Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Sleep Medicine
  • Pediatric Neurology

Professional Education


  • Residency:Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1993) NY
  • Residency:Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1990) NY
  • Fellowship:Stanford University School of Medicine (1995) CA
  • Board Certification: Sleep Medicine, American Board of Pediatrics (2007)
  • Internship:New York Presbyterian Medical Center (1989) NY
  • Medical Education:Albert Einstein College of Medicine (1988) NY

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Sleep Disorders in Adults and Children

Clinical Trials


  • Study of the Usability and Efficacy of a New Pediatric CPAP Mask Recruiting

    This study will evaluate a newly developed pediatric mask (known as Pixi) on children aged 2-7 using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), or Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) treatment. The participants will undergo a monitored sleep study, followed by a 7 night trial of the Pixi mask in the home environment. During the study usability will be measured through questionnaires filled in by the parent and clinician. The study hypothesis is that the usability of the mask will be superior to the patient's usual mask.

    View full details

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Treatment of Sleep Disorders NEUROTHERAPEUTICS Pelayo, R., Mignot, E. 2012; 9 (4): 685-686

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s13311-012-0153-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310325000001

    View details for PubMedID 23070732

  • Pediatric Sleep Pharmacology CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Pelayo, R., Yuen, K. 2012; 21 (4): 861-?

    Abstract

    This article reviews common sleep disorders in children and pharmacologic options for them. Discussions of pediatric sleep pharmacology typically focus on treatment of insomnia. Although insomnia is a major concern in this population, other conditions of concern in children are presented, such as narcolepsy, parasomnias, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.chc.2012.08.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311194100010

    View details for PubMedID 23040905

  • Chapter 34: the history of sleep medicine. Handbook of clinical neurology Pelayo, R., Hodgson, N., Guilleminault, C. 2010; 95: 547-556

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0072-9752(08)02134-9

    View details for PubMedID 19892137

  • Pediatric Sleep Pharmacology SEMINARS IN PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGY Pelayo, R., Dubik, M. 2008; 15 (2): 79-90

    Abstract

    This article reviews the most common pharmacologic options in the treatment of sleep disorders in children. Despite the high prevalence of sleep disorders in children, there is a paucity of education and information available on the pharmacologic management of sleep disorders in children. The principles of sleep physiology and pathophysiology that help provide more rational pharmacologic management are discussed. Medications are typically not Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for the pediatric age range or for the specific sleep disorder. Medications have a role for insomnia, narcolepsy, parasomnias, and sleep-related movement disorders. The available choices of hypnotics are reviewed. Medications to increase alertness of narcoleptics and decrease cataplexy are discussed. The use of dopaminergic agents for Restless Legs Syndrome is reviewed. The potential use of medication in sleep apnea is also reviewed. Pharmacologic guidelines need to be developed specifically for sleep disorders in children. Ideally, these guidelines should be FDA approved for the specific sleep disorder and for the pediatric age range. The development of easy to swallow, chewable or liquid forms of these medications are needed. Training programs should play the lead role in enhancing pediatricians' knowledge of the pharmacologic treatment of sleep disorders in children.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.spen.2008.03.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000207789400006

    View details for PubMedID 18555194

  • Efficacy of automated continuous positive airway pressure in children with sleep-related breathing disorders in an attended setting PEDIATRICS Palombini, L., Pelayo, R., Guilleminault, C. 2004; 113 (5): E412-E417

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of automated continuous positive airway pressure (Auto-CPAP) in children. Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBDs) include the clinical spectrum of symptomatic chronic snoring, upper airway resistance syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea. This spectrum occurs in adults and children. Less data are available for children despite recognition of the condition's prevalence. CPAP has been an established treatment for adults and children. Treatment with Auto-CPAP has been available for adults but has not been reported previously in children.A group of 14 children (8 months to 12 years old) was evaluated prospectively with baseline polysomnographic study and CPAP titration performed with Auto-CPAP under sleep technologist supervision.The results demonstrated that Auto-CPAP is sensitive and effective for children with obstructive sleep apnea in an attended setting. There was 1 subject who did not seem to tolerate Auto-CPAP, but when she was switched to conventional CPAP, she did not tolerate that either. In this subject, the mask never fit well. She was excluded from the analysis. All other patients had a decrease in the number of abnormal breathing events during sleep. The respiratory disturbance index decreased from a mean of 12.6 (SD: 12.4) to 2.6 (SD: 2.7) events per hour. The lowest oxygen saturation improved from a mean of 86% (SD: 10.8) to 93.6% (SD: 3.9).We conclude that Auto-CPAP is safe and effective in an attended environment. Auto-CPAP did not eliminate all the abnormal respiratory events. In subjects 1 and 14, the final respiratory index improved but remained >5 events per hour (5.9 and 7.7, respectively). We suspect that this was because of problems with the masks leaking, which illustrates the importance of follow-up and possible need for retitration in some patients. Proper mask fit is essential for successful treatment. Additional work is needed to evaluate its utility in the home setting. This study was designed to evaluate Auto-CPAP titration in an attended environment. It did not indicate information about the effectiveness in an unattended or home setting. We demonstrate that Auto-CPAP is able to detect abnormal breathing events during sleep in children and may provide the necessary pressure to correct these events. Auto-CPAP can be used safely for pressure titration in an attended setting. Auto-CPAP devices from different manufactures are commercially available for adults. These different devices may have different algorithms and sensitivities to detect abnormal breathing episodes. This study was performed with only 1 specific model of Auto-CPAP. Our results should not be extrapolated to other Auto-CPAP devices without empirical confirmation of the devices' ability to detect and correct events in children. Auto-CPAP can be an alternative treatment for SRBDS in the pediatric population. These results allow for speculation of possible applications for Auto-CPAP in children. A potential advantage of Auto-CPAP includes permitting the initiation of treatment while awaiting a standard CPAP titration. The variable pressure response of Auto-CPAP allows for treatment under different situations such as upper airway infections, different sleeping positions, and changes in weight. As the child grows, the amount of positive pressure needed to maintain airway patency may change. Auto-CPAP may be able to adjust to these changing pressure requirements. Auto-CPAP does not eliminate the need for periodic office visits and evaluations of the clinical course.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221169200058

    View details for PubMedID 15121982

  • Breathing patterns in prepubertal children with sleep-related breathing disorders ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Guilleminault, C., Li, K., Khramtsov, A., Palombini, L., Pelayo, R. 2004; 158 (2): 153-161

    Abstract

    To investigate abnormal breathing patterns during sleep in prepubertal children using nonstandard polysomnographic patterns in association with an apnea-hypopnea scoring technique.Study participants included 400 children with suspected sleep-related breathing disorders and 60 control children. We analyzed clinical signs and symptoms at entry into the study and 3 months after otolaryngological treatment. We determined the frequency of predefined breathing patterns during sleep through blind analysis of polysomnograms obtained once in control subjects and twice in children referred to our clinic (before and after adenotonsillectomy), using the nasal cannula-pressure transducer system, mouth thermistor, esophageal manometry, microphone, and pulse oximetry. We also determined the relationship between breathing patterns during sleep and residual postsurgery symptoms. Further analysis was performed of symptoms and polysomnographic patterns in those children who underwent new treatment interventions due to persistence of symptoms and abnormal polysomnogram findings.Tachypnea, persistently elevated breathing effort, progressively increased breath effort, and discrete flattening of nasal airflow monitored with the nasal cannula-pressure transducer system without oxygen saturation decreases help determine disorder as much as apneas and hypopneas. Abnormal, nonstandard breathing patterns were associated with the same symptoms as those in children with apnea and hypopnea and were more commonly present when there was incomplete resolution of initial symptoms that led treating practitioners to request further treatment.Currently published polysomnographic scoring recommendations overlook common breathing abnormalities during sleep that are associated with clinical complaints.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188763300010

    View details for PubMedID 14757607

  • Pediatric sleep pharmacology: you want to give my kid sleeping pills? PEDIATRIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Pelayo, R., Chen, W., Monzon, S., Guilleminault, C. 2004; 51 (1): 117-?

    Abstract

    There is a need for greater information about the pharmacologic management of sleep disorders in children. Pharmacologic guidelines must be developed specifically for sleep disorders in children. Ideally, these guidelines should be approved by the Food and Drug Administration for a specific sleep disorder or for the pediatric age range. This approval prevents physicians from being forced to prescribe medications as an "off label" indication. Development of easy-to-swallow, chewable, or liquid forms of these medications would be well received by parents everywhere. When these are not available, instructions for compounding these medications into a suspension by pharmacists are needed. Integration of behavioral and pharmacologic treatments may yield better patient outcomes. This approach requires pediatricians to have a comprehensive understanding of clinical sleep disorders in children. Training programs should play the lead role in enhancing pediatricians' knowledge of the pharmacologic treatment of sleep disorders in children.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0031-3955(03)00179-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000189167700008

    View details for PubMedID 15008585

  • Abnormal blood pressure in prepubertal children with sleep-disordered breathing PEDIATRIC RESEARCH Guilleminault, C., Khramsov, A., Stoohs, R. A., Kushida, C., Pelayo, R., Kreutzer, M. L., Chowdhuri, S. 2004; 55 (1): 76-84

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between low blood pressure (BP) with mild symptoms of orthostatism, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and tilt test results in 7- to 12-y-old children. A retrospective chart review of 301 children, ages 7 to 12 y, was initially performed to evaluate the frequency of abnormal BP measurements. Then a prospective study was performed on 7- to 12-y-old prepubertal children with SDB, looking for both abnormal BP and mild orthostatism. All children had polysomnography. Those identified with abnormal (high or low) BP measurements (called "BP outliers") were studied with a new polysomnogram followed by a head-up tilt test as an indicator of autonomic activity. Four of the children with low BP were treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure and received a second head-up tilt test 3.5 to 7 mo after starting treatment. The prospective study included 78 children, eight of whom were BP outliers. Seven of these outliers had low BP. Compared with all of the SDB subjects, SDB subjects with low BP and indicators of mild orthostatic hypotension had a significantly higher incidence of craniofacial dysmorphism, symptoms of SDB early in life, chronically cold extremities, and dizziness on standing up (chi2, p = 0.01 to 0.0001). They had a significantly greater drop in BP without evidence of autonomic neuropathy than all other children on head-up tilt testing (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA with Bonferroni adjustment, p = 0.001 to 0.0001). However, the normotensive SDB controls also had significantly different BP drops than the normal controls (p = 0.0001). The four children placed on nasal continuous positive airway pressure had a nonsignificant trend toward normalization of tilt test response. SDB in prepubertal children can lead to different abnormal stimulation of the autonomic nervous system, with different impacts on BP. The severity and frequency of oxygen saturation drops during sleep, nonhypoxic increases in respiratory effort, and the duration of abnormal breathing are suspected of playing a role in the difference in autonomic nervous system stimulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1203/01.PDR.0000099791.29621.62

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187502400011

    View details for PubMedID 14605262

  • Sleep disordered breathing: Surgical outcomes in prepubertal children LARYNGOSCOPE Guilleminault, C., Li, K. K., Khramtsov, A., Pelayo, R., Martinez, S. 2004; 114 (1): 132-137

    Abstract

    To evaluate the treatment outcomes of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in prepubertal children 3 months following surgical intervention.Retrospective investigation of 400 consecutively seen children with SDB who were referred to otolaryngologists for treatment.After masking the identities and conditions of the children, the following were tabulated: clinical symptoms, results of clinical evaluation and polysomnography at entry, the treatment chosen by the otolaryngologists, and clinical and polysomnographic results 3 months after surgery.Treatment ranged from nasal steroids to various surgical procedures. Adenotonsillectomy was performed in only 251 of 400 cases (68%). Four cases included adenotonsillectomy in conjunction with pharyngoplasty (closure of the tonsillar wound by suturing the anterior and posterior pillar to tighten the airway). Persistent SDB was seen in 58 of 400 children (14.5%), and an additional 8 had persistent snoring. Best results were with adenotonsillectomy.SDB involves obstruction of the upper airway, which may be partially due to craniofacial structure involvement. The goal of surgical treatment should be aimed at enlarging the airway, and not be solely focused on treating inflammation or infection of the lymphoid tissues. This goal may not be met in some patients, thus potentially contributing to residual problems seen after surgery. The possibility of further treatment, including collaboration with orthodontists to improve the craniofacial risk factors, should be considered in children with residual problems.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225916200022

    View details for PubMedID 14710009

  • Sleepwalking and sleep terrors in prepubertal children: What triggers them? PEDIATRICS Guilleminault, C., Palombini, L., Pelayo, R., Chervin, R. D. 2003; 111 (1)

    Abstract

    To evaluate the clinical presentation and polysomnography of prepubertal children with repetitive sleep terrors and sleepwalking, to compare them with a control group, and to evaluate the treatment of associated sleep disorders.Patients with complaint of sleep terrors with or without sleepwalking were studied retrospectively. A control group was also recruited. Each subject received a standardized evaluation, which included the following: 1) Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire; 2) interview regarding child's medical and sociofamilial history, orthodontic history, schooling, psychological difficulties, medication intake, and family history of medical and sleep disorders; 3) general pediatric physical examination and neurologic, otolaryngological, and craniofacial examination by a specialist; 4) obtaining medical history on variables relevant to early life sleep disorders; 5) polysomnography, which included electroencephalogram (EEG; C3/A2, Fp1/T1, T1/O1, O1/C3, C4/A1, Fp2/T2, T2/O2, O2/C4), chin and leg electromyelogram, right and left electro-oculogram, and electrocardiogram (modified V2 lead); respiration was monitored with a nasal cannula/pressure transducer system, mouth thermistor, chest and abdominal bands, pulse oximeter, and neck microphone; respiratory effort was monitored with calibrated esophageal manometry; variables were collected on a computerized sleep system; and 6) available family members with a positive history of sleep terrors and sleepwalking received clinical evaluations similar to those used for index cases; they also underwent ambulatory monitoring with an Edentrace system, which monitors heart rate, body position, oro-nasal flow, chest impedance, breathing noises (neck microphone), and pulse oximetry. Movements are deduced from artifact, and leg movements may be recorded on one channel if the equipment is preset for such recording. Subjects used logs to record "lights out" time, "lights on" time, nocturnal awakenings, and other events that occurred during the night. All original and follow-up recordings were rescored by 2 of 4 randomly selected specialists who were blind to subject identity. Mann-Whitney U test was used for group comparison. Nonparametric chi2 test was used to compare percentages of symptoms in symptomatic children versus control children.Eighty-four children (5 with sleep terrors and 79 with both sleep terrors and sleepwalking) and 36 normal control children formed the studied population. All subjects were Tanner stage 1 (prepubertal). None of the control children had any parasomnias. Fifty-one (61%) of 84 children with parasomnia had a diagnosis of an additional sleep disorder: 49 with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and 2 with restless leg syndrome (RLS). Twenty-nine of the children with both parasomnia and SDB had a positive family history of parasomnias, and 24 of the 29 also had a positive family history of SDB. Of the 51 children with associated sleep disorders, 45 were treated. Forty-three of 49 children with SDB were treated with tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, and/or turbinate revision, and 2 of 2 children with RLS were treated with Pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, at bedtime. Treatment of the precipitating sleep disorder eliminated parasomnias in all 45 children. In all 43 children who received surgery, polysomnography performed 3 to 4 months later indicated the disappearance of SDB. The recordings also showed an absence of confusional arousals. The number of EEG arousals significantly decreased from a mean of 9 +/- 2.6 EEG arousals > or =3 seconds/hour during total sleep time to 3 +/- 1.5. The number of EEG arousals > or =3 seconds during the first sleep cycle of slow wave sleep (stage 3-4 non-rapid eye movement sleep) decreased from 4 +/- 1.4 to 1 +/- 0.2. In all surgically treated cases, parents also reported subsequent absence of the parasomnia. The 2 symptomatic children who were treated with Pramipexole had a complete absence of confusional arousals on the follow-up recording and reported no parasomnia since treatment. The periodic limb movemia since treatment. The periodic limb movement syndrome arousal index (number of EEG arousals associated with periodic limb movement/hour) decreased from 11 and 16 to 0 and 0.2, respectively. Parasomnia persisted in the 6 children who were untreated for SDB. Surgeons had refused to perform surgery on these children because of lack of data on the relationship between parasomnia and SDB-related tonsil and adenoid enlargement.Children with chronic parasomnias may often also present SDB or, to a lesser extent, RLS. Furthermore, the disappearance of the parasomnias after the treatment of the SDB or RLS periodic limb movement syndrome suggests that the latter may trigger the former. The high frequency of SDB in family members of children with parasomnia provided additional evidence that SDB may manifest as parasomnias in children. Children with parasomnias are not systematically monitored during sleep, although past studies have suggested that patients with sleep terrors or sleepwalking have an elevated level of brief EEG arousals. When children receive polysomnographies, discrete patterns (eg, nasal flow limitation, abnormal respiratory effort, bursts of high theta or slow alpha EEG frequencies) should be sought; apneas are rarely found in children. Children's respiration during sleep should be monitored with nasal cannula/pressure transducer system and/or esophageal manometry, which are more sensitive than the thermistors or thermocouples currently used in many laboratories. The clear, prompt improvement of severe parasomnia in children who are treated for SDB, as defined here, provides important evidence that subtle SDB can have substantial health-related significance. Also noteworthy is the report of familial presence of parasomnia. Studies of twin cohorts and families with sleep terror and sleepwalking suggest genetic involvement of parasomnias. RLS and SDB have been shown to have familial recurrence. RLS has been shown to have genetic involvement. It remains to be investigated whether a genetic factor directly influences sleep terror and sleepwalking or instead influences other disorders that fragment sleep and lead to confusional arousals. Additional studies are needed to investigate the association between SDB and non-;rapid eye movement parasomnias in the general population.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180135200003

    View details for PubMedID 12509590

  • Sleep-disordered breathing and upper-airway anomalies in first-degree relatives of ALTE children PEDIATRIC RESEARCH Guilleminault, C., Pelayo, R., Leger, D., Philip, P., Ohayon, M. 2001; 50 (1): 14-22

    Abstract

    From 1985 through 1995, 348 infants aged 3 wk-3 mo were referred to the Stanford Sleep Clinic for "apparent life-threatening events" (ALTE). A small group of 48 infants with no history of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) was also recruited and used as controls (they comprised group C). We conducted a systematic investigation of relatives (parents, siblings, and grandparents) of the infants, including a clinical evaluation, craniofacial investigation, and the completion of an extensive (189-question) validated sleep/wake questionnaire. All data were calculated before the subdivision of ALTE infants into two groups. The subdivision was based on a blind scoring of the infants' polygraphic recordings; 42.5% of the infants were negative for SDB (Group A), whereas 57.5% of the infants were positive for SDB (Group B). Groups A and C were not significantly different from each other. Forty-three percent of the relatives of Group B infants had been treated for SDB (with nasal CPAP, surgical or dental appliance treatments) compared with 7.1% of Group A relatives. Clinical investigation indicated a significantly higher presence of small upper airways in the families of infants with SDB. About twice as many relatives reported the presence of asthma in Group B compared with Group A. Naso-oro-maxillomandibular anatomic traits that may lead to small upper airways in parents may be risk factors for abnormal breathing during sleep in their infants.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169458600004

    View details for PubMedID 11420413

  • Apparent life-threatening events, facial dysmorphia and sleep-disordered breathing EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Guilleminault, C., Pelayo, R., Leger, D., Philip, P. 2000; 159 (6): 444-449

    Abstract

    A standardized clinical evaluation and questionnaire was, beginning in 1985, applied to infants referred for an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE). All children who underwent this "core evaluation protocol" during a 10-year period were reviewed. Documentation of clinical complaints, symptoms and signs of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep/wake evaluation, systematic evaluation of the face and naso-oro-pharynx, nocturnal polygraphic recording, and systematic follow-up was conducted. A total of 346 infants had complete data sets, with a smaller group of 46 age-matched healthy infants as controls. A scorer blind to the clinical data analyzed the polygraphic investigation and divided the 346 referred into two groups. Group A, 42.6% of the population, included infants with no abnormal findings based on nocturnal polygraphic recording. These infants were no different from controls at initial evaluation and during follow-up. Group B, 57.4% of the population, included infants who had obstructive breathing during sleep which became more obvious over time. Two-thirds of these infants not only had clinical symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing but also had mild facial dysmorphia that could be seen clearly at 6 months of age.A subgroup of infants with apparent life-threatening events present an indication of a sleep-disordered breathing syndrome which is associated with a mild dysmorphia. This mild facial dysmorphia needs to be recognized early to distinguish these infants from other infants with apparent life-threatening events and to initiate appropriate treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087421900010

    View details for PubMedID 10867851

  • Pediatric sleep-related breathing disorders AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY Messner, A. H., Pelayo, R. 2000; 21 (2): 98-107

    Abstract

    Sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD) can occur at any age. Obstructive sleep apnea, upper airway resistance syndrome and obstructive hypopnea syndrome all lie on the pathological continuum of SRBD. These disorders can have a great impact on a child's quality of life and can progress to significant complications. The symptoms, signs, work-up, and treatment of SRBD in children are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085933800005

    View details for PubMedID 10758994

  • Narcolepsy in children: a practical guide to its diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Paediatric drugs Guilleminault, C., Pelayo, R. 2000; 2 (1): 1-9

    Abstract

    Narcolepsy is a neurological syndrome characterised by daytime somnolence and cataplexy which often begins in childhood. Failing to recognise the condition may lead to mislabelling a child as lazy or depressed. The diagnostic criteria for narcolepsy vary with age. In children 8 years and older a Multiple Sleep Latency Test with an average latency of less than 8 minutes, and 2 or more sleep onset REM episodes supports the diagnosis. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) marker DQbeta1 -0602 has been associated with narcolepsy. The current evidence supports the hypothesis that transmission of narcolepsy is multifactorial. with at least two genes, one of which is non-HLA related. The goal of all therapeutic approaches in narcolepsy is to control the narcoleptic symptoms and allow the patient to continue to fully participate in personal and academic activities. This usually requires a combination of behavioural therapy along with medication. Medications for patients with excessive sleepiness are usually stimulants, including amphetamines. However, a novel wake promoting agent, modafinil, is now available. Cataplexy can be controlled by medications with noradrenergic reuptake-blocking properties, such as clomipramine and fluoxetine, through their active metabolites. Increased awareness of narcolepsy is important to allow earlier diagnosis. Research on the effects different medications have, specifically on children with narcolepsy, has been very limited.

    View details for PubMedID 10937454

  • Sleep-disordered breathing in children ANNALS OF MEDICINE Guilleminault, C., Pelayo, R. 1998; 30 (4): 350-356

    Abstract

    The first series of children with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome was reported in 1976. Later it became apparent that children may have breathing disorders during sleep without frank apnoea or 'hypopnoeas'. This pattern could be detected by measuring the oesophageal pressure. This led to the concept of sleep-disordered breathing as a spectrum that combines obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome and the upper airway resistance syndrome. Studies that do not take into account this spectrum may misclassify symptomatic patients as 'primary snorers'. The exact prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in children is unknown but may be as high as 11%. There is a familial predisposition to sleep-disordered breathing. Nasal obstruction and mouth breathing influence facial growth, which may further lead to difficulty in breathing while asleep. Symptoms include an increase in total sleep time, nonspecific behavioural difficulties, hyperactivity, irritability, bed-wetting and morning headaches. Clinical signs include failure to thrive, increased respiratory effort with nasal flaring and suprasternal or intercostal retractions. Also, abnormal paradoxical inward motion of the chest may occur during sleep. Excessive daytime sleepiness and obesity are not always present. Untreated children may develop cardiovascular complications. The condition is treatable with continuous or bilevel positive airway pressure, and may be cured with surgery.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076083500003

    View details for PubMedID 9783833

  • Narcolepsy in prepubertal children ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY Guilleminault, C., Pelayo, R. 1998; 43 (1): 135-142

    Abstract

    Narcolepsy was diagnosed in 51 children (29 boys). The age range was 2.1 to 11.8 years (mean, 7.9 +/- 3.1 years). A mean of three referrals was made before narcolepsy was considered. In 10 children, cataplexy was the presenting symptom. Thirty-eight children acknowledged sleep paralysis and 30 acknowledged hypnagogic hallucinations. All children had sleep studies; 31 exhibited rapid eye movement at sleep onset. The mean sleep latency was 1.5 minutes +/- 39 seconds on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. All children had at least two sleep-onset rapid eye movement sleep episodes in this test. Forty-six children were HLA class II-positive for DQw6, and 45 were also positive for DRw15. Thirty (65%) families refused referrals to support and counseling groups. Teachers often refused to acknowledge a medical problem. During follow-up, all children presented at least once with depressive symptoms in reaction to their syndrome. Narcolepsy should be considered when evaluating children with behavioral and depressive symptoms.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071504600021

    View details for PubMedID 9450782

  • Obstructive sleep apnea surgery: Risk management and complications OTOLARYNGOLOGY-HEAD AND NECK SURGERY Riley, R. W., Powell, N. B., Guilleminault, C., Pelayo, R., Troell, R. J., Li, K. K. 1997; 117 (6): 648-652

    Abstract

    Hypoxemia, hypertension, airway obstruction, and death have been associated with surgery for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Patient analysis was undertaken to identify potential factors that could affect risk-management outcome.One hundred eighty-two consecutively treated patients with OSAS undergoing 210 procedures were evaluated. Fifty-four factors were analyzed.Group characteristics included a mean age of 48.2 years, a mean respiratory disturbance index of 42.3, and a mean low oxyhemoglobin desaturation (LSAT) of 77.5%. Surgery included a combination of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (162 patients; 77%) and maxillofacial procedures (173 patients; 82%). Patients with a respiratory disturbance index greater than 40 and an LSAT less than 80% (117 patients; 64%) were maintained on nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Thirty-nine patients (18.6% had difficult intubations. There was a positive correlation (p > 0.001) of difficult intubations, neck circumference (> 45.6 cm) and skeletal deficiency (Sella-Nasion-Point B < 75 degrees). All tubes were removed with the patient awake in the operating room with two transient episodes of airway obstruction. One hundred forty-eight of the patients (70.5%) required postoperative intravenous antihypertensive medications. Patients with a preoperative history of hypertension had a significantly increased risk (p > 0.01) of requiring intraoperative and postoperative intravenous antihypertensive medications. The mean hospital stay was 2.2 days (SD +/- 0.9). Analgesia was achieved with intravenous morphine sulfate or meperidine HCl (intensive care unit) and oral oxycodone (non-intensive care unit). There were no significant oxyhemoglobin desaturations, irrespective of severity of OSAS or obesity (mean LSAT day 1, 94.8% (SD +/- 2.4); mean LSAT day 2, 95.5% (SD +/- 1.6)). Complications included postoperative bleeding (n = 4), infection (n = 5), seroma (n = 3), arrhythmia (n = 4), angina (n = 1), and loss of skeletal fixation (n = 1).Intraoperative airway risks can be reduced by use of fiberoptic intubation in patients with increased neck circumference and skeletal deficiency. Patients with OSAS are at a significantly increased risk for hypertension. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure eliminated the postoperative risk of hypoxemia, which allowed the use of adequate parenteral or oral analgesics.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071083200014

    View details for PubMedID 9419093

  • Public health impact and treatment of insomnia. European psychiatry Dement, W., Pelayo, R. 1997; 12: 31-39

    Abstract

    A growing number of people are concerned about their sleep in the United States. There are an estimated 40 million US citizens with chronic sleep disorders. The cost to society of sleep disorders has been estimated at greater than $90 billion US dollars. Despite this enormous cost to society, there remains a pervasive lack of attention provided to medical management of this problem. This is compounded by inadequate funding of sleep disorders research. There are treatments available to improve insomnia. These include different behavioral and pharmacologic regimes that can be used separately or in combination. Successful treatment requires thorough knowledge of the differential diagnosis of insomnia. The greatest public health challenge in the management of insomnia is how to develop effective educational programs that will allow the general public to improve their sleep. This will require greater cooperation from primary care providers and the government. Sleep disorders are the most important public health problem not being addressed in the United States.

    View details for PubMedID 19698572

  • Development of circadian rhythmicity of temperature in full-term normal infants NEUROPHYSIOLOGIE CLINIQUE-CLINICAL NEUROPHYSIOLOGY Guilleminault, C., Leger, D., Pelayo, R., Gould, S., Hayes, B., Miles, L. 1996; 26 (1): 21-29

    Abstract

    Twelve full-term infants (7 girls and 5 boys) with normal neurological, behavioral and somatic development were followed at regular intervals during the first 5 months of life to appreciate the development of circadian rectal temperature rhythmicity. Activity and temperature (oral at birth, rectal thereafter) were monitored for a minimum of 60 hours on seven separate occasions: at birth, 3 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks, 10 weeks, 16 weeks and 20 weeks of age. Activity was measured using an actigraph worn on the infant's wrist, and rectal temperature was measured using a rectal probe attached to a portable microprocessor (Vitalog TM). Data points were collected every 2 minutes. No fewer than ten infants were monitored at each session, and no infant missed more than one session. Missing recordings were due to equipment malfunctions, probe expulsions and minor health problems. Six infants out of 12 were successfully monitored at each of the first four sessions, from birth to 8 weeks of age inclusively, and two subjects were successfully monitored at all seven sessions. Periodic regression analysis was performed by least squares curve fit with secondary analysis of variance. Analysis of covariance was performed on repeated measures. There was no evidence of rectal temperature circadian rhythmicity at 3 weeks. Two infants demonstrated a circadian rhythmicity at 6 weeks, and all infants had a circadian rhythmicity at 10 weeks post-natal age. At the time of the first observance of circadian rhythmicity of rectal temperature, the mean delta in temperature from peak to trough was 0.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C. This delta was greater at the 16th week, with a mean value of 1.2 +/- 0.3 degrees C. The trough was seen during the first part of the long nocturnal inactivity period. Circadian rhythmicity of rectal temperature was always observed in the studied subjects before the establishment of a consolidated, long daytime wake period.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UK72800004

    View details for PubMedID 8657095

  • HOME NASAL CONTINUOUS POSITIVE AIRWAY PRESSURE IN INFANTS WITH SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Guilleminault, C., Pelayo, R., Clerk, A., Leger, D., BOCIAN, R. C. 1995; 127 (6): 905-912

    Abstract

    To review our experience with home nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in infants with small upper airways and abnormal breathing during sleep.Seventy-four infants with sleep-disordered breathing and narrow upper airways, as identified by nocturnal polygraphic recording and endoscopic evaluation, were treated at home with nasal CPAP. Infants with craniofacial anomalies and trisomy 21, and infants who had been referred to us as having had "apparent life-threatening events," made up the majority of the population. Because of the rapid growth of infants, regular follow-up visits were scheduled to adjust CPAP and mask size.Seventy-two infants were successfully treated at home with nasal CPAP; there were two failures. Follow-up lasted from 5 months to 12 years. Compliance was not a problem, but home nasal CPAP was prescribed only for infants who lived close to our center and whose families and pediatricians were willing to support compliance.Home nasal CPAP requires careful, in-laboratory titration and regular follow-up to adjust both pressure and mask size. With the support of families and pediatricians, home nasal CPAP can be an effective treatment for infants with upper airway respiratory problems during sleep. In many cases, it can provide an interim solution, enabling physicians to plan surgery at an appropriate time and giving infants time to grow before having to undergo surgical stress.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TK14900009

    View details for PubMedID 8523187

  • ADULT OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP-APNEA WITH SECONDARY ENURESIS WESTERN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Brown, M. A., Jacobs, M. B., Pelayo, R. 1995; 163 (5): 478-480

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TF58500017

    View details for PubMedID 8533419

  • NONDRUG TREATMENT TRIALS IN PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL INSOMNIA ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE Guilleminault, C., Clerk, A., Black, J., LABANOWSKI, M., Pelayo, R., Claman, D. 1995; 155 (8): 838-844

    Abstract

    Due to a variety of potential problems with long-term hypnotic use, patients and treating physicians often try to avoid drugs in the treatment of psychophysiologic insomnia and to use nondrug treatment strategies, but these treatments must bring relief within a limited amount of time to be acceptable to patients.Thirty patients participated in the study. All had, for a minimum of 6 months, the complaint of less than 6 hours total sleep time per night in conjunction with either: (1) spending more than 30 minutes in bed before falling asleep, or (2) awakening during the night within 2 hours of sleep onset with difficulty returning to sleep. All subjects had the associated complaint of daytime impairment and none had used hypnotics for at least 3 months. Patients were randomly assigned to three parallel treatment groups: structured sleep hygiene, structured sleep hygiene with late afternoon moderate exercise, and structured sleep hygiene with early morning light therapy. Patients responded to questionnaires and filled out sleep logs. In addition, they underwent clinical evaluation, structured interviews, nocturnal monitoring, and actigraphy. The analyzed variables before and at the end of treatment were those derived from sleep logs and actigraphy.All subjects showed a trend toward improvement, independent of the treatment received, but only the "structured sleep hygiene with light treatment" showed statistically significant improvement at the end of the trial.Patients with chronic psychophysiologic insomnia may benefit from a nondrug treatment approach. Light therapy appears particularly promising.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QU59400008

    View details for PubMedID 7717792

Conference Proceedings


  • Power spectral sleep EEG findings in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and upper airway resistance syndromes Guilleminault, C., Kim, Y. D., Horita, M., Tsutumi, M., Pelayo, R. ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. 1999: 113-120

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085689700013

    View details for PubMedID 10689453

Stanford Medicine Resources: