Bio

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Senior Editor, Tobacco Control, BMJ Publishing Group (2010 - Present)
  • Pre-Major Advisor, Stanford University (2007 - Present)

Professional Education


  • PhD, Stanford University, Communication

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


I study environmental influences on adolescent tobacco use, particularly the role of tobacco marketing in smoking initiation and maintenance. Currently funded research projects are a longitudinal school-based study about adolescent smoking and drinking, a geographic information systems (GIS) study about tobacco outlet density and smoking prevalence in California high schools, and laboratory experiments about the impact of tobacco advertising on urge and craving to smoke.

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Dauphinee, A. L., Doxey, J. R., Schleicher, N. C., Fortmann, S. P., Henriksen, L. 2013; 13

    Abstract

    African Americans are disproportionately exposed to cigarette advertisements, particularly for menthol brands. Tobacco industry documents outline strategic efforts to promote menthol cigarettes to African Americans at the point of sale, and studies have observed more outdoor and retail menthol advertisements in neighborhoods with more African-American residents. Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of this target marketing on adolescents' recognition of cigarette brand advertising and on smoking uptake. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine racial differences in brand recognition and to assess the prospective relationship between brand recognition and smoking uptake.School-based surveys assessing tobacco use and environmental and social influences to smoke were administered to 6th through 9th graders (ages 11 to 15) in an urban and racially diverse California school district. The primary outcome for the cross-sectional analysis (n?=?2,589) was brand recognition, measured by students' identification of masked tobacco advertisements from the point of sale. The primary outcome for the longitudinal analysis (n?=?1,179) was progression from never to ever smoking within 12?months.At baseline, 52% of students recognized the Camel brand, 36% Marlboro, and 32% Newport. African-American students were three times more likely than others to recognize Newport (OR?=?3.03, CI?=?2.45, 3.74, p?

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-13-170

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315622800001

    View details for PubMedID 23442215

  • Comprehensive tobacco marketing restrictions: promotion, packaging, price and place TOBACCO CONTROL Henriksen, L. 2012; 21 (2): 147-153

    Abstract

    Evidence of the causal role of marketing in the tobacco epidemic and the advent of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control have inspired more than half the countries in the world to ban some forms of tobacco marketing. This paper briefly describes the ways in which cigarette marketing is restricted and the tobacco industry's efforts to subvert restrictions. It reviews what is known about the impact of marketing regulations on smoking by adults and adolescents. It also addresses what little is known about the impact of marketing bans in relation to concurrent population-level interventions, such as price controls, anti-tobacco media campaigns and smoke-free laws. Point of sale is the least regulated channel and research is needed to address the immediate and long-term consequences of policies to ban retail advertising and pack displays. Comprehensive marketing restrictions require a global ban on all forms of promotion, elimination of packaging and price as marketing tools, and limitations on the quantity, type and location of tobacco retailers.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050416

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300618200016

    View details for PubMedID 22345238

  • Targeted Advertising, Promotion, and Price For Menthol Cigarettes in California High School Neighborhoods NICOTINE & TOBACCO RESEARCH Henriksen, L., Schleicher, N. C., Dauphinee, A. L., Fortmann, S. P. 2012; 14 (1): 116-121

    Abstract

    To describe advertising, promotions, and pack prices for the leading brands of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes near California high schools and to examine their associations with school and neighborhood demographics.In stores (n = 407) within walking distance (0.8 km [1/2 mile]) of California high schools (n = 91), trained observers counted ads for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and collected data about promotions and prices for Newport and Marlboro, the leading brand in each category. Multilevel modeling examined the proportion of all cigarette advertising for any menthol brand, the proportion of stores with sales promotions, and the lowest advertised pack price in relation to store types and school/neighborhood demographics.For each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of Black students, the proportion of menthol advertising increased by 5.9 percentage points (e.g., from an average of 25.7%-31.6%), the odds of a Newport promotion were 50% higher (95% CI = 1.01, 2.22), and the cost of Newport was 12 cents lower (95% CI = -0.18, -0.06). By comparison, the odds of a promotion and the price for Marlboro, the leading brand of nonmenthol cigarettes, were unrelated to any school or neighborhood demographics.In high school neighborhoods, targeted advertising exposes Blacks to more promotions and lower prices for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes. This evidence contradicts the manufacturer's claims that the availability of its promotions is not based on race/ethnicity. It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ntr/ntr122

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299219200014

    View details for PubMedID 21705460

  • A Longitudinal Study of Exposure to Retail Cigarette Advertising and Smoking Initiation PEDIATRICS Henriksen, L., Schleicher, N. C., Feighery, E. C., Fortmann, S. P. 2010; 126 (2): 232-238

    Abstract

    Accumulating evidence suggests that widespread advertising for cigarettes at the point of sale encourages adolescents to smoke; however, no longitudinal study of exposure to retail tobacco advertising and smoking behavior has been reported.A school-based survey included 1681 adolescents (aged 11-14 years) who had never smoked. One measure of exposure assessed the frequency of visiting types of stores that contain the most cigarette advertising. A more detailed measure combined data about visiting stores near school with observations of cigarette advertisements and pack displays in those stores. Follow-up surveys 12 and 30 months after baseline (retention rate: 81%) documented the transition from never to ever smoking, even just a puff.After 12 months, 18% of adolescents initiated smoking, but the incidence was 29% among students who visited convenience, liquor, or small grocery stores at least twice per week and 9% among those who reported the lowest visit frequency (less than twice per month). Adjusting for multiple risk factors, the odds of initiation remained significantly higher (odds ratio: 1.64 [95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.55]) for adolescents who reported moderate visit frequency (0.5-1.9 visits per week), and the odds of initiation more than doubled for those who visited > or = 2 times per week (odds ratio: 2.58 [95% confidence interval: 1.68-3.97]). Similar associations were observed for the more detailed exposure measure and persisted at 30 months.Exposure to retail cigarette advertising is a risk factor for smoking initiation. Policies and parenting practices that limit adolescents' exposure to retail cigarette advertising could improve smoking prevention efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1542/peds.2009-3021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280565700006

    View details for PubMedID 20643725

  • Is adolescent smoking related to the density and proximity of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising near schools? PREVENTIVE MEDICINE Henriksen, L., Feighery, E. C., Schleicher, N. C., Cowling, D. W., Kline, R. S., Fortmann, S. P. 2008; 47 (2): 210-214

    Abstract

    To examine the quantity (density) and location (proximity) of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in high school neighborhoods and their association with school smoking prevalence.Data from the 135 high schools that participated in the 2005-2006 California Student Tobacco Survey were combined with retailer licensing data about the location of tobacco outlets within walking distance (1/2 mi or 805 m) of the schools and with observations about the quantity of cigarette advertising in a random sample of those stores (n=384). Multiple regressions, adjusting for school and neighborhood demographics, tested the associations of high school smoking prevalence with the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising and with the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools.The prevalence of current smoking was 3.2 percentage points higher at schools in neighborhoods with the highest tobacco outlet density (>5 outlets) than in neighborhoods without any tobacco outlets. The density of retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods was similarly associated with high school smoking prevalence. However, neither the presence of a tobacco outlet within 1000 ft of a high school nor the distance to the nearest tobacco outlet from school was associated with smoking prevalence.Policy efforts to reduce adolescent smoking should aim to reduce the density of tobacco outlets and retail cigarette advertising in school neighborhoods. This may be achieved through local zoning ordinances, including limiting the proximity of tobacco outlets to schools.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.04.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258560300012

    View details for PubMedID 18544462

  • The effect of retail cigarette pack displays on impulse purchase ADDICTION Wakefield, M., Germain, D., Henriksen, L. 2008; 103 (2): 322-328

    Abstract

    To assess the extent to which point-of purchase (POP) cigarette displays stimulate impulse purchases.Telephone-administered population survey.Victoria, Australia.A total of 2996 adults, among whom 526 smoked factory-made cigarettes and 67 were recent quitters (quit in the past 12 months).Reported cigarette purchase behaviour; perceived effect on smoking of removing cigarettes from view in retail outlets; reported urges to buy cigarettes as a result of seeing the cigarette display.When shopping for items other than cigarettes, 25.2% of smokers purchased cigarettes at least sometimes on impulse as a result of seeing the cigarette display. Thirty-eight per cent of smokers who had tried to quit in the past 12 months and 33.9% of recent quitters experienced an urge to buy cigarettes as a result of seeing the retail cigarette display. One in five smokers trying to quit and one in eight recent quitters avoided stores where they usually bought cigarettes in case they might be tempted to purchase them. Many smokers (31.4%) thought the removal of cigarette displays from stores would make it easier for them to quit.POP cigarette displays act as cues to smoke, even among those not explicitly intending to buy cigarettes, and those trying to avoid smoking. Effective POP marketing restrictions should encompass cigarette displays.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02062.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252318800024

    View details for PubMedID 18042190

  • Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Henriksen, L., Feighery, E. C., Schleicher, N. C., Fortmann, S. P. 2008; 42 (1): 28-35

    Abstract

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined.Data were obtained from in-class surveys of sixth, seventh, and eighth graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n = 1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics.At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity), and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline.Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents' receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors' marketing tactics.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.07.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252001500005

    View details for PubMedID 18155027

  • The relationship between exposure to alcohol advertising in stores, owning alcohol promotional items, and adolescent alcohol use ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM Hurtz, S. Q., Henriksen, L., Wang, Y., Feighery, E. C., Fortmann, S. P. 2007; 42 (2): 143-149

    Abstract

    This paper describes adolescents' exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and to alcohol-branded promotional items and their association with self-reported drinking.A cross-sectional survey was administered in non-tracked required courses to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders (n = 2125) in three California middle schools. Logistic regressions compared the odds of ever (vs. never) drinking and current (vs. ever) drinking after controlling for psychosocial and other risk factors for adolescent alcohol use.Two-thirds of middle school students reported at least weekly visits to liquor, convenience, or small grocery stores where alcohol advertising is widespread. Such exposure was associated with higher odds of ever drinking, but was not associated with current drinking. One-fifth of students reported owning at least one alcohol promotional item. These students were three times more likely to have ever tried drinking and 1.5 times more likely to report current drinking than students without such items.This study provides clear evidence of an association of adolescent drinking with weekly exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and with ownership of alcohol promotional items. Given their potential influence on adolescent drinking behaviour, retail ads, and promotional items for alcohol deserve further study.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/alcal/agl119

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246015000015

    View details for PubMedID 17218364

  • An evaluation of four measures of adolescents' exposure to cigarette marketing in stores NICOTINE & TOBACCO RESEARCH Feighery, E. C., Henriksen, L., Wang, Y., Schleicher, N. C., Fortmann, S. P. 2006; 8 (6): 751-759

    Abstract

    This study evaluates four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing in relation to adolescent smoking behavior. The measures are (a) shopping frequency in types of stores known to carry more cigarette advertising than other store types, (b) shopping frequency in specific stores that sell cigarettes in the study community, (c) the amount of exposure to cigarette brand impressions in stores where students shopped, and (d) perceived exposure to cigarette advertising. The study combined data from classroom surveys administered to 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students in three California middle schools, and direct store observations quantifying cigarette marketing materials and product placement in stores where students shopped. Logistic regression models were used to examine how each exposure measure related to the odds of ever smoking and susceptibility to smoke, controlling for grade, gender, ethnicity, school performance, unsupervised time, and exposure to household and friend smoking. Frequent exposure to retail cigarette marketing as defined by each of the four measures was independently associated with a significant increase in the odds of ever smoking. All but the measure of exposure to store types was associated with a significant increase in the odds of susceptibility to smoke. Four measures of exposure to retail cigarette marketing may serve equally well to predict adolescent smoking but may vary in cost, complexity, and meaning. Depending on the outcomes of interest, the most useful measure may be a combination of self-reported exposure to types of stores that contain cigarette marketing and perceived exposure to such messages.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/14622200601004125

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242992300005

    View details for PubMedID 17132522

  • Industry sponsored anti-smoking ads and adolescent reactance: test of a boomerang effect TOBACCO CONTROL Henriksen, L., Dauphinee, A. L., Wang, Y., Fortmann, S. P. 2006; 15 (1): 13-18

    Abstract

    To examine whether adolescents' exposure to youth smoking prevention ads sponsored by tobacco companies promotes intentions to smoke, curiosity about smoking, and positive attitudes toward the tobacco industry.A randomised controlled experiment compared adolescents' responses to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a tobacco company (Philip Morris or Lorillard), or to five smoking prevention ads sponsored by a non-profit organisation (the American Legacy Foundation), or to five ads about preventing drunk driving.A large public high school in California's central valley.A convenience sample of 9th and 10th graders (n = 832) ages 14-17 years.Perceptions of ad effectiveness, intention to smoke, and attitudes toward tobacco companies measured immediately after exposure.As predicted, adolescents rated Philip Morris and Lorillard ads less favourably than the other youth smoking prevention ads. Adolescents' intention to smoke did not differ as a function of ad exposure. However, exposure to Philip Morris and Lorillard ads engendered more favourable attitudes toward tobacco companies.This study demonstrates that industry sponsored anti-smoking ads do more to promote corporate image than to prevent youth smoking. By cultivating public opinion that is more sympathetic toward tobacco companies, the effect of such advertising is likely to be more harmful than helpful to youth.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/tc.2003006361

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234842100010

    View details for PubMedID 16436398

  • Association of retail tobacco marketing with adolescent smoking AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Henriksen, L., Feighery, E. C., Wang, Y., Fortmann, S. P. 2004; 94 (12): 2081-2083

    Abstract

    A survey of 2125 middle-school students in central California examined adolescents' exposure to tobacco marketing in stores and its association with self-reported smoking. Two thirds of sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students reported at least weekly visits to small grocery, convenience, or liquor stores. Such visits were associated with a 50% increase in the odds of ever smoking, even after control for social influences to smoke. Youth smoking rates may benefit from efforts to reduce adolescents' exposure to tobacco marketing in stores.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225560800016

    View details for PubMedID 15569957

  • Reaching youth at the point of sale: cigarette marketing is more prevalent in stores where adolescents shop frequently TOBACCO CONTROL Henriksen, L., Feighery, E. C., Schleicher, N. C., Haladjian, H. H., Fortmann, S. P. 2004; 13 (3): 315-318

    Abstract

    Although numerous studies describe the quantity and nature of tobacco marketing in stores, fewer studies examine the industry's attempts to reach youth at the point of sale. This study examines whether cigarette marketing is more prevalent in stores where adolescents shop frequently.Trained coders counted cigarette ads, products, and other marketing materials in a census of stores that sell tobacco in Tracy, California (n = 50). A combination of data from focus groups and in-class surveys of middle school students (n = 2125) determined which of the stores adolescents visited most frequently.Amount of marketing materials and shelf space measured separately for the three cigarette brands most popular with adolescent smokers and for other brands combined.Compared to other stores in the same community, stores where adolescents shopped frequently contained almost three times more marketing materials for Marlboro, Camel, and Newport, and significantly more shelf space devoted to these brands.Regardless of whether tobacco companies intentionally target youth at the point of sale, these findings underscore the importance of strategies to reduce the quantity and impact of cigarette marketing materials in this venue.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/tc.2003.006577

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223532700027

    View details for PubMedID 15333890

  • A content analysis of Web sites promoting smoking culture and lifestyle HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR Ribisl, K. M., Lee, R. E., Henriksen, L., Haladjian, H. H. 2003; 30 (1): 64-78

    Abstract

    The present study examined smoking culture and lifestyle Web sites listed on Yahoo!, a popular Internet search catalog, to determine whether the sites were easily accessible to youth, featured age or health warnings, and mentioned specific tobacco brands. A content analysis of photographs on these sites assessed the demographics of individuals depicted and the amount of smoking and nudity in the photographs. The sample included 30 Web sites, all of which were accessible to youth and did not require age verification services to enter them. Cigarette brand names were mentioned in writing on 35% of the sites, and brand images were present on 24% of the sites. Nearly all of the photographs (95%) depicted smoking, 92% featured women, and 7% contained partial or full nudity. These results underscore the need for greater research and monitoring of smoking-related Internet content by health educators and tobacco control advocates.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/10901098102239259

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180566900004

    View details for PubMedID 12564668

  • Young adults' opinions of Philip Morris and its television advertising TOBACCO CONTROL Henriksen, L., Fortmann, S. P. 2002; 11 (3): 236-240

    Abstract

    To determine what young people think about the tobacco company Philip Morris and how it affects their evaluations of the company's new television advertising.Data were gathered in the context of a controlled experiment in which participants saw four Philip Morris ads about youth smoking prevention, four Philip Morris ads about charitable works, or four Anheuser-Busch ads about preventing underage drinking (the control group). Knowledge and opinion of Philip Morris were measured before ad exposure.A California state university in the San Francisco Bay area.A convenience sample of undergraduates (n = 218) aged 18-25 years.Advertising evaluation measured by 12 semantic differential scales.A little more than half of the students knew that Philip Morris is a tobacco company. Neither this knowledge nor students' smoking status was related to their opinion of the company. Philip Morris ads were rated less favourably by students who were aware that the sponsor is a tobacco company than by students who were unaware.Advertisements designed to discredit the tobacco industry typically avoid references to specific companies. This study suggests that such counter-advertising would benefit from teaching audiences about the industry's corporate identities.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177902000021

    View details for PubMedID 12198275

  • Effects on youth of exposure to retail tobacco advertising JOURNAL OF APPLIED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Henriksen, L., Flora, J. A., Feighery, E., Fortmann, S. P. 2002; 32 (9): 1771-1789
  • Third-person perception and children - Perceived impact of pro- and anti-smoking ads COMMUNICATION RESEARCH Henriksen, L., Flora, J. A. 1999; 26 (6): 643-665
  • Reliability of children's self-reported cigarette smoking ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS Henriksen, L., Jackson, C. 1999; 24 (2): 271-277

    Abstract

    Youth who first smoke cigarettes during childhood are a high risk for habitual smoking. Evaluating the reliability of children's smoking initiation is essential to research efforts to explain or prevent smoking onset. The present study is the first to establish reliability of self-reported smoking behavior with questionnaire data from elementary school children (N = 1,184). Data from a longitudinal investigation are used to examine the consistency of children's self-reported smoking across items and over time. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses demonstrate that children report having tried smoking and lifetime use remarkably consistently. However, only about half the children reliably estimated their grade at first use. The study results suggest that some but not all standard questionnaire items yield reliable self-report data about initial smoking behavior from respondents as young as 8 to 11 years.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079294400011

    View details for PubMedID 10336108

  • A longitudinal study predicting patterns of cigarette smoking in late childhood HEALTH EDUCATION & BEHAVIOR Jackson, C., Henriksen, L., Dickinson, D., Messer, L., ROBERTSON, S. B. 1998; 25 (4): 436-447

    Abstract

    Early initiation of cigarette smoking so strongly predicts future smoking that several investigators have advocated delaying the age of initiation as a prevention strategy. To complement retrospective studies of early initiation, this study assessed prospectively patterns of smoking behavior in a sample of 401 children who were surveyed in the fifth, sixth, and seventh grades. The principal findings were (1) modeling of smoking by parents and friends is sufficient to influence children to initiate smoking, particularly when children also have low behavioral self-control, and (2) when modeling occurs in combination with poor adjustment to school, low parental monitoring, easy access to cigarettes, and other risk attributes, early initiators are significantly more likely to continue smoking. The results suggest that delaying initiation of smoking without also modifying child attributes and socialization factors that predict early initiation and persistent smoking is unlikely to reduce the proportion of children who become habitual smokers.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000074933300003

    View details for PubMedID 9690102

  • ANTHROPOCENTRISM AND COMPUTERS BEHAVIOUR & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Nass, C. I., LOMBARD, M., Henriksen, L., Steuer, J. 1995; 14 (4): 229-238
  • MACHINES, SOCIAL ATTRIBUTIONS, AND ETHOPOEIA - PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS OF COMPUTERS SUBSEQUENT TO SELF-EVALUATIONS OR OTHER-EVALUATIONS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN-COMPUTER STUDIES Nass, C., Steuer, J., Henriksen, L., Dryer, D. C. 1994; 40 (3): 543-559
  • TELEVISION AND SCHOOLING - DISPLACEMENT AND DISTRACTION HYPOTHESES AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION Roberts, D. F., Henriksen, L., VOELKER, D. H., VANVUUREN, D. P. 1993; 37 (2): 198-211

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