Maternal attachment insecurity is a potent predictor of depressive symptoms in the early postnatal period
JOURNAL OF AFFECTIVE DISORDERS
2016; 190: 623-631
Cognitive Effects of Hormone Therapy Continuation or Discontinuation in a Sample of Women at Risk for Alzheimer Disease.
American journal of geriatric psychiatry
2015; 23 (11): 1117-1126
Optimistic outlook regarding maternity protects against depressive symptoms postpartum
ARCHIVES OF WOMENS MENTAL HEALTH
2015; 18 (2): 197-208
Use of estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT) as a protection from cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD) is controversial, although cumulative data support HT use when initiated close to menopause onset with estrogen formulations containing 17β-estradiol preferable to conjugated equine estrogen formulations. Little is known regarding specific populations of women who may derive benefit from HT.Women with heightened risk for AD (aged 49-69), all of whom were taking HT for at least 1 year and most of whom initiated HT close to menopause onset, underwent cognitive assessment followed by randomization to continue or discontinue HT. Assessments were repeated at 2 years after randomization.Women who continued HT performed better on cognitive domains composed of measures of verbal memory and combined attention, working memory, and processing speed measures. Women who used 17β-estradiol versus conjugated equine estrogen, whether randomized to continue or discontinue HT, showed better verbal memory performance at the 2-year follow-up assessment. An interaction was also found with HT randomization and family history of AD in a first-degree relative. All female offspring of patients with AD declined in verbal memory; however, women who continued HT declined less than women who discontinued HT. Women without a first-degree relative with AD showed verbal memory improvement (likely because of practice effects) with continuance and declined with discontinuance of HT.Continuation of HT use appears to protect cognition in women with heightened risk for AD when initiated close to menopause onset.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jagp.2015.05.009
View details for PubMedID 26209223
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4654994
Insulin resistance and medial prefrontal gyrus metabolism in women receiving hormone therapy
2014; 223 (1): 28-36
Insulin resistance and medial prefrontal gyrus metabolism in women receiving hormone therapy.
2014; 223 (1): 28-36
The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however, the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through 3 months postpartum. We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated with depressive symptoms, a finding that merits further study.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00737-014-0446-3
View details for Web of Science ID 000351476400006
View details for PubMedID 25088532
Prospective randomized trial to assess effects of continuing hormone therapy on cerebral function in postmenopausal women at risk for dementia.
2014; 9 (3)
Insulin resistance (IR) is a putative risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia, and has been shown to impede neuronal glucose metabolism in animal models. This post hoc study focused on metabolic changes in the medial prefrontal region, a brain region exhibiting decline years before documented cognitive changes, relative to high or low IR status in a cohort of postmenopausal women at risk for dementia who were randomized to continue or discontinue existing stable hormone therapy (HT) for 2 years. Subjects were dichotomized into high and low IR groups based on the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, which was within clinically normal limits for the group as a whole at both baseline and 2-year follow-up. Results showed that high and low IR groups showed significant differences in metabolic decline of the medial prefrontal gyrus, regardless of HT randomization group. However, HT randomization was predictive of metabolic decline only in women with low HOMA (homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance). Performance in working memory was consistent with observed metabolic changes. These results suggest IR may be an independent moderator of regional metabolic changes, while protective metabolic effects of HT are most apparent in those at low-end range of IR. If replicated in future studies, these findings will help to better understand the interaction between putative risk and protective factors, and further delineate cohort postmenopausal women who may benefit from HT.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2014.04.004
View details for PubMedID 24819305
Prospective randomized trial to assess effects of continuing hormone therapy on cerebral function in postmenopausal women at risk for dementia.
2014; 9 (3)
Biologically based treatment approaches to the patient with resistant perinatal depression
ARCHIVES OF WOMENS MENTAL HEALTH
2013; 16 (5): 343-351
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT) on regional cerebral metabolism in postmenopausal women (mean age = 58, SD = 5) at risk for development of dementia. The prospective clinical trial design included pre- and post-intervention neuroimaging of women randomized to continue (HT+) or discontinue (HT-) therapy following an average of 10 years of use. The primary outcome measure was change in brain metabolism during the subsequent two years, as assessed with fluorodeoxyglucose-18 positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Longitudinal FDG-PET data were available for 45 study completers. Results showed that women randomized to continue HT experienced relative preservation of frontal and parietal cortical metabolism, compared with women randomized to discontinue HT. Women who discontinued 17-β estradiol (17βE)-based HT, as well as women who continued conjugated equine estrogen (CEE)-based HT, exhibited significant decline in metabolism of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical (PCC) area. Significant decline in PCC metabolism was additionally seen in women taking concurrent progestins (with either 17βE or CEE). Together, these findings suggest that among postmenopausal subjects at risk for developing dementia, regional cerebral cortical metabolism is relatively preserved for at least two years in women randomized to continue HT, compared with women randomized to discontinue HT. In addition, continuing unopposed 17βE therapy is associated specifically with preservation of metabolism in PCC, known to undergo the most significant decline in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00097058.
View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0089095
View details for PubMedID 24622517
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3951184
Insulin resistance and hippocampal volume in women at risk for Alzheimer's disease
NEUROBIOLOGY OF AGING
2011; 32 (11): 1942-1948
This study aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding approaches to treatment-resistant depression in pregnancy and the postpartum period and to develop algorithms for ante- and postnatal management in cases of refractory major depression. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched without temporal restriction. Search terms included pregnancy and depression, perinatal depression, postnatal depression, treatment resistance and depression, antipsychotics and pregnancy, antidepressants and pregnancy, and mood stabilizers and pregnancy. Abstracts were reviewed for relevance, and further articles were obtained from bibliographic citations. There is a significant subpopulation of patients in pregnancy and postpartum whose depressive symptoms do not respond to first-line treatments. No research studies have focused specifically on this population. Data extracted from studies on women with depressive symptoms in pregnancy suggest that in the absence of evidence on which to base clinical decisions, many are receiving combinations of psychotherapeutic medications that have not been specifically studied for use in pregnancy. Antidepressant use in pregnancy is well studied, but studies specifically addressing the case of the patient who does not respond to first-line treatments are absent. Research in this area is urgently needed. The authors review a number of possible therapeutic approaches to treatment-resistant depression in pregnancy and the postpartum period.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00737-013-0366-7
View details for Web of Science ID 000324337700001
View details for PubMedID 23828097
Differences in Verbal Memory Performance in Postmenopausal Women Receiving Hormone Therapy: 17 beta-Estradiol Versus Conjugated Equine Estrogens
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GERIATRIC PSYCHIATRY
2011; 19 (9): 792-802
Insulin resistance (IR) is the main pathological condition underlying vascular disorders, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which are well established risk factors for cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD). Hippocampal atrophy has been associated with cognitive decline, but little is known about the influence of IR on hippocampus integrity in non-diabetic, cognitively intact individuals. Herein, 50 women ages 50-65, current users of hormone therapy, underwent magnetic resonance imaging, cognitive testing, and homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), as part of a longitudinal study examining brain structure and function in postmenopausal women at risk for AD. Results demonstrated a significant negative relationship between HOMA-IR and right and total hippocampal volume, overall cognitive performance, and selective tests of verbal and non-verbal memory. The main effect of HOMA-IR on brain structure and cognition was not altered by the presence of APOE-ε4 allele or by reproductive history, such as duration of endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure. These results suggest that IR in middle-aged individuals at risk for AD may be biomarker for dementia risk.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2009.12.005
View details for Web of Science ID 000295220700003
View details for PubMedID 20031276
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2891925
Differences in regional brain metabolism associated with specific formulations of hormone therapy in postmenopausal women at risk for AD
2011; 36 (4): 502-513
Much controversy exists and many questions remain unanswered about the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on cognition in postmenopausal women. There is growing evidence suggesting that HT compounds containing conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) have negative effects on cognition whereas 17β-estradiol (17β-E) either has positive or neutral effects. The present study sought to further examine this issue in a sample of postmenopausal women with risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD).Cross-sectional neuropsychological evaluation.Academic research clinic.68 healthy postmenopausal women (aged 49-68) receiving either 17β-E or CEE for at least one year with increased risk for AD.Neuropsychological test battery of the cognitive domains of attention/working memory/processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, and executive functioning.Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) showed significantly better verbal memory performance in women receiving 17β-E compared to women receiving CEE regardless of age, IQ, years of education, risk factors for AD (including APOE-ε4 carriership), duration of endogenous and exogenous estrogen exposure, concurrent progesterone use, or natural versus surgical menopause status.Verbal memory performance was better in postmenopausal women receiving 17β-E compared to CEE in a sample population of women with risk factors for AD. Genetic risk for AD as well as other confounds did not affect this finding. The results suggest a differential effect of HT type on verbal memory, with 17β-E being a preferential compound. Further evaluation of HT types, regimens and duration of use on cognitive performance in postmenopausal women in a controlled longitudinal design is warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1097/JGP.0b013e3181ff678a
View details for Web of Science ID 000294415800006
View details for PubMedID 21873835
Mood disorders in oocyte donor candidates: brief report and implications for future research
2011; 26 (4): 847-852
Differential cerebral metabolic effects of various hormone therapy formulations, and their associations with cognitive status, remain to be established. The principal aim of the current study was to assess relationships between regional cerebral metabolism and estrogen-based hormone therapies. Postmenopausal women (n=53) at elevated risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) were on estrogen-containing hormone therapy for at least one year prior to enrollment in a prospective, randomized clinical trial. Subjects underwent an FDG-PET scan, along with neuropsychological, medical, and demographic assessments at time of enrollment, to be repeated one year following randomization to hormone therapy continuation versus discontinuation, and results from analyses of the baseline assessments are reported here. Across all subjects, years of endogenous estrogen exposure correlated most closely with metabolism in right superior frontal gyrus (p<0.0005). Women taking 17β-estradiol (E) performed three standard deviations higher in verbal memory than women taking conjugated equine estrogen (CEE), and their verbal memory performance positively correlated with metabolism in Wernicke's (p=0.003) and auditory association (p=0.002) areas. Women taking progesterone-plus-estrogen had lower metabolism than women taking unopposed estrogen within the mesial and inferior lateral temporal regions (p<0.0005) and the inferior frontal cortex, contralateral to Broca's area (p<0.0005). In conclusion, particular areas of relatively preserved metabolism were seen in women with more years of endogenous estrogen exposure, as well as in women taking estradiol-based formulations or estrogen therapies unopposed by progesterone, together suggesting regionally specific neuroprotective estrogenic effects.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2010.08.002
View details for Web of Science ID 000288922300008
View details for PubMedID 20810219
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3021636
Rosiglitazone Add-On in Treatment of Depressed Patients with Insulin Resistance: a Pilot Study
2010; 10: 321-328
BACKGROUND IVF, using donor oocytes, has become increasingly common. The donation procedure carries psychiatric risks, including depression, anxiety and rarely, psychosis, and this risk increases when there is a past history of psychiatric illness. We report on the psychiatric status, at intake assessment, of a group of candidate oocyte donors. METHODS The authors reviewed clinical records of 63 women continuously presenting to a University medical center for psychiatric evaluation as part of the screening process for oocyte donation. A board certified psychiatrist administered a structured clinical interview to candidate donors, and self-report measures were obtained from 28 women. RESULTS There was a significant discrepancy between psychiatric history of depression and current mood status, as measured by both clinical interview and psychometric self-report data. Nearly one-quarter of candidate donors (22%) reported a history of major depressive disorder; however, all candidate donors denied current mood disturbance on clinical interview, and mean Beck depression inventory and profile of mood states scores were lower than expected compared with psychometric norms (P < 0.0005), epidemiological data and the recurrent nature of depressive disorders. CONCLUSIONS Candidate donors may minimize psychiatric symptoms. Given the potential for ovarian stimulation protocols to induce or exacerbate mood symptoms, and the moderate heritability of mood disorders, careful evaluation of candidate donor affective disorder history is recommended. This evaluation should focus on sensitivity to mood destabilization during times of hormonal change. Measures that examine whether a candidate donor may have a tendency to present herself in an overly favorable manner, and/or a tendency to minimize symptoms, are recommended.
View details for DOI 10.1093/humrep/deq394
View details for Web of Science ID 000288552200015
View details for PubMedID 21242150
Cognitive effects of memantine in postmenopausal women at risk of dementia: a pilot study
ACTA NEUROLOGICA SCANDINAVICA
2009; 119 (3): 172-179
A number of cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between insulin resistance (IR) and affective disorders. However, limited data exist on potential changes in IR in a prospective treatment of depression. The present pilot study tested the hypothesis that improvement of IR with the addition of an insulin-sensitizing agent would improve mood in nondiabetic patients with unipolar or bipolar depression, who had surrogate blood markers suggestive of IR. Surrogate IR-criteria blood markers were fasting plasma glucose >100 mg/dl or triglyceride (TG) to high density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio >3.0. Open-label rosiglitazone, titrated to a dose of 8 mg/day, was administered for 12 weeks to 12 patients with depressive disorder receiving treatment as usual (TAU). Eight patients who completed the 12-week study exhibited significant declines in both depression severity by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression scale, with moderate effect sizes noted. Modest improvement in Matsuda Index scores was also noted at 12 weeks, yet declines in depression severity scores were not associated with improvements in the endocrine markers (Matsuda Index, TG/HDL ratio, and body mass index). These results suggest the potential novel use for an insulin-sensitizing agent in the treatment of depressive disorders. Larger placebo-controlled studies are warranted.
View details for DOI 10.1100/tsw.2010.32
View details for Web of Science ID 000274935000007
View details for PubMedID 20191245
Mood disorders and fertility in women: a critical review of the literature and implications for future research
HUMAN REPRODUCTION UPDATE
2007; 13 (6): 607-616
To determine the effects of memantine on cognition in a normal population of postmenopausal women with putative risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) using a built-in control for the genetic risk factor for AD (apoE-epsilon4 status).A prospective, open-label, 6-month pilot medication trial with memantine and follow-up after discontinuance conducted at the Center for Neuroscience in Women's Health, Stanford University School of Medicine. Neuropsychological data were collected on 22 community-dwelling postmenopausal women (11 apoE-epsilon4 carriers and 11 apoE-epsilon4 non-carriers) with at least one putative risk factor for AD.ApoE-epsilon4 status was not a significant predictor of change in neuropsychological performance. Changes associated with memantine treatment for entire sample included significant declines in some variables associated with verbal learning and memory that improved upon medication withdrawal. A positive medication effect was noted with executive functions and possibly category fluency. Trend-level improvements were seen in motor dexterity of the non-dominant hand and maintained even after drug discontinuance.Treatment with memantine appeared to have differential effects on cognitive performance in a population of women with putative risk factors for AD. ApoE-epsilon4 carrier status did not account for observed changes in cognition.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2008.01084.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000262949100005
View details for PubMedID 18705678
Sexual dysfunction in major depression
2006; 11 (8): 19-23
A medline literature review of fertility and mood disorder articles published since 1980 was performed in order to critically review the literature regarding a relationship between mood disorders, fertility and infertility treatment. Previous studies suggests that mood disorders, both in the bipolar and unipolar spectrum, may be associated with decreased fertility rates. Most studies report that women seeking treatment for infertility have an increased rate of depressive symptoms and possibly major depression (none showed evaluated mood elevations). Many, but not all, studies found that depressive symptoms may decrease the success rate of fertility treatment. Treatments for infertility may independently influence mood through their effects on estrogen and progesterone, which have been shown to influence mood through their actions on serotonin. Studies are limited in scope and confounding variables are many, limiting the strength of the results. In conclusion, a range of existing studies suggests that fertility and mood disorders are related in a complex way. Future studies should use clinical interviews and standardized and validated measures to confirm the diagnosis of mood disorders and control for the variables of medication treatment, desire for children, frequency of sexual intercourse, age, FSH levels, menstrual cycle regularity in assessing an interrelationship between mood disorders and fertility.
View details for DOI 10.1093/humupd/dmm019
View details for Web of Science ID 000250679900009
View details for PubMedID 17895237
Mood and neuropsychological changes in women with midlife depression treated with escitalopram
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
2006; 26 (4): 361-366
Little is known about the prevalence, typology, and natural course of non-drug-induced sexual dysfunction in patients with depression. Loss of libido has been reported in various studies to affect from 25% to 75% of patients with unipolar depression, and its prevalence appears to be correlated with the severity of depression. Disorders of arousal also appear to be relatively common in both men and women with major depression, of whom approximately 25% may experience problems with erection or lubrication. The scant available data regarding orgasmic difficulties in patients with depression who have not yet taken antidepressant medication suggest that they are more common than in the general population. The potential causes of sexual dysfunction in patients with depression are complex and little investigated, and future research must distinguish and explore the various biological, psychological, and psychosocial factors that are likely to be involved.
View details for Web of Science ID 000240406200004
View details for PubMedID 16871134
Obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnancy, the puerperium, and the premenstruum
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHIATRY
1997; 58 (7): 330-334
This study assessed mood and neuropsychological function in a population of middle-aged women with major depressive disorder treated with escitalopram.Psychometric data measuring severity of depression were collected from 19 women and neuropsychological data were collected from 17 women aged between 45 and 65 years with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnosis of major depression in a study in the Behavioral Neuroendocrinology Program at the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine. All women were treated with escitalopram in an open-label design. Mean age was 55.94 years and mean number of years of education was 16.36 years. Diagnosis of major depressive disorder was assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and mood was evaluated with the 21-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) at baseline and at weekly follow-ups for 12 weeks. Cognition was assessed at baseline and 3 months after treatment using a neuropsychological test battery, which included an abbreviated measure of Full Scale Intelligence Quotient, measures of attention and processing speed, verbal and nonverbal memory, executive functioning, and verbal fluency. Self-report data were collected on current menopause status and current hormone therapy use in the postmenopausal women. Paired sample t tests were used to analyze the change in total HAM-D scores and neuropsychological variables.Statistically significant improvements were found in total HAM-D score, Wechsler Memory Scale III Logical Memory 1st Recall, I, and II scores, Wechsler Memory Scale III Visual Reproduction I scores, and Trail Making Test Part B scores. There was a statistically significant decrease in Controlled Oral Word Association Test FAS scores.Treatment of depression with escitalopram in a population of middle-aged women was shown to improve mood and cognitive efficiency in complex attention, short- and long-term recall of contextual information, short-term recall of visual information, and cognitive flexibility; however, it was shown to worsen phonemic fluency.
View details for DOI 10.1097/01.jcp.0000227699.26375.f8
View details for Web of Science ID 000239551200003
View details for PubMedID 16855452
Recent reports suggest that pregnancy and the puerperium may precipitate or exacerbate obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The influence of this illness on other reproductive events, such as the premenstruum, is unknown. We examined retrospectively the relationships of pregnancy, the puerperium, and premenstruum to the course of OCD in 57 women.Women outpatients with OCD meeting DSM-III-R criteria completed a standardized telephone interview administered by a psychiatric resident. They were asked retrospectively about the clinical course of their illness premenstrually and during and after pregnancy.Of 72 women eligible for the study, 79% (N = 57) completed the interview. Premenstrual worsening of OCD was described by 24 (42%) of the 57 women, and 12 (21%) described premenstrual dysphoria. Of the 57 women, 38 (67%) had been pregnant at least once; 31 (54%) had delivered at least one child. Pregnancy was associated with the onset of OCD in only 5 (13%) of the 38 women. Of the 29 women with preexisting OCD who became pregnant, 20 (69%) described no change in symptoms during pregnancy, 5 (17%) described worsening, and 4 (14%) described improvement. Postpartum exacerbation of OCD symptoms was reported by 7 (29%) of the 24 women with preexisting OCD who completed full-term pregnancies. Nine (37%) of the 24 women with both preexisting OCD and completed pregnancies also reported postpartum depression.The premenstrual and postpartum exacerbation of OCD symptoms in some women suggests that the course of this disorder may, in some cases, be influenced by changes in gonadal hormones. Our finding that women with OCD may be at increased risk for postpartum depression underscores the importance of careful postpartum evaluation of women with OCD to prevent maternal and infant morbidity.
View details for Web of Science ID A1997XQ03400016
View details for PubMedID 9269260