B cell lymphomas present immunoglobulin neoantigens.
Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens
2017; 543 (7647): 723-?
Circulating Tumor DNA Measurements As Early Outcome Predictors in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma.
Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Cancer somatic mutations can generate neoantigens that distinguish malignant from normal cells. However, the personalized identification and validation of neoantigens remains a major challenge. Here we discover neoantigens in human mantle-cell lymphomas by using an integrated genomic and proteomic strategy that interrogates tumour antigen peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules. We applied this approach to systematically characterize MHC ligands from 17 patients. Remarkably, all discovered neoantigenic peptides were exclusively derived from the lymphoma immunoglobulin heavy- or light-chain variable regions. Although we identified MHC presentation of private polymorphic germline alleles, no mutated peptides were recovered from non-immunoglobulin somatically mutated genes. Somatic mutations within the immunoglobulin variable region were almost exclusively presented by MHC class II. We isolated circulating CD4(+) T cells specific for immunoglobulin-derived neoantigens and found these cells could mediate killing of autologous lymphoma cells. These results demonstrate that an integrative approach combining MHC isolation, peptide identification, and exome sequencing is an effective platform to uncover tumour neoantigens. Application of this strategy to human lymphoma implicates immunoglobulin neoantigens as targets for lymphoma immunotherapy.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature21433
View details for Web of Science ID 000397619700057
View details for PubMedID 28329770
Surgical and molecular characterization of primary and metastatic disease in a neuroendocrine tumor arising in a tailgut cyst.
Cold Spring Harbor molecular case studies
Purpose Outcomes for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma remain heterogeneous, with existing methods failing to consistently predict treatment failure. We examined the additional prognostic value of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) before and during therapy for predicting patient outcomes. Patients and Methods We studied the dynamics of ctDNA from 217 patients treated at six centers, using a training and validation framework. We densely characterized early ctDNA dynamics during therapy using cancer personalized profiling by deep sequencing to define response-associated thresholds within a discovery set. These thresholds were assessed in two independent validation sets. Finally, we assessed the prognostic value of ctDNA in the context of established risk factors, including the International Prognostic Index and interim positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. Results Before therapy, ctDNA was detectable in 98% of patients; pretreatment levels were prognostic in both front-line and salvage settings. In the discovery set, ctDNA levels changed rapidly, with a 2-log decrease after one cycle (early molecular response [EMR]) and a 2.5-log decrease after two cycles (major molecular response [MMR]) stratifying outcomes. In the first validation set, patients receiving front-line therapy achieving EMR or MMR had superior outcomes at 24 months (EMR: EFS, 83% v 50%; P = .0015; MMR: EFS, 82% v 46%; P < .001). EMR also predicted superior 24-month outcomes in patients receiving salvage therapy in the first validation set (EFS, 100% v 13%; P = .011). The prognostic value of EMR and MMR was further confirmed in the second validation set. In multivariable analyses including International Prognostic Index and interim positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans across both cohorts, molecular response was independently prognostic of outcomes, including event-free and overall survival. Conclusion Pretreatment ctDNA levels and molecular responses are independently prognostic of outcomes in aggressive lymphomas. These risk factors could potentially guide future personalized risk-directed approaches.
View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2018.78.5246
View details for PubMedID 30125215
T-cell immunopeptidomes reveal cell subtype surface markers derived from intracellular proteins.
Neuroendocrine tumors arising from tailgut cysts are rare but increasingly reported entity with gene expression profiles that may be indicative of the gastrointestinal cell of origin. We present a case report describing the unique pathological and genomic characteristics of a tailgut cyst neuroendocrine tumor that metastasized to liver. The histologic and immunohistochemical findings were consistent with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor. Genomic testing indicates a germline frame-shift in BRCA1 and a few somatic mutations of unknown significance. Transcriptomic analysis suggests an enteroendocrine L-cell in the tailgut as a putative cell-of-origin. Genomic profiling of a rare neuroendocrine tumor and metastasis provides insight into its origin, development and potential therapeutic options.
View details for DOI 10.1101/mcs.a003004
View details for PubMedID 30087100
Potential Association of Anti-CCR4 Antibody Mogamulizumab and Graft-vs-Host Disease in Patients With Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome.
Targeted killing of TNFR2-expressing tumor cells and Tregs by TNFR2 antagonistic antibodies in advanced Sézary syndrome.
Immunopeptidomes promise novel surface markers as ideal immunotherapy targets, but their characterization by mass spectrometry (MS) remains challenging. Until recently, cell numbers exceeding 109were needed to survey thousands of HLA ligands. Such limited analytical sensitivity has historically constrained the types of clinical specimens that can be evaluated to cell cultures or bulk tissues. Measuring immunopeptidomes from purified cell subpopulations would be preferable for many applications, particularly those evaluating rare, primary hematopoietic cell lineages. Here, we test the feasibility of immunopeptidome profiling from limited numbers of primary purified human regulatory T cells (TReg), conventional T cells (Tconv) and activated T cells. The combined T-cell immunopeptide dataset reported here contains 13,804 unique HLA ligands derived from 5,049 proteins. Of these, more than 700 HLA ligands were derived from 82 proteins that we exclusively identified from TReg-enriched cells. This study 1) demonstrates that primary, lineage-enriched T cell supbopulations recovered from single donors are compatible with immunopeptidome analysis; 2) presents new TReg-biased ligand candidates; and 3) supports immunopeptidome surveys value for revealing T cell biology that may not be apparent from expression data alone. Taken together, these findings open up new avenues for targeting TRegand abrogating their suppressive functions to treat cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
View details for DOI 10.1002/pmic.201700410
View details for PubMedID 29493099
Transcript-indexed ATAC-seq for precision immune profiling.
Sézary syndrome (SS) is a rare form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma often refractory to treatment. SS is defined as adenopathy, erythroderma with high numbers of atypical T cells. This offers an opportunity for new interventions and perhaps antibody-based therapeutic by virtue of its high expression of the TNFR2 oncogene on the tumor cells and on T-regulatory cells (Tregs). Potent human-directed TNFR2 antagonistic antibodies have been created that preferentially target the TNFR2 oncogene and tumor-infiltrating TNFR2+ Tregs. Here we test the therapeutic potential of TNFR2 antagonists on freshly isolated lymphocytes from patients with Stage IVA SS and from healthy controls. SS patients were on a variety of end-stage multi-drug therapies. Baseline burden Treg/T effector (Teff) ratios and the responsiveness of tumor and infiltrating Tregs to TNFR2 antibody killing was studied. We show dose-escalating concentrations of a dominant TNFR2 antagonistic antibody killed TNFR2+ SS tumor cells and thus restored CD26- subpopulations of lymphocyte cell numbers to normal. The abundant TNFR2+ Tregs of SS subjects are also killed with TNFR2 antagonism. Beneficial and rapid expansion of Teff was observed. The combination of Treg inhibition and Teff expansion brought the high Treg/Teff ratio to normal. Our findings suggest a marked responsiveness of SS tumor cells and Tregs, to targeting with TNFR2 antagonistic antibodies. These results show TNFR2 antibodies are potent and efficacious in vitro.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41375-018-0292-9
View details for PubMedID 30356161
Profiling Tumor Infiltrating Immune Cells with CIBERSORT.
Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
2018; 1711: 243–59
T cells create vast amounts of diversity in the genes that encode their T cell receptors (TCRs), which enables individual clones to recognize specific peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ligands. Here we combined sequencing of the TCR-encoding genes with assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with sequencing (ATAC-seq) analysis at the single-cell level to provide information on the TCR specificity and epigenomic state of individual T cells. By using this approach, termed transcript-indexed ATAC-seq (T-ATAC-seq), we identified epigenomic signatures in immortalized leukemic T cells, primary human T cells from healthy volunteers and primary leukemic T cells from patient samples. In peripheral blood CD4+ T cells from healthy individuals, we identified cis and trans regulators of naive and memory T cell states and found substantial heterogeneity in surface-marker-defined T cell populations. In patients with a leukemic form of cutaneous T cell lymphoma, T-ATAC-seq enabled identification of leukemic and nonleukemic regulatory pathways in T cells from the same individual by allowing separation of the signals that arose from the malignant clone from the background T cell noise. Thus, T-ATAC-seq is a new tool that enables analysis of epigenomic landscapes in clonal T cells and should be valuable for studies of T cell malignancy, immunity and immunotherapy.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41591-018-0008-8
View details for PubMedID 29686426
Early detection of molecular residual disease in localized lung cancer by circulating tumor DNA profiling.
Tumor infiltrating leukocytes (TILs) are an integral component of the tumor microenvironment and have been found to correlate with prognosis and response to therapy. Methods to enumerate immune subsets such as immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry suffer from limitations in phenotypic markers and can be challenging to practically implement and standardize. An alternative approach is to acquire aggregative high dimensional data from cellular mixtures and to subsequently infer the cellular components computationally. We recently described CIBERSORT, a versatile computational method for quantifying cell fractions from bulk tissue gene expression profiles (GEPs). Combining support vector regression with prior knowledge of expression profiles from purified leukocyte subsets, CIBERSORT can accurately estimate the immune composition of a tumor biopsy. In this chapter, we provide a primer on the CIBERSORT method and illustrate its use for characterizing TILs in tumor samples profiled by microarray or RNA-Seq.
View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-4939-7493-1_12
View details for PubMedID 29344893
Clinical activity of ponatinib in a patient with FGFR1-rearranged mixed-phenotype acute leukemia.
2016; 30 (4): 947-950
Value of Surveillance Studies for Patients With Stage I to II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Rituximab Era.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
2015; 92 (1): 99-106
Identifying molecular residual disease (MRD) after treatment of localized lung cancer could facilitate early intervention and personalization of adjuvant therapies. Here we apply Cancer Personalized Profiling by Deep Sequencing (CAPP-Seq) circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis to 255 samples from 40 patients treated with curative intent for stage I-III lung cancer and 54 healthy adults. In 94% of evaluable patients experiencing recurrence, ctDNA was detectable in the first post-treatment blood sample, indicating reliable identification of MRD. Post-treatment ctDNA detection preceded radiographic progression in 72% of patients by a median of 5.2 months and 53% of patients harbored ctDNA mutation profiles associated with favorable responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors or immune checkpoint blockade. Collectively, these results indicate that ctDNA MRD in lung cancer patients can be accurately detected using CAPP-Seq and may allow personalized adjuvant treatment while disease burden is lowest.
View details for DOI 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-0716
View details for PubMedID 28899864
Tumor antigen discovery through translation of the cancer genome.
2014; 58 (2-3): 292-299
The role of surveillance studies in limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era has not been well defined. We sought to evaluate the use of imaging (computed tomography [CT] and positron emission tomography [PET]-CT) scans and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in surveillance of patients with stage I to II DLBCL.A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who received definitive treatment between 2000 and 2013.One hundred sixty-two consecutive patients with stage I to II DLBCL were treated with chemotherapy +/- rituximab, radiation, or combined modality therapy. The 5-year rates of overall survival (OS) and freedom from progression (FFP) were 81.2% and 80.8%, respectively. Of the 162 patients, 124 (77%) were followed up with at least 1 surveillance PET scan beyond end-of-treatment scans; of those, 94 of 124 (76%) achieved a complete metabolic response on PET scan after completion of chemotherapy, and this was associated with superior FFP (P=.01, HR=0.3) and OS (P=.01, HR 0.3). Eighteen patients experienced relapse after initial response to therapy. Nine relapses were initially suspected by surveillance imaging studies (8 PET, 1 CT), and 9 were suspected clinically (5 by patient-reported symptoms and 4 by symptoms and physical examination). No relapses were detected by surveillance LDH. The median duration from initiation of treatment to relapse was 14.3 months among patients with relapses suspected by imaging, and 59.8 months among patients with relapses suspected clinically (P=.077). There was no significant difference in OS from date of first therapy or OS after relapse between patients whose relapse was suspected by imaging versus clinically. Thirteen of 18 patients underwent successful salvage therapy after relapse.A complete response on PET scan immediately after initial chemotherapy is associated with superior FFP and OS in stage I to II DLBCL. The use of PET scans as posttreatment surveillance is not associated with a survival advantage. LDH is not a sensitive marker for relapse. Our results argue for limiting the use of posttreatment surveillance in patients with limited-stage DLBCL.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.01.039
View details for PubMedID 25863757
DEK expression in melanocytic lesions
2011; 42 (7): 932-938
Cancer cells harbor unique mutations that theoretically create corresponding unique tumor-specific antigens. This class of mutated antigens represents an attractive target for cancer immunotherapy, but their identification has been cumbersome. By combining cancer genome sequencing with computational analysis of MHC binding, it is possible to predict and rank all of the possible mutated tumor antigens. This form of antigen screen is being combined with high throughput methods to measure the immune response to each candidate mutated antigen. Using these techniques, it is possible to systematically test each mutated tumor antigens for an associated immune response. Only a small fraction of the putative mutated antigens tested in this manner have been found to elicit an immune response, yet these responses appear to be both robust and durable. It is becoming increasingly clear that these mutated tumor antigens are an important target in the antitumor response. Studies incorporating this approach promise to improve our understanding of the inherent immunogenicity of individual cancers, potentially providing an explanation for the varying clinical responses to novel immunotherapeutic agents.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s12026-014-8505-4
View details for PubMedID 24718952
The DEK oncoprotein is a Su(var) that is essential to heterochromatin integrity
GENES & DEVELOPMENT
2011; 25 (7): 673-678
The diagnosis of malignant melanoma presents a clinical challenge and relies principally on histopathological evaluation. Previous studies have indicated that increased expression of the DEK oncogene, a chromatin-bound factor, could contribute to the development of melanoma and may be a frequent event in melanoma progression. Here, we investigated DEK expression by immunohistochemistry in a total of 147 melanocytic lesions, including ordinary nevi, dysplastic nevi, Spitz nevi, melanoma in situ, primary invasive melanomas, and metastatic melanomas. Most benign nevi (ordinary, dysplastic, and Spitz nevi) were negative or exhibited weak staining for DEK, with only 4 of 49 cases showing strong staining. Similar to benign nevi, melanoma in situ also demonstrated low levels of DEK expression. In contrast, the expression of DEK in primary invasive melanomas was significantly higher than benign nevi (P < .0001). Moreover, DEK expression was significantly increased in deep melanomas (Breslow depth >1 mm) and metastatic melanomas as compared with superficial melanomas (Breslow depth ≤1 mm) (P < .05). Our findings indicate that DEK overexpression may be a frequent event in invasive melanomas, and further augmentation of DEK expression may be associated with the acquisition of ominous features such as deep dermal invasion and metastasis. These data suggest a role of DEK in melanoma progression.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.humpath.2010.10.022
View details for Web of Science ID 000292231800003
View details for PubMedID 21316078
Melanoma Proliferation and Chemoresistance Controlled by the DEK Oncogene
2009; 69 (16): 6405-6413
Heterochromatin integrity is crucial for genome stability and regulation of gene expression, but the factors involved in mammalian heterochromatin biology are only incompletely understood. Here we identify the oncoprotein DEK, an abundant nuclear protein with a previously enigmatic in vivo function, as a Suppressor of Variegation [Su(var)] that is crucial to global heterochromatin integrity. We show that DEK interacts directly with Heterochromatin Protein 1 α (HP1α) and markedly enhances its binding to trimethylated H3K9 (H3K9me3), which is key for maintaining heterochromatic regions. Loss of Dek in Drosophila leads to a Su(var) phenotype and global reduction in heterochromatin. Thus, these findings show that DEK is a key factor in maintaining the balance between heterochromatin and euchromatin in vivo.
View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.2036411
View details for Web of Science ID 000289062700002
View details for PubMedID 21460035
DEK is a poly(ADP-ribose) acceptor in apoptosis and mediates resistance to genotoxic stress
MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY
2008; 28 (10): 3245-3257
Gain of chromosome 6p is a consistent feature of advanced melanomas. However, the identity of putative oncogene(s) associated with this amplification has remained elusive. The chromatin remodeling factor DEK is an attractive candidate as it maps to 6p (within common melanoma-amplified loci). Moreover, DEK expression is increased in metastatic melanomas, although the functional relevance of this induction remains unclear. Importantly, in other tumor types, DEK can display various tumorigenic effects in part through its ability to promote proliferation and inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis. Here, we report a generalized up-regulation of DEK protein in aggressive melanoma cells and tumors. In addition, we provide genetic and mechanistic evidence to support a key role of DEK in the maintenance of malignant phenotypes of melanoma cells. Specifically, we show that long-term DEK down-regulation by independent short hairpin RNAs resulted in premature senescence of a variety of melanoma cell lines. Short-term abrogation of DEK expression was also functionally relevant, as it attenuated the traditional resistance of melanomas to DNA-damaging agents. Unexpectedly, DEK short hairpin RNA had no effect on p53 levels or p53-dependent apoptosis. Instead, we identified a new role for DEK in the transcriptional activation of the antiapoptotic MCL-1. Other MCL-1-related factors such as BCL-2 or BCL-xL were unaffected by changes in the endogenous levels of DEK, indicating a selective effect of this gene on the apoptotic machinery of melanoma cells. These results provide support for DEK as a long sought-after oncogene mapping at chromosome 6, with novel functions in melanoma proliferation and chemoresistance.
View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1063
View details for Web of Science ID 000269064600007
View details for PubMedID 19679545
The DEK nuclear autoantigen is a secreted chemotactic factor
MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY
2006; 26 (24): 9484-9496
DEK is a nuclear phosphoprotein implicated in oncogenesis and autoimmunity and a major component of metazoan chromatin. The intracellular cues that control the binding of DEK to DNA and its pleiotropic functions in DNA- and RNA-dependent processes have remained mainly elusive so far. Our recent finding that the phosphorylation status of DEK is altered during death receptor-mediated apoptosis suggested a potential involvement of DEK in stress signaling. In this study, we show that in cells committed to die, a portion of the cellular DEK pool is extensively posttranslationally modified by phosphorylation and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Through interference with DEK expression, we further show that DEK promotes the repair of DNA lesions and protects cells from genotoxic agents that typically trigger poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation. The posttranslational modification of DEK during apoptosis is accompanied by the removal of the protein from chromatin and its release into the extracellular space. Released modified DEK is recognized by autoantibodies present in the synovial fluids of patients affected by juvenile rheumatoid arthritis/juvenile idiopathic arthritis. These findings point to a crucial role of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation in shaping DEK's autoantigenic properties and in its function as a promoter of cell survival.
View details for DOI 10.1128/MCB.01921-07
View details for Web of Science ID 000255600800014
View details for PubMedID 18332104
p300/CBP-associated factor drives DEK into interchromatin granule clusters
JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
2005; 280 (36): 31760-31767
The nuclear DNA-binding protein DEK is an autoantigen that has been implicated in the regulation of transcription, chromatin architecture, and mRNA processing. We demonstrate here that DEK is actively secreted by macrophages and is also found in synovial fluid samples from patients with juvenile arthritis. Secretion of DEK is modulated by casein kinase 2, stimulated by interleukin-8, and inhibited by dexamethasone and cyclosporine A, consistent with a role as a proinflammatory molecule. DEK is secreted in both a free form and in exosomes, vesicular structures in which transcription-modulating factors such as DEK have not previously been found. Furthermore, DEK functions as a chemotactic factor, attracting neutrophils, CD8+ T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Therefore, the DEK autoantigen, previously described as a strictly nuclear protein, is secreted and can act as an extracellular chemoattractant, suggesting a direct role for DEK in inflammation.
View details for DOI 10.1128/MCB.01030-06
View details for Web of Science ID 000242859200029
View details for PubMedID 17030615
DEK is a mammalian protein that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and cancer, including acute myeloid leukemia, melanoma, glioblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and bladder cancer. In addition, DEK appears to participate in multiple cellular processes, including transcriptional repression, mRNA processing, and chromatin remodeling. Sub-nuclear distribution of this protein, with the attendant functional ramifications, has remained a controversial topic. Here we report that DEK undergoes acetylation in vivo at lysine residues within the first 70 N-terminal amino acids. Acetylation of DEK decreases its affinity for DNA elements within the promoter, which is consistent with the involvement of DEK in transcriptional repression. Furthermore, deacetylase inhibition results in accumulation of DEK within interchromatin granule clusters (IGCs), sub-nuclear structures that contain RNA processing factors. Overexpression of P/CAF acetylase drives DEK into IGCs, and addition of a newly developed, synthetic, cell-permeable P/CAF inhibitor blocks this movement. To our knowledge, this is the first reported example of acetylation playing a direct role in relocation of a protein to IGCs, and this may explain how DEK can function in multiple pathways that take place in distinct sub-nuclear compartments. These findings also suggest that DEK-associated malignancies and autoimmune diseases might be amenable to treatment with agents that alter acetylation.
View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M500884200
View details for Web of Science ID 000231665200054
View details for PubMedID 15987677