Bio

Bio


I am a clinical health psychologist and health services researcher interested in improving psychosocial well-being of chronically ill patients. I am interested in barriers and facilitators of chronic illness self-management, with a focus on alleviating mental illness and improving caregiver involvement.

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • BA, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (India), Clinical Psychology (1996)
  • MS, Augusta State University, Clinical Psychology (1998)
  • MA, Duke University, Clinical Psychology (Health track) (2004)
  • PhD, Duke University, Clinical Psychology (Health track) (2006)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Enhancing the role of informal caregivers in chronic disease self-management; assessment and treatment of mental illness in primary care settings; psychosocial antecedents and consequences of cardiovascular disease.

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Recruitment and retention rates in behavioral trials involving patients and a support person: A systematic review. Contemporary clinical trials Trivedi, R. B., Szarka, J. G., Beaver, K., Brousseau, K., Nevins, E., Yancy, W. S., Slade, A., Voils, C. I. 2013; 36 (1): 307-318

    Abstract

    Recruitment and retention challenges impede the study of behavioral interventions among patient-support person dyads.The aim of the study was to characterize recruitment and retention rates of behavioral interventions involving dyads.Using PRISMA guidelines and with the guidance of a medical librarian, we searched Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials, PsycInfo, and CINAHL from inception until July 2011. Eligible articles involved RCTs of behavioral interventions targeting adult patients with a non-psychiatric illness and a support person. Sample and study characteristics, recruitment and retention strategies, and recruitment and retention rates were abstracted in duplicate. Quality of reporting was determined on a 5-point scale. Due to the heterogeneity in data reporting and missing data, a narrative synthesis was undertaken.53 unique studies involving 8081 dyads were included. 9 studies were ascertained to have a "high quality" of reporting. A majority of the studies did not report target sample size, time to complete recruitment, and sample sizes at each follow-up time point. Strategies employed to recruit support persons were rarely reported. 16 studies did not report the number of dyads screened. The mean recruitment rate was 51.2% (range: 4.3%-95.4%), and mean retention rate was 77.5% (range: 36%-100%).Details regarding recruitment and retention methodology were sparse in these interventions. Where available, data suggests that resources need to be devoted towards recruitment of sample but that retention rates are generally adequate.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cct.2013.07.009

    View details for PubMedID 23916918

  • The Influence of Informal Caregivers on Adherence in COPD Patients ANNALS OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE Trivedi, R. B., Bryson, C. L., Udris, E., Au, D. H. 2012; 44 (1): 66-72

    Abstract

    Contributions of informal caregivers to adherence among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients remain understudied.This study aims to evaluate the association between caregiver presence and adherence to medical recommendations among COPD patients.Three hundred and seventy-four COPD patients were asked whether they had a caregiver. Medication adherence was assessed using pharmacy refill data. Smoking status was based on patient self-report. One-way ANOVAs and chi-square analyses were performed controlling for age and number of illnesses.Compared with the "no caregiver" group, antihypertensive medications adherence was higher in the "spousal caregiver" (0.68 vs. 0.81; 95% CI=0.04 and 0.22) and "non-spousal caregiver" (0.68 vs. 0.80; 95% CI=0.03 and 0.22) groups; long-acting beta agonist adherence was higher in the "spousal caregiver" group (0.60 vs.0.80; 95% CI=0.05 and 0.43). Patients in the "spousal caregiver" group had fewer current smokers compared with the "no caregiver" (χ(2)=16.08; p<0.001) and "non-spousal caregiver" (χ(2)=5.07; p<0.05) groups; those in the "non-spousal caregiver" group reported fewer smokers than the "no caregiver" group (χ(2)=4.54; p<0.05).Caregivers, especially spouses, may improve adherence in COPD. Future interventions may target patients without caregivers to optimize COPD management.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12160-012-9355-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308822700010

    View details for PubMedID 22422104

  • Examining the Interrelatedness of Patient and Spousal Stress in Heart Failure Conceptual Model and Pilot Data JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR NURSING Trivedi, R. B., Piette, J., Fihn, S. D., Edelman, D. 2012; 27 (1): 24-32

    Abstract

    Recent research has highlighted the positive influence that spouses can have on patient outcomes. It is not clear whether patients and spouses influence each other's well-being reciprocally or whether spousal well-being affects the success of patients' disease management. Our goals were 2-fold: (a) to propose a conceptual framework to examine the reciprocity between patient and spouses' well-being, especially as it relates to disease management, and (b) to begin to assess the validity of this model using pilot data.Twenty-three veterans with heart failure (HF) and their spouses were recruited into a pilot cross-sectional observational study. Participants completed psychosocial surveys to assess depressive symptoms, caregiver burden, relationship satisfaction, and disease management. Descriptive analyses and bivariate correlations between these measures were calculated.Using standard cutoffs, analyses suggested clinically significant depressive symptoms in patients (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression score >16; mean, 21.8 [SD, 13]) and a high level of caregiver burden among spouses (Zarit Burden Interview score >15; mean, 22.4 [SD, 15.4]). Both patients and spouses reported high relationship satisfaction levels (Dyadic Adjustment Scale score >100; mean, 112.6 [SD, 26.5] and 115.9 [SD, 14.4], respectively). On average, patients reported poor disease management (Self-care of Heart Failure Index subscale <70 across all subscales: confidence = 53.3 [SD, 28.2]; maintenance = 59.7 [SD, 17.3]; management = 54.0 [SD, 19.4]). Patient depressive symptoms were positively correlated with spouse depressive symptoms (r = 0.53) and caregiver burden (r = 0.64; all P's < .05). Spouses' depressive symptoms were additionally correlated with lower levels of perceived social support among patients (r = -0.47), poor patient relationship satisfaction (r = -0.51), and worse patient confidence in HF management (r = -0.48). Greater caregiver burden was associated with more patient disease complaints (r = 0.49), poorer patients' relationship satisfaction (r = -0.72), and poorer patients' perceived social support (r = -0.73).These results provide preliminary support to the proposed conceptual model. Further research is necessary to determine which spousal factors appear to be most relevant to disease management. Disease management interventions may benefit from engaging spouses in a way that enhances their role without adding to their burden.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/JCN.0b013e3182129ce7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298376900004

    View details for PubMedID 21743348

  • Examination of the Utility of Psychotherapy for Patients with Treatment Resistant Depression: A Systematic Review JOURNAL OF GENERAL INTERNAL MEDICINE Trivedi, R. B., Nieuwsma, J. A., Williams, J. W. 2011; 26 (6): 643-650

    Abstract

    To examine the utility of psychotherapy in managing treatment resistant depression.PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, Cochrane Registry of Controlled Clinical Trials, article bibliographies.Eligible articles had to be in English and include English-speaking adult outpatients from general medical or mental health clinics. Studies had to be randomized clinical trials (RCT) involving at least one of the following psychotherapy modalities: cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, or behavior therapy. Patients were considered treatment resistant if they reported partial or no remission following treatment with an adequate antidepressant dose for ≥ 6 weeks. Exclusion criteria included receiving psychotherapy at the time of recruitment, and/or comorbid psychiatric conditions unlikely to be treated outside of specialized mental health care (e.g., severe substance abuse). Due to heterogeneity in study designs, a summary estimate of effect was not calculated. Studies were critically analyzed and a qualitative synthesis was conducted.Of 941 original titles, 13 articles evaluating 7 unique treatment comparisons were included. Psychotherapy was examined as an augmentation to antidepressants in five studies and as substitution treatment in two studies. A total of 592 patients were evaluated (Mean age ~40 y; Females = 50-85%; Caucasians ≥ 75%). The STAR*D trial used an equipoise stratified randomization design; the remaining studies were RCTs. Compared to active management, two good quality trials showed similar benefit from augmenting antidepressants with psychotherapy; one fair quality and one poor quality trial showed benefit from psychotherapy augmentation; and one good and one poor trial found similar benefit from substituting psychotherapy for antidepressants. One fair quality trial showed lithium augmentation to be more beneficial than psychotherapy.Review demonstrates the utility of psychotherapy in managing treatment resistant depression. However, evidence is sparse and results are mixed. Given that quality trials are lacking, rigorous clinical trials are recommended to guide practice. In the interim, primary care providers should consider psychotherapy when treating patients with treatment resistant depression.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11606-010-1608-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290576600016

    View details for PubMedID 21184287

  • Worsening Depressive Symptoms Are Associated With Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY Sherwood, A., Blumenthal, J. A., Hinderliter, A. L., Koch, G. G., Adams, K. F., Dupree, C. S., Bensimhon, D. R., Johnson, K. S., Trivedi, R., Bowers, M., Christenson, R. H., O'Connor, C. M. 2011; 57 (4): 418-423

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of changes in symptoms of depression over a 1-year period on subsequent clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients.Emerging evidence shows that clinical depression, which is prevalent among patients with HF, is associated with a poor prognosis. However, it is uncertain how changes in depression symptoms over time may relate to clinical outcomes.One-hundred forty-seven HF outpatients with ejection fraction of less than 40% were assessed for depressive symptoms using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at baseline and again 1 year later. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses, controlling for established risk factors, were used to evaluate how changes in depressive symptoms were related to a combined primary end point of death or cardiovascular hospitalization over a median follow-up period of 5 years (with a range of 4 to 7 years and no losses to follow-up).The 1-year change in symptoms of depression, as indicated by higher BDI scores over a 1-year interval (1-point BDI change hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02 to 1.12, p = 0.007), was associated with death or cardiovascular hospitalization after controlling for baseline depression (baseline BDI HR: 1.1, 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.14, p < 0.001) and established risk factors, including HF cause, age, ejection fraction, plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level, and prior hospitalizations.Worsening symptoms of depression are associated with a poorer prognosis in HF patients. Routine assessment of symptoms of depression in HF patients may help to guide appropriate medical management of these patients who are at increased risk for adverse clinical outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2010.09.031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286376500006

    View details for PubMedID 21251581

  • The association of emotional well-being and marital status with treatment adherence among patients with hypertension JOURNAL OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE Trivedi, R. B., Ayotte, B., Edelman, D., Bosworth, H. B. 2008; 31 (6): 489-497

    Abstract

    We were interested in examining the relationship between psychosocial factors and hypertension-related behaviors. We hypothesized that lower emotional well-being and unmarried status would be related to higher BP, poorer medication adherence, greater difficulty adhering to diet and exercise, and current smoking. In a cross-sectional design, 636 hypertensive patients completed the Mental Component Summary (MCS) Scale of the SF-12 and rated their difficulty with adherence to diet, exercise, and medication-taking. In logistic regression analyses, lower MCS scores were associated with difficulty adhering to diet (OR = 0.97, p < .05) and exercise (OR = 0.97, p < .01), and current smoking status (OR = 0.98, p < .05). Being married was associated with higher probability of medication adherence (OR = 1.66, p < .01) and a lower probability of being a current smoker (OR = 0.34, p < .0001). Neither MCS scores nor being married were related to BP levels in adjusted analyses. Results emphasize the importance of assessing psychosocial factors to optimize hypertension treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10865-008-9173-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260663000004

    View details for PubMedID 18780175

  • Relationship of depression to mortality and hospitalization in patients with heart failure Archives of Internal Medicine Sherwood, A., Blumenthal, J. A., Trivedi, R., Johnson, K. S., O'Connor, C., Adams, K. A., Sueta-Dupree, C., Waugh, R. A., Bensimhon, D. R., Gaulden, L., Koch, G. G., Hinderliter, A. L. 2007; 167: 367-373
  • Diabetes self-management support using mHealth and enhanced informal caregiving. Journal of diabetes and its complications Aikens, J. E., Zivin, K., Trivedi, R., Piette, J. D. 2014; 28 (2): 171-176

    Abstract

    To characterize diabetes patient engagement and clinician notifications for an mHealth interactive voice response (IVR) service.Observational study.For three to six months, VA patients with diabetes received weekly IVR calls assessing health status and self-care along with tailored education. Patients could enroll with an informal caregiver who received suggestions on self-management support. Notifications were issued to clinicians when patients reported significant problems.Patients (n=303) participated for a total of 5684 patient-weeks, during which 84% of calls were completed. The odds of call completion decreased over time (AOR=0.96, p<0.001), and were lower among unmarried patients (AOR=0.67, p=0.038) and those who had difficulties with health literacy (AOR=0.67, p=0.039), diabetes-related distress (AOR=0.30, p=0.018), or medication nonadherence (AOR=0.57, p=0.002). Twenty-one clinician notifications were triggered per 100 patient-weeks. The odds of notification were higher during the early weeks of the program (AOR=0.95, p<0.001) and among patients who were older (AOR=1.03, p=0.004) or more physically impaired (AOR=0.97, p<0.001).By providing information that is reliable, valid, and actionable, IVR-based mHealth services may increase access to between-visit monitoring and diabetes self-management support. The system detects abnormal glycemia and blood pressure levels that might otherwise go unreported, although thresholds for clinician notifications might require adjustment to avoid overloading clinicians. Patient engagement might be enhanced by addressing health literacy and psychological distress.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2013.11.008

    View details for PubMedID 24374137

  • A preliminary exploration of the feasibility of offering men information about potential prostate cancer treatment options before they know their biopsy results BMC MEDICAL INFORMATICS AND DECISION MAKING Zeliadt, S. B., Hannon, P. A., Trivedi, R. B., Bonner, L. M., Vu, T. T., Simons, C., Kimmie, C. A., Hu, E. Y., Zipperer, C., Lin, D. W. 2013; 13

    Abstract

    A small pre-test study was conducted to ascertain potential harm and anxiety associated with distributing information about possible cancer treatment options at the time of biopsy, prior to knowledge about a definitive cancer diagnosis. Priming men about the availability of multiple options before they have a confirmed diagnosis may be an opportunity to engage patients in more informed decision-making.Men with an elevated PSA test or suspicious Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) who were referred to a urology clinic for a biopsy were randomized to receive either the clinic's usual care (UC) biopsy instruction sheet (n = 11) or a pre-biopsy educational (ED) packet containing the biopsy instruction sheet along with a booklet about the biopsy procedure and a prostate cancer treatment decision aid originally written for newly diagnosed men that described in detail possible treatment options (n = 18).A total of 62% of men who were approached agreed to be randomized, and 83% of the ED group confirmed they used the materials. Anxiety scores were similar for both groups while awaiting the biopsy procedure, with anxiety scores trending lower in the ED group: 41.2 on a prostate-specific anxiety instrument compared to 51.7 in the UC group (p = 0.13). ED participants reported better overall quality of life while awaiting biopsy compared to the UC group (76.4 vs. 48.5, p = 0.01). The small number of men in the ED group who went on to be diagnosed with cancer reported being better informed about the risks and side effects of each option compared to men diagnosed with cancer in the UC group (p = 0.07). In qualitative discussions, men generally reported they found the pre-biopsy materials to be helpful and indicated having information about possible treatment options reduced their anxiety. However, 2 of 18 men reported they did not want to think about treatment options until after they knew their biopsy results.In this small sample offering pre-biopsy education about potential treatment options was generally well received by patients, appeared to be beneficial to men who went on to be diagnosed, and did not appear to increase anxiety unnecessarily among those who had a negative biopsy.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1472-6947-13-19

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316224400001

    View details for PubMedID 23388205

  • Factors associated with presenting > 12 hours after symptom onset of acute myocardial infarction among Veteran men BMC CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS McDermott, K., Maynard, C., Trivedi, R., Lowy, E., Fihn, S. 2012; 12

    Abstract

    Approximately 2/3 of Veterans admitting to Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities present >12 hours after symptom onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) ("late presenters"). Veterans admitted to VHA facilities with AMI may delay hospital presentation for different reasons compared to their general population counter parts. Despite the large descriptive literature on factors associated with delayed presentation in the general population, the literature describing these factors among the Veteran AMI population is limited. The purpose of this analysis is to identify predictors of late presentation in the Veteran population presenting with AMI to VHA facilities. Identifying predictors will help inform and target interventions for Veterans at a high risk of late presentation.In our cross-sectional study, we analyzed a cohort of 335 male Veterans from nine VHA facilities with physician diagnosed AMI between April 2005 and December 2006. We compared demographics, presentation characteristics, medical history, perceptions of health, and access to health care between early and late presenting Veterans. We used standard descriptive statistics for bivariate comparisons and multivariate logistic regression to identify independent predictors of late presentation.Our cohort was an average of 64 ± 10 years old and was 88% white. Sixty-eight percent of our cohort were late presenters. Bivariate comparisons found that fewer late presenters had attended at least some college or vocational school (late 53% vs. early 66%, p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis showed that presentation with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was associated with early presentation (OR = 0.4 95%CI [0.2, 0.9]) and ≥2 angina episodes in the prior 24 hours (versus 0-1 episode) was associated with late presentation (OR = 7.5 95%CI [3.6,15.6]).A significant majority of Veterans presenting to VHA facilities with AMI were late presenters. We found few differences between early and late presenters. Having a STEMI was independently associated with early presentation and reporting ≥2 angina episodes in the 24 hours prior to hospital admission was independently associated with late presentation. These independent predictors of early and late presentation are similar to what has been reported for the general population. Despite these similarities to the general population, there may be untapped opportunities for patient education within the VHA to decrease late presentation.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2261-12-82

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311604500001

    View details for PubMedID 23020779

  • BRIEF PSYCHOTHERAPY FOR DEPRESSION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PSYCHIATRY IN MEDICINE Nieuwsma, J. A., Trivedi, R. B., McDuffie, J., Kronish, I., Benjamin, D., Williams, J. W. 2012; 43 (2): 129-151

    Abstract

    Because evidence-based psychotherapies of 12 to 20 sessions can be perceived as too lengthy and time intensive for the treatment of depression in primary care, a number of studies have examined abbreviated psychotherapy protocols. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy of brief psychotherapy (i.e., < or =8 sessions) for depression.We used combined literature searches in PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and an Internet-accessible database of clinical trials of psychotherapy to conduct two systematic searches: one for existing systematic reviews and another for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Included studies examined evidence-based psychotherapy(s) of eight or fewer sessions, focused on adults with depression, contained an acceptable control condition, were published in English, and used validated measures of depressive symptoms. Results: We retained 2 systematic reviews and 15 RCTs evaluating cognitive behavioral therapy, problem-solving therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. The systematic reviews found brief psychotherapies to be more efficacious than control, with effect sizes ranging from -0.33 to -0.25. Our meta-analysis found six to eight sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy to be more efficacious than control (ES -0.42, 95% CI -0.74 to -0.10, 12 = 56%). A sensitivity analysis controlled for statistical heterogeneity but showed smaller treatment effects (ES -0.24, 95% CI -0.42 to -0.06, 12 = 0%).Depression can be efficaciously treated with six to eight sessions of psychotherapy, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy and problem-solving therapy. Access to non-pharmacologic treatments for depression could be improved by training healthcare providers to deliver brief psychotherapies.

    View details for DOI 10.2190/PM.43.2.c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305727700003

    View details for PubMedID 22849036

  • Cardiovascular hemodynamics during stress in premenopausal versus postmenopausal women MENOPAUSE-THE JOURNAL OF THE NORTH AMERICAN MENOPAUSE SOCIETY Sherwood, A., Park, S. B., Hughes, J. W., Blumenthal, J. A., Hinderliter, A., Trivedi, R., McFetridge-Durdle, J. 2010; 17 (2): 403-409

    Abstract

    After menopause, women are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The present study assessed cardiovascular hemodynamics in premenopausal versus postmenopausal women, with a focus on systemic vascular resistance (SVR) at rest and during stress. Sympathetic nervous system activity and cardiovascular adrenergic receptor (AR) function were also examined.A total of 90 women (45 premenopausal and 45 postmenopausal) completed a laboratory protocol composed of a resting baseline and four mental stress tasks. Measurements included blood pressure, cardiac output, SVR, and plasma catecholamine level. In addition, alpha- and beta-AR responsiveness to the infusion of selective pharmacological agonists was assessed.Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women were characterized by similar blood pressure but lower cardiac output and higher SVR, both at rest and during stress (Ps < 0.05). Postmenopausal women also had higher baseline plasma norepinephrine levels (P = 0.007) and reduced beta-AR responsiveness (P = 0.02), although differences in beta-AR responsiveness may have been confounded by aging effects.After menopause, women exhibit altered sympathetic nervous system activity and a sustained increase in hemodynamic load that may contribute to pathological structural and functional changes in the heart and blood vessels.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181b9b061

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275485200031

    View details for PubMedID 19770780

  • Is there a nonadherent subtype of hypertensive patient? A latent class analysis approach PATIENT PREFERENCE AND ADHERENCE Trivedi, R. B., Ayotte, B. J., Thorpe, C. T., Edelman, D., Bosworth, H. B. 2010; 4: 255-262

    Abstract

    To determine subtypes of adherence, 636 hypertensive patients (48% White, 34% male) reported adherence to medications, diet, exercise, smoking, and home blood pressure monitoring. A latent class analysis approach was used to identify subgroups that adhere to these five self-management behaviors. Fit statistics suggested two latent classes. The first class (labeled "more adherent") included patients with greater probability of adhering to recommendations compared with the second class (labeled "less adherent") with regard to nonsmoking (97.7% versus 76.3%), medications (75.5% versus 49.5%), diet (70.7% versus 46.9%), exercise (63.4% versus 27.2%), and blood pressure monitoring (32% versus 3.4%). Logistic regression analyses used to characterize the two classes showed that "more adherent" participants were more likely to report full-time employment, adequate income, and better emotional and physical well-being. Results suggest the presence of a less adherent subtype of hypertensive patients. Behavioral interventions designed to improve adherence might best target these at-risk patients for greater treatment efficiency.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000208215200031

    View details for PubMedID 20694185

  • Coping styles in heart failure patients with depressive symptoms JOURNAL OF PSYCHOSOMATIC RESEARCH Trivedi, R. B., Blumenthal, J. A., O'Connor, C., Adams, K., Hinderliter, A., Dupree, C., Johnson, K., Sherwood, A. 2009; 67 (4): 339-346

    Abstract

    Elevated depressive symptoms have been linked to poorer prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients. Our objective was to identify coping styles associated with depressive symptoms in HF patients.A total of 222 stable HF patients (32.75% female, 45.4% non-Hispanic black) completed multiple questionnaires. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) assessed depressive symptoms, Life Orientation Test (LOT-R) assessed optimism, ENRICHD Social Support Inventory (ESSI) and Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) assessed social support, and COPE assessed coping styles. Linear regression analyses were employed to assess the association of coping styles with continuous BDI scores. Logistic regression analyses were performed using BDI scores dichotomized into BDI<10 vs. BDI> or =10, to identify coping styles accompanying clinically significant depressive symptoms.In linear regression models, higher BDI scores were associated with lower scores on the acceptance (beta=-.14), humor (beta=-.15), planning (beta=-.15), and emotional support (beta=-.14) subscales of the COPE, and higher scores on the behavioral disengagement (beta=.41), denial (beta=.33), venting (beta=.25), and mental disengagement (beta=.22) subscales. Higher PSSS and ESSI scores were associated with lower BDI scores (beta=-.32 and -.25, respectively). Higher LOT-R scores were associated with higher BDI scores (beta=.39, P<.001). In logistical regression models, BDI> or =10 was associated with greater likelihood of behavioral disengagement (OR=1.3), denial (OR=1.2), mental disengagement (OR=1.3), venting (OR=1.2), and pessimism (OR=1.2), and lower perceived social support measured by PSSS (OR=.92) and ESSI (OR=.92).Depressive symptoms in HF patients are associated with avoidant coping, lower perceived social support, and pessimism. Results raise the possibility that interventions designed to improve coping may reduce depressive symptoms.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2009.05.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270567700009

    View details for PubMedID 19773027

  • RACIAL DIFFERENCES IN HYPERTENSION KNOWLEDGE: EFFECTS OF DIFFERENTIAL ITEM FUNCTIONING ETHNICITY & DISEASE Ayotte, B. J., Trivedi, R., Bosworth, H. B. 2009; 19 (1): 23-27

    Abstract

    Health-related knowledge is an important component in the self-management of chronic illnesses. The objective of this study was to more accurately assess racial differences in hypertension knowledge by using a latent variable modeling approach that controlled for sociodemographic factors and accounted for measurement issues in the assessment of hypertension knowledge. Cross-sectional data from 1,177 participants (45% African American; 35% female) were analyzed using a multiple indicator multiple causes (MIMIC) modeling approach. Available sociodemographic data included race, education, sex, financial status, and age. All participants completed six items on a hypertension knowledge questionnaire. Overall, the final model suggested that females, Whites, and patients with at least a high school diploma had higher latent knowledge scores than males, African Americans, and patients with less than a high school diploma, respectively. The model also detected differential item functioning (DIF) based on race for two of the items. Specifically, the error rate for African Americans was lower than would be expected given the lower level of latent knowledge on the items, on the questions related to: (a) the association between high blood pressure and kidney disease, and (b) the increased risk African Americans have for developing hypertension. Not accounting for DIF resulted in the difference between Whites and African Americans to be underestimated. These results are discussed in the context of the need for careful measurement of health-related constructs, and how measurement-related issues can result in an inaccurate estimation of racial differences in hypertension knowledge.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264494100006

    View details for PubMedID 19341159

  • Donepezil for Cognitive Decline Following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY BULLETIN Doraiswamy, P. M., Babyak, M. A., Hennig, T., Trivedi, R., White, W. D., Mathew, J. P., Newman, M. F., Blumenthal, J. A. 2007; 40 (2): 54-62

    Abstract

    To study the effect of donepezil in treating patients with cognitive decline following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.Forty-four patients, with at least a 0.5 SD decline at 1 year post-CABG on at least one cognitive domain compared to their pre-CABG baseline score, were randomized to treatment with donepezil (titrated to 10 mg daily) or placebo in a 12-week double-blind, single center, randomized study. A composite cognitive change score served as the primary outcome. Secondary outcome measures included tests of memory, attention, psychomotor speed, and executive function.The composite cognitive outcome did not show significant treatment effects. Secondary measures varied in their sensitivity to donepezil effects with the largest effects seen on the Wechsler Visual Memory Scale-Delayed and Immediate recall tests. More than twice (52% vs. 22%) as many donepezil-treated patients showed a significant improvement compared with placebo patients on Delayed recall. Tests with weak effect sizes and minimal trends favoring donepezil were the Boston Naming and Digit Symbol. However, most of the other instruments (e.g., Digit Span, Trails B, and Controlled Word Association) showed no treatment benefits. More donepezil-treated than placebo-treated patients experienced diarrhea, but other adverse effects and safety measures did not differ between groups.In the post-CABG mild cognitive decline setting, donepezil did not improve composite cognitive performance but improved some aspects of memory. Donepezil was well tolerated and had no significant effects on EKG parameters. Because of limitations such as small sample size and multiplicity of tests, these findings are preliminary but add to our knowledge of cholinergic effects in vascular mild cognitive decline.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000207792600004

    View details for PubMedID 17514186

  • Genetic and environmental influences on anger expression, John Henryism, and stressful life events: The Georgia cardiovascular twin study PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE Wang, X. L., Trivedi, R., Treiber, F., Snieder, H. 2005; 67 (1): 16-23

    Abstract

    To examine the genetic and/or environmental origin of variation and covariation of perceived stressful life events and two stress-related coping styles, anger expression and John Henryism.Data were available from 306 European American (EA) and 213 African American (AA) twin pairs, including monozygotic and dizygotic of same as well as opposite sex (mean age, 14.8 +/- 3.1 years; range, 10.0-25.9 years). Anger expression, John Henryism, and life events were measured with the Anger Expression Scale (subscales: Anger-in, Anger-out, and Anger-control), the John Henryism Active Coping Scale, and the Adolescent Resources Challenges Scale, respectively.Model fitting showed no ethnic or sex differences for any of the scales. All traits showed at least some degree of familial resemblance, best explained by shared environment for Anger-in (18%), heritability for Anger-control (34%), John Henryism (34%), and life events (47%), and a combination of heritability (14% and 15%) and shared environment (10% and 20%) for Anger-out and overall anger expression, respectively. The remaining part of the variation for all traits was explained by environmental influences that are unique to the individual. Anger expression and life events were correlated (r = 0.28), and bivariate genetic modeling showed that 61% of this correlation was mediated by common genetic factors.Individual differences in coping styles and life events in youth can be explained by moderate genetic and substantial environmental influences, of which most are idiosyncratic to the individual. The association between anger expression and life events is largely the result of common genes.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.psy.0000146331.10104.d4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226673700003

    View details for PubMedID 15673619

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