule of 140 base pairs (bp) that is likely associated with p105, and several additional factors with distinct biochemical properties. In the CD1 lupus model, lethally irradiated BALB/c/nu/nu mice were injected intravenously with sorted bone marrow cells and sorted splenic T cells from donor BALB/c mice expressing TCR alpha and beta transgenes that encode autoreactivity for CD1d. Adoptive hosts injected with the single-positive (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) subset of transgenic cells developed anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies and a lupus-like illness. Sera were analyzed by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. Antigens were characterized by biochemical and serological methods. Serum autoantibodies from 5 of 12 (42%) CD1 lupus mice immunoprecipitated a 105-kDa protein, termed p105. p105 was associated with a small RNA of approximately 140 bp. Anti-p105 autoantibodies appeared early in the course of disease. Serological and biochemical characterization suggested that p105 was distinct from known lupus autoantigens of similar molecular masses, indicating that p105 represents a novel autoantigen in lupus.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eji.200324201

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221993200017

    View details for PubMedID 15162435

  • Depletion of host Langerhans cells before transplantation of donor alloreactive T cells prevents skin graft-versus-host disease NATURE MEDICINE Merad, M., Hoffmann, P., Ranheim, E., Slaymaker, S., Manz, M. G., Lira, S. A., Charo, I., Cook, D. N., Weissman, I. L., Strober, S., Engleman, E. G. 2004; 10 (5): 510-517

    Abstract

    Skin is the most commonly affected organ in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To explore the role of Langerhans cells in GVHD, the principal dendritic cells of the skin, we studied the fate of these cells in mice transplanted with allogeneic bone marrow. In contrast to other dendritic cells, host Langerhans cells were replaced by donor Langerhans cells only when donor T cells were administered along with bone marrow, and the extent of Langerhans cell chimerism correlated with the dose of donor T cells injected. Donor T cells depleted host Langerhans cells through a Fas-dependent pathway and induced the production in skin of CCL20, which was required for the recruitment of donor Langerhans cells. Administration of donor T cells to bone marrow-chimeric mice with persistent host Langerhans cells, but not to mice whose Langerhans cells had been replaced, resulted in marked skin GVHD. These findings indicate a crucial role for donor T cells in host Langerhans cell replacement, and show that host dendritic cells can persist in nonlymphoid tissue for the duration of an animal's life and can trigger GVHD despite complete blood chimerism.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm1038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221242400029

    View details for PubMedID 15098028

  • Approaches to transplantation tolerance in humans TRANSPLANTATION Strober, S., Lowsky, R. J., Shizuru, J. A., Scandling, J. D., Millan, M. T. 2004; 77 (6): 932-936

    Abstract

    Although transplantation tolerance to organ allografts has been achieved using a wide variety of immunologic interventions in laboratory animals, few tolerance induction protocols with complete immunosuppressive drug withdrawal have been tested in humans. Preclinical and clinical studies of the use of total lymphoid irradiation for the induction of chimeric and nonchimeric tolerance are summarized here.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.TP.0000117782.93598.6E

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220460500027

    View details for PubMedID 15077041

  • Suppression of graft-versus-host disease by naturally occurring regulatory T cells TRANSPLANTATION Zeng, D. F., Lan, F. S., Hoffmann, P., Strober, S. 2004; 77 (1): S9-S11

    Abstract

    Studies of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation have shown that there are subsets of freshly isolated donor T cells that induce the disease and subsets that suppress the disease. The balance of subsets in the graft determines disease severity. The authors' work on the nature of the regulatory-suppressor T cells and their mechanisms of action is summarized in this article.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.TP.0000106475.38978.11

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188423400005

    View details for PubMedID 14726761

  • Activation of natural killer T cells in NZB/W mice induces Th1-type immune responses exacerbating lupus JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Zeng, D. F., Liu, Y. P., Sidobre, S., Kronenberg, M., Strober, S. 2003; 112 (8): 1211-1222

    Abstract

    In vivo treatment of mice with the natural killer T (NKT) cell ligand, alpha-galactosylceramide (alphaGalCer), ameliorates autoimmune diabetes and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by shifting pathogenic Th1-type immune responses to nonpathogenic Th2-type responses. In the current study, in vivo activation of NKT cells in adult NZB/W mice by multiple injections of alphaGalCer induced an abnormal Th1-type immune response as compared with the Th2-type response observed in nonautoimmune C57BL/6 mice. This resulted in decreased serum levels of IgE, increased levels of IgG2a and IgG2a anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) Ab's, and exacerbated lupus. Conversely, treatment of NZB/W mice with blocking anti-CD1d mAb augmented Th2-type responses, increased serum levels of IgE, decreased levels of IgG2a and IgG2a anti-dsDNA Ab's, and ameliorated lupus. While total CD4+ T cells markedly augmented in vitro IgM anti-dsDNA Ab secretion by splenic B cells, the non-CD1d-reactive (CD1d-alphaGalCer tetramer-negative) CD4+ T cells (accounting for 95% of all CD4+ T cells) failed to augment Ab secretion. The CD1d-reactive tetramer-positive CD4+ T cells augmented anti-dsDNA Ab secretion about tenfold. In conclusion, activation of NKT cells augments Th1-type immune responses and autoantibody secretion that contribute to lupus development in adult NZB/W mice, and anti-CD1d mAb might be useful for treating lupus.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI200317165

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186000300013

    View details for PubMedID 14561706

  • CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells preserve graft-versus-tumor activity while inhibiting graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation NATURE MEDICINE Edinger, M., Hoffmann, P., Ermann, J., Drago, K., Fathman, C. G., Strober, S., Negrin, R. S. 2003; 9 (9): 1144-1150

    Abstract

    Mature donor T cells cause graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but they are also the main mediators of the beneficial graft-versus-tumor (GVT) activity of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Suppression of GVHD with maintenance of GVT activity is a desirable outcome for clinical transplantation. We have previously shown that donor-derived CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells inhibit lethal GVHD after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation across major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II barriers in mice. Here we demonstrate that in host mice with leukemia and lymphoma, CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppress the early expansion of alloreactive donor T cells, their interleukin-2-receptor (IL-2R) alpha-chain expression and their capacity to induce GVHD without abrogating their GVT effector function, mediated primarily by the perforin lysis pathway. Thus, CD4+CD25+ T cells are potent regulatory cells that can separate GVHD from GVT activity mediated by conventional donor T cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm915

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185061600026

    View details for PubMedID 12925844

  • Early defect prethymic in bone marrow T cell progenitors in athymic nu/nu mice JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Chatterjea-Matthes, D., Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Jerabek, L., Manz, M. G., Weissman, I. L., Strober, S. 2003; 171 (3): 1207-1215

    Abstract

    nu/nu mice fail to develop a thymus and mature T cells due to a defect in the whn gene encoding a transcription factor necessary for terminal epithelial cell differentiation. We investigated whether early T cell progenitor development in the nu/nu bone marrow is also defective. We demonstrated a maturation arrest of nu/nu marrow T cell progenitors associated with a lack of pTalpha gene expression and a failure to give rise to mature T cells in adoptive euthymic hosts. Wild-type hemopoietic stem cells rapidly matured into functional T cell progenitors in the marrow of euthymic or thymectomized but not nu/nu hosts. We show that defects in bone marrow prethymic T cell development can also contribute to T cell deficiency in nu/nu mice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184327600012

    View details for PubMedID 12874207

  • Host conditioning with total lymphoid irradiation and antithymocyte globulin prevents graft-versus-host disease: The role of CD1-reactive natural killer T cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Lan, F. S., Zeng, D. F., Higuchi, M., Higgins, J. P., Strober, S. 2003; 9 (6): 355-363

    Abstract

    Our previous studies in mice showed that the nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen of fractionated irradiation of the lymphoid tissues (total lymphoid irradiation; TLI) and depletive anti-T-cell antibodies (anti-thymocyte serum) markedly increased the percentage of regulatory DX5+ and natural killer 1.1+ T cells in the mouse spleen, and prevented acute lethal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in BALB/c mice (H-2(d)) following the transplantation of bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) donors. The object of the current study was to determine whether the TLI and anti-thymocyte serum regimen protected natural killer T-cell deficient CD1(-/-) BALB/c mice against GVHD after BM and PBMC transplantation from C57BL/6 donors, and whether a similar conditioning regimen of TLI and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) can prevent GVHD in Lewis rat (RT1(l)) hosts after BM and PBMC transplantation from ACI rat (RT1(a)) donors. The experimental results in mice showed that, although wild-type BALB/c hosts are protected in association with a marked increase in CD1- reactive T cells expressing the invariant TCR identified with a CD1 tetramer reagent; CD1(-/-) BALB/c hosts are not. Studies of chimeric donor cells in mice protected from GVHD showed donor T-cell polarization to a Th2 cytokine pattern. Results in rats showed that approximately 1000 fold more donor PBMC cells were required to induce a similar incidence of lethal GVHD in TLI and ATG conditioned hosts as compared with hosts conditioned with single-dose total-body irradiation or total-body irradiation and ATG. Surviving TLI and ATG conditioned rat hosts were complete chimeras. In conclusion, the TLI and ATG/anti-thymocyte serum conditioning regimen protects against GVHD in rats and mice, and regulatory natural killer T cells are required for protection.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1083-8791(03)00108-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183955700001

    View details for PubMedID 12813443

  • Treatment of adjuvant arthritis with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and peptide derived from heat shock protein 65 CELLULAR IMMUNOLOGY Brendolan, A., Higuchi, M., Sibley, R., Strober, S. 2003; 221 (1): 6-14

    Abstract

    Adjuvant arthritis in Lewis rats is induced by the subcutaneous injection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mineral oil, and the predominant T cell immune reactivity is against the heat shock protein 65 derived peptide 176-190. We treated Lewis rats with human recombinant G-CSF followed by (i.v) administration of peptide 176-190 after induction of adjuvant arthritis (AA), and observed decreased disease severity, joint destruction, new bone formation and joint ankylosis. Treatment with G-CSF alone was also effective, but to a lesser extent. In addition, we found that splenocytes from rats treated with G-CSF had reduced antigen presenting capacity compared with splenocytes from vehicle treated rats. Primed lymph node cells from G-CSF plus peptide treated rats showed a marked reduction in proliferation and secretion of IFN-gamma after stimulation with the heat shock protein peptide in vitro as compared to controls.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0008-8749(03)00045-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183060400002

    View details for PubMedID 12742377

  • Immune tolerance to combined organ and bone marrow transplants after fractionated lymphoid irradiation involves regulatory NK T cells and clonal deletion JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Higuchi, M., Zeng, D. F., Shizuru, J., Gworek, J., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Taniguchi, M., Strober, S. 2002; 169 (10): 5564-5570

    Abstract

    Immune tolerance to organ transplants has been reported in laboratory animals and in humans after nonmyeloablative conditioning of the host and infusion of donor bone marrow cells. We examined the mechanisms of immune tolerance to mouse cardiac allografts in MHC-mismatched hosts that developed mixed chimerism after posttransplant conditioning with a 2-wk course of multiple doses of lymphoid tissue irradiation, depletive anti-T cell Abs, and an infusion of donor bone marrow cells. When CD1(-/-) or J(alpha)281(-/-) hosts with markedly reduced NK T cells were used instead of wild-type hosts, then the conditioning regimen failed to induce tolerance to the heart allografts despite the development of mixed chimerism. Tolerance could be restored to the CD1(-/-) hosts by infusing enriched T cells from the bone marrow of wild-type mice containing CD1-reactive T cells but not from CD1(-/-) host-type mice. Tolerance could not be induced in either IL-4(-/-) or IL-10(-/-) hosts given the regimen despite the development of chimerism and clonal deletion of host T cells to donor MHC-Ags in the IL-10(-/-) hosts. We conclude that immune tolerance to bone marrow transplants involves clonal deletion, and tolerance to heart allografts in this model also involves regulatory CD1-reactive NK T cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179170300026

    View details for PubMedID 12421933

  • Donor-type CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells suppress lethal acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Hoffmann, P., Ermann, J., Edinger, M., Fathman, C. G., Strober, S. 2002; 196 (3): 389-399

    Abstract

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is still a major obstacle in clinical allogeneic bone marrow (BM) transplantation. CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells have recently been shown to suppress proliferative responses of CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells to alloantigenic stimulation in vitro and are required for ex vivo tolerization of donor T cells, which results in their reduced potential to induce aGVHD. Here we show that CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells isolated from the spleen or BM of donor C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice that have not been tolerized are still potent inhibitors of the alloresponse in vitro and of lethal aGVHD induced by C57BL/6 CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells in irradiated BALB/c (H-2(d)) hosts in vivo. The addition of the CD4(+)CD25(+) T(reg) cells at a 1:1 ratio with responder/inducer CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells resulted in a >90% inhibition of the mixed leukocyte reaction and marked protection from lethal GVHD. This protective effect depended in part on the ability of the transferred CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells to secrete interleukin 10 and occurred if the T(reg) cells were of donor, but not host, origin. Our results demonstrate that the balance of donor-type CD4(+)CD25(+) T(reg) and conventional CD4(+)CD25(-) T cells can determine the outcome of aGVHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20020399

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177658200011

    View details for PubMedID 12163567

  • Mixed chimerism and immunosuppressive drug withdrawal after HLA-mismatched kidney and hematopoietic progenitor transplantation TRANSPLANTATION Millan, T. L., Shizuru, J. A., Hoffmann, P., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Scandling, J. D., GRUMET, F. C., Tan, J. C., Salvatierra, O., Hoppe, R. T., Strober, S. 2002; 73 (9): 1386-1391

    Abstract

    Rodents and dogs conditioned with total-lymphoid irradiation (TLI), with or without antithymocyte globulin (ATG), have been shown to develop mixed chimerism and immune tolerance without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after the infusion of major histocompatability complex (MHC)-mismatched donor bone marrow cells given alone or in combination with an organ allograft.Four human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched recipients of living donor kidney transplants were conditioned with TLI and ATG posttransplantation and infused with cyropreserved donor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) "mobilized" hematopoietic progenitor (CD34+) cells (3-5x10(6) cells/kg) thereafter. Maintenance prednisone and cyclosporine dosages were tapered, and recipients were monitored for chimerism, GVHD, graft function, T-cell subsets in the blood, and antidonor reactivity in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR).Three of the four patients achieved multilineage macrochimerism, with up to 16% of donor-type cells among blood mononuclear cells without evidence of GVHD. Prolonged depletion of CD4+ T cells was observed in all four patients. Rejection episodes were not observed in the three macrochimeric recipients, and immunosuppressive drugs were withdrawn in the first patient by 12 months. Prednisone was withdrawn from a second patient at 9 months, and cyclosporine was tapered thereafter.Multilineage macrochimerism can be achieved without GVHD in HLA-mismatched recipients of combined kidney and hematopoietic progenitor transplants. Conditioning of the host with posttransplant TLI and ATG was nonmyeloablative and was not associated with severe infections. Recipients continue to be studied for the development of immune tolerance.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175933100002

    View details for PubMedID 12023614

  • Gene-microarray analysis of multiple sclerosis lesions yields new targets validated in autoimmune encephalomyelitis NATURE MEDICINE Lock, C., Hermans, G., Pedotti, R., Brendolan, A., Schadt, E., Garren, H., Langer-Gould, A., Strober, S., Cannella, B., Allard, J., Klonowski, P., Austin, A., Lad, N., Kaminski, N., GALLI, S. J., Oksenberg, J. R., Raine, C. S., Heller, R., Steinman, L. 2002; 8 (5): 500-508

    Abstract

    Microarray analysis of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions obtained at autopsy revealed increased transcripts of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines, particularly interleukin-6 and -17, interferon-gamma and associated downstream pathways. Comparison of two poles of MS pathology--acute lesions with inflammation versus 'silent' lesions without inflammation--revealed differentially transcribed genes. Some products of these genes were chosen as targets for therapy of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is upregulated in acute, but not in chronic, MS lesions, and the effect on ameliorating EAE is more pronounced in the acute phase, in contrast to knocking out the immunoglobulin Fc receptor common gamma chain where the effect is greatest on chronic disease. These results in EAE corroborate the microarray studies on MS lesions. Large-scale analysis of transcripts in MS lesions elucidates new aspects of pathology and opens possibilities for therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm0502-500

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175336800036

    View details for PubMedID 11984595

  • Long-term followup of patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation for lupus nephritis ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Genovese, M. C., Uhrin, Z., Bloch, D. A., Oehlert, J., Sibley, R. K., Myers, B., Strober, S. 2002; 46 (4): 1014-1018

    Abstract

    To describe the long-term survival, renal condition, and morbidity outcomes in patients who received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) for the treatment of lupus nephritis.Twenty-one patients with biopsy-proven, diffuse membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and significant proteinuria of >2.5 grams/day received TLI from 1980 to 1987 at Stanford University Medical Center. All patients had previously failed to respond to treatment with high-dose corticosteroids or therapy with corticosteroids plus immunosuppressive agents (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, or chlorambucil).The mean duration of followup since TLI was 10.7 years. Fifteen of 21 patients (71%) remained alive at the time of this assessment. Nine of the 21 patients (43%) survived without developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The probability of long-term survival without ESRD and without need for additional immunosuppressive agents after TLI was 19% (4 of 21). Factors predicting renal failure at the time of TLI included elevated creatinine levels, increased interstitial fibrosis on renal biopsy, and increased fractional excretion of immunoglobulin and albumin. Malignancies were found in 4 patients, and opportunistic infections occurred in 7 patients.Overall, patients with lupus nephritis treated with TLI do not appear to have better 10-year survival with lower incidence of ESRD compared with patients in published series treated with conventional immunosuppressive therapies. However, in this series of patients, treatment with conventional immunosuppressive therapies had been unsuccessful and given the limited number of adverse events and the efficacy seen in some patients, TLI appears to be a reasonable therapeutic option for the treatment of severe lupus nephritis among patients who fail to respond under standard cytotoxic regimens.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174946500022

    View details for PubMedID 11953979

  • Unique patterns of surface receptors, cytokine secretion, and immune functions distinguish T cells in the bone marrow from those in the periphery: impact on allogeneic bone marrow transplantation BLOOD Zeng, D. F., Hoffmann, P., Lan, F. S., Huie, P., Higgins, J., Strober, S. 2002; 99 (4): 1449-1457

    Abstract

    The "conventional" NK1.1(-) T cells from mouse blood and marrow were compared with regard to surface receptors, cytokine secretion, and function. Most blood NK1.1(-) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressed the naive CD44(int/lo)CD62L(hi)CD45RB(hi) T-cell phenotype typical of those in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. In contrast, most marrow NK1.1(-) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells expressed an unusual CD44(hi)CD62L(hi)CD45RB(hi) phenotype. The blood NK1.1(-) CD4(+) T cells had a naive T-helper cytokine profile and a potent capacity to induce lethal graft versus host (GVH) disease in a C57BL/6 donor to a BALB/c host bone marrow transplantation model. In contrast, the marrow NK1.1(-) CD4(+) T cells had a Th0 cytokine profile and failed to induce lethal GVH disease, even at 20-fold higher numbers than those from the blood. NK1.1(-) CD8(+) T cells from the blood but not the marrow induced lethal GVH disease. Nevertheless, the marrow NK1.1(-) CD8(+) T cells induced potent antitumor activity that was augmented by marrow NK1.1(-) CD4(+) T cells and facilitated hematopoietic progenitor engraftment. The inability of marrow CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to induce GVH disease was associated with their inability to expand in the blood and gut of allogeneic recipients. Because neither the purified marrow CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells induced GVH disease, their unique features are desirable for inclusion in allogeneic bone marrow or hematopoietic progenitor transplants.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173787600050

    View details for PubMedID 11830499

  • Predominance of NK1.1(+)TCR alpha beta(+) or DX5(+)TCR alpha beta(+) T cells in mice conditioned with fractionated lymphoid irradiation protects against graft-versus-host disease: "Natural suppressor" cells JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Lan, F. S., Zeng, D. F., Higuchi, M., Huie, P., Higgins, J. P., Strober, S. 2001; 167 (4): 2087-2096

    Abstract

    We developed a nonmyeloablative host conditioning regimen in a mouse model of MHC-mismatched bone marrow transplantation that not only reduces radiation toxicity, but also protects against graft-vs-host disease. The regimen of fractionated irradiation directed to the lymphoid tissues and depletive anti-T cell Abs results in a marked change in the residual host T cells, such that NK1.1+ or DX5+asialo-GM1+ T cells become the predominant T cell subset in the lymphoid tissues of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, respectively. The latter "natural suppressor" T cells protect hosts from graft-vs-host disease after the infusion of allogeneic bone marrow and peripheral blood cells that ordinarily kill hosts conditioned with sublethal or lethal total body irradiation. Protected hosts become stable mixed chimeras, but fail to show the early expansion and infiltration of donor T cells in the gut, liver, and blood associated with host tissue injury. Cytokine secretion and adoptive transfer studies using wild-type and IL-4(-/-) mice showed that protection afforded by NK1.1+ and DX5+asialo-GM1+ T cells derived from either donors or hosts conditioned with lymphoid irradiation is dependent on their secretion of high levels of IL-4.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170949600034

    View details for PubMedID 11489992

  • Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with total lymphoid irradiation - Long-term survival ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Uhrin, Z., Wang, B. W., Matsuda, Y., Strober, S., Genovese, M. C. 2001; 44 (7): 1525-1528

    Abstract

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) has been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since the 1970s. This study reviews long-term (15-20-year) mortality outcomes of patients treated with TLI for RA at Stanford University Medical Center and compares these outcomes with those in patients treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).Fifty-three patients with RA were treated with full-dose TLI at Stanford University Medical Center. All had failed previous therapy with gold salts and penicillamine. One hundred six control patients were selected from the Arthritis, Rheumatism, and Aging Medical Information Systems database and were matched with the patients for age, sex, disease duration, and mean Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) score. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards regression.No significant difference in age and sex was found between TLI-treated patients and controls. TLI-treated patients had more education (mean 13.4 years versus 11.8 years; P = 0.016) and received more DMARDs prior to TLI (mean 2.1 versus 1.3; P = 0.0001). TLI-treated patients had lower mean HAQ scores at the time of TLI (2.0 versus 2.4; P = 0.0002). TLI had no significant overall effect on survival in treated patients compared with controls (P = 0.62). The survival curves appeared to cross over at approximately 11 years of followup, with better early survival in the TLI group and better late survival in the control group. There was a total of 25 deaths in the TLI group. There were 45 deaths in the control group, with causes of death available for 20 patients. There were 3 patients with lymphoma and 2 with myelodysplastic syndrome in the TLI group, and none in the control group. The most common cause of death in both groups was infection.TLI had no significant effect on overall survival, with trends toward higher early mortality in controls and trends toward higher late mortality in TLI-treated patients. Overall, there was no difference in mortality, but it appears that there may have been more lymphoproliferative malignancies in the TLI cohort. We would recommend that TLI be used cautiously for patients with refractory RA in whom the benefits outweigh the risks.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172491000008

    View details for PubMedID 11465702

  • Clonable progenitors committed to the T lymphocyte lineage in the mouse bone marrow; use of an extrathymic pathway PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Chatterjea-Matthes, D., Zeng, D., Strober, S. 2001; 98 (13): 7455-7460

    Abstract

    We searched for clonable committed T cell progenitors in the adult mouse bone marrow and isolated rare (approximately 0.05%) cells with the Thy-1hiCD2-CD16+CD44hiCD25-Lin- phenotype. In vivo experiments showed that these cells were progenitors committed only to reconstituting the T cell lineage of irradiated Ly5 congenic hosts. Reconstitution of the thymus was minimal compared with that of the bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes. At limiting dilutions, donor T cell reconstitution of the spleen frequently occurred without detectable donor cells in the thymus. Progenitors were capable of rapidly reconstituting athymic hosts. In conclusion, the clonable bone marrow progenitors were capable of T cell reconstitution predominantly by means of an extrathymic pathway.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169456600084

    View details for PubMedID 11390986

  • Rapid engraftment after allogeneic transplantation of density-enriched peripheral blood CD34+cells in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies CANCER Cao, T. M., Kusnierz-Glaz, C., Valone, F., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Hu, W. W., Johnston, L., Blume, K. G., Strober, S., Negrin, R. S. 2001; 91 (12): 2205-2213

    Abstract

    Acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Preclinical studies have suggested that a T-cell subset with a CD4-/CD8- double-negative (DN) T-cell phenotype is capable of suppressing GVHD. Double-negative T cells can be mobilized into the peripheral blood with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and enriched by density centrifugation. The current study was performed to study the feasibility and safety of applying a density gradient separation technique for enrichment of CD34+ and DN T cells, while depleting CD4+ and CD8+ single-positive (SP) T cells from peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) for the purpose of allogeneic transplantation.Twenty-five patients with advanced hematologic malignancies were treated with a myeloablative preparative regimen consisting of fractionated total body irradiation, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide. Human leukocyte antigen identical donors were mobilized with G-CSF PBPC collected by apheresis. The apheresis product was applied to a single-step density gradient, and the low-density cell population was collected. The low-density cell population was infused as the sole source of allogeneic cells after myeloablative therapy. Graft versus host disease prophylaxis consisted of cyclosporine with or without prednisone.CD34 cell recovery was efficient with a median 72% yield, providing for a median CD34+ cell dose of 6.5 x 10(6)/kg (range,1.0- 13.9 x 10(6)/kg). CD3+CD4+ or CD3+CD8+ SP T cells were depleted by a median of 94.4% (range, 58.8- 99.2%), and the ratio of CD34+:SP T cells increased 10-fold. Double-negative T cells were depleted by 92% (range, 18.8- 99.4%), thus the ratio of DN:SP T cells increased less than 2-fold in 71% of apheresis samples tested. Hematopoietic engraftment was rapid, and there was no occurrence of graft failure in examinable patients. Median time to absolute neutrophil count greater than 0.5 x 10(9)/L and platelet count greater than 20 x 10(9)/L was 10.5 and 12 days, respectively. The incidence of Grade 2-4 acute GVHD was 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6-45%), although not all patients were examinable due to an unexpectedly high nonrecurrence mortality that at Day 180 was 62% (95% CI, 40-83%).These data suggest that T-cell subset manipulation via density gradient separation is a safe procedure and allowed rapid hematopoietic recovery. Selective enrichment of a donor DN T-cell subset was observed in only a few and was not associated with a reduced incidence of GVHD. However, the low-density selected cells still resulted in GVHD, and there was a high treatment-related mortality.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169348200001

    View details for PubMedID 11413507

  • Allogeneic bone marrow cells that facilitate complete chimerism and eliminate tumor cells express both CD8 and T-cell antigen receptor-alpha beta BLOOD Lan, F. S., Zeng, D. F., Huie, P., Higgins, J. P., Strober, S. 2001; 97 (11): 3458-3465

    Abstract

    Nonmyeloablative host conditioning regimens have been used in clinical allogeneic bone marrow and hematopoietic progenitor transplantation to effectively treat lymphohematopoietic tumors and reduce early toxicity. However, severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major problem. The goal of the current study was to determine whether specific subsets of cells in allogeneic bone marrow transplants can effectively treat the BCL(1) B-cell lymphoma in nonmyeloablated BALB/c mouse hosts given a single dose of sublethal (450 cGy) total body irradiation, without inducing severe GVHD. The experimental results show that high doses of whole bone marrow cells from major histocompatiblity complex (MHC)-mismatched donors eliminate both normal and malignant host-type lymphohematopoietic cells without causing injury to nonlymphohematopoietic host tissues. The CD8(+)T-cell antigen receptor-alphabeta+ (TCRalphabeta+) T cells within the marrow transplants mediated the killing of the tumor cells via both perforin- and FasL-dependent pathways. Cells present in marrow transplants from either CD8-/- or TCRalpha-/- donors failed to eliminate malignant and normal host lymphohematopoietic cells. Addition of small numbers of blood mononuclear cells to the marrow inoculum caused lethal GVHD. Thus, the resident allogeneic bone marrow CD8(+) TCRalphabeta+ T cells had the unique capacity to eliminate the host lymphohematopoietic cells without nonlymphohematopoietic tissue injury. (Blood. 2001;97:3458-3465)

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168927900020

    View details for PubMedID 11369637

  • Cutting edge: A role for CD1 in the pathogenesis of lupus in NZB/NZW mice JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Zeng, D., Lee, M. K., Tung, J., Brendolan, A., Strober, S. 2000; 164 (10): 5000-5004

    Abstract

    Since anti-CD1 TCR transgenic T cells can activate syngeneic B cells via CD1 to secrete IgM and IgG and induce lupus in BALB/c mice, we studied the role of CD1 in the pathogenesis of lupus in NZB/NZW mice. Approximately 20% of B cells from the spleens of NZB/NZW mice expressed high levels of CD1 (CD1high B cells). The latter subset spontaneously produced large amounts of IgM anti-dsDNA Abs in vitro that was up to 25-fold higher than that of residual CD1int/low B cells. T cells in the NZB/NZW spleen proliferated vigorously to the CD1-transfected A20 B cell line, but not to the parent line. Treatment of NZB/NZW mice with anti-CD1 mAbs ameliorated the development of lupus. These results suggest that the CD1high B cells and their progeny are a major source of autoantibody production, and activation of B cells via CD1 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086947900003

    View details for PubMedID 10799851

  • Clinical transplantation tolerance twelve years after prospective withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs: Studies of chimerism and anti-donor reactivity TRANSPLANTATION Strober, S., Benike, C., Krishnaswamy, S., Engleman, E. G., GRUMET, F. C. 2000; 69 (8): 1549-1554

    Abstract

    Previous studies showed the feasibility of inducing transplantation tolerance to cadaveric renal allografts in patients given pretransplant total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Microchimerism has been theorized to be an important or necessary factor in long-term graft acceptance and tolerance in humans.A cadaveric renal transplant recipient given pretransplant total lymphoid irradiation and withdrawn from immunosuppressive drugs more than 12 years ago was tested for microchimerism using a sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction technique, and for anti-donor reactivity using the mixed leukocyte reaction and an ELISA screen for anti-HLA antibodies. Donor and recipient were mismatched for all HLA-A, B, and DR antigens.The "tolerant" recipient had good graft function, no detectable donor-type cells in the blood by polymerase chain reaction analysis, vigorous reactivity to donor stimulator cells in the mixed leukocyte reaction, and no detectable serum anti-HLA antibodies.Operational tolerance to HLA-A, B, and DR mismatched organ allografts can be induced prospectively in humans for at least 12 years after withdrawal of immunosuppressive drugs. The allograft can be maintained in the absence of detectable donor microchimerism and in the presence of anti-donor reactivity in the mixed leukocyte reaction, suggesting that neither chimerism nor clonal deletion or anergy of recipient T cells to alloantigens presented by donor Class II HLA molecules is required for persistence of the tolerant state using this total lymphoid irradiation protocol.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086910700005

    View details for PubMedID 10836360

  • Cyclosporine facilitates chimeric and inhibits nonchimeric tolerance after posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation TRANSPLANTATION Lan, F. S., Hayamizu, K., Strober, S. 2000; 69 (4): 649-655

    Abstract

    Previous studies showed that Lewis rats given posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation, antithymocyte globulin, and a single infusion of ACI peripheral blood or bone marrow cells develop tolerance to ACI heart allografts.To determine the effects of cyclosporine on these tolerance induction protocols, groups of Lewis hosts, given either ACI blood or marrow infusions, were given a 60-day course of daily cyclosporine immediately after the cell infusion.Cyclosporine treatment was associated with uniform graft rejection in the groups given an ACI blood transfusion, and was associated with uniform graft acceptance in the groups given an ACI bone marrow infusion. Studies of donor-type T and B cell chimerism in the host blood showed that cyclosporine facilitated chimerism in the hosts given ACI bone marrow cells, and stable chimerism over a 300-day observation period was predicted by detectable chimerism by day 30. None of the hosts given ACI blood cells developed chimerism.Cyclosporine facilitated long-term graft acceptance in a tolerization protocol that induced mixed chimerism, but prevented long-term graft acceptance in a tolerization protocol that did not induce chimerism.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085611500029

    View details for PubMedID 10708124

  • Favorable treatment outcome in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients with "poor" mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Reddy, S. A., Horning, S. J., Blume, K. G., Chao, N. J., Hu, W. W., JOHNSTON, L. J., Long, G. D., Strober, S., Wong, R. M., Feiner, R. H., Kohler, S., Negrin, R. S. 2000; 6 (5): 506-512

    Abstract

    Our purpose was to evaluate the outcome and costs of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation in patients with the inability to mobilize sufficient numbers of PBPCs to allow rapid engraftment after PBPC transplantation. We treated 172 consecutive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients with cyclophosphamide and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor followed by apheresis to collect PBPCs. The cells were separated on a Percoll gradient and purged with monoclonal antibodies and complement. The patients were categorized as "good" mobilizers if a collection of > or =2 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg was obtained (n = 138, 80%) or "poor" mobilizers if <2 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg were obtained (n = 34, 20%). With a median follow-up of 3.5 years, there is no statistically significant difference in actuarial event-free survival, overall survival, or relapse for good mobilizers compared with poor mobilizers. However, there was a trend toward increasing nonrelapse, transplantation-related mortality of 11.8% for poor mobilizers versus 3.6% for good mobilizers (P = .08) and early death from all causes including relapse within 120 days (poor 20.6% versus good 8.7%, P = .06). The total cost for bone marrow transplantation-related care was significantly higher, at $140,264 for poor mobilizers versus $80,833 for good mobilizers (P = .0001). The population of patients with NHL who mobilize PBPCs poorly into the circulation have a higher cost for posttransplant support. However, there is no significant difference in relapse, event-free survival, or overall survival for such patients compared with those who mobilize PBPCs easily.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000090049700004

    View details for PubMedID 11063379

  • Identification of an early T cell progenitor for a pathway of T cell maturation in the bone marrow PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Strober, S. 1999; 96 (25): 14493-14498

    Abstract

    We have identified a rare ( approximately 0.05-0.1%) population of cells (Thy-1(hi)CD16(+)CD44(hi)CD2(-)TCRalphabeta(-)B220(-)M ac-1(-)NK1. 1(-)) in the adult mouse bone marrow that generates CD4(+) and CD8(+) TCRalphabeta(+) T cells after tissue culture for 48 hr in the presence of Ly5 congenic marrow cells. The essential stages in the maturation of the progenitors were determined; the stages included an early transition from CD2(-)CD16(+)CD44(hi)TCRalphabeta(-) to CD2(+)CD16(int/-)CD44(int/-)TCRalphabeta(-) cells, and a later transition to CD4(+)CD8(+)TCRalphabeta(+) double-positive T cells that rapidly generate the CD4(+) and CD8(+) single-positive T cells. The maturation of the progenitors is almost completely arrested at the CD2(+)TCRalphabeta(-) stage by the presence of mature T cells at the initiation of cultures. This alternate pathway is supported by the marrow microenvironment; it recapitulates critical intermediary steps in intrathymic T cell maturation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084149700064

    View details for PubMedID 10588733

  • Heterogeneity of NK1.1(+) T cells in the bone marrow: Divergence from the thymus JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Zeng, D. F., Gazit, G., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Balk, S. P., Snapper, S., Taniguchi, M., Strober, S. 1999; 163 (10): 5338-5345

    Abstract

    NK1.1+ T cells in the mouse thymus and bone marrow were compared because some marrow NK1.1+ T cells have been reported to be extrathymically derived. Almost all NK1.1+ T cells in the thymus were depleted in the CD1-/-, beta2m-/-, and Jalpha281-/- mice as compared with wild-type mice. CD8+NK1.1+ T cells were not clearly detected, even in the wild-type mice. In bone marrow from the wild-type mice, CD8+NK1.1+ T cells were easily detected, about twice as numerous as CD4+NK1.1+ T cells, and were similar in number to CD4-CD8-NK1.1+ T cells. All three marrow NK1.1+ T cell subsets were reduced about 4-fold in CD1-/- mice. No reduction was observed in CD8+NK1.1+ T cells in the bone marrow of Jalpha281-/- mice, but marrow CD8+NK1.1+ T cells were markedly depleted in beta2m-/- mice. All NK1.1+ T cell subsets in the marrow of wild-type mice produced high levels of IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-10. Although the numbers of marrow CD4-CD8-NK1.1+ T cells in beta2m-/- and Jalpha281-/- mice were similar to those in wild-type mice, these cells had a Th1-like pattern (high IFN-gamma, and low IL-4 and IL-10). In conclusion, the large majority of NK1.1+ T cells in the bone marrow are CD1 dependent. Marrow NK1.1+ T cells include CD8+, Valpha14-Jalpha281-, and beta2m-independent subsets that are not clearly detected in the thymus.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083638400022

    View details for PubMedID 10553057

  • Comparison of chimeric and non-chimeric tolerance using posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation - Cytokine expression and chronic rejection TRANSPLANTATION Hayamizu, K., Lan, F. S., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., Strober, S. 1999; 68 (7): 1036-1044

    Abstract

    Previous studies showed that an intravenous infusion of donor blood cells facilitates tolerance to ACI heart allografts in Lewis rat hosts given posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG). The object of the current study was to compare tolerance induction using donor cells that do or do not induce chimerism.Normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized PBMC, and bone marrow (BM) cells from ACI donors were tested for their capacity to prolong ACI heart allograft survival in Lewis hosts. Chimerism, anti-donor cell reactivity, and cytokine gene expression in grafts were determined.Intravenous injections of equal numbers of all three donor cells markedly prolonged graft survival (median: >164 to >175 days) as compared to uninjected controls (median: 53 days). Chimerism among T and B cells in the blood was determined by immunofluorescent staining in hosts bearing long-term (> 150 days) grafts. Although no chimerism was detected in hosts given normal or G-CSF-mobilized PBMC, chimerism was detected at variable levels in all hosts given BM cells. Vigorous anti-donor reactivity in the mixed leukocyte reaction was present only in non-chimeric hosts. Long-term grafts from hosts given normal ACI PBMC developed chronic rejection, but those from hosts given ACI BM cells did not. The latter hosts showed the lowest levels of intragraft cytokine mRNA.Chimeric tolerance is more robust than non-chimeric tolerance in the model of posttransplant TLI, ATG, and donor cell infusion, and is associated with less chronic rejection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083163800023

    View details for PubMedID 10532547

  • Bone marrow NK1.1(-) and NK1.1(+) T cells reciprocally regulate acute graft versus host disease JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Zeng, D. F., Lewis, D., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Lan, F. S., Garcia-Ojeda, M., Sibley, R., Strober, S. 1999; 189 (7): 1073-1081

    Abstract

    Sorted CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from the peripheral blood or bone marrow of donor C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) mice were tested for their capacity to induce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by injecting the cells, along with stringently T cell-depleted donor marrow cells, into lethally irradiated BALB/c (H-2(d)) host mice. The peripheral blood T cells were at least 30 times more potent than the marrow T cells in inducing lethal GVHD. As NK1.1(+) T cells represented <1% of all T cells in the blood and approximately 30% of T cells in the marrow, the capacity of sorted marrow NK1.1(-) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to induce GVHD was tested. The latter cells had markedly increased potency, and adding back marrow NK1.1(+) T cells suppressed GVHD. The marrow NK1.1(+) T cells secreted high levels of both interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin 4 (IL-4), and the NK1.1(-) T cells secreted high levels of IFN-gamma with little IL-4. Marrow NK1.1(+) T cells obtained from IL-4(-/-) rather than wild-type C57BL/6 donors not only failed to prevent GVHD but actually increased its severity. Together, these results demonstrate that GVHD is reciprocally regulated by the NK1.1(-) and NK1.1(+) T cell subsets via their differential production of cytokines.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079648700008

    View details for PubMedID 10190898

  • Monocyte-derived dendritic cell precursors facilitate tolerance to heart allografts after total lymphoid irradiation TRANSPLANTATION Hayamizu, K., Huie, P., Sibley, R. K., Strober, S. 1998; 66 (10): 1285-1291

    Abstract

    Previous studies have shown that posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation, anti-thymocyte globulin, and an intravenous donor blood cell infusion induce tolerance to ACI heart allografts in Lewis rat hosts.In the current study, fresh ACI monocytes and dendritic cell precursors, derived from short-term culture of the latter cells in granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, were tested for their capacity to prolong heart allograft survival in this model.The experimental results show that significant prolongation of graft survival was achieved after injection of the fresh donor monocytes or 2-day or 6-day cultured cells. The 2-day cultured cells were most effective, and more than 60% of hosts maintained graft survival for more than 160 days. Ten-day cultured cells and fresh splenic dendritic cells failed to prolong graft survival. Studies of cell surface markers showed that the 2-day cultured cells had up-regulated class II major histocompatibility complex and CD80, but not CD86 molecules. On the other hand, the 10-day cultured cells and splenic dendritic cells showed intense expression of all three markers. The latter cells stimulated vigorous proliferative and cell-mediated lympholysis responses in the mixed leukocyte reaction, but the fresh and 2-day cultured cells were weak stimulators.The intravenous injection of donor dendritic cell precursors derived from blood monocytes facilitates long-term acceptance of heart allografts.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077336800004

    View details for PubMedID 9846510

  • Donor blood monocytes but not T or B cells facilitate long-term allograft survival after total lymphoid irradiation TRANSPLANTATION Hayamizu, K., Zeng, D., Huie, P., Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Bloch, D. A., Fong, L., Engleman, E. G., Sibley, R. K., Strober, S. 1998; 66 (5): 585-593

    Abstract

    Previous studies showed that a combination of posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG), and a single donor blood transfusion induced tolerance to ACI heart allografts in Lewis rats. All three modalities were required to achieve tolerance. The objective of the current study was to determine the subset(s) of cells in the donor blood that facilitated long-term allograft survival.Lewis hosts received TLI, ATG, and donor cell infusion after heart transplantation. Graft survival, mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR), and intragraft cytokine mRNA were studied.The intravenous injection of 25 x 10(6) ACI peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) significantly prolonged graft survival as compared with that of Lewis hosts given TLI and ATG alone. Injection of highly enriched blood T cells or splenic B cells adjusted for the number contained in 25 x 10(6) PBMC failed to induce significant graft prolongation. Unexpectedly, depletion of monocytes (CD11b+ cells) from PBMC resulted in the loss of graft prolongation activity. Enriched populations of monocytes obtained by plastic adherence were more efficient in prolonging graft survival than PBMC on a per cell basis. Hosts with long-term grafts (>100-day survival) showed evidence of immune deviation, because the MLR to ACI stimulator cells was vigorous, but secretion of interferon-gamma in the MLR was markedly reduced. In situ hybridization studies of long-term grafts showed markedly reduced levels of interferon-gamma mRNA as compared with rejecting grafts.Infusion of donor monocytes facilitated graft prolongation via immune deviation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075996500006

    View details for PubMedID 9753336

  • CD1 expression defines subsets of follicular and marginal zone B cells in the spleen: beta(2)-microglobulin-dependent and independent forms JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Amano, M., Baumgarth, N., Dick, M. D., Brossay, L., Kronenberg, M., Herzenberg, L. A., Strober, S. 1998; 161 (4): 1710-1717

    Abstract

    We have used multicolor FACS analysis, immunohistology, and functional assays to study the expression of CD1 on B cell subsets from normal and beta 2m-/- mice. Two B cell subpopulations were identified that express high levels of CD1 in normal mice: splenic marginal zone B cells (IgMhigh IgDlow CD21high CD24intermediate CD23- CD43-) and a newly identified subpopulation of follicular B cells. The latter cells are unusual, because they are IgDhigh CD23+, like follicular B cells, but express high levels of CD21 and IgM, an expression pattern that is associated with marginal zone B cells. Therefore, the high-level expression of CD1 and CD21 was found to be closely associated on splenic B cells. Immunohistology confirmed the expression of CD1 on marginal zone B cells and on clusters of B cells in splenic follicles. Both the high-level CD1 expression by these cells and the low-level CD1 expression by subpopulations of B cells in the spleen, lymph node, peritoneal cavity, and bone marrow were markedly reduced in beta 2m-/- mice. Despite this, a CD1-restricted T cell clone proliferated vigorously in response to LPS-activated spleen cells that had been obtained from both beta 2m-/- and wild-type mice. This response was inhibited by the 3C11 anti-CD1 mAb. These results show the heterogeneity of B cell subsets in their expression of the beta 2m-dependent form of CD1. They further suggest that a beta 2m-independent form of CD1 is expressed on B cells that can stimulate T cells; however, this form is not easily visualized with the anti-CD1 mAb used here.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075345400018

    View details for PubMedID 9712035

  • An alternate pathway for T cell development supported by the bone marrow microenvironment: Recapitulation of thymic maturation JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Weissman, I. L., Strober, S. 1998; 187 (11): 1813-1823

    Abstract

    In the principal pathway of alpha/beta T cell maturation, T cell precursors from the bone marrow migrate to the thymus and proceed through several well-characterized developmental stages into mature CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This study demonstrates an alternative pathway in which the bone marrow microenvironment also supports the differentiation of T cell precursors into CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The marrow pathway recapitulates developmental stages of thymic maturation including a CD4+CD8+ intermediary cell and positive and negative selection, and is strongly inhibited by the presence of mature T cells. The contribution of the marrow pathway in vivo requires further study in mice with normal and deficient thymic or immune function.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074120200009

    View details for PubMedID 9607922

  • Subsets of transgenic T cells that recognize CD1 induce or prevent murine lupus: Role of cytokines JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Zeng, D. F., Dick, M., Cheng, L. R., Amano, M., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Huie, P., Sibley, R., Strober, S. 1998; 187 (4): 525-536

    Abstract

    T cells with T cell receptor (TCR) transgenes that recognized CD1 on syngeneic B cells stimulated B cells to secrete immunoglobulins in vitro. The CD4+, CD8+, or CD4-CD8- T cells from the spleen of the TCR transgenic BALB/c donors induced lupus with anti-double stranded DNA antibodies, proteinuria, and immune complex glomerulonephritis in irradiated BALB/c nude mice reconstituted with nude bone marrow. Injection of purified CD4-CD8- T cells from the marrow of transgenic donors prevented the induction of lupus by the transgenic T cells. Transgenic T cells that induced lupus secreted large amounts of interferon (IFN)-gamma and little interleukin (IL)-4, and those that prevented lupus secreted large amounts of IL-4 and little IFN-gamma or IL-10.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072160200009

    View details for PubMedID 9463403

  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor reduces the capacity of blood mononuclear cells to induce graft-versus-host disease: Impact on blood progenitor cell transplantation BLOOD Zeng, D. F., DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Strober, S. 1997; 90 (1): 453-463

    Abstract

    The feasibility of transplanting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-treated normal human donors to myeloablated allogeneic hosts has been demonstrated recently. The current work examined the ability of recombinant G-CSF to alter peripheral blood T-cell function and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in a murine model of allogeneic G-CSF-mobilized PBMC transplantation. Administration of recombinant G-CSF to C57BL/Ka mice markedly increased the capacity of PBMC to reconstitute lethally irradiated syngeneic hosts. T- and B-lineage lymphocytes were depleted about 10-fold in the bone marrow of the treated mice, and the T-cell yield in the blood was increased about fourfold. The ability of PBMC or purified CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to induce acute lethal GVHD in irradiated BALB/c mice was reduced after the administration of G-CSF. This was associated with decreased secretion of interferon gamma and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and an increased secretion of IL-4. The donor cell inoculum, which was most successful in the rescue of irradiated allogeneic hosts, was the low-density fraction of PBMC from G-CSF-treated mice. These low-density cells were enriched for CD4-CD8-NK1.1+ T cells and secreted about 10-fold more IL-4 than the unfractionated cells from the G-CSF-treated donors.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XH42800053

    View details for PubMedID 9207483

  • From stem cells to lymphocytes: Biology and transplantation IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Aguila, H. L., Akashi, K., Domen, J., Gandy, K. L., Lagasse, E., Mebius, R. E., Morrison, S. J., Shizuru, J., Strober, S., Uchida, N., Wright, D. E., Weissman, I. L. 1997; 157: 13-40

    Abstract

    We review the development of the hematopoietic system, focusing on the transition from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to T cells. This includes the isolation of HSCs, and recent progress in understanding their ontogeny, homing properties, and differentiation. HSC transplantation is reviewed, including the kinetics of reconstitution, engraftment across histocompatibility barriers, the facilitation of allogeneic engraftment, and the mechanisms of graft rejection. We describe progress in understanding T-cell development in the bone marrow and thymus as well as the establishment of lymph nodes. Finally, the role of bcl-2 in regulating homeostasis in the hematopoietic system is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XL05000002

    View details for PubMedID 9255619

  • Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced comobilization of CD4(-)CD8(-) T cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD34(+)) in the blood of normal donors BLOOD KUSNIERZGLAZ, C. R., Still, B. J., Amano, M., Zukor, J. D., Negrin, R. S., Blume, K. G., Strober, S. 1997; 89 (7): 2586-2595

    Abstract

    The feasibility of transplantation of HLA-matched hematopoietic progenitor cells from the blood of normal donors given granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been reported recently. In the current study, the changes in T-cell subsets as well as CD34+ cells were determined in one blood volume leukapheresis products of six normal individuals given G-CSF. Examination of the T-cell subsets in the leukapheresis products showed three different patterns: one in which a discrete population of CD4- CD8- alphabeta T cells was found in addition to the typical CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the unfractionated as well as in high- and low-density cells; a second in which the discrete population of CD4- CD8- alphabeta T cells was predominant only in the low-density fractions; and a third in which a discrete population of CD4- CD8- T cells was not observed. The median yield of CD4- CD8- T cells was about fourfold to fivefold higher than the calculated number present in one blood volume (5L) from normal individuals. The ratios of CD34+ cells to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and of CD4- CD8- T cells to CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, were highest in the low-density fractions. These fractions suppressed the mixed leukocyte, and may ameliorate graft-versus-host disease as compared with unfractionated cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WQ35900041

    View details for PubMedID 9116306

  • Effects of growth hormone and estrogen on T lymphocytes in older women JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN GERIATRICS SOCIETY Bonello, R. S., Marcus, R., Bloch, D., Strober, S. 1996; 44 (9): 1038-1042

    Abstract

    To assess the effect on peripheral blood T lymphocytes of recombinant human growth hormone administered to healthy older women.Prospective, open study.Veterans Administration clinical research unit and community surrounding Palo Alto, California.Thirty-three women were recruited in two age groups: 20 to 40 years (n = 13) and 70 years or older (n = 24). Subjects were healthy, community-dwelling volunteers.Recombinant human growth hormone at a dose of 0.025 mg/kg body weight/day was administered to the older subjects by daily subcutaneous injection over a 6-month study period.Mean percentage and number of peripheral blood CD45RA + ("naive") T cells, mean counts per minute (CPM) of [3H]-thymidine incorporation following stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with phytohemaglutinin (T cell proliferation).Before therapy, mean percentage and number of peripheral blood CD45RA + T cells and T cell proliferative responses were significantly reduced in older compared with younger women. The fraction of older women with CD45RA + T cell levels or T cell proliferative responses in the young range was significantly decreased in those who were receiving estrogen (1/10) compared with those who were not (9/14). After treatment with growth hormone, there were no significant changes in the mean CD45RA + T cell levels or proliferative responses of the older women.The results suggest that T cell changes associated with the age-related decline in secretion of growth hormone cannot be reversed by growth hormone therapy during the eighth decade.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VF44000003

    View details for PubMedID 8790227

  • Mechanisms of tolerance to rat heart allografts using posttransplant TLI - Changes in cytokine expression TRANSPLANTATION Zeng, D. F., Ready, A., Hute, P., Hayamizu, K., Holm, B., Yin, D. P., Sibley, R. K., Strober, S. 1996; 62 (4): 510-517

    Abstract

    Lewis rats were rendered tolerant to ACI heart allografts using a regimen of posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), rabbit antithymocyte or antilymphocyte globulin (RATG or RALG), and a single donor blood transfusion. All three treatment modalities were required to induce tolerance. The mechanism of the maintenance of tolerance was investigated by comparing the secretion of cytokines in the MLR, and the expression of cytokine mRNA in the allografts of tolerant and nontolerant Lewis rats. Although, the 3H-thymidine incorporation and secretion of IL-2 was frequently comparable in the MLR from tolerant and nontolerant rats, the secretion of IFN-gamma was markedly reduced in the tolerant rats. This was reflected in a markedly reduced frequency of cells expressing IFN-gamma mRNA in the allografts of tolerant as compared with nontolerant hosts. The frequency of cells expressing IL-2 and IL-10 mRNA was also reduced, but no significant difference was observed for cells with IL-4 mRNA. Spleen cells from nontolerant rats rapidly rejected ACI allografts in irradiated adoptive hosts, but spleen cells from tolerant rats did not. Evaluation of the cytokine mRNA expression at early and late time points in the allografts of adoptive hosts showed a pattern similar to that of the primary hosts. Thus, the tolerant state was associated with a maintenance or elevation of IL-4 expression and a marked reduction of IFN-gamma expression. Previous reports have shown that TLI alone induced this shift in the early recovery phase after irradiation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996VE75100014

    View details for PubMedID 8781618

  • Different patterns of TCR transgene expression in single-positive and double-negative T cells - Evidence for separate pathways of T cell maturation JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Cheng, L. R., DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Liblau, R., Zeng, D. F., Strober, S. 1996; 156 (10): 3591-3601

    Abstract

    Two lines of transgenic mice were established using the TCR alpha (V alpha 4.4-J alpha 24)- and beta (V beta 9-D beta 1.1-J beta 2.1)-chain genes from a cloned CD4-CD8-alpha beta + (double-negative; DN) T cell line from BALB/c mice. The TCR genes were expressed in CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ (single-positive; SP) and double-positive (DP) T cells in the thymus, and in SP T cells in the peripheral lymphoid tissues, and marrow in one transgenic mouse line, and predominantly in DN T cells in the other. Bone marrow precursor cells from only the DN mouse line generated T cells expressing the V beta 9 transgene during tissue culture. V beta 9+ T cells were found in DN but not SP transgenic mice backcrossed to BALB/c nu/nu mice. The results suggest two separate pathways of T cell maturation, one which generates SP T cells in the thymus, and another which generates DN T cells in both the thymus and bone marrow.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UJ34100004

    View details for PubMedID 8621892

  • Double negative (CD4(-)CD8(-)alpha beta(+)) T cells which promote tolerance induction and regulate autoimmunity IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Strober, S., Cheng, L. R., Zeng, D. F., Palathumpat, R., DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Huie, P., Sibley, R. 1996; 149: 217-230

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UC52100010

    View details for PubMedID 9005216

  • EXTRATHYMIC MATURATION OF ALPHA-BETA T-CELLS FROM HEMATOPOIETIC STEM-CELLS JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Jerabek, L., Weissman, I. L., Strober, S. 1995; 155 (7): 3338-3344

    Abstract

    The object of the study was to determine whether alpha beta T cells can develop from hemopoietic stem cells in the absence of the thymus. C57BL/6 (Ly-5.1 and Thy-1.2) mice were thymectomized or sham-thymectomized at 4 wk of age, and received lethal whole body irradiation 2 wk later. These mice were reconstituted with an i.v. injection of 500 highly purified hemopoietic stem cells (Mac-1-, B220-, TER-119-, CD3-, CD4-, CD8-, Thy 1low, SCA-1+) obtained from the bone marrow of C57BL/6 (Ly-5.2 and Thy-1.1) donors. A similar percentage of Ly-5.2+ alpha beta T cells (donor) was found in the marrow of thymectomized recipients, sham-thymectomized recipients, and normal donor mice at least 3 mo after stem cell transplantation. The percentage of Ly-5.2+ alpha beta T cells in the spleens of sham-thymectomized and normal donor mice was similar. The percentage in the spleens of thymectomized recipients was reduced by about 50%, and approximately one-half of the latter T cells expressed the CD4-CD8- alpha beta+ phenotype. A purified population of Ly-5.2+ alpha beta- cells obtained from the marrow of thymectomized recipients was incubated in vitro for 48 h without exogenous growth factors. After the incubation procedure a proportion of the marrow cells acquired alpha beta TCR surface receptors. The results show that alpha beta T cells can develop from hemopoietic stem cells in the absence of the thymus.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RV93900010

    View details for PubMedID 7561027

  • THE ROLE OF PURIFIED CD8(+) T-CELLS IN GRAFT-VERSUS-LEUKEMIA ACTIVITY AND ENGRAFTMENT AFTER ALLOGENEIC BONE-MARROW TRANSPLANTATION TRANSPLANTATION Palathumpat, V., DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Strober, S. 1995; 60 (4): 355-361

    Abstract

    The ability of highly purified CD8+ T cells to mediate GVL activity and facilitate engraftment of allogeneic bone marrow cells was studied in the C57BL/Ka-->BALB/c mouse strain combination. Splenic CD8+ T cells were enriched by depletion of CD4+ T cells by "planning" or purified by positive selection by cell sorting. Although C57BL/Ka bone marrow cells reconstitute lethally irradiated BALB/c mice without severe GVHD, the addition of at least 1.0 x 10(6) donor spleen cells induced uniform acute lethal GVHD. Equivalent doses of spleen cells depleted of CD4+ T cells failed to induce lethal GVHD. Allogeneic bone marrow cells alone failed to mediate antitumor activity against the BCL1 B cell leukemia/lymphoma as compared with syngeneic bone marrow and spleen cell injections. Despite the inability to induce severe GVHD, CD4+ T cell-depleted allogeneic spleen cells prevented the progressive growth of the BCL1 tumor, and eliminated BCL1 idiotype-positive tumor cells in the blood. In order to determine whether CD8+ T cells can prevent tumor growth in the absence of other spleen cell subsets, such as NK cells, that are present in the CD4- populations, highly purified CD8+ T cells were obtained by positive selection using flow cytometry. The latter cells prevented the progressive growth of the tumor, and markedly reduced the level of tumor cells in the blood. Sorted CD8+ T cells facilitated the engraftment of allogeneic marrow cells in sublethally irradiated hosts. Thus, addition of highly purified CD8+ T cells to marrow cells provides GVL activity and facilitates engraftment without inducing severe GVHD in most recipients.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RR81200010

    View details for PubMedID 7652765

  • ENRICHMENT OF BONE-MARROW AND BLOOD PROGENITOR (CD34(+)) CELLS BY DENSITY GRADIENTS WITH SUFFICIENT YIELDS FOR TRANSPLANTATION EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY Schriber, J. R., DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., KUSNIERZGLAZ, C. R., Ginzton, N., Still, B., Negrin, R. S., Greenberg, P., Strober, S. 1995; 23 (9): 1024-1029

    Abstract

    We have evaluated the use of iso-osmolar Percoll density gradients to enrich CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and to reduce T cells for purposes of bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood cell transplantation (BMT or PBCT). Samples from 12 normal BM donors and 11 patients undergoing mobilization of PB cells using chemotherapy and G-CSF were placed over a five-step density gradient from 40 to 50% Percoll. In BM, low-density fractions 1 to 3 (40 to 45% Percoll) accounted for 3% of starting nucleated cells with a 10- to 20-fold enrichment of hematopoietic progenitors (CD34+ cells) and a 20-fold reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In PB, fractions 1 to 3 accounted for 20 to 30% of the starting nucleated cells with a five-fold enrichment of hematopoietic progenitors. Based on these values, such populations have been used for clinical transplantation using a single apheresis. The reduced cell numbers in the low-density fractions can facilitate tumor purging, and the reduced T cell numbers present in the marrow may ameliorate graft-vs.-host disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RP11800011

    View details for PubMedID 7543414

  • SIMILAR RATES OF PRODUCTION OF T-LYMPHOCYTES AND B-LYMPHOCYTES IN THE BONE-MARROW JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Okazaki, H., Strober, S. 1995; 181 (6): 2201-2211

    Abstract

    The rate of renewal of T lymphocytes in the bone marrow of euthymic C57BL/Ka and athymic nu/nu BALB/c mice was estimated by in vivo labeling with bromodeoxyuridine. T lymphocytes accounted for 16-18% of marrow cells in euthymic mice as judged by immunofluorescent staining with monoclonal antibodies for Thy-1, CD3, and alpha/beta T cell antigen receptor markers. About 70% of marrow cells expressed receptors (Mac-1, Gr-1, B220) for myeloid, macrophage, and B lineage cells. Approximately 13% of cells in the athymic bone marrow expressed alpha/beta T cell receptors. Sorted marrow T cells proliferated in response to stimulation with anti-alpha/beta antibodies in vitro and showed functional rearrangements of V beta and J beta genes. Sorted non-T cells did not respond to stimulation in vitro, and all V beta and J beta gene rearrangements identified were nonfunctional. In vivo labeling studies indicated that approximately 17 x 10(6) bone marrow T cells are renewed daily in euthymic mice and approximately 14 x 10(6) are renewed in athymic mice. Approximately 11 x 10(6) mature B cells (immunoglobulin M+) are renewed daily in the bone marrow of the latter mice. To determine whether marrow precursors can give rise to T cells directly, marrow cells from euthymic and athymic mice were depleted of T cells by cell sorting and incubated in vitro for 48 h in the absence of exogenous growth factors or thymic stromal cells. Examination of the cells after culture showed that 10-12% stained brightly for alpha/beta T cell receptors. Although functional rearrangements of V beta and J beta genes were not detected before culture, the majority of rearrangements were functional after culture. The emergence of the bright alpha/beta T cells in culture was dependent on depletion T cells from the marrow cells before culture. The results suggest that most marrow T cells are generated in the marrow itself.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RA60500028

    View details for PubMedID 7760006

  • INDUCTION OF TOLERANCE TO HEART ALLOGRAFTS IN RATS USING POSTTRANSPLANT TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION AND ANTI-T CELL ANTIBODIES TRANSPLANTATION WOODLEY, S. L., Gurley, K. E., HOFFMANN, S. L., Nicolls, M. R., Hagberg, R., CLAYBERGER, C., Holm, B., Wang, X. G., Hall, B. M., Strober, S. 1993; 56 (6): 1443-1447

    Abstract

    This study examined whether posttransplant anti-T cell monoclonal or polyclonal antibody therapy could provide a window of treatment to allow posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) to induce tolerance. These experiments were conducted in a high responder strain combination of an ACI cardiac allograft into a Lewis rat. In this situation, treatment with antibody or posttransplant TLI alone is insufficient to induce tolerance, while similar treatments alone have been shown to induce tolerance in low responder strains. The affects of three anti-T cell therapies were compared: anti-CD4 mAb therapy, anti-CD3 mAb, and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (RATG). None of these antibody therapies alone prolonged graft survival indefinitely. Combining anti-CD4 therapy with posttransplant TLI markedly delayed rejection but failed to induce long-term graft survival. Tolerance could be induced by a combination of anti-pan T cell antibody (anti-CD3) and TLI, and, all grafts survived beyond 100 days. RATG failed to prevent graft rejection when used alone or in combination with TLI. However, posttransplant therapy with a combination of RATG, TLI, and single-donor blood transfusion resulted in graft survival beyond 100 days. Recipients bearing long-term donor grafts rejected third-party (PVG) grafts within 2 weeks. Low density donor bone marrow cells used instead of a blood transfusion did not facilitate tolerance. The results indicate that monoclonal or polyclonal anti-pan T cell antibodies, TLI, and a donor blood cell infusion function synergistically in facilitating tolerance to allografts in the posttransplant period.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MQ05600031

    View details for PubMedID 8279017

  • HOMOGENEOUS ANTIGEN RECEPTOR BETA-CHAIN GENES IN CLONED CD4- CD8- ALPHA-BETA T-SUPPRESSOR CELLS JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY SCHMIDTWOLF, I. G., Liang, O., DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Wang, H., Cheng, L. R., Holm, B., Bell, R., Strober, S. 1993; 151 (10): 5348-5353

    Abstract

    The rearrangements of beta-chain genes of the T cell Ag receptor were examined in 12 CD4- CD8- alpha beta + T cell lines derived from the spleen or thymus of neonatal or adult BALB/c mice. Eleven of the lines were cloned and established from six independent cloning procedures from different mice. Five cloned lines used V beta 9, four cloned lines used V beta 15, and two cloned lines used V beta 7. Nucleotide sequencing of the beta-chain genes showed that clones that used a given V beta were identically rearranged even when they were derived from independent cloning procedures. In the case of V beta 7 and V beta 15 all nucleotides in the V-D-J joining region were in the germ line configuration without N region additions. Rearrangements of the V beta 7, V beta 9, and V beta 15 genes were functional. Each V beta 15 clone also had a homogeneous rearrangement of the V beta 13 gene, which was nonfunctional. The predicted amino acid sequence of the joining regions of the V beta 7, V beta 9, and V beta 15 rearrangements showed homology in four of seven amino acids in the peptide contact region.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MF99500024

    View details for PubMedID 8228230

  • T-CELL SUBSETS AND SUPPRESSOR CELLS IN HUMAN BONE-MARROW BLOOD SCHMIDTWOLF, I. G., DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Ginzton, N., Greenberg, P., Strober, S. 1992; 80 (12): 3242-3250

    Abstract

    To characterize immune suppressive and hematopoietic features of enriched subsets of human marrow cells, we separated these cells on Percoll density gradients. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (CD3+) were enriched in the high-density marrow cell fractions and reduced in low-density fractions. CD4-CD8- (CD3+) T cells expressing the alpha beta T-cell antigen receptor were at least 10 times less numerous than the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in all fractions. Purified populations of the CD4-CD8- alpha beta + T cells obtained by flow cytometry suppressed the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Another population of suppressor cells that expressed neither T-cell (CD3) nor natural killer cell (CD16) surface markers was also identified. The latter cells had the phenotypic and functional characteristics of "natural suppressor" cells. Suppressor cell activity was enriched in the low-density fractions along with hematopoietic progenitors (colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage and burst-forming unit-erythroid). The progenitor and suppressor cell activities were depleted in high-density fractions. The latter fractions made vigorous responses in the MLR. The low-density fractions, which accounted for less than 10% of the input marrow cells, suppressed the MLR and did not respond. Further evaluation of the low-density fractions may be of value in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation due to the reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and the enrichment of hematopoietic progenitors as well as immune suppressor cells that may inhibit graft-versus-host disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KC83800034

    View details for PubMedID 1467527

  • DIFFERENT SUBSETS OF T-CELLS IN THE ADULT-MOUSE BONE-MARROW AND SPLEEN INDUCE OR SUPPRESS ACUTE GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Palathumpat, V., DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Holm, B., Strober, S. 1992; 149 (3): 808-817

    Abstract

    Fractionation of normal adult mouse spleen and bone marrow cells (C57BL/Ka) was performed by discontinuous Percoll density gradients. The fractionated low density (1.050-1.060 g/ml) C57BL/Ka spleen cells completely suppressed acute lethal graft vs host disease (GVHD) when coinjected with unfractionated C57BL/Ka spleen cells into sublethally irradiated (400 rad) BALB/c mice. In dose response experiments, as few as 0.5 x 10(6) low density cells from the spleen fractions suppressed acute GVHD induced by 2.5 x 10(6) unfractionated allogeneic spleen cells. Although the low density spleen fractions inhibited acute GVHD, the high density (1.075-1.090 g/ml) spleen fractions induced acute GVHD in sublethally irradiated BALB/c recipients. Fractionation of C57BL/Ka bone marrow cells showed that none of the high or low density fractions or unfractionated cells induced lethal GVHD. When these fractions were tested for their capacity to suppress GVHD by coinjection with C57BL/Ka unfractionated spleen cells, all fractions protected the BALB/c recipients. Unfractionated bone marrow cells showed modest protection. Evaluation of the dose response characteristics of the suppressive activity of the low and middle density (1.060-1.068 g/ml) bone marrow cell fraction showed that reproducible protection could be achieved at a 5:1 ratio of inducing to suppressing cells. The low density fractions of both bone marrow and spleen cells had a marked depletion of typical TCR(+)-alpha beta CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, and a predominant population of TCR(+)-alpha beta CD4- CD8- T cells. Purified populations of the latter cells suppressed GVHD. Recipients given unfractionated C57BL/Ka spleen cells and protected with low-density bone marrow or spleen cells were chimeras.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JF47400010

    View details for PubMedID 1386094

  • TREATMENT OF BCL(1) LEUKEMIA BY TRANSPLANTATION OF LOW-DENSITY FRACTIONS OF ALLOGENEIC BONE-MARROW AND SPLEEN-CELLS JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Palathumpat, V., Holm, B., DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Strober, S. 1992; 148 (10): 3319-3326

    Abstract

    C57BL/Ka bone marrow and spleen cells fractionated by density gradients were transplanted to lethally irradiated (800 rad) BALB/c recipients. Unfractionated bone marrow and spleen cell mixtures (1:1), or high density fractions of these cells induced acute lethal graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). In contrast, low and middle density fractions of bone marrow and spleen cell mixtures reconstituted the irradiated hosts, and the majority survived for at least 100 days. The latter cells contained sufficient hemopoietic cells for reconstitution, but were deficient in inducing GVHD. Examination of the T cell subsets in the low density fractions showed a reduction of typical alpha beta TCR+ CD4+ or CD8+ cells and little change in the proportion of alpha beta TCR+ CD4- CD8- cells. BALB/c mice injected with the BCL1 B cell leukemia/lymphoma were lethally irradiated and transplanted with unfractionated BALB/c or C57BL/Ka bone marrow and spleen mixtures or low density fractions of C57BL/Ka mixtures. All control unirradiated BALB/c mice given the BCL1 tumor cells died by day 55. Almost all BALB/c mice given the BCL1 tumor cells, irradiation, and injected with a syngeneic marrow and spleen mixture died by day 95. All of the latter recipients tested showed evidence of tumor relapse. Almost all BALB/c mice given BCL1 cells, irradiation, and a C57BL/Ka unfractionated marrow and spleen mixture died by day 40. The survival of BALB/c mice given BCL1 cells, irradiation, and a low density fraction of the C57BL/Ka mixture was markedly prolonged as compared to those recipients given unfractionated allogeneic or syngeneic mixtures. None of the low density fraction recipients tested showed evidence of tumor relapse. Similar results were obtained with leukemic C57BL/Ka x BALB/c F1 hybrid mice. Thus, the low density fraction fails to induce acute lethal GVHD, but retains graft-vs-leukemia activity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HU68600050

    View details for PubMedID 1578152

  • STUDIES OF CD4- CD8- ALPHA-BETA-BONE MARROW T-CELLS WITH SUPPRESSOR ACTIVITY JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Palathumpat, V., DEJBAKHSHJONES, S., Holm, B., Wang, H., Liang, O., Strober, S. 1992; 148 (2): 373-380

    Abstract

    The predominant T cell subset in the bone marrow of specific pathogen-free C57BL/Ka and BALB/c mice expressed the alpha beta+ TCR CD4- CD8- surface phenotype. Purified C57BL/Ka alpha beta+ TCR CD4- CD8- marrow cells obtained by cell sorting suppressed the MLR of C57BL/Ka responder and BALB/c stimulator spleen cells. Although the percentage of typical T cells in the spleen was markedly reduced in adult nude mice or normal neonatal mice as compared to the normal adult, the percentage of alpha beta+ TCR CD4- CD8- cells in the spleen and marrow was not. The percentage of "self-reactive" V beta 5+ T cells in the BALB/c spleen was markedly reduced as compared to that in the C57BL/Ka spleen. However, the percentages in the bone marrow were similar. The results indicate that the predominant subset of marrow T cells in these pathogen-free mice differ with regard to surface marker phenotype, function, dependence on the adult thymus, and deletion of certain self-reactive V beta receptors as compared to typical spleen T cells. The marrow T cells appear to develop directly from marrow precursors without rearranged beta chain genes during a 48 hour in vitro culture.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992GZ96500010

    View details for PubMedID 1309556

  • IDENTIFICATION OF A FACTOR(S) FROM CLONED MURINE NATURAL SUPPRESSOR CELLS THAT INHIBITS IL-2 SECRETION DURING ANTIGEN-DRIVEN T-CELL ACTIVATION CELLULAR IMMUNOLOGY VANVLASSELAER, P., Niki, T., Strober, S. 1991; 138 (2): 326-340

    Abstract

    Crude supernatants were obtained from cloned murine natural suppressor (NS) cells activated in vitro with phorbol-myristate-acetate (PMA) and calcium ionophore (A23187). Supernatants suppressed IL-2 production in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) with BALB/c spleen cells, but no reduction was observed in the response to PHA, Con A, or anti-CD3 antibody. Suppressive activity was partially purified by DEAE ion exchange chromatography, and inhibited the antigen-presenting function of the macrophage line 1G18-LA in an assay system with the ovalbumin-specific T cell hybridoma, 3DO-18.3. In addition, the antigen-presenting function of the A20 B cell line was inhibited in an assay with a sperm whale myoglobin (SpWMb)-specific T cell hybridoma (8.2.1d.H1a). Results with blocking antibodies suggest that this factor appears to be a unique cytokine.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GP54900006

    View details for PubMedID 1834346

  • THYMIC IRRADIATION INHIBITS THE RAPID RECOVERY OF TH1 BUT NOT TH2-LIKE FUNCTIONS OF CD4+ T-CELLS AFTER TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION CELLULAR IMMUNOLOGY Bass, H., Adkins, B., Strober, S. 1991; 137 (2): 316-328

    Abstract

    Four to six weeks after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), there is a selective deficit in the CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-2, proliferate in the MLR, and induce GVHD (Th1-like functions). A similar deficit in CD4+ T cells which secrete IL-4 and help antibody responses (Th2-like functions) is not observed. In the present study, shielding of the thymus with lead during TLI increased the Th1-like functions of CD4+ cells. Mice without thymus shields showed a marked selective reduction in the medullary stromal cells identified with the monoclonal antibody, MD1, and the severe reduction was prevented with thymus shields. Thus, shielding the thymus prevents the depletion of thymic medullary stromal cells and allows for a rapid recovery of Th1-like functions in the mouse spleen after TLI. Th2-like functions recover rapidly after TLI whether or not the thymus is irradiated.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GH27000005

    View details for PubMedID 1680027

  • REGULATION OF THYMOCYTE PROLIFERATION BY ALPHA BETA-TCR+ CD3+ CD4- CD8- CLONED NATURAL SUPPRESSOR (NS) CELLS CELLULAR IMMUNOLOGY VANVLASSELAER, P., Fischer, M., Strober, S., Zlotnik, A. 1991; 136 (1): 1-15

    Abstract

    Cloned alpha beta TcR+ CD3+ CD4- CD8- T cells, with natural suppressor (NS) activity, were cocultured with thymocytes in the presence or absence of mitogen or cytokines. Whereas thymocytes show a minimal response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), IL-2, or IL-4 alone, they proliferate vigorously when cocultured with irradiated cloned NS cells in the presence of PHA or IL-2 or IL-4, but not with IL-1, IL-3, IL-6, IL-7, IFN-gamma, or GM-CSF. Among a total of 11 NS cell clones, derived from the spleen or thymus, only one clone (NR-1) did not induce thymocyte activation in synergy with PHA. This costimulation is most likely mediated by soluble factor(s), since supernatants, obtained from NS cells activated with phorbol ester (PMA) and calcymicin (A23187) or with solid phase anti-CD3 mAb, enhance thymocyte DNA synthesis in the presence of a mixture of PHA, IL-2, and IL-4. The latter factor does not appear to be a previously described lymphokine, since PMA- and A23187-activated NS cells secrete IL-3, TGF-beta, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, and TNF-alpha, but not IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, nor IL-10. None of the factors, identified in the NS cell supernatants, was able to stimulate thymocyte DNA synthesis. This study shows that, in addition to their previously reported suppressor function, cloned NS cells can exert immunostimulatory activities by virtue of a soluble mediator.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FW32000001

    View details for PubMedID 1829396

  • LYMPHOCYTE-T-SYNOVIAL FIBROBLAST INTERACTIONS INDUCED BY MYCOBACTERIAL PROTEINS IN RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Holoshitz, J., Kosek, J., Sibley, R., Brown, D. A., Strober, S. 1991; 34 (6): 679-686

    Abstract

    An in vitro system was established in which single-cell suspensions of lymphocytes and synovial cells from the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis were cultured and produced an outgrowth of an organized inflammatory tissue with an extracellular matrix and capsule. The tissue outgrowth, which had histologic features of pannus, required the addition of mycobacterial antigen and interleukin-2 to the tissue culture medium and was dependent upon the presence of T lymphocytes and their interaction with synovial fibroblasts.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FR47300006

    View details for PubMedID 1905130

  • EXTENT OF GLOMERULAR INJURY IN ACTIVE AND RESOLVING LUPUS NEPHRITIS - A THEORETICAL-ANALYSIS AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY Myers, B. D., Chagnac, A., GOLBETZ, H., Newton, L., Strober, S., Sibley, R. K. 1991; 260 (5): F717-F727

    Abstract

    Patients with diffuse, proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN) were subjected to differential solute clearances (n = 22) and serial renal biopsy (n = 11) before and again after 6-12 mo of immunosuppressive therapy. Glomerular sieving of dextrans of graded size was analyzed with a heteroporous membrane model. This revealed active DPLN to be associated with 1) a reduction of overall pore density accompanied by a 53% depression of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and 2) appearance of a subset of large, nondiscriminatory pores, which accounted for the observed nephrotic level of proteinuria. Morphometric analysis of biopsy tissue provided evidence of reduced filtration surface area due to global or segmental occlusion of capillary loops in glomerular tufts. Activity of DPLN resolved posttreatment. A computed increase in pore density was associated with a 24% increment in GFR; a marked reduction in the fraction of shuntlike pores was accompanied by a parallel reduction of proteinuria into a subnephrotic range. Repeat biopsy revealed diminished glomerular cellularity, fewer immune deposits, and an ensuing increase in the fraction of tuft area occupied by patent loops. Epithelial filtration slit frequency also increased. Neither functional nor structural recovery was complete, however. Residual pore density approximated only 23-35% of that in healthy controls, and corresponding shuntlike pores were threefold more prominent. We conclude that severe DPLN is only partially reversible by current modalities of treatment and that the ensuing residual injury is far more severe than suggested by conventional tests of renal function.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FM77800088

    View details for PubMedID 2035658

  • INDUCTION OF UNRESPONSIVENESS TO ORGAN ALLOGRAFTS - A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE PROTOCOLS IN DA AND WF STRAINS OF RATS TRANSPLANTATION ILANO, A. L., Spinelli, A., Gurley, K. E., Strober, S., Hall, B. M. 1991; 51 (4): 905-909

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FH38000034

    View details for PubMedID 1901677

  • MECHANISMS OF IMMUNE INJURY IN RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS - EVIDENCE FOR THE INVOLVEMENT OF T-CELLS AND HEAT-SHOCK PROTEIN IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Strober, S., Holoshitz, J. 1990; 118: 233-255

    Abstract

    Evidence for the involvement of T cells, especially CD4+ T cells, in the pathogenesis of RA is substantial and includes 1) the correlation between prolonged CD4+ T-cell depletion and improvement in joint disease in the absence of observable changes in the levels of autoantibodies (rheumatoid factors) in the blood and joints, 2) the infiltration of the inflamed synovial tissues with T cells and, 3) the increased susceptibility of individuals to RA with certain HLA-DR haplotypes. The most direct evidence for the involvement of CD4+ T cells is provided by recent studies which demonstrate rapid improvement in the joint disease manifestations of RA following the infusion of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies (Herzog et al. 1989, Walker et al. 1989). It is unlikely that T cells alone are responsible for the joint injury in RA. Autoantibodies (rheumatoid factors) in the joint which contribute to the release of complement breakdown products, and to the secretion of cytokines such as IL-1 by macrophages must also play an important role. Indeed, depletion of CD4+ cells after TLI or therapy with monoclonal antibody reduces, but does not eliminate, joint disease activity. The residual joint disease activity is probably influenced by the continued contribution of autoantibodies to joint injury. Production of these autoantibodies may not be dependent on help from CD4+ cells, since little change is observed in autoantibody levels after CD4+ cell depletion. The mechanisms by which T cells mediate to the joint disease in RA are not clear. Little or no direct evidence of cytotoxic effects of T cells on autologous joint cells has been reported. Considerable evidence suggests that at least some T-cell cytokines (i.e., TNF alpha, IL-6) can contribute to the proliferation of synovial lining cells which results in the marked build-up of inflammatory tissue (pannus) in the joints of patients with RA (Firestein et al. 1990). In addition, T cells may recruit other joint cells, such as macrophages, to secrete cytokines (i.e., IL-1) which both contribute to synovial cell proliferation, and cartilage and bone degeneration. The marked reduction in the spontaneous secretion of IL-1 by synovial biopsies, and improvement in disease activity after TLI support this notion. Interestingly, the CD4+ T-cell lymphokines, IL-2 and IFN-gamma, were not spontaneously secreted in detectable quantities by synovial biopsies. This suggests that the pattern of lymphokines secreted by T cells in the joint in RA are not typical of that in delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EU70000009

    View details for PubMedID 1967122

  • B-CELL INFILTRATION OF THE THYMIC MEDULLA IN NEW-ZEALAND BLACK, NEW-ZEALAND WHITE, AND (NEW-ZEALAND BLACK X NEW-ZEALAND WHITE) F1-MICE - EFFECT OF TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Farinas, M. C., Adkins, B., STALL, A. M., Weissman, I., Strober, S. 1990; 33 (5): 702-710

    Abstract

    Thymuses from female (New Zealand black x New Zealand white)F1 [( NZB x NZW]F1), New Zealand black, and New Zealand white mice of different ages were examined by immunohistochemical and flow cytometric analysis. Two-and-a-half-month-old (NZB x NZW)F1 mice showed infiltration of the thymus with B cells, and by 6-8 months of age, showed a disruption of the entire medullary area. More than 80% of the thymic B cells had the phenotypic characteristics of conventional B cells (IgM+, IgD+, Ly-1-). Total lymphoid irradiation induced a marked depletion of medullary B cells and a restoration of the thymic architecture.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DE73800012

    View details for PubMedID 2346525

  • LY-1 B-CELLS AND DISEASE-ACTIVITY IN (NEW-ZEALAND BLACK X NEW-ZEALAND WHITE) F1-MICE - EFFECT OF TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Farinas, M. C., STALL, A. M., SOLOVERA, J. J., Tarlinton, D. M., Herzenberg, L. A., Strober, S. 1990; 33 (4): 553-562

    Abstract

    The treatment of female (New Zealand black x New Zealand white)F1 mice with total lymphoid irradiation resulted in a prolonged remission of autoimmune disease activity. Total lymphoid irradiation-treated mice also showed a marked reduction of Ly-1 B cells, which lasted up to 3 months. The subsequent return of Ly-1 B cells to preirradiation levels was not associated with a simultaneous return of disease when measured by parameters such as IgG anti-DNA antibodies and spontaneous secretion of IgG by splenic cells. In cell sorting experiments, most of the cells spontaneously secreting IgG were found within the Ly-1- (CD5-) splenic B cell population.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CZ97400013

    View details for PubMedID 2328033

  • DEFICITS IN T HELPER-CELLS AFTER TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION (TLI) - REDUCED IL-2 SECRETION AND NORMAL IL-2 RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN THE MIXED LEUKOCYTE REACTION (MLR) CELLULAR IMMUNOLOGY Bass, H., Strober, S. 1990; 126 (1): 129-142

    Abstract

    Spleen cells from BALB/c mice treated with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and from normal, unirradiated mice were compared in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). Although the percentage of CD4+ cells in the spleen was close to normal, 4 to 6 weeks after TLI, the MLR of unfractionated spleen cells from irradiated mice was more than 10-fold lower than controls. A similar reduction was observed when purified CD4+ cells were used as responders in the MLR. Secretion of IL-2 by cells from irradiated mice was also about 10-fold lower than controls. However, the percentage of CD4+ and CD8+ cells which expressed IL-2 surface receptors during the MLR was similar using spleen cells from irradiated and control mice. Addition of an exogenous source of IL-2 restored the proliferative capacity of the irradiated cells and suggests that the lack of IL-2 secretion is the likely explanation of the marked deficit in the MLR of CD4+ spleen cells after TLI.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990CP72500011

    View details for PubMedID 2137375

  • RECOGNITION OF SELF CLASS-II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX ANTIGENS BY CD8+ T-CELL CLONES DERIVED FROM RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS SYNOVIAL-MEMBRANE AUTOIMMUNITY Gaston, J. S., Solovera, J., Strober, S. 1990; 8 (2): 115-123

    Abstract

    T cells from rheumatoid synovium have been expanded in vitro as lines and clones using autologous Epstein-Barr virus-transformed stimulator cells. Both lines and clones recognized autologous class II MHC antigens in the absence of defined exogenous antigens i.e. the equivalent of the autologous mixed lymphocyte response. Surprisingly, despite their MHC specificity, several clones expressed CD8 rather than CD4, but were not cytotoxic. The function of CD8+ T cells within synovium has not previously been defined; in view of their unusual phenotype, they may exert an immuno-modulating role upon the inflammatory response within the joint, by responding to the high density of class II MHC antigens expressed in the rheumatoid synovium.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EW81600005

    View details for PubMedID 2129494

  • EVIDENCE FOR MOUSE TH1-LIKE AND TH2-LIKE HELPER T-CELLS INVIVO - SELECTIVE REDUCTION OF TH1-LIKE CELLS AFTER TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Bass, H., Mosmann, T., Strober, S. 1989; 170 (5): 1495-1511

    Abstract

    Purified CD4+ BALB/c spleen T cells obtained 4-6 wk after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) helped normal syngeneic B cells to produce a vigorous antibody response to TNP keyhole limpet hemocyanin in adoptive cell transfer experiments. However, the same cells failed to transfer delayed-type hypersensitivity to the adoptive hosts as measured by a foot pad swelling assay. In addition, purified CD4+ cells from TLI-treated mice were unable to induce graft vs. host disease in lethally irradiated allogeneic C57BL/Ka recipient mice. In response to mitogen stimulation, unfractionated spleen cells obtained from TLI mice secreted normal levels of IL-4 and IL-5, but markedly reduced levels of IL-2 and INF-gamma. A total of 229 CD4+ clones from spleen cells of both normal and TLI-treated mice were established, and the cytokine secretion pattern from each clone was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the ratio of Th1- and Th2-like clones in the spleens of normal BALB/c mice is 1:0.6, whereas the ratio in TLI mice is approximately 1:7. These results suggest that Th2-like cells recover rapidly (at approximately 4-6 wk) after TLI treatment and account for the early return of antibody helper activity and secretion of IL-4 and IL-5, but Th1-like cells recover more slowly (in approximately 3 mo) after irradiation, and this accounts for the deficit in cell-mediated immunity and the reduced amount of IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AX71800002

    View details for PubMedID 2572669

  • OUTCOME OF THE ACUTE GLOMERULAR INJURY IN PROLIFERATIVE LUPUS NEPHRITIS JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Chagnac, A., Kiberd, B. A., Farinas, M. C., Strober, S., Sibley, R. K., Hoppe, R., Myers, B. D. 1989; 84 (3): 922-930

    Abstract

    Treatment with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and corticosteroids markedly reduced activity of systemic lupus erythematosis in 10 patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis (DPLN) complicated by a nephrotic syndrome. Physiologic and morphometric techniques were used serially before, and 12 and 36 mo post-TLI to characterize the course of glomerular injury. Judged by a progressive reduction in the density of glomerular cells and immune deposits, glomerular inflammation subsided. A sustained reduction in the fractional clearance of albumin, IgG and uncharged dextrans of radius greater than 50 A, pointed to a parallel improvement in glomerular barrier size-selectivity. Corresponding changes in GFR were modest, however. A trend towards higher GFR at 12 mo was associated with a marked increase in the fraction of glomerular tuft area occupied by patent capillary loops as inflammatory changes receded. A late trend toward declining GFR beyond 12 mo was associated with progressive glomerulosclerosis, which affected 57% of all glomeruli globally by 36 mo post-TLI. Judged by a parallel increase in volume by 59%, remaining, patent glomeruli had undergone a process of adaptive enlargement. We propose that an increasing fraction of glomeruli continues to undergo progressive sclerosis after DPLN has become quiescent, and that the prevailing GFR depends on the extent to which hypertrophied remnant glomeruli can compensate for the ensuing loss of filtration surface area.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AN25900027

    View details for PubMedID 2760219

  • CLONED NATURAL SUPPRESSOR-CELL LINES EXPRESS THE CD3+CD4-CD8- SURFACE PHENOTYPE AND THE ALPHA,BETA-HETERODIMER OF THE T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Strober, S., DEJBACHSHJONES, S., VANVLASSELAER, P., DUWE, G., Salimi, S., Allison, J. P. 1989; 143 (4): 1118-1122

    Abstract

    Several cloned lines of natural suppressor (NS) cells were studied for their expression of the TCR complex. Almost all bore the CD3+CD4-CD8- surface phenotype with the alpha, beta TCR as judged by immunofluorescent staining. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed a spot on two-dimensional gels which is characteristic of the TCR heterodimer, but neither gamma- nor delta-chains could be precipitated with the appropriate antibodies. NS cells were stimulated to proliferate in vitro with anti-CD3 antibodies and PMA in the presence of irradiated spleen cells. However, anti-CD3 antibodies did not inhibit the suppressive activity of the NS cells. The role of the TCR complex in the suppressive function of these cells remains to be elucidated.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AK03500006

    View details for PubMedID 2526181

  • Acquired immune tolerance to cadaveric renal allografts. A study of three patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation. New England journal of medicine Strober, S., Dhillon, M., Schubert, M., Holm, B., Engleman, E., Benike, C., Hoppe, R., Sibley, R., Myburgh, J. A., Collins, G. 1989; 321 (1): 28-33

    View details for PubMedID 2525231

  • NATURAL SUPPRESSOR CELLS DERIVED FROM ADULT SPLEEN AND THYMUS TRANSPLANTATION SCHWADRON, R. B., Palathumpat, V., Strober, S. 1989; 48 (1): 107-110

    Abstract

    Natural suppressor (NS) cell lines were derived from the spleen and thymus of adult mice using procedures previously used to derive NS cells from neonatal spleen. Adult spleen-derived NS cells showed slightly greater suppression of the MLR than neonatal spleen-derived NS cells, and thymus-derived NS cells showed the least suppression. Adult spleen-derived NS cells prevented death from lethal GVHD when administered to sublethally irradiated weanling mice that received an otherwise lethal GVHD provoking inoculum. The stable cell surface phenotype of adult tissue-derived NS cells was similar to that previously described for neonatal and TLI spleen-derived NS cells: strongly positive for Thy 1.2, Ly-5, and asialo-GM1 antigens while negative for Ly-1, Ly-2, L3T4, MAC-1, and surface immunoglobulin.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AG02900025

    View details for PubMedID 2526401

  • TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION REDUCES IGG AUTOANTIBODY PRODUCTION AND ENHANCES SPECIFIC ANTIBODY-RESPONSES IN NZB/NZW F1-MICE CELLULAR IMMUNOLOGY Farinas, M. C., Strober, S. 1989; 121 (2): 423-432

    Abstract

    Thymus-independent primary antibody responses were studied in young and old (9 months) untreated and TLI-treated NZB/NZW and BALB/c mice. Untreated old NZB/NZW mice had a low primary response to Brucella abortus (BA) as compared to that of young NZB/NZW and BALB/c mice. However, TLI treatment resulted in a 130-fold increase in the IgG anti-BA primary antibody response at day 21 postimmunization, achieving similar levels to those of young NZB/NZW or nonautoimmune BALB/c mice. Anti-TNP responses to trinitrophenylated BA or Ficoll were masked by high background levels of anti-TNP antibodies. Despite the increase in the anti-BA response, spontaneous immunoglobulin secretion and autoantibody levels were markedly decreased after TLI in old NZB/NZW mice.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AD23900022

    View details for PubMedID 2500257

  • ISOLATION OF CD4- CD8- MYCOBACTERIA-REACTIVE LYMPHOCYTE-T CLONES FROM RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS SYNOVIAL-FLUID NATURE Holoshitz, J., Koning, F., Coligan, J. E., Debruyn, J., Strober, S. 1989; 339 (6221): 226-229

    Abstract

    The majority of peripheral T cells express a heterodimeric, alpha/beta T-cell receptor, which recognizes specific antigenic peptides bound to self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and either the CD4 or CD8 surface markers. An additional subset of T cells, whose physiological function is unknown, express a distinct CD3-associated receptor composed of gamma and delta chains. This subset includes cells lacking both CD4 and CD8 surface markers, which may be involved in autoimmunity. The recognition specificity of the gamma/delta receptors is not well characterized and has been defined in only one case to date, a murine cell line which shows MHC-linked specificity. In this report, we describe the isolation of CD4- CD8-, gamma/delta TCR bearing T cell clones from the synovial fluid of a rheumatoid arthritis patient. These T cell clones respond specifically to mycobacterial antigens without MHC restriction.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U651000061

    View details for PubMedID 2524009

  • CARDIAC ALLOGRAFT PROLONGATION IN MICE TREATED WITH COMBINED POSTTRANSPLANTATION TOTAL-LYMPHOID IRRADIATION AND ANTI-L3T4 ANTIBODY THERAPY TRANSPLANTATION TRAGER, D. K., Banks, B. A., Rosenbaum, G. E., HOLM, B. I., Shizuru, J. A., Strober, S., Fathman, C. G. 1989; 47 (4): 587-591

    Abstract

    Neonatal cardiac allograft survival was examined in mice treated with anti-L3T4 antibody, posttransplantation total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) or a combination of both therapies. Independently, both posttransplantation TLI and short-course antibody treatment allowed minimal prolongation. However, synergistic prolongation in graft survival was observed with the combination (synergistic) therapy. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes from animals treated with combined anti-L3T4 and posttransplantation TLI additionally revealed "synergy" with respect to the degree of peripheral lymphocyte depletion.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U208300004

    View details for PubMedID 2523098

  • HETEROGENEOUS EFFECTS OF IFN-GAMMA IN ADJUVANT ARTHRITIS JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Jacob, C. O., Holoshitz, J., VANDERMEIDE, P., Strober, S., McDevitt, H. O. 1989; 142 (5): 1500-1505

    Abstract

    In an attempt to evaluate the role of IFN-gamma in autoimmune arthritis, we tested the effects of IFN-gamma and anti-IFN-gamma mAb (DB-1) in various phases of arthritis development in a rat model for rheumatoid arthritis; the adjuvant arthritis (AA) model, induced by immunization with CFA. In addition, the effects of IFN-gamma were tested in vitro on T cell clones derived from rats afflicted with AA. T cell clone A2b, which has been shown to be arthritogenic secreted low amounts of IFN-gamma and its Ag-specific proliferation was inhibited by IFN-gamma. In contrast, clone A2c, which can inhibit the development of AA, produced high amounts of IFN-gamma and its proliferation was increased by IFN-gamma. In vivo administration of IFN-gamma 24 h before CFA caused an enhancement of arthritis, whereas giving IFN-gamma 24 to 48 h after CFA suppressed the disease. Administration of IFN-gamma between day +4 to +12 or between day +12 to +24 increased the severity of the first phase of the disease, but had no effect later. Administration of DB-1 1 to 2 days before adjuvant or between day +4 to +8 substantially decreased the disease, whereas DB-1 given from day +12 to +24 significantly enhanced it. Taken together, these results illustrate the heterogeneity of IFN-gamma in autoimmune arthritis and suggest a rational explanation for the possibly conflicting reports regarding the role(s) and effects of IFN-gamma in autoimmune processes. The multistage nature of T cell-mediated autoimmune arthritis may be due to the predominance of distinct T cell populations at different stages of the disease. The differences in the biologic activities of these T cells may be due to their patterns of lymphokine production.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989T427000014

    View details for PubMedID 2493048

  • CHANGES IN LYMPHOCYTE-B FUNCTION IN RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS AND LUPUS NEPHRITIS AFTER TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM SOLOVERA, J. J., Farinas, M. C., Strober, S. 1988; 31 (12): 1481-1491

    Abstract

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis and patients with lupus nephritis underwent total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from these patients showed a decrease in pokeweed mitogen-induced immunoglobulin secretion after TLI. A defect in non-T cells contributed to the decreased response. No defect in the response of non-T cells to T cell-independent activators of B cells, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1 and Epstein-Barr virus, was observed after TLI. We conclude that TLI induces a selective deficit in B cells, which respond to T cell-dependent mitogen stimulation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988R456500004

    View details for PubMedID 2848530

  • LY-1 B-CELL CLONES SIMILAR TO HUMAN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIAS ROUTINELY DEVELOP IN OLDER NORMAL MICE AND YOUNG AUTOIMMUNE (NEW ZEALAND BLACK-RELATED) ANIMALS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA STALL, A. M., Farinas, M. C., Tarlinton, D. M., Lalor, P. A., Herzenberg, L. A., Strober, S., Herzenberg, L. A. 1988; 85 (19): 7312-7316

    Abstract

    Studies presented here demonstrate that individually expanded clones of murine Ly-1 B cells, perhaps analogous to the expanded neoplastic Leu-1 B-cell clones in human chronic lymphocytic leukemias, are universally detectable in young New Zealand Black (NZB)-related autoimmune mice and in senescent normal mice (greater than 18 months old). These clones are visible as phenotypically homogeneous cell populations in multiparameter fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses of peritoneal and splenic B cells; they show unique immunoglobulin heavy- and light-chain gene rearrangements in Southern gel analyses of peritoneal and splenic DNA; and, like the self-replenishing Ly-1 B-cell population from which they are drawn, they tend to grow readily in irradiated or unirradiated syngeneic or allotype congenic hosts. Furthermore, they develop and generalize in primary and secondary hosts in a characteristic pattern (peritoneum much greater than spleen greater than lymph node greater than bone marrow) that suggests that their initial growth is controlled by the mechanisms that normally control Ly-1 B-cell distribution in lymphoid organs. The universal emergence of these clones within the Ly-1 B-cell lineage may be explained by the substantially greater opportunity for hyperplastic and neoplastic transformation events in this long-lived self-replenishing Ly-1 B-cell population, which must divide relatively frequently to maintain its normal size throughout adulthood. Repeated exposure to internal or environmental antigens (with which Ly-1 B cells are known to react) may also play a role in driving the development of these clones.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q358500058

    View details for PubMedID 3262873

  • TREATMENT OF LUPUS NEPHRITIS WITH TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION - OBSERVATIONS DURING A 12-79-MONTH FOLLOW-UP ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Strober, S., Farinas, M. C., Field, E. H., SOLOVERA, J. J., Kiberd, B. A., Myers, B. D., Hoppe, R. T. 1988; 31 (7): 850-858

    Abstract

    Seventeen patients with intractable lupus nephritis and nephrotic syndrome were treated with total lymphoid irradiation. Statistically significant improvement in mean renal disease and serologic activity parameters occurred within 3 months and persisted for at least 3 years. Although there was a marked reduction of T helper cell numbers and function after total lymphoid irradiation, recovery of these parameters was not associated with a return of disease activity. Risks of sterility, severe infections, and hematologic malignancy appeared to be lower than with alkylating agents.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988P390700005

    View details for PubMedID 3260782

  • TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION LEADS TO TRANSIENT DEPLETION OF THE MOUSE THYMIC MEDULLA AND PERSISTENT ABNORMALITIES AMONG MEDULLARY STROMAL CELLS JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Adkins, B., GANDOUR, D., Strober, S., Weissman, I. 1988; 140 (10): 3373-3379

    Abstract

    Mice given multiple doses of sublethal irradiation to both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid tissues showed major transient, and some persistent disruptions in general thymic architecture and in thymic stromal components. At 2 wk after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), the thymus lacked identifiable medullary regions by immunohistochemical analyses. Medullary stromal cells expression MHC Ag or a medullary epithelial cell Ag, as well as medullary macrophages, were undetectable. Instead, the processes of cortical epithelial cells were observed throughout the entire thymus. Strikingly, thymocyte subsets with mature phenotypes (CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+) were present in the apparent absence of a medulla. This early, gross effect was rapidly reversed such that by 1 to 2 mo after TLI, medullary areas with MHC Ag-positive cells were evident. However, abnormalities in a subset of medullary stromal cells appeared to be more persistent. Medullary epithelial cells, identified by the MD1 mAb, were greatly reduced in number and abnormally organized for at least 4 mo after TLI. In addition, macrophages containing endogenous peroxidase activity, normally abundant in medullary regions, were undetectable at all times examined after TLI. Therefore, this irradiation regimen induced both transient and long term effects in the thymus, primarily in medullary regions. These results suggest that TLI may be used as an experimental tool for studying the impact of selective depletion of medullary stromal cells on the development of specific T cell functions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N240500015

    View details for PubMedID 2452185

  • IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE LYMPHOKINE DERIVED FROM NATURAL SUPPRESSOR CELLS JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY HERTELWULFF, B., Strober, S. 1988; 140 (8): 2633-2638

    Abstract

    Cloned natural suppressor (NS) cells derived from spleens of total lymphoid irradiated BALB/c mice were incubated with the phorbol ester, PMA, and calcimycin for 4 h. After thorough washing, the induced NS cells were incubated in serum-free medium for 24 h and the supernatants were collected. The supernatants suppressed the MLR between normal adult responder and stimulator spleen cells. There was no Ag specificity or H-2 haplotype restriction of the MLR suppression. The supernatants did not inhibit [3H]thymidine incorporation per se, because they did not suppress mitogen stimulation of spleen cells. Protease digestion of the supernatants removed the suppressive activity, and dialysis studies indicated that the molecular size of the suppressive factor was larger than 50,000 Da and smaller than 100,000 Da. The suppressive activity was stable at 56 degrees C, pH 2, for 1 h. Thus, NS cell clones can be induced to secrete an immunosuppressive lymphokine, NS factor.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M900100025

    View details for PubMedID 2965727

  • CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDIES OF CADAVERIC RENAL-TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS GIVEN TOTAL-LYMPHOID IRRADIATION AND MAINTAINED ON LOW-DOSE PREDNISONE TRANSPLANTATION Saper, V., Chow, D., ENGLEMAN, E. D., Hoppe, R. T., Levin, B., Collins, G., Strober, S. 1988; 45 (3): 540-546

    Abstract

    Twenty-five recipients of cadaveric renal transplants were given total lymphoid irradiation (TLI), perioperative antithymocyte globulin, and low-dose prednisone as the sole maintenance immunosuppressive drug. Nine patients were diabetic, and follow-up was between 19 and 37 months. One-year graft and patient survival was 76% and 87%, respectively, Serious complications included four deaths from cardiovascular disorders, and two deaths from viral infections. Studies of peripheral blood T cell subsets showed a prolonged reduction in the absolute number of helper (Leu-3+) cells, and a rapid recovery of cytotoxic/suppressor (Leu-2+) cells. Analysis of the latter subset, using the monoclonal antibody 9.3, showed that the ratio of suppressor/cytotoxic cells was approximately 10:1. The normal ratio is 1:1. The mean mixed leukocyte reaction remained below 30% of the pre-TLI value for 6 months, and approached 80% at two years. Similar kinetics were observed in the proliferative response to mitogens. The results show that maintenance immunosuppressive drug therapy can be reduced after TLI as compared with conventional drug regimens that use prednisone in combination with cyclosporine and/or azathioprine.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M597000008

    View details for PubMedID 3279577

  • DISSECTION OF THE MECHANISMS OF IMMUNE INJURY IN RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS, USING TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Gaston, J. S., Strober, S., SOLOVERA, J. J., GANDOUR, D., Lane, N., Schurman, D., Hoppe, R. T., CHIN, R. C., Eugui, E. M., Vaughan, J. H., Allison, A. C. 1988; 31 (1): 21-30

    Abstract

    Eleven patients with intractable rheumatoid arthritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation. After radiotherapy, there was a marked decrease in the number and function of peripheral blood helper/inducer (Leu-3+) T lymphocytes, in the spontaneous secretion of interleukin-1 by synovial biopsy specimens, and in the activity of the joint disease. In contrast, levels of IgM, IgA, and IgG rheumatoid factors and C3 concentrations in blood and synovial fluid samples did not change significantly after therapy with total lymphoid irradiation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M309400004

    View details for PubMedID 3257873

  • ROLE OF NATURAL SUPPRESSOR CELLS IN BONE-MARROW TRANSPLANTATION TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS Strober, S., HERTELWULFF, B., SCHWADRON, R. B. 1987; 19 (6): 88-94

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987L382200016

    View details for PubMedID 2962358

  • TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION IN ALLOIMMUNITY AND AUTOIMMUNITY JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Strober, S. 1987; 111 (6): 1051-1055

    Abstract

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987L199500014

    View details for PubMedID 3316580

  • EFFECT OF TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION ON IGE ANTIBODY-RESPONSES IN RHEUMATOID-ARTHRITIS AND SYSTEMIC LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY Terr, A. I., Moss, R. B., Strober, S. 1987; 80 (6): 798-802

    Abstract

    Thirteen patients with rheumatoid arthritis and four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and nephritis were treated with total lymphoid irradiation because of severe disease refractory to other forms of treatment. Serum samples before and after irradiation were tested for changes in total serum IgE and for changes in specific IgE antibodies to ryegrass pollen, dust mite, cat dander, and Alternaria. There were no statistically significant changes in total or specific IgE from lymphoid irradiation in these patients. The therapy caused a significant decrease in circulating total lymphocyte and Leu-3 (helper/inducer) T-lymphocyte counts. Therefore, reduction in circulating levels of helper/inducer T cells does not appear to influence preexisting levels of IgE antibodies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987L502000005

    View details for PubMedID 3320160

  • LUPUS NEPHRITIS AFTER TOTAL LYMPHOID IRRADIATION - PERSISTENT IMPROVEMENT AND REDUCTION OF STEROID-THERAPY ANNALS OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Strober, S., Farinas, M. C., Field, E. H., SOLOVERA, J. J., Kiberd, B. A., Myers, B. D., Hoppe, R. T. 1987; 107 (5): 689-690

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K850900015

    View details for PubMedID 3662281

  • REARRANGEMENT AND EXPRESSION OF T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES IN CLONED MURINE NATURAL SUPPRESSOR-CELL LINES JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE HERTELWULFF, B., LINDSTEN, T., SCHWADRON, R., Gilbert, D. M., DAVIS, M. M., Strober, S. 1987; 166 (4): 1168-1173

    Abstract

    Naturally occurring suppressor cells of the in vitro mixed leukocyte culture reaction and of in vivo graft-vs.-host disease have been identified in the spleens of neonatal mice (1) and of adult mice recovering from total lymphoid irradiation (2), whole-body irradiation (3), and syngeneic marrow transplantation (4), or cyclophosphamide therapy (5). Using both positive and negative selection procedures, the suppressors were reported to be null lymphocytes that did not express mature macrophage surface markers, nor differentiate into mature macrophages in vitro, nor demonstrate natural killer (NK) activity (1). Subsequently, cloned lines of these natural suppressor (NS) cells were derived from either adult mice given total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) (2) or from neonates (6). The cloned NS cell lines expressed a surface phenotype (2, 6) similar to that reported previously for cloned NK cells (Thy-1(+), asialo-GM1(+), Ig(-), Lyt-1(-), Lyt-2(-), Ia(-), MAC-1(-)) (7-9). However, the NS cells did not show NK activity in the standard assay with YAC-1 target cells. The cloned NS lines suppressed the proliferation of responder cells and the generation of cytolytic cells in the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR), and suppressed lethal graft-vs.-host disease in vivo (10, 11). In view of the unusual function and surface phenotype of the cells, the lineage of these cells remained unclear. To determine the lineage of the cloned NS cells, we searched for expression and rearrangement of the alpha and beta chain genes of the T cell antigen receptor, as well as that of the gamma chain gene. Studies of the phenotypically similar NK cell yielded conflicting results. Thus, cloned lines of murine NK cells were reported to have rearrangements of the beta chain genes, and to express mRNA for all three chains (12). In contrast, freshly purified rat or human large granular lymphocytes (LGL) were shown to express only the 1.0 kb mRNA species of the beta chain gene (13), indicative of D-J joining (14). Thus, some but not all cells with NK function express the T cell receptor and are members of the T cell lineage. The current report shows that the NS lines express full-length mRNA transcripts for the a and beta chain of the T cell receptor, as well as the gamma chain gene.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987K464000031

    View details for PubMedID 2958579

  • CLONED NATURAL SUPPRESSOR CELLS PREVENT LETHAL GRAFT-VS-HOST DISEASE JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Strober, S., Palathumpat, V., SCHWADRON, R., HERTELWULFF, B. 1987; 138 (3): 699-703

    Abstract

    Cloned natural suppressor (NS) cell lines derived from the spleens of TLI-treated adult BALB/c or neonatal BALB/c mice were assayed for their ability to inhibit acute GVHD in vivo. Two assay systems were used to measure GVHD: spleen enlargement of F1 hybrid neonates, and mortality of sublethally irradiated homozygous weanling mice after the i.p. injection of fresh allogeneic spleen cells. Both lines of NS cells significantly reduced GVHD, but the control HT-2 cell line (T cell line of BALB/c origin) did not affect GVHD. The NS cells reduced GVHD regardless of the strain combination of the donor and recipient. Thus, suppression occurred without restriction by the major histocompatibility complex, and without antigenic specificity.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987F910000007

    View details for PubMedID 2949006

  • PREVENTION OF GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE BY NATURAL SUPPRESSOR CELLS TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS HERTELWULFF, B., Palathumpat, V., SCHWADRON, R., Strober, S. 1987; 19 (1): 536-539

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G101300163

    View details for PubMedID 2950624

  • CLONED NATURAL SUPPRESSOR CELLS DERIVED FROM THE NEONATAL SPLEEN - INVITRO ACTION AND LINEAGE TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS SCHWADRON, R. B., Strober, S. 1987; 19 (1): 533-535

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G101300162

    View details for PubMedID 2978921

  • INVITRO-PROPAGATION AND CLONING OF MURINE NATURAL SUPPRESSOR CELLS - SUPPRESSION OF ALLOREACTIVITY TRANSPLANTATION PROCEEDINGS HERTELWULFF, B., Palathumpat, V., Strober, S. 1985; 17 (1): 1121-1123

Conference Proceedings


  • Uniform Long-Term Graft Survival in a Clincial Trial of the Induction of Tolerance to Kidney Transplants. Scandling, J., Busque, S., Shori, A., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Shizuru, J., Lowsky, R., Benike, C., Engleman, E., Strober, S. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2013: 200-200
  • Natural killer 1.1(+)T cells and "natural suppressor" T cells in the bone marrow Strober, S. MOSBY-ELSEVIER. 2000: S113-S114

    Abstract

    Unusual cells in the bone marrow of mice and/or humans suppress immune responses and inhibit the mixed leukocyte reaction, graft-versus-host disease, and systemic autoimmunity. Previous studies showed that these "natural suppressor" T cells expressed the CD4(-)CD8(-) T-cell receptor-alphabeta(+) phenotype. More recent studies demonstrate that the latter cells express the natural killer 1.1 (NK1.1) marker and are members of the NK1.1(+) T-cell family that secrete high levels of IFN-gamma and IL-4 after initial activation. The suppressive activity of the bone marrow NK1.1(+) T cells is dependent on their rapid secretion of high levels of IL-4. This unique cytokine secretion is not observed in conventional NK1. 1(-) T cells and can downregulate the function of the latter cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088482600017

    View details for PubMedID 10887344

  • Donor cells that facilitate tolerance to rat heart allografts after posttransplant total lymphoid irradiation and rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin Hayamizu, K., Zeng, D., Strober, S. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1999: 25S-26S

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080281200008

    View details for PubMedID 10330965

  • Long-term results of total lymphoid irradiation in the treatment of cardiac allograft rejection Wolden, S. L., Tate, D. J., Hunt, S. A., Strober, S., Hoppe, R. T. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1997: 953-960

    Abstract

    To evaluate the short and long-term effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the treatment of cardiac transplant rejection.Between 1986 and 1995, 48 courses of TLI were delivered to 47 cardiac transplant patients. In 37 patients, TLI was administered for intractable allograft rejection despite conventional therapy while 10 patients received TLI prophylactically. The prescribed radiation dose was 8 Gy in 0.8 Gy fractions twice weekly to mantle and inverted-Y plus spleen fields. Postirradiation follow-up ranged from 6 months to 9.1 years, with a mean of 3.1 years.The actual mean dose was 7.3 Gy delivered over a mean of 39 days. Fifty-six percent of patients required treatment delay or abbreviation because of thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, infection, or unrelated problems. In patients treated for intractable rejection, rejection rates dropped from 0.46 to 0.14 and to 0.06 episodes/patient/month before, during, and after TLI (p < 0.0001). Rejection rates continued to drop throughout follow-up. Prednisone requirements decreased from 0.41 mg/kg before treatment to 0.21 mg/kg afterward (p < 0.0001). The ratio of helper to cytotoxic-suppressor T-cells decreased during TLI from 1.33 to 0.89, and remained low at 0.44, 2-4 months after treatment. Infection rates were not increased and two patients developed malignancy. Rejection rates were high during prophylactic treatment and this protocol was abandoned. Three-year actuarial survival after irradiation was 60% for patients with intractable rejection and 70% for the prophylactic cohort.TLI is an effective treatment for control of intractable cardiac rejection. Episodes of rejection and steroid dosage requirements are decreased for up to 9.1 years. A possible mechanism of action is long term alteration in T-lymphocyte subsets. Patients experience transient bone marrow suppression but no increase in infection or bleeding. Long-term complications of TLI are not appreciably different than conventional immunosuppression.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YG83800002

    View details for PubMedID 9392531

  • Enrichment of allogeneic CD34+ cells and T cell depletion by percoll density gradient centrifugation Negrin, R. S., KUSNIERZGLAZ, C., Blume, K. G., Strober, S. STOCKTON PRESS. 1996: S31-S33

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UG02500008

    View details for PubMedID 8722331

  • T-CELL TOLERANCE Strober, S. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1991: 34-35

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV39000013

    View details for PubMedID 1990549

  • ALPHA-BETA TCR+ CD3+ CD4- CD8- CLONED NATURAL SUPPRESSOR (NS) CELLS PRODUCE AN IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE FACTOR WHICH IS DIFFERENT FROM IFN-GAMMA AND TGF-BETA VANVLASSELAER, P., Strober, S. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 1991: 200-202

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991EV39000076

    View details for PubMedID 1824974

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