Advances in Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Boot Camp Training Promotes Fellowship Readiness and Enables Retention of Knowledge.
Toddler With Hemoptysis.
Regulation of myosin expression during myotome formation
2003; 130 (15): 3391-3402
We previously demonstrated that a pediatric cardiology boot camp can improve knowledge acquisition and decrease anxiety for trainees. We sought to determine if boot camp participants entered fellowship with a knowledge advantage over fellows who did not attend and if there was moderate-term retention of that knowledge. A 2-day training program was provided for incoming pediatric cardiology fellows from eight fellowship programs in April 2016. Hands-on, immersive experiences and simulations were provided in all major areas of pediatric cardiology. Knowledge-based examinations were completed by each participant prior to boot camp (PRE), immediately post-training (POST), and prior to the start of fellowship in June 2016 (F/U). A control group of fellows who did not attend boot camp also completed an examination prior to fellowship (CTRL). Comparisons of scores were made for individual participants and between participants and controls. A total of 16 participants and 16 control subjects were included. Baseline exam scores were similar between participants and controls (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. CTRL 52 ± 10%; p = 0.22). Participants' knowledge improved with boot camp training (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. POST 70 ± 8%; p < 0.001) and there was excellent moderate-term retention of the information taught at boot camp (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. F/U 71 ± 8%; p < 0.001). Testing done at the beginning of fellowship demonstrated significantly better scores in participants versus controls (F/U 71 ± 8% vs. CTRL 52 ± 10%; p < 0.001). Boot camp participants demonstrated a significant improvement in basic cardiology knowledge after the training program and had excellent moderate-term retention of that knowledge. Participants began fellowship with a larger fund of knowledge than those fellows who did not attend.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00246-016-1560-y
View details for PubMedID 28161811
The first skeletal muscle fibers to form in vertebrate embryos appear in the somitic myotome. PCR analysis and in situ hybridization with isoform-specific probes reveal differences in the temporal appearance and spatial distribution of fast and slow myosin heavy chain mRNA transcripts within myotomal fibers. Embryonic fast myosin heavy chain was the first isoform expressed, followed rapidly by slow myosin heavy chains 1 and 3, with slow myosin heavy chain 2 appearing several hours later. Neonatal fast myosin heavy chain is not expressed in myotomal fibers. Although transcripts of embryonic fast myosin heavy chain were always distributed throughout the length of myotomal fibers, the mRNA for each slow myosin heavy chain isoform was initially restricted to the centrally located myotomal fiber nuclei. As development proceeded, slow myosin heavy chain transcripts spread throughout the length of myotomal fibers in order of their appearance. Explants of segments from embryos containing neural tube, notochord and somites 7-10, when incubated overnight, become innervated by motor neurons from the neural tube and express all four myosin heavy chain genes. Removal of the neural tube and/or notochord from explants prior to incubation or addition of d-tubocurare to intact explants prevented expression of slow myosin chain 2 but expression of genes encoding the other myosin heavy chain isoforms was unaffected. Thus, expression of slow myosin heavy chain 2 is dependent on functional innervation, whereas expression of embryonic fast and slow myosin heavy chain 1 and 3 are innervation independent. Implantation of sonic-hedgehog-soaked beads in vivo increased the accumulation of both fast and slow myosin heavy chain transcripts, as well as overall myotome size and individual fiber size, but had no effect on myotomal fiber phenotype. Transcripts encoding embryonic fast myosin heavy chain first appear ventrolaterally in the myotome, whereas slow myosin heavy chain transcripts first appear in fibers positioned midway between the ventrolateral and dorsomedial lips of the myotome. Therefore, models of epaxial myotome formation must account for the positioning of the oldest fibers in the more ventral-lateral region of the myotome and the youngest fibers in the dorsomedial region.
View details for DOI 10.1242/dev.00541
View details for Web of Science ID 000184830700004
View details for PubMedID 12810587