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My laboratory research interests are in several areas. Regarding the physiology and pathophysiology of retina and pigment epithelium (RPE), studies have focused on mechanisms that control fluid movement across the RPE, and the adhesion between retina and RPE. We have also studied the modification of retinal ischemic damage, laser action upon the RPE and drug effects upon retina and RPE. Recent collaborative work has been considering means of replacing Bruch's membrane or RPE in diseased eyes, and the development of a retinal prosthesis.<br/><br/>Clinical investigations cover several areas. We are studying electrophysiological tests of retinal and RPE function, including non-photic responses (induced by drugs) and newer electroretinographic techniques such as multifocal ERG recording. Unusual dystrophies, toxic retinopathies and clinical problems in the area of medical retinal disorders are evaluated as appropriate. The pathophysiology of central serous chorioretinopathy has been studied. Our research programs bear directly on blinding disorders such as age-related macular degeneration, vascular disease (including diabetes), retinal detachment, retinitis pigmentosa, macular dystrophies and toxic retinopathies.<br/><br/>Another major area of interest is the relationship between human vision and art, music, history, literature and sport. The role and implications of vision in art have been studied in depth.