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  • The impact of measurement differences on cross-country depression prevalence estimates: A latent transition analysis PLOS ONE Scorza, P., Masyn, K., Salomon, J. A., Betancourt, T. S. 2018; 13 (6): e0198429

    Abstract

    Depression is currently the second largest contributor to non-fatal disease burden globally. For that reason, economic evaluations are increasingly being conducted using data from depression prevalence estimates to analyze return on investments for services that target mental health. Psychiatric epidemiology studies have reported large cross-national differences in the prevalence of depression. These differences may impact the cost-effectiveness assessments of mental health interventions, thereby affecting decisions regarding government and multi-lateral investment in mental health services. Some portion of the differences in prevalence estimates across countries may be due to true discrepancies in depression prevalence, resulting from differential levels of risk in environmental and demographic factors. However, some portion of those differences may reflect non-invariance in the way standard tools measure depression across countries. This paper attempts to discern the extent to which measurement differences are responsible for reported differences in the prevalence of depression across countries.This analysis uses data from the World Mental Health Surveys, a coordinated series of psychiatric epidemiology studies in 27 countries using multistage household probability samples to assess prevalence and correlates of mental disorders. Data in the current study include responses to the depression module of the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in four countries: Two high-income, western countries-the United States (n = 20, 015) and New Zealand (n = 12,992)-an upper-middle income sub-Saharan African country, South Africa (n = 4,351), and a lower-middle income sub-Saharan African country, Nigeria (n = 6,752). Latent class analysis, a type of finite mixture modeling, was used to categorize respondents into underlying categories based on the variation in their responses to questions in each of three sequential parts of the CIDI depression module: 1) The initial screening items, 2) Additional duration and severity exclusion criteria, and 3) The core symptom questions. After each of these parts, exclusion criteria expel respondents from the remainder of the diagnostic interview, rendering a diagnosis of "not depressed". Latent class models were fit to each of the three parts in each of the four countries, and model fit was assessed using overall chi-square values and Pearson standardized residuals. Latent transition analysis was then applied in order to model participants' progression through the CIDI depression module. Proportion of individuals falling into each latent class and probabilities of transitioning into subsequent classes were used to estimate the percentage in each country that ultimately fell into the more symptomatic class, i.e. classified as "depressed". This latent variable design allows for a non-zero probability that individuals were incorrectly excluded from or retained in the diagnostic interview at any of the three exclusion points and therefore incorrectly diagnosed. Prevalence estimates based on the latent transition model reversed the order of depression prevalence across countries. Based on the latent transition model in this analysis, Nigeria has the highest prevalence (21.6%), followed by New Zealand (17.4%), then South Africa (15.0%), and finally the US (12.5%). That is compared to the estimates in the World Mental Health Surveys that do not allow for measurement differences, in which Nigeria had by far the lowest prevalence (3.1%), followed by South Africa (9.8%), then the United States (13.5%) and finally New Zealand (17.8%). Individuals endorsing the screening questions in Nigeria and South Africa were more likely to endorse more severe depression symptomology later in the module (i.e. they had higher transition probabilities), suggesting that individuals in the two Western countries may be more likely to endorse screening questions even when they don't have as severe symptoms. These differences narrow the range of depression prevalence between countries 14 percentage points in the original estimates to 6 percentage points in the estimate taking account of measurement differences.These data suggest fewer differences in cross-national prevalence of depression than previous estimates. Given that prevalence data are used to support key decisions regarding resource-allocation for mental health services, more critical attention should be paid to differences in the functioning of measurement across contexts and the impact these differences have on prevalence estimates. Future research should include qualitative methods as well as external measures of disease severity, such as impairment, to assess how the latent classes predict these external variables, to better understand the way that standard tools estimate depression prevalence across contexts. Adjustments could then be made to prevalence estimates used in cost-effectiveness analyses.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0198429

    View details for Web of Science ID 000434384900044

    View details for PubMedID 29879167

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5991686

  • Feasibility of a Health-Utility Approach to Quantifying Noneconomic Losses from Personal Injury JOURNAL OF EMPIRICAL LEGAL STUDIES Carvalho, N., Fish, D., Grant, G. M., Salomon, J. A., Studdert, D. M. 2018; 15 (2): 278–319
  • Measuring performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet (London, England) 2018; 391 (10136): 2236–71

    Abstract

    A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016.Drawing from established methods and updated estimates from GBD 2016, we used 32 causes from which death should not occur in the presence of effective care to approximate personal health-care access and quality by location and over time. To better isolate potential effects of personal health-care access and quality from underlying risk factor patterns, we risk-standardised cause-specific deaths due to non-cancers by location-year, replacing the local joint exposure of environmental and behavioural risks with the global level of exposure. Supported by the expansion of cancer registry data in GBD 2016, we used mortality-to-incidence ratios for cancers instead of risk-standardised death rates to provide a stronger signal of the effects of personal health care and access on cancer survival. We transformed each cause to a scale of 0-100, with 0 as the first percentile (worst) observed between 1990 and 2016, and 100 as the 99th percentile (best); we set these thresholds at the country level, and then applied them to subnational locations. We applied a principal components analysis to construct the HAQ Index using all scaled cause values, providing an overall score of 0-100 of personal health-care access and quality by location over time. We then compared HAQ Index levels and trends by quintiles on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary measure of overall development. As derived from the broader GBD study and other data sources, we examined relationships between national HAQ Index scores and potential correlates of performance, such as total health spending per capita.In 2016, HAQ Index performance spanned from a high of 97·1 (95% UI 95·8-98·1) in Iceland, followed by 96·6 (94·9-97·9) in Norway and 96·1 (94·5-97·3) in the Netherlands, to values as low as 18·6 (13·1-24·4) in the Central African Republic, 19·0 (14·3-23·7) in Somalia, and 23·4 (20·2-26·8) in Guinea-Bissau. The pace of progress achieved between 1990 and 2016 varied, with markedly faster improvements occurring between 2000 and 2016 for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia, whereas several countries in Latin America and elsewhere saw progress stagnate after experiencing considerable advances in the HAQ Index between 1990 and 2000. Striking subnational disparities emerged in personal health-care access and quality, with China and India having particularly large gaps between locations with the highest and lowest scores in 2016. In China, performance ranged from 91·5 (89·1-93·6) in Beijing to 48·0 (43·4-53·2) in Tibet (a 43·5-point difference), while India saw a 30·8-point disparity, from 64·8 (59·6-68·8) in Goa to 34·0 (30·3-38·1) in Assam. Japan recorded the smallest range in subnational HAQ performance in 2016 (a 4·8-point difference), whereas differences between subnational locations with the highest and lowest HAQ Index values were more than two times as high for the USA and three times as high for England. State-level gaps in the HAQ Index in Mexico somewhat narrowed from 1990 to 2016 (from a 20·9-point to 17·0-point difference), whereas in Brazil, disparities slightly increased across states during this time (a 17·2-point to 20·4-point difference). Performance on the HAQ Index showed strong linkages to overall development, with high and high-middle SDI countries generally having higher scores and faster gains for non-communicable diseases. Nonetheless, countries across the development spectrum saw substantial gains in some key health service areas from 2000 to 2016, most notably vaccine-preventable diseases. Overall, national performance on the HAQ Index was positively associated with higher levels of total health spending per capita, as well as health systems inputs, but these relationships were quite heterogeneous, particularly among low-to-middle SDI countries.GBD 2016 provides a more detailed understanding of past success and current challenges in improving personal health-care access and quality worldwide. Despite substantial gains since 2000, many low-SDI and middle-SDI countries face considerable challenges unless heightened policy action and investments focus on advancing access to and quality of health care across key health services, especially non-communicable diseases. Stagnating or minimal improvements experienced by several low-middle to high-middle SDI countries could reflect the complexities of re-orienting both primary and secondary health-care services beyond the more limited foci of the Millennium Development Goals. Alongside initiatives to strengthen public health programmes, the pursuit of universal health coverage hinges upon improving both access and quality worldwide, and thus requires adopting a more comprehensive view-and subsequent provision-of quality health care for all populations.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30994-2

    View details for PubMedID 29893224

  • Trading Bankruptcy for Health: A Discrete-Choice Experiment VALUE IN HEALTH Shrime, M. G., Weinstein, M. C., Hammitt, J. K., Cohen, J. L., Salomon, J. A. 2018; 21 (1): 95–104

    Abstract

    Although nearly two-third of bankruptcy in the United States is medical in origin, a common assumption is that individuals facing a potentially lethal disease opt for cure at any cost. This assumption has never been tested, and knowledge of how the American population values a trade-off between cure and bankruptcy is unknown.To determine the relative importance among the general American population of improved health versus improved financial risk protection, and to determine the impact of demographics on these preferences.A discrete-choice experiment was performed with 2359 members of the US population. Respondents were asked to value treatments with varying chances of cure and bankruptcy in the presence of a lethal disease. Latent class analysis with concomitant variables was performed, weighted for national representativeness. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to test the robustness of the results.It was found that 31.3% of the American population values cure at all costs. Nevertheless, for 8.5% of the US population, financial solvency dominates concerns for health in medical decision making. Individuals who value cure at all costs are more likely to have had experience with serious disease and to be women. No demographic characteristics significantly predicted individuals who value solvency over cure.Although the average American values cure more than financial solvency, a cure-at-all-costs rubric describes the preferences of a minority of the population, and 1 in 12 value financial protection over any chances of cure. This study provides empirical evidence for how the US population values a trade-off between avoiding adverse health outcomes and facing bankruptcy. These findings bring to the fore the decision making that individuals face in balancing the acute financial burden of health care access.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jval.2017.07.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000419246300013

    View details for PubMedID 29304947

  • Hepatitis C Testing Increased Among Baby Boomers Following The 2012 Change To CDC Testing Recommendations HEALTH AFFAIRS Barocas, J. A., Wang, J., White, L. F., Tasillo, A., Salomon, J. A., Freedberg, K. A., Linas, B. P. 2017; 36 (12): 2142–50

    Abstract

    In 2012 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended routine testing for hepatitis C for people born in the period 1945-65. Until now, the recommendation's impact on hepatitis C screening rates in the United States has not been fully understood. We used an interrupted time series with comparison group design to analyze hepatitis C screening rates in the period 2010-14 among 2.8 million commercially insured adults in the MarketScan database. Hepatitis C screening rates increased yearly between 2010 and 2014, from 1.65 to 2.59 per 100 person-years. A 49 percent increase in screening rates among people born during 1945-65 followed the release of the recommendation, but no such increase was observed among adults born after 1965. The effect among the target population was sustained, and by twenty-four months after the recommendation's release, screening rates had increased 106 percent. We conclude that the hepatitis C testing policy change resulted in significantly increased testing among the target population and may have decreased the magnitude of the hepatitis C epidemic.

    View details for DOI 10.1377/hlthaff.2017.0684

    View details for Web of Science ID 000417164000016

    View details for PubMedID 29200354

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5721349

  • The global burden of tuberculosis: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. The Lancet. Infectious diseases 2017

    Abstract

    An understanding of the trends in tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality is crucial to tracking of the success of tuberculosis control programmes and identification of remaining challenges. We assessed trends in the fatal and non-fatal burden of tuberculosis over the past 25 years for 195 countries and territories.We analysed 10 691 site-years of vital registration data, 768 site-years of verbal autopsy data, and 361 site-years of mortality surveillance data using the Cause of Death Ensemble model to estimate tuberculosis mortality rates. We analysed all available age-specific and sex-specific data sources, including annual case notifications, prevalence surveys, and estimated cause-specific mortality, to generate internally consistent estimates of incidence, prevalence, and mortality using DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool. We assessed how observed tuberculosis incidence, prevalence, and mortality differed from expected trends as predicted by the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator based on income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate. We also estimated tuberculosis mortality and disability-adjusted life-years attributable to the independent effects of risk factors including smoking, alcohol use, and diabetes.Globally, in 2015, the number of tuberculosis incident cases (including new and relapse cases) was 10·2 million (95% uncertainty interval 9·2 million to 11·5 million), the number of prevalent cases was 10·1 million (9·2 million to 11·1 million), and the number of deaths was 1·3 million (1·1 million to 1·6 million). Among individuals who were HIV negative, the number of incident cases was 8·8 million (8·0 million to 9·9 million), the number of prevalent cases was 8·9 million (8·1 million to 9·7 million), and the number of deaths was 1·1 million (0·9 million to 1·4 million). Annualised rates of change from 2005 to 2015 showed a faster decline in mortality (-4·1% [-5·0 to -3·4]) than in incidence (-1·6% [-1·9 to -1·2]) and prevalence (-0·7% [-1·0 to -0·5]) among HIV-negative individuals. The SDI was inversely associated with HIV-negative mortality rates but did not show a clear gradient for incidence and prevalence. Most of Asia, eastern Europe, and sub-Saharan Africa had higher rates of HIV-negative tuberculosis burden than expected given their SDI. Alcohol use accounted for 11·4% (9·3-13·0) of global tuberculosis deaths among HIV-negative individuals in 2015, diabetes accounted for 10·6% (6·8-14·8), and smoking accounted for 7·8% (3·8-12·0).Despite a concerted global effort to reduce the burden of tuberculosis, it still causes a large disease burden globally. Strengthening of health systems for early detection of tuberculosis and improvement of the quality of tuberculosis care, including prompt and accurate diagnosis, early initiation of treatment, and regular follow-up, are priorities. Countries with higher than expected tuberculosis rates for their level of sociodemographic development should investigate the reasons for lagging behind and take remedial action. Efforts to prevent smoking, alcohol use, and diabetes could also substantially reduce the burden of tuberculosis.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30703-X

    View details for PubMedID 29223583

  • Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-years for 32 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2015: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study. JAMA oncology Fitzmaurice, C., Allen, C., Barber, R. M., Barregard, L., Bhutta, Z. A., Brenner, H., Dicker, D. J., Chimed-Orchir, O., Dandona, R., Dandona, L., Fleming, T., Forouzanfar, M. H., Hancock, J., Hay, R. J., Hunter-Merrill, R., Huynh, C., Hosgood, H. D., Johnson, C. O., Jonas, J. B., Khubchandani, J., Kumar, G. A., Kutz, M., Lan, Q., Larson, H. J., Liang, X., Lim, S. S., Lopez, A. D., MacIntyre, M. F., Marczak, L., Marquez, N., Mokdad, A. H., Pinho, C., Pourmalek, F., Salomon, J. A., Sanabria, J. R., Sandar, L., Sartorius, B., Schwartz, S. M., Shackelford, K. A., Shibuya, K., Stanaway, J., Steiner, C., Sun, J., Takahashi, K., Vollset, S. E., Vos, T., Wagner, J. A., Wang, H., Westerman, R., Zeeb, H., Zoeckler, L., Abd-Allah, F., Ahmed, M. B., Alabed, S., Alam, N. K., Aldhahri, S. F., Alem, G., Alemayohu, M. A., Ali, R., Al-Raddadi, R., Amare, A., Amoako, Y., Artaman, A., Asayesh, H., Atnafu, N., Awasthi, A., Saleem, H. B., Barac, A., Bedi, N., Bensenor, I., Berhane, A., Bernabé, E., Betsu, B., Binagwaho, A., Boneya, D., Campos-Nonato, I., Castañeda-Orjuela, C., Catalá-López, F., Chiang, P., Chibueze, C., Chitheer, A., Choi, J., Cowie, B., Damtew, S., das Neves, J., Dey, S., Dharmaratne, S., Dhillon, P., Ding, E., Driscoll, T., Ekwueme, D., Endries, A. Y., Farvid, M., Farzadfar, F., Fernandes, J., Fischer, F., G/Hiwot, T. T., Gebru, A., Gopalani, S., Hailu, A., Horino, M., Horita, N., Husseini, A., Huybrechts, I., Inoue, M., Islami, F., Jakovljevic, M., James, S., Javanbakht, M., Jee, S. H., Kasaeian, A., Kedir, M. S., Khader, Y. S., Khang, Y., Kim, D., Leigh, J., Linn, S., Lunevicius, R., El Razek, H. M., Malekzadeh, R., Malta, D. C., Marcenes, W., Markos, D., Melaku, Y. A., Meles, K. G., Mendoza, W., Mengiste, D. T., Meretoja, T. J., Miller, T. R., Mohammad, K. A., Mohammadi, A., Mohammed, S., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Nagel, G., Nand, D., Le Nguyen, Q., Nolte, S., Ogbo, F. A., Oladimeji, K. E., Oren, E., Pa, M., Park, E., Pereira, D. M., Plass, D., Qorbani, M., Radfar, A., Rafay, A., Rahman, M., Rana, S. M., Søreide, K., Satpathy, M., Sawhney, M., Sepanlou, S. G., Shaikh, M. A., She, J., Shiue, I., Shore, H. R., Shrime, M. G., So, S., Soneji, S., Stathopoulou, V., Stroumpoulis, K., Sufiyan, M. B., Sykes, B. L., Tabarés-Seisdedos, R., Tadese, F., Tedla, B. A., Tessema, G. A., Thakur, J. S., Tran, B. X., Ukwaja, K. N., Uzochukwu, B. S., Vlassov, V. V., Weiderpass, E., Wubshet Terefe, M., Yebyo, H. G., Yimam, H. H., Yonemoto, N., Younis, M. Z., Yu, C., Zaidi, Z., Zaki, M. E., Zenebe, Z. M., Murray, C. J., Naghavi, M. 2016

    Abstract

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Current estimates on the burden of cancer are needed for cancer control planning.To estimate mortality, incidence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 32 cancers in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015.Cancer mortality was estimated using vital registration system data, cancer registry incidence data (transformed to mortality estimates using separately estimated mortality to incidence [MI] ratios), and verbal autopsy data. Cancer incidence was calculated by dividing mortality estimates through the modeled MI ratios. To calculate cancer prevalence, MI ratios were used to model survival. To calculate YLDs, prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights. The YLLs were estimated by multiplying age-specific cancer deaths by the reference life expectancy. DALYs were estimated as the sum of YLDs and YLLs. A sociodemographic index (SDI) was created for each location based on income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Countries were categorized by SDI quintiles to summarize results.In 2015, there were 17.5 million cancer cases worldwide and 8.7 million deaths. Between 2005 and 2015, cancer cases increased by 33%, with population aging contributing 16%, population growth 13%, and changes in age-specific rates contributing 4%. For men, the most common cancer globally was prostate cancer (1.6 million cases). Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer was the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs in men (1.2 million deaths and 25.9 million DALYs). For women, the most common cancer was breast cancer (2.4 million cases). Breast cancer was also the leading cause of cancer deaths and DALYs for women (523 000 deaths and 15.1 million DALYs). Overall, cancer caused 208.3 million DALYs worldwide in 2015 for both sexes combined. Between 2005 and 2015, age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers combined increased in 174 of 195 countries or territories. Age-standardized death rates (ASDRs) for all cancers combined decreased within that timeframe in 140 of 195 countries or territories. Countries with an increase in the ASDR due to all cancers were largely located on the African continent. Of all cancers, deaths between 2005 and 2015 decreased significantly for Hodgkin lymphoma (-6.1% [95% uncertainty interval (UI), -10.6% to -1.3%]). The number of deaths also decreased for esophageal cancer, stomach cancer, and chronic myeloid leukemia, although these results were not statistically significant.As part of the epidemiological transition, cancer incidence is expected to increase in the future, further straining limited health care resources. Appropriate allocation of resources for cancer prevention, early diagnosis, and curative and palliative care requires detailed knowledge of the local burden of cancer. The GBD 2015 study results demonstrate that progress is possible in the war against cancer. However, the major findings also highlight an unmet need for cancer prevention efforts, including tobacco control, vaccination, and the promotion of physical activity and a healthy diet.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5688

    View details for PubMedID 27918777

  • Cost-effectiveness and resource implications of aggressive action on tuberculosis in China, India, and South Africa: a combined analysis of nine models. The Lancet. Global health Menzies, N. A., Gomez, G. B., Bozzani, F., Chatterjee, S., Foster, N., Baena, I. G., Laurence, Y. V., Qiang, S., Siroka, A., Sweeney, S., Verguet, S., Arinaminpathy, N., Azman, A. S., Bendavid, E., Chang, S. T., Cohen, T., Denholm, J. T., Dowdy, D. W., Eckhoff, P. A., Goldhaber-Fiebert, J. D., Handel, A., Huynh, G. H., Lalli, M., Lin, H., Mandal, S., McBryde, E. S., Pandey, S., Salomon, J. A., Suen, S., Sumner, T., Trauer, J. M., Wagner, B. G., Whalen, C. C., Wu, C., Boccia, D., Chadha, V. K., Charalambous, S., Chin, D. P., Churchyard, G., Daniels, C., Dewan, P., Ditiu, L., Eaton, J. W., Grant, A. D., Hippner, P., Hosseini, M., Mametja, D., Pretorius, C., Pillay, Y., Rade, K., Sahu, S., Wang, L., Houben, R. M., Kimerling, M. E., White, R. G., Vassall, A. 2016; 4 (11): e816-e826

    Abstract

    The post-2015 End TB Strategy sets global targets of reducing tuberculosis incidence by 50% and mortality by 75% by 2025. We aimed to assess resource requirements and cost-effectiveness of strategies to achieve these targets in China, India, and South Africa.We examined intervention scenarios developed in consultation with country stakeholders, which scaled up existing interventions to high but feasible coverage by 2025. Nine independent modelling groups collaborated to estimate policy outcomes, and we estimated the cost of each scenario by synthesising service use estimates, empirical cost data, and expert opinion on implementation strategies. We estimated health effects (ie, disability-adjusted life-years averted) and resource implications for 2016-35, including patient-incurred costs. To assess resource requirements and cost-effectiveness, we compared scenarios with a base case representing continued current practice.Incremental tuberculosis service costs differed by scenario and country, and in some cases they more than doubled existing funding needs. In general, expansion of tuberculosis services substantially reduced patient-incurred costs and, in India and China, produced net cost savings for most interventions under a societal perspective. In all three countries, expansion of access to care produced substantial health gains. Compared with current practice and conventional cost-effectiveness thresholds, most intervention approaches seemed highly cost-effective.Expansion of tuberculosis services seems cost-effective for high-burden countries and could generate substantial health and economic benefits for patients, although substantial new funding would be required. Further work to determine the optimal intervention mix for each country is necessary.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30265-0

    View details for PubMedID 27720689

  • Feasibility of achieving the 2025 WHO global tuberculosis targets in South Africa, China, and India: a combined analysis of 11 mathematical models. The Lancet. Global health Houben, R. M., Menzies, N. A., Sumner, T., Huynh, G. H., Arinaminpathy, N., Goldhaber-Fiebert, J. D., Lin, H., Wu, C., Mandal, S., Pandey, S., Suen, S., Bendavid, E., Azman, A. S., Dowdy, D. W., Bacaër, N., Rhines, A. S., Feldman, M. W., Handel, A., Whalen, C. C., Chang, S. T., Wagner, B. G., Eckhoff, P. A., Trauer, J. M., Denholm, J. T., McBryde, E. S., Cohen, T., Salomon, J. A., Pretorius, C., Lalli, M., Eaton, J. W., Boccia, D., Hosseini, M., Gomez, G. B., Sahu, S., Daniels, C., Ditiu, L., Chin, D. P., Wang, L., Chadha, V. K., Rade, K., Dewan, P., Hippner, P., Charalambous, S., Grant, A. D., Churchyard, G., Pillay, Y., Mametja, L. D., Kimerling, M. E., Vassall, A., White, R. G. 2016; 4 (11): e806-e815

    Abstract

    The post-2015 End TB Strategy proposes targets of 50% reduction in tuberculosis incidence and 75% reduction in mortality from tuberculosis by 2025. We aimed to assess whether these targets are feasible in three high-burden countries with contrasting epidemiology and previous programmatic achievements.11 independently developed mathematical models of tuberculosis transmission projected the epidemiological impact of currently available tuberculosis interventions for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in China, India, and South Africa. Models were calibrated with data on tuberculosis incidence and mortality in 2012. Representatives from national tuberculosis programmes and the advocacy community provided distinct country-specific intervention scenarios, which included screening for symptoms, active case finding, and preventive therapy.Aggressive scale-up of any single intervention scenario could not achieve the post-2015 End TB Strategy targets in any country. However, the models projected that, in the South Africa national tuberculosis programme scenario, a combination of continuous isoniazid preventive therapy for individuals on antiretroviral therapy, expanded facility-based screening for symptoms of tuberculosis at health centres, and improved tuberculosis care could achieve a 55% reduction in incidence (range 31-62%) and a 72% reduction in mortality (range 64-82%) compared with 2015 levels. For India, and particularly for China, full scale-up of all interventions in tuberculosis-programme performance fell short of the 2025 targets, despite preventing a cumulative 3·4 million cases. The advocacy scenarios illustrated the high impact of detecting and treating latent tuberculosis.Major reductions in tuberculosis burden seem possible with current interventions. However, additional interventions, adapted to country-specific tuberculosis epidemiology and health systems, are needed to reach the post-2015 End TB Strategy targets at country level.Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2214-109X(16)30199-1

    View details for PubMedID 27720688

  • Diabetes diagnosis and care in sub-Saharan Africa: pooled analysis of individual data from 12 countries. The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology Manne-Goehler, J., Atun, R., Stokes, A., Goehler, A., Houinato, D., Houehanou, C., Hambou, M. M., Mbenza, B. L., Sobngwi, E., Balde, N., Mwangi, J. K., Gathecha, G., Ngugi, P. W., Wesseh, C. S., Damasceno, A., Lunet, N., Bovet, P., Labadarios, D., Zuma, K., Mayige, M., Kagaruki, G., Ramaiya, K., Agoudavi, K., Guwatudde, D., Bahendeka, S. K., Mutungi, G., Geldsetzer, P., Levitt, N. S., Salomon, J. A., Yudkin, J. S., Vollmer, S., Bärnighausen, T. 2016; 4 (11): 903-912

    Abstract

    Despite widespread recognition that the burden of diabetes is rapidly growing in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, nationally representative estimates of unmet need for diabetes diagnosis and care are in short supply for the region. We use national population-based survey data to quantify diabetes prevalence and met and unmet need for diabetes diagnosis and care in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We further estimate demographic and economic gradients of met need for diabetes diagnosis and care.We did a pooled analysis of individual-level data from nationally representative population-based surveys that met the following inclusion criteria: the data were collected during 2005-15; the data were made available at the individual level; a biomarker for diabetes was available in the dataset; and the dataset included information on use of core health services for diabetes diagnosis and care. We first quantified the population in need of diabetes diagnosis and care by estimating the prevalence of diabetes across the surveys; we also quantified the prevalence of overweight and obesity, as a major risk factor for diabetes and an indicator of need for diabetes screening. Second, we determined the level of met need for diabetes diagnosis, preventive counselling, and treatment in both the diabetic and the overweight and obese population. Finally, we did survey fixed-effects regressions to establish the demographic and economic gradients of met need for diabetes diagnosis, counselling, and treatment.We pooled data from 12 nationally representative population-based surveys in sub-Saharan Africa, representing 38 311 individuals with a biomarker measurement for diabetes. Across the surveys, the median prevalence of diabetes was 5% (range 2-14) and the median prevalence of overweight or obesity was 27% (range 16-68). We estimated seven measures of met need for diabetes-related care across the 12 surveys: (1) percentage of the overweight or obese population who received a blood glucose measurement (median 22% [IQR 11-37]); and percentage of the diabetic population who reported that they (2) had ever received a blood glucose measurement (median 36% [IQR 27-63]); (3) had ever been told that they had diabetes (median 27% [IQR 22-51]); (4) had ever been counselled to lose weight (median 15% [IQR 13-23]); (5) had ever been counselled to exercise (median 15% [IQR 11-30]); (6) were using oral diabetes drugs (median 25% [IQR 18-42]); and (7) were using insulin (median 11% [IQR 6-13]). Compared with those aged 15-39 years, the adjusted odds of met need for diabetes diagnosis (measures 1-3) were 2·22 to 3·53 (40-54 years) and 3·82 to 5·01 (≥55 years) times higher. The adjusted odds of met need for diabetes diagnosis also increased consistently with educational attainment and were between 3·07 and 4·56 higher for the group with 8 years or more of education than for the group with less than 1 year of education. Finally, need for diabetes care was significantly more likely to be met (measures 4-7) in the oldest age and highest educational groups.Diabetes has already reached high levels of prevalence in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Large proportions of need for diabetes diagnosis and care in the region remain unmet, but the patterns of unmet need vary widely across the countries in our sample. Novel health policies and programmes are urgently needed to increase awareness of diabetes and to expand coverage of preventive counselling, diagnosis, and linkage to diabetes care. Because the probability of met need for diabetes diagnosis and care consistently increases with age and educational attainment, policy makers should pay particular attention to improved access to diabetes services for young adults and people with low educational attainment.None.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2213-8587(16)30181-4

    View details for PubMedID 27727123

  • Global, regional, and national levels of maternal mortality, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 LANCET Kassebaum, N. J., Barber, R. M., Bhutta, Z. A., Dandona, L., Gething, P. W., Hay, S. I., Kinfu, Y., Larson, H. J., Liang, X., Lim, S. S., Lopez, A. D., Lozano, R., Mensah, G. A., Mokdad, A. H., Naghavi, M., Pinho, C., Salomon, J. A., Steiner, C., Vos, T., Wang, H., Abajobir, A. A., Abate, K. H., Abbas, K. M., Abd-Allah, F., Abdallat, M. A., Abdulle, A. M., Abera, S. F., Aboyans, V., Abubakar, I., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., Achoki, T., Adebiyi, A. O., Adedeji, I. A., Adelekan, A. L., Adou, A. K., Afanvi, K. A., Agarwal, A., Kiadaliri, A. A., Ajala, O. N., Akinyemiju, T. F., Akseer, N., Al-Aly, Z., Alam, K., Alam, N. K., Alasfoor, D., Aldhahri, S. F., Aldridge, R. W., Alhabib, S., Ali, R., Alkerwi, A., Alla, F., Al-Raddadi, R., Alsharif, U., Martin, E. A., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amare, A. T., Amberbir, A., Amegah, A. K., Ammar, W., Amrock, S. M., Andersen, H. H., Anderson, G. M., Antoine, R. M., Antonio, C. A., Aregay, A. F., Arnlov, J., Arora, M., Arsenijevic, V. S., Al Artaman, Asayesh, H., Atique, S., Avokpaho, E. F., Awasthi, A., Quintanilla, B. P., Azzopardi, P., Bacha, U., Badawi, A., Bahit, M. C., Balakrishnan, K., Banerjee, A., Barac, A., Barker-Collo, S. L., Barnighausen, T., Basu, S., Bayou, T. A., Bayou, Y. T., Bazargan-Hejazi, S., Beardsley, J., Bedi, N. W., Bekele, T., Bell, M. L., Bennett, D. A., Bensenor, I. M., Berhane, A., Bernabe, E., Betsu, B. D., Beyene, A. S., Biadgilign, S., Bikbov, B., Bin Abdulhak, A. A., Biroscak, B. J., Biryukov, S., Bisanzio, D., Bjertness, E., Blore, J. D., Brainin, M., Brazinova, A., Breitborde, N. J., Brugha, T. S., Butt, Z. A., Campos-Nonato, I. R., Campuzano, J. C., Cardenas, R., Carrero, J. J., Carter, A., Casey, D. C., Castaneda-Oquela, C. A., Castro, R. E., Catala-Lopez, F., Cavalleri, F., Chang, H., Chang, J. -., Chavan, L., Chibueze, C. E., Chisumpa, V. H., Choi, J. J., Chowdhury, R., Christopher, D. J., Ciobanu, L. G., Cirillo, M., Coates, M. M., Coggeshall, M., Colistro, V., Colquhoun, S. M., Cooper, C., Cooper, L. T., Cortinovis, M., Dahiru, T., Damasceno, A., Danawi, H., Dandona, R., das Neves, J., De Leo, D., Dellavalle, R. P., Deribe, K., Deribew, A., Jarlais, D. C., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dicker, D. J., Ding, E. L., Dossou, E., Dubey, M., Ebel, B. E., Ellingsen, C. L., Elyazar, I., Endries, A. Y., Ermakov, S. P., Eshrati, B., Esteghamati, A., Faraon, E. J., Farid, T. A., Farinha, C. S., Faro, A., Farvid, M. S., Farzadfar, F., Fereshtehnejad, S., Fernandes, J. C., Fischer, F., Fitchett, J. R., Fleming, T., Gt, N. F., Franca, E. B., Franklin, R. C., Fraser, M. S., Friedman, J., Pullman, N., Furst, T., Futran, N. D., Gambashidze, K., Gamkrelidze, A., Gebre, T., Gebrehiwot, T. T., Gebremedhin, A. T., Gebremedhin, M., Gebru, A. A., Geleijnse, J. M., Gibney, K. B., Giref, A. Z., Giroud, M., Gishu, M. D., Glaser, E., Goenka, S., Gomez-Dantes, H., Gona, P., Goodridge, A., Gopalani, S. V., Goto, A., Graetz, N., Gugnani, H. C., Guo, Y., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Gupta, V., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Hailu, A. D., Hailu, G. B., Hamadeh, R. R., Hamidi, S., Hancock, J., Handal, A. J., Hankey, G. J., Harb, H. L., Harikrishnan, S., Harun, K. M., Havmoeller, R., Hoek, H. W., Horino, M., Horita, N., Hosgood, H. D., Hoy, D. G., Htet, A. S., Hu, G., Huang, H., Huang, J. J., Huybrechts, I., Huynh, C., Iannarone, M., Iburg, K. M., Idrisov, B. T., Iyer, V. J., Jacobsen, K. H., Jahanmehr, N., Jakovljevic, M. B., Javanbakht, M., Jayatilleke, A. U., Jee, S. H., Jeemon, P., Jha, V., Jiang, G., Jiang, Y., Jibat, T., Jonas, J. B., Kabir, Z., Kamal, R., Kan, H., Karch, A., Karletsos, D., Kasaeian, A., Kaul, A., Kawakami, N., Kayibanda, J. F., Kazanjan, K., Kazi, D. S., Keiyoro, P. N., Kemmer, L., Kemp, A. H., Kengne, A. P., Keren, A., Kereselidze, M., Kesavachandran, C. N., Khader, Y. S., Khan, A. R., Khan, E. A., Khang, Y., Khonelidze, I., Khosravi, A., Khubchandani, J., Kim, Y. J., Kivipelto, M., Knibbs, L. D., Kokubo, Y., Kosen, S., Koul, P. A., Koyanagi, A., Krishnaswami, S., Defo, B. K., Bicer, B. K., Kudom, A. A., Kulikoff, X. R., Kulkarni, C., Kumar, G. A., Kutz, M. J., Lal, D. K., Lalloo, R., Lam, H., Lamadrid-Figueroa, H., Lan, Q., Larsson, A., Laryea, D. O., Leigh, J., Leung, R., Li, Y., Li, Y., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, P. Y., Liu, S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, B. K., Lotufo, P. A., Lunevicius, R., Ma, S., El Razek, H. M., El Razek, M. M., Majdan, M., Majeed, A., Malekzadeh, R., Mapoma, C. C., Marcenes, W., Margolis, D. J., Marquez, N., Masiye, F., Marzan, M. B., Mason-Jones, A. J., Mazorodze, T. T., Meaney, P. A., Mehari, A., Mehndiratta, M. M., Mena-Rodriguez, F., Mekonnen, A. B., Melaku, Y. A., Memish, Z. A., Mendoza, W., Meretoja, A., Meretoja, T. J., Mhimbira, F. A., Miller, T. R., Mills, E. J., Mirarefin, M., Misganaw, A., Ibrahim, N. M., Mohammad, K. A., Mohammadi, A., Mohammed, S., Mola, G. L., Monasta, L., Monis, J. d., Hernandez, J. C., Montero, P., Montico, M., Mooney, M. D., Moore, A. R., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Morawska, L., Mori, R., Mueller, U., Murthy, G. V., Murthy, S., Nachega, J. B., Naheed, A., Naldi, L., Nand, D., Nangia, V., Nash, D., Neupane, S., Newton, J. N., Ng, M., Ngalesoni, F. N., Nguhiu, P., Nguyen, G., Le Nguyen, Q., Nisar, M. I., Nomura, M., Norheim, O. F., Norman, R. E., Nyakarahuka, L., Obermeyer, C. M., Ogbo, F. A., Oh, I., Ojelabi, F. A., Olivares, P. R., Olusanya, B. O., Olusanya, J. O., Opio, J. N., Oren, E., Ota, E., Oyekale, A. S., Pa, M., Pain, A., Papantoniou, N., Park, E., Park, H., Caicedo, A. J., Patten, S. B., Paul, V. K., Pereira, D. M., Perico, N., Pesudovs, K., Petzold, M., Phillips, M. R., Pillay, J. D., Pishgar, F., Polinder, S., Pope, D., Pourmalek, F., Qorbani, M., Rafay, A., Rahimi, K., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Rahman, M., Rahman, M. H., Rahman, S. u., Rai, R. K., Ram, U., Ranabhat, C. L., Rangaswamy, T., Rao, P. V., Refaat, A. H., Remuzzi, G. 2016; 388 (10053): 1775-1812

    Abstract

    In transitioning from the Millennium Development Goal to the Sustainable Development Goal era, it is imperative to comprehensively assess progress toward reducing maternal mortality to identify areas of success, remaining challenges, and frame policy discussions. We aimed to quantify maternal mortality throughout the world by underlying cause and age from 1990 to 2015.We estimated maternal mortality at the global, regional, and national levels from 1990 to 2015 for ages 10-54 years by systematically compiling and processing all available data sources from 186 of 195 countries and territories, 11 of which were analysed at the subnational level. We quantified eight underlying causes of maternal death and four timing categories, improving estimation methods since GBD 2013 for adult all-cause mortality, HIV-related maternal mortality, and late maternal death. Secondary analyses then allowed systematic examination of drivers of trends, including the relation between maternal mortality and coverage of specific reproductive health-care services as well as assessment of observed versus expected maternal mortality as a function of Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility.Only ten countries achieved MDG 5, but 122 of 195 countries have already met SDG 3.1. Geographical disparities widened between 1990 and 2015 and, in 2015, 24 countries still had a maternal mortality ratio greater than 400. The proportion of all maternal deaths occurring in the bottom two SDI quintiles, where haemorrhage is the dominant cause of maternal death, increased from roughly 68% in 1990 to more than 80% in 2015. The middle SDI quintile improved the most from 1990 to 2015, but also has the most complicated causal profile. Maternal mortality in the highest SDI quintile is mostly due to other direct maternal disorders, indirect maternal disorders, and abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and/or miscarriage. Historical patterns suggest achievement of SDG 3.1 will require 91% coverage of one antenatal care visit, 78% of four antenatal care visits, 81% of in-facility delivery, and 87% of skilled birth attendance.Several challenges to improving reproductive health lie ahead in the SDG era. Countries should establish or renew systems for collection and timely dissemination of health data; expand coverage and improve quality of family planning services, including access to contraception and safe abortion to address high adolescent fertility; invest in improving health system capacity, including coverage of routine reproductive health care and of more advanced obstetric care-including EmOC; adapt health systems and data collection systems to monitor and reverse the increase in indirect, other direct, and late maternal deaths, especially in high SDI locations; and examine their own performance with respect to their SDI level, using that information to formulate strategies to improve performance and ensure optimum reproductive health of their population.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385285000012

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5224694

  • Measuring the health-related Sustainable Development Goals in 188 countries: a baseline analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 LANCET Lim, S. S., Allen, K., Bhutta, Z. A., Dandona, L., Forouzanfar, M. H., Fullman, N., Gething, P. W., Goldberg, E. M., Hay, S. I., Holmberg, M., Kinfu, Y., Kutz, M. J., Larson, H. J., Liang, X., Lopez, A. D., Lozano, R., McNellan, C. R., Mokdad, A. H., Mooney, M. D., Naghavi, M., Olsen, H. E., Pigott, D. M., Salomon, J. A., Vos, T., Wang, H., Abajobir, A. A., Abate, K. H., Abbafati, C., Abbas, K. M., Abd-Allah, F., Abdulle, A. M., Abraham, B., Abubakar, I., Abu-Raddad, L. J., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., Abyu, G. Y., Achoki, T., Adebiyi, A. O., Adedeji, I. A., Afanvi, K. A., Afshin, A., Agarwal, A., Agrawal, A., Kiadaliri, A. A., Ahmadieh, H., Ahmed, K. Y., Akanda, A. S., Akinyemi, R. O., Akinyemiju, T. F., Akseer, N., Al-Aly, Z., Alam, K., Alam, U., Alasfoor, D., Albuhairan, F. S., Aldhahri, S. F., Dge, R. W., Alemu, Z. A., Ali, R., Alkerwi, A., Alkhateeb, M. A., Alla, F., Allebeck, P., Allen, C., Al-Raddadi, R., Altirkawi, K. A., Martin, E. A., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amare, A. T., Amberbir, A., Amegah, A. K., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Amrock, S. M., Andersen, H. H., Anderson, B. O., Anderson, G. M., Antonio, C. A., Anwari, P., Arnlov, J., Artaman, A., Asayesh, H., Asghar, R. J., Atique, S., Avokpaho, E. F., Awasthi, A., Quintanilla, B. P., Azzopardi, P., Bacha, U., Badawi, A., Balakrishnan, K., Banerjee, A., Barac, A., Barber, R., Barker-Collo, S. L., Barnighausen, T., Barrero, L. H., Barrientos-Gutierrez, T., Basu, S., Bayou, T. A., Bazargan-Hejazi, S., Beardsley, J., Bedi, N., Beghi, E., Bejot, Y., Bell, M. L., Bello, A. K., Bennett, D. A., Bensenor, I. M., Benzian, H., Berhane, A., Bernabe, E., Bernal, O. A., Betsu, B. D., Beyene, A. S., Bhala, N., Bhatt, S., Biadgilign, S., Bienhoff, K. A., Bikbov, B., Binagwaho, A., Bisanzio, D., Bjertness, E., Blore, J., Bourne, R. R., Brainin, M., Brauer, M., Brazinova, A., Breitborde, N. J., Broday, D. M., Brugha, T. S., Buchbinder, R., Butt, Z. A., Cahill, L. E., Campos-Nonato, I. R., Campuzano, J. C., Carabin, H., Cardenas, R., Carrero, J. J., Carter, A., Casey, D., Caso, V., Castaneda-Orjuela, C. A., Rivas, J. C., Catala-Lopez, F., Cavalleri, F., Cecilio, P., Chang, H., Chang, J., Charlson, F. J., Che, X., Chen, A. Z., Chiang, P. P., Chibalabala, M., Chisumpa, V. H., Choi, J. J., Chowdhury, R., Christensen, H., Ciobanu, L. G., Cirillo, M., Coates, M. M., Coggeshall, M., Cohen, A. J., Cooke, G. S., Cooper, C., Cooper, L. T., Cowie, B. C., Crump, J. A., Damtew, S. A., Dandona, R., Dargan, P. I., das Neves, J., Davis, A. C., Davletov, K., de Castro, E. F., De Leo, D., Degenhardt, L., Del Gobbo, L. C., Deribe, K., Derrett, S., Jarlais, D. C., Deshpande, A., deVeber, G. A., Dey, S., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dhillon, P. K., Ding, E. L., Dorsey, E. R., Doyle, K. E., Driscoll, T. R., Duan, L., Dubey, M., Duncan, B. B., Ebrahimi, H., Endries, A. Y., Ermakov, S. P., Erskine, H. E., Eshrati, B., Esteghamati, A., Fahimi, S., Farid, T. A., Farinha, C. S., Faro, A., Farvid, M. S., Farzadfar, F., Feigin, V. L., Felicio, M. M., Fereshtehnejad, S., Fernandes, J. G., Fernandes, J. C., Ferrari, A. J., Fischer, F., Fitchett, J. R., Fitzmaurice, C., Foigt, N., Foreman, K., Fowkes, F. G., Franca, E. B., Franklin, R. C., Fraser, M., Friedman, J., Frostad, J., Furst, T., Gabbe, B., Garcia-Basteiro, A. L., Gebre, T., Gebrehiwot, T. T., Gebremedhin, A. T., Gebru, A. A., Gessner, B. D., Gillum, R. F., Ginawi, I. A., Giref, A. Z., Giroud, M., Gishu, M. D., Godwin, W., Gona, P., Goodridge, A., Gopalani, S. V., Gotay, C. C., Goto, A., Gouda, H. N., Graetz, N., Greenwell, K. F., Griswold, M., Guo, Y., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Gupta, V., Gutierrez, R. A., Gyawali, B., Haagsma, J. A., Haakenstad, A., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Haile, D., Hailu, G. B., Halasa, Y. A., Hamadeh, R. R., Hamidi, S., Hammami, M., Hankey, G. J., Harb, H. L., Haro, J. M., Hassanvand, M. S., Havmoeller, R., Heredia-Pi, I. B., Hoek, H. W., Horino, M., Horita, N., Hosgood, H. D., Hoy, D. G., Htet, A. S., Hu, G., Huang, H., Iburg, K. M., Idrisov, B. T., Inoue, M., Islami, F., Jacobs, T. A., Jacobsen, K. H., Jahanmehr, N., Jakovljevic, M. B., James, P., Jansen, H. A., Javanbakht, M., Jayatilleke, A. U., Jee, S. H., Jeemon, P., Jha, V., Jiang, Y., Jibat, T., Jin, Y., Jonas, J. B., Kabir, Z., Kalkonde, Y., Kamal, R., Kan, H., Kandel, A., Karch, A., Karema, C. K., KarimIchani, C., Karunapema, P., Kasaeian, A., Kassebaum, N. J., Kaul, A., Kawakami, N., Kayibanda, J. F., Keiyoro, P. N., Kemmer, L., Kemp, A. H., Kengne, A. P., Keren, A., Kesavachandran, C. N., Khader, Y. S., Khan, A. R., Khan, E. A., Khan, G., Khang, Y., Khoja, T. A., Khosravi, A., Khubchandani, J., Kieling, C., Kim, C., Kim, D., Kim, S., Kim, Y. J., Kimokoti, R. W., Kissoon, N., Kivipelto, M., Knibbs, L. D., Kokubo, Y., Kolte, D., Kosen, S., Kotsakis, G. A., Koul, P. A., Koyanagi, A., Kravchenko, M., Krueger, H., Defo, B. K., Kuchenbecker, R. S., Kuipers, E. J., Kulikoff, X. R., Kulkarni, V. S., Kumar, G. A., Kwan, G. F., Kyu, H. H., Lal, A., Lal, D. K., Lalloo, R., Lam, H., Lan, Q., Langan, S. M., Larsson, A., Laryea, D. O., Latif, A. A., Leasher, J. L., Leigh, J., Leinsalu, M., Leung, J., Leung, R., Levi, M., Li, Y., Li, Y., Lind, M., Linn, S., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, P. Y., Liu, S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, B. K., Lo, L., Logroscino, G., Lotufo, P. A., Lucas, R. M., Lunevicius, R., Abd El Razek, M. M., Magis-Rodriguez, C., Mandavi, M., Majdan, M., Majeed, A., Malekzadeh, R., Malta, D. C., Mapoma, C. C., Margolis, D. J., Martin, R. V., Martinez-Raga, J., Masiye, F., Mason-Jones, A. J., Massano, J., Matzopoulos, R., Mayosi, B. M., McGrath, J. J., McKee, M., Meaney, P. A., Mehari, A., Mekonnen, A. B., Melaku, Y. A., Memiah, P., Memish, Z. A., Mendoza, W., Mensink, G. B., Meretoja, A., Meretoja, T. J., Mesfin, Y. M., Mhimbira, F. A., Micha, R., Miller, T. R., Mills, E. J., Mirarefin, M., Misganaw, A., Mitchell, P. B., Mock, C. N., Mohammadi, A., Mohammed, S., Monasta, L., Monis, J. d., Hernandez, J. C., Montico, M., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Morawska, L., Mori, R., Mueller, U. O., Murdoch, M. E., Murimira, B., Murray, J., Murthy, G. V., Murthy, S., Musa, K. I., Nachega, J. B., Nagel, G., Naidoo, K. S., Naldi, L., Nangia, V., Neal, B., Nejjari, C., Newton, C. R., Newton, J. N., Ngalesoni, F. N., Nguhiu, P., Nguyen, G., Quyen Le Nguyen, Q. L., Nisar, M. I., Pete, P. M., Nolte, S., Nomura, M., Norheim, O. F., Norrving, B., Obermeyer, C. M., Ogbo, F. A., Oh, I., Oladimeji, O., Olivares, P. R., Olusanya, B. O., Olusanya, J. O., Opio, J. N., Oren, E., Ortiz, A., Osborne, R. H., Ota, E., Owolabi, M. O., Mahesh, P. A., Park, E., Park, H., Parry, C. D., Parsaeian, M., Patel, T., Patel, V., Caicedo, A. J., Patil, S. T., Patten, S. B., Patton, G. C., Paudel, D., Pedro, J. M., Pereira, D. M., Perico, N., Pesudovs, K., Petzold, M., Phillips, M. R., Piel, F. B., Pillay, J. D., Pinho, C., Pishgar, F., Polinder, S., Poulton, R. G., Pourmalek, F., Qorbani, M., Rabiee, R. H., Radfar, A., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Rahman, M., Rahman, M. H., Rahman, S. u., Rai, R. K., Rajsic, S., Raju, M., Ram, U., Rana, S. M., Ranabhat, C. L., Ranganathan, K., Rao, P. C., Refaat, A. H., Reitsma, M. B., Remuzzi, G., Resnikoff, S., Ribeiro, A. L., Blancas, M. J., Rolm, H. S., Roberts, B., Rodriguez, M., Rojas-Rueda, D., Ronfani, L., Roshandel, G., Roth, G. A., Rothenbacher, D., Roy, A., Roy, N., Sackey, B. B., Sagar, R., Saleh, M. M., Sanabria, J. R., Santomauro, D. F., Santos, I. S., Sarmiento-Suarez, R., Sartorius, B., Satpathy, M., Savic, M., Sawhney, M., Sawyer, S. M., Schmidhuber, J., Schmidt, M. I., Schneider, I. J., Schutte, A. E., Schwebel, D. C., Seedat, S., Sepanlou, S. G., Servan-Mori, E. E., Shackelford, K., Shaheen, A., Shaikh, M. A., Levy, T. S., Sharma, R., She, J., Sheikhbahaei, S., Shen, J., Sheth, K. N., Shey, M., Shi, P., Shibuya, K., Shigematsu, M., Shin, M., Shiri, R., Shishani, K., Shiue, I., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Silpakit, N., Silva, D. A., Silverberg, J. I., Simard, E. P., Sindi, S., Singh, A., Singh, G. M., Singh, J. A., Singh, O. P., Singh, P. K., Skirbekk, V., Sligar, A., Soneji, S., Soreide, K., Sorensen, R. J., Soriano, J. B., Soshnikov, S., Sposato, L. A., Sreeramareddy, C. T., Stahl, H., Stanaway, J. D., Stathopoulou, V., Steckling, N., Steel, N., Stein, D. J., Steiner, C., Stockl, H., Stranges, S., Strong, M., Sun, J., Sunguya, B. F., Sur, P., Swaminathan, S., Sykes, B. L., Szoeke, C. E., Tabares-Seisdedos, R., Tabb, K. M., Talongwa, R. T., Tarawneh, M. R., Tavakkoli, M., Taye, B., Taylor, H. R., Tedla, B. A., Tefera, W., Tegegne, T. K., Tekle, D. Y., Shifa, G. T., Terkawi, A. S., Tessema, G. A., Thakur, J. S., Thomson, A. J., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Thrift, A. G., Thurston, G. D., Tillmann, T., Tobe-Gai, R., Tonelli, M., Topor-Madry, R., Topouzis, F., Tran, B. X., Dimbuene, Z. T., Tura, A. K., Tuzcu, E. M., Tyrovolas, S., Ukwaja, K. N., Undurraga, E. A., Uneke, C. J., Uthman, O. A., van Donkelaar, A., Varakin, Y. Y., Vasankari, T., Vasconcelos, A. M., Veerman, J. L., Venketasubramanian, N., Verma, R. K., Violante, F. S., Vlassov, V. V., Volkow, P., Vollset, S. E., Wagner, G. R., Wallin, M. T., Wang, L., Wanga, V., Watkins, D. A., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R. G., Weiss, D. J., Werdecker, A., Westerman, R., Whiteford, H. A., Wilkinson, J. D., Wiysonge, C. S., Wolfe, C. D., Wolfe, I., Won, S., Woolf, A. D., Workie, S. B., Wubshet, M., Xu, G., Yadav, A. K., Yakob, B., Yalew, A. Z., Yan, L. L., Yano, Y., Yaseri, M., Ye, P., Yip, P., Yonemoto, N., Yoon, S., Younis, M. Z., Yu, C., Zaidi, Z., Zaki, M. E., Zambrana-Torrelio, C., Zapata, T., Zegeye, E. A., Zhao, Y., Zhou, M., Zodpey, S., Zonies, D., Murray, C. J. 2016; 388 (10053): 1813-1850

    Abstract

    In September, 2015, the UN General Assembly established the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs specify 17 universal goals, 169 targets, and 230 indicators leading up to 2030. We provide an analysis of 33 health-related SDG indicators based on the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015).We applied statistical methods to systematically compiled data to estimate the performance of 33 health-related SDG indicators for 188 countries from 1990 to 2015. We rescaled each indicator on a scale from 0 (worst observed value between 1990 and 2015) to 100 (best observed). Indices representing all 33 health-related SDG indicators (health-related SDG index), health-related SDG indicators included in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG index), and health-related indicators not included in the MDGs (non-MDG index) were computed as the geometric mean of the rescaled indicators by SDG target. We used spline regressions to examine the relations between the Socio-demographic Index (SDI, a summary measure based on average income per person, educational attainment, and total fertility rate) and each of the health-related SDG indicators and indices.In 2015, the median health-related SDG index was 59·3 (95% uncertainty interval 56·8-61·8) and varied widely by country, ranging from 85·5 (84·2-86·5) in Iceland to 20·4 (15·4-24·9) in Central African Republic. SDI was a good predictor of the health-related SDG index (r(2)=0·88) and the MDG index (r(2)=0·92), whereas the non-MDG index had a weaker relation with SDI (r(2)=0·79). Between 2000 and 2015, the health-related SDG index improved by a median of 7·9 (IQR 5·0-10·4), and gains on the MDG index (a median change of 10·0 [6·7-13·1]) exceeded that of the non-MDG index (a median change of 5·5 [2·1-8·9]). Since 2000, pronounced progress occurred for indicators such as met need with modern contraception, under-5 mortality, and neonatal mortality, as well as the indicator for universal health coverage tracer interventions. Moderate improvements were found for indicators such as HIV and tuberculosis incidence, minimal changes for hepatitis B incidence took place, and childhood overweight considerably worsened.GBD provides an independent, comparable avenue for monitoring progress towards the health-related SDGs. Our analysis not only highlights the importance of income, education, and fertility as drivers of health improvement but also emphasises that investments in these areas alone will not be sufficient. Although considerable progress on the health-related MDG indicators has been made, these gains will need to be sustained and, in many cases, accelerated to achieve the ambitious SDG targets. The minimal improvement in or worsening of health-related indicators beyond the MDGs highlight the need for additional resources to effectively address the expanded scope of the health-related SDGs.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385285000013

    View details for PubMedID 27665228

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5055583

  • Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 LANCET Vos, T., Allen, C., Arora, M., Barber, R. M., Bhutta, Z. A., Brown, A., Carter, A., Casey, D. C., Charlson, F. J., Chen, A. Z., Coggeshall, M., Cornaby, L., Dandona, L., Dicker, D. J., Dilegge, T., Erskine, H. E., Ferrari, A. J., Fitzmaurice, C., Fleming, T., Forouzanfar, M. H., Fullman, N., Gething, P. W., Goldberg, E. M., Graetz, N., Haagsma, J. A., Johnson, C. O., Kassebaum, N. J., Kawashima, T., Kemmer, L., Khalil, I. A., Kinfu, Y., Kyu, H. H., Leung, J., Liang, X., Lim, S. S., Lopez, A. D., Lozano, R., Marczak, L., Mensah, G. A., Mokdad, A. H., Naghavi, M., Nguyen, G., Nsoesie, E., Olsen, H., Pigott, D. M., Pinho, C., Rankin, Z., Reinig, N., Salomon, J. A., Sandar, L., Smith, A., Stanaway, J., Steiner, C., Teeple, S., Thomas, B. A., Troeger, C., Wagner, J. A., Wang, H., Wanga, V., Whiteford, H. A., Zoeckler, L., Abajobir, A. A., Abate, K. H., Abbafati, C., Abbas, K. M., Abd-Allah, F., Abraham, B., Abubakar, I., Abu-Raddad, L. J., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., Ackerman, I. N., Adebiyi, A. O., Ademi, Z., Adou, A. K., Afanvi, K. A., Agardh, E. E., Agarwal, A., Kiadaliri, A. A., Ahmadieh, H., Ajala, O. N., Akinyemi, R. O., Akseer, N., Al-Aly, Z., Alam, K., Alam, N. K., Aldhahri, S. F., Alegretti, M. A., Alemu, Z. A., Alexander, L. T., Alhabib, S., Ali, R., Alkerwi, A., Alla, F., Allebeck, P., Al-Raddadi, R., Alsharif, U., Altirkawi, K. A., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amare, A. T., Amberbir, A., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Amrock, S. M., Andersen, H. H., Anderson, G. M., Anderson, B., Antonio, C. A., Aregay, A. F., Arnlov, J., Al Artaman, Asayesh, H., Assadi, R., Atique, S., Avokpaho, E. F., Awasthi, A., Quintanilla, B. P., Azzopardi, P., Bacha, U., Badawi, A., Balakrishnan, K., Banerjee, A., Barac, A., Barker-Collo, S. L., Barnighausen, T., Barregard, L., Barrero, L. H., Basu, A., Bazargan-Hejazi, S., Bell, B., Bell, M. L., Bennett, D. A., Bensenor, I. M., Benzian, H., Berhane, A., Bernabe, E., Betsu, B. D., Beyene, A. S., Bhala, N., Bhatt, S., Biadgilign, S., Bienhofff, K., Bikbov, B., Biryukov, S., Bisanzio, D., Bjertness, E., Blore, J., Borschmann, R., Boufous, S., Brainin, M., Brazinova, A., Breitborde, N. J., Brown, J., Buchbinder, R., Buckle, G. C., Butt, Z. A., Calabria, B., Ricardo Campos-Nonato, I., Cesar Campuzano, J., Carabin, H., Cardenas, R., Carpenter, D. O., Carrero, J. J., Castaneda-Orjuela, C. A., Castillo Rivas, J., Catala-Lopez, F., Chang, J., Chiang, P. P., Chibueze, C. E., Chisumpa, V. H., Choi, J. J., Chowdhury, R., Christensen, H., Christopher, D. J., Ciobanu, L. G., Cirillo, M., Coates, M. M., Colquhoun, S. M., Cooper, C., Cortinovis, M., Crump, J. A., Damtew, S. A., Dandona, R., Daoud, F., Dargan, P. I., das Neves, J., Davey, G., Davis, A. C., De Leo, D., Degenhardt, L., Del Gobbo, L. C., Dellavalle, R. P., Deribe, K., Deribew, A., Derrett, S., Des Jarlais, D. C., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dhillon, P. K., Diaz-Torne, C., Ding, E. L., Driscoll, T. R., Duan, L., Dubey, M., Duncan, B. B., Ebrahimi, H., Ellenbogen, R. G., Elyazar, I., Endres, M., Endries, A. Y., Ermakov, S. P., Eshrati, B., Estep, K., Farid, T. A., Sofia e Sa Farinha, C., Faro, A., Farvid, M. S., Farzadfar, F., Feigin, V. L., Felson, D. T., Fereshtehnejad, S., Fernandes, J. G., Fernandes, J. C., Fischer, F., Fitchett, J. R., Foreman, K., Fowkes, G. R., Fox, J., Franklin, R. C., Friedman, J., Frostad, J., Furst, T., Futran, N. D., Gabbe, B., Ganguly, P., Gankpe, F. G., Gebre, T., Gebrehiwot, T. T., Gebremedhin, A. T., Geleijnse, J. M., Gessner, B. D., Gibney, K. B., Ginawi, I. A., Giref, A. Z., Giroud, M., Gishu, M. D., Glaser, E., Godwin, W. W., Gomez-Dantes, H., Gona, P., Goodridge, A., Gopalani, S. V., Gotay, C. C., Goto, A., Gouda, H. N., Grainger, R., Greaves, F., Guillemin, F., Guo, Y., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Gupta, V., Gutierrez, R. A., Haile, D., Hailu, A. D., Hailu, G. B., Halasa, Y. A., Hamadeh, R. R., Hamidi, S., Hammami, M., Hancock, J., Handal, A. J., Hankey, G. J., Hao, Y., Harb, H. L., Harikrishnan, S., Maria Haro, J., Havmoeller, R., Hay, R. J., Beatriz Heredia-Pi, I., Heydarpour, P., Hoek, H. W., Horino, M., Horita, N., Hosgood, H. D., Hoy, D. G., Htet, A. S., Huang, H., Huang, J. J., Huynh, C., Iannarone, M., Iburg, K. M., Innos, K., Inoue, M., Iyer, V. J., Jacobsen, K. H., Jahanmehr, N., Jakovljevic, M. B., Javanbakht, M., Jayatilleke, A. U., Jee, S. H., Jeemon, P., Jensen, P. N., Jiang, Y., Jibat, T., Jimenez-Corona, A., Jin, Y., Jonas, J. B., Kabir, Z., Kalkonde, Y., Kamal, R., Kan, H., Karch, A., Karema, C. K., Karimkhani, C., Kasaeian, A., Kaul, A., Kawakami, N., Karimkhani, C., Kasaeian, A., Kaul, A., Kawakami, N., Keiyoro, P. N., Kemp, A. H., Keren, A., Kesavachandran, C. N., Khader, Y. S., Khaiff, A. R., Khaiff, E. A., Khang, Y., Khera, S., Khoja, T. A., Khubchandani, J., Kieling, C., Kim, P., Kim, C., Kim, D., Kim, Y. J., Kissoon, N., Knibbs, L. D., Knudsen, A. K., Kokubo, Y., Kolte, D., Kopec, J. A., Kosen, S., Kotsakis, G. A., Koul, P. A., Koyanagi, A., Kravchenko, M., Defo, B. K., Bicer, B. K., Kudom, A. A., Kuipers, E. J., Kumar, G. A., Kutz, M., Kwan, G. F., Lal, A., Lalloo, R., Lallukka, T., Lam, H., Lam, J. O., Langan, S. M., Larsson, A., Lavados, P. M., Leasher, J. L., Leigh, J., Leung, R., Levi, M., Li, Y., Li, Y., Liang, J., Liu, S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, B. K., Lo, W. D., Logroscino, G., Looker, K. J., Lotufo, P. A., Lunevicius, R., Lyons, R. A., Mackay, M. T., Abd El Razek, M. M., Mahdavi, M., Majdan, M., Majeed, A., Malekzadeh, R., Marcenes, W., Margolis, D. J., Martinez-Raga, J., Masiye, F., Massano, J., McGarvey, S. T., McGrath, J. J., McKee, M., McMahon, B. J., Meaney, P. A., Mehari, A., Meija-Rodriguez, F., Mekonnen, A. B., Melaku, Y. A., Memiah, P., Memish, Z. A., Mendoza, W., Meretoja, A., Meretoja, T. J., Mhimbira, F. A., Miller, T. R., Mills, E. J., Mirarefin, M., Mitchell, P. B., Mock, C. N., Mohammadi, A., Mohammed, S., Monasta, L., Montanez Hernandez, J. C., Montico, M., Mooney, M. D., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Morawska, L., Mueller, U. O., Mullany, E., Mumford, J. E., Murdoch, M. E., Nachega, J. B., Nagel, G., Naheed, A., Naldi, L., Nangia, V., Newton, J. N., Ng, M., Ngalesoni, F. N., Quyen Le Nguyen, Q., Nisar, M. I., Nkamedjie Pete, P. M., Nona, J. M., Norheim, O. F., Norman, R. E., Norrving, B., Nunes, B. P., Ogbo, F. A., Oh, I., Ohkubo, T., Olivares, P. R., Olusanya, B. O., Olusanya, J. O., Ortiz, A., Osman, M., Ota, E., Mahesh, P. A., Park, E., Parsaeian, M., de Azeredo Passos, V. M., Paternina Caicedo, A. J., Patten, S. B., Patton, G. C., Pereira, D. M., Perez-Padilla, R., Perico, N., Pesudovs, K., Petzold, M., Phillips, M. R., Piel, F. B., Pillay, J. D., Pishgar, F., Plass, D., Platts-Mills, J. A., Polinder, S., Pond, C. D., Popova, S., Poulton, R. G., Pourmalek, F., Prabhakaran, D., Prasad, N. M., Qorbani, M., Rabiee, R. H., Radfar, A., Rafay, A., Rahimi, K., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Rahman, M., Rahman, M. H., Rahman, S. u., Rai, R. K., Rajsic, S., Ram, U., Rao, P., Refaat, A. H., Reitsma, M. B., Remuzzi, G., Resnikofff, S., Reynolds, A., Ribeiro, A. L., Rios Blancas, M. J., Rolm, H. S., Rojas-Rueda, D., Ronfani, L., Roshandel, G., Roth, G. A., Rothenbacher, D., Roy, A., Sagar, R., Sahathevan, R., Sanabria, J. R., Dolores Sanchez-Nino, M., Santos, I. S., Santos, J. V., Sarmiento-Suarez, R., Sartorius, B., Satpathy, M., Savic, M., Sawhney, M., Schaub, M. P., Schmidt, M. I., Schneider, I. J., Schottker, B., Schwebel, D. C., Scott, J. G., Seedat, S., Sepanlou, S. G., Servan-Mori, E. E., Shackelford, K. A., Shaheen, A., Shaikh, M. A., Sharma, R., Sharma, U., Shen, J., Shepard, D. S., Sheth, K. N., Shibuya, K., Shin, M., Shiri, R., Shiue, I., Shrime, M. G., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Silva, D. A., Alves Silveira, D. G., Singh, A., Singh, J. A., Singh, O. P., Singh, P. K., Sivonda, A., Skirbekk, V., Skogen, J. C., Sligar, A., Silwa, K., Soljak, M., Soreide, K., Soriano, J. B., Sposato, L. A., Sreeramareddy, C. T., Stathopoulou, V., Steel, N., Stein, D. J., Steiner, T. J., Steinke, S., Stovner, L., Stroumpoulis, K., Sunguya, B. F., Sur, P., Swaminathan, S., Sykes, B. L., Szoeke, C. E., Tabares-Seisdedos, R., Takala, J. S., Landon, N., Tanne, D., Tavakkoli, M., Taye, B., Taylor, H. R., Te Ao, B. J., Tedla, B. A., Terkawi, A. S., Thomson, A. J., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Thrift, A. G., Thurston, G. D., Tobe-Gai, R., Tonelli, M., Topor-Madry, R., Topouzis, F., Tran, B. X., Dimbuene, Z. T., Tsilimbaris, M., Tura, A. K., Tuzcu, E. M., Tyrovolas, S., Ukwaja, K. N., Undurraga, E. A., Uneke, C. J., Uthman, O. A., van Gool, C. H., Varakin, Y. Y., Vasankari, T., Venketasubramanian, N., Verma, R. K., Violante, F. S., Vladimirov, S. K., Vlassov, V. V., Vollset, S. E., Wagner, G. R., Waller, S. G., Wang, L., Watkins, D. A., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R. G., Werdecker, A., Westerman, R., White, R. A., Williams, H. C., Wiysonge, C. S., Wolfe, C. D., Won, S., Woodbrook, R., Wubshet, M., Xavier, D., Xu, G., Yadav, A. K., Yan, L. L., Yano, Y., Yaseri, M., Ye, P., Yebyo, H. G., Yip, P., Yonemoto, N., Yoon, S., Younis, M. Z., Yu, C., Zaidi, Z., Zaki, M. E., Zeeb, H., Zhou, M., Zodpey, S., Zuhlke, L. J., Murray, C. J. 2016; 388 (10053): 1545-1602

    Abstract

    Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015.We estimated incidence and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60 900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010 and GBD 2013. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies where the complexity of the disease was not suited to DisMod-MR 2.1 or where incidence and prevalence needed to be determined from other data. For GBD 2015 we created a summary indicator that combines measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility (the Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) and used it to compare observed patterns of health loss to the expected pattern for countries or locations with similar SDI scores.We generated 9·3 billion estimates from the various combinations of prevalence, incidence, and YLDs for causes, sequelae, and impairments by age, sex, geography, and year. In 2015, two causes had acute incidences in excess of 1 billion: upper respiratory infections (17·2 billion, 95% uncertainty interval [UI] 15·4-19·2 billion) and diarrhoeal diseases (2·39 billion, 2·30-2·50 billion). Eight causes of chronic disease and injury each affected more than 10% of the world's population in 2015: permanent caries, tension-type headache, iron-deficiency anaemia, age-related and other hearing loss, migraine, genital herpes, refraction and accommodation disorders, and ascariasis. The impairment that affected the greatest number of people in 2015 was anaemia, with 2·36 billion (2·35-2·37 billion) individuals affected. The second and third leading impairments by number of individuals affected were hearing loss and vision loss, respectively. Between 2005 and 2015, there was little change in the leading causes of years lived with disability (YLDs) on a global basis. NCDs accounted for 18 of the leading 20 causes of age-standardised YLDs on a global scale. Where rates were decreasing, the rate of decrease for YLDs was slower than that of years of life lost (YLLs) for nearly every cause included in our analysis. For low SDI geographies, Group 1 causes typically accounted for 20-30% of total disability, largely attributable to nutritional deficiencies, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. Lower back and neck pain was the leading global cause of disability in 2015 in most countries. The leading cause was sense organ disorders in 22 countries in Asia and Africa and one in central Latin America; diabetes in four countries in Oceania; HIV/AIDS in three southern sub-Saharan African countries; collective violence and legal intervention in two north African and Middle Eastern countries; iron-deficiency anaemia in Somalia and Venezuela; depression in Uganda; onchoceriasis in Liberia; and other neglected tropical diseases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.Ageing of the world's population is increasing the number of people living with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Shifts in the epidemiological profile driven by socioeconomic change also contribute to the continued increase in years lived with disability (YLDs) as well as the rate of increase in YLDs. Despite limitations imposed by gaps in data availability and the variable quality of the data available, the standardised and comprehensive approach of the GBD study provides opportunities to examine broad trends, compare those trends between countries or subnational geographies, benchmark against locations at similar stages of development, and gauge the strength or weakness of the estimates available.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385285000008

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5055577

  • Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for 315 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE), 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 LANCET Kassebaum, N. J., Arora, M., Barber, R. M., Bhutta, Z. A., Carter, A., Casey, D. C., Charlson, F. J., Coates, M. M., Coggeshall, M., Cornaby, L., Dandona, L., Dicker, D. J., Erskine, H. E., Ferrari, A. J., Fitzmaurice, C., Foreman, K., Forouzanfar, M. H., Fullman, N., Gething, P. W., Goldberg, E. M., Graetz, N., Haagsma, J. A., Johnson, C., Kemmer, L., Khalil, I. A., Kinfu, Y., Kutz, M. J., Kyu, H. H., Leung, J., Liang, X., Lim, S. S., Lim, S. S., Lozano, R., Mensah, G. A., Mikesell, J., Mokdad, A. H., Mooney, M. D., Naghavi, M., Nguyen, G., Nsoesie, E., Pigott, D. M., Pinho, C., Rankin, Z., Reinig, N., Salomon, J. A., Sandar, L., Smith, A., Sorensen, R. J., Stanaway, J., Steiner, C., Teeple, S., Thomas, B. A., Troeger, C., VanderZanden, A., Wagner, J. A., Wanga, V., Whiteford, H. A., Zhou, M., Zoeckler, L., Abajobir, A. A., Abate, K. H., Abbafati, C., Abbas, K. M., Abd-Allah, F., Abraham, B., Abubakar, I., Abu-Raddad, L. J., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., Achoki, T., Ackerman, I. N., Adebiyi, A. O., Adedeji, I. A., Adsuar, J. C., Afanvi, K. A., Afshin, A., Agardh, E. E., Agarwal, A., Kumar, S., Ahmed, M. B., Kiadaliri, A. A., Ahmadieh, H., Akseer, N., Al-Aly, Z., Alam, K., Alam, N. K., Aldhahri, S. F., Alegretti, M. A., Aleman, A. V., Alemu, Z. A., Alexander, L. T., Raghib, A., Alkerwi, A., Alla, F., Allebeck, P., Alsharif, U., Altirkawi, K. A., Martin, E. A., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amare, A. T., Amberbir, A., Amegah, A. K., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Amrock, S. M., Anderson, G. M., Anderson, B. O., Antonio, C. A., Anwari, P., Arnlov, J., Arsenijevic, V. S., Artaman, A., Asayesh, H., Asghar, R. J., Avokpaho, E. F., Awasthi, A., Quintanilla, B. P., Azzopardi, P., Bacha, U., Badawi, A., Balakrishnan, K., Banerjee, A., Barac, A., Barker-Collo, S. L., Barnighausen, T., Barregard, L., Barrero, L. H., Basu, S., Bayou, T. A., Beardsley, J., Bedi, N., Beghi, E., Bell, B., Bell, M. L., Benjet, C., Bennett, D. A., Bensenor, I. M., Berhane, A., Bernabe, E., Betsu, B. D., Beyene, A. S., Bhala, N., Bhansali, A., Bhatt, S., Biadgilign, S., Bienhofff, K., Bikbov, B., Bin Abdulhak, A. A., Bisanzio, D., Bjertness, E., Blore, J. D., Borschmann, R., Boufous, S., Bourne, R. R., Brainin, M., Brazinova, A., Breitborde, N. J., Brugha, T. S., Buchbinder, R., Buckle, G. C., Butt, Z. A., Calabria, B., Campos-Nonato, I. R., Campuzano, J. C., Carabin, H., Carapetis, J. R., Cardenas, R., Carrero, J. J., Castaneda-Orjuela, C. A., Rivas, J. C., Catala-Lopez, F., Cavalleri, F., Chang, J., Chiang, P. P., Chibalabala, M., Chibueze, C. E., Chisumpa, V. H., Choi, J. J., Choudhury, L., Christensen, H., Ciobanu, L. G., Colistro, V., Colomar, M., Colquhoun, S. M., Cortinovis, M., Crump, J. A., Damasceno, A., Dandona, R., Dargan, P. I., das Neves, J., Davey, G., Davis, A. C., De Leo, D., Degenhardt, L., Del Gobbo, L. C., Derrett, S., Des Jarlais, D. C., deVeber, G. A., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dhillon, P. K., Ding, E. L., Doyle, K. E., Driscoll, T. R., Duan, L., Dubey, M., Duncan, B. B., Ebrahimi, H., Ellenbogen, R. G., Elyazar, I., Endries, A. Y., Ermakov, S. P., Eshrati, B., Esteghamati, A., Estep, K., Fahimi, S., Farid, T. A., Sa Farinha, C. S., Faro, A., Farvid, M. S., Farzadfar, F., Feigin, V. L., Fereshtehnejad, S., Fernandes, J. G., Fernandes, J. C., Fischer, F., Fitchett, J. R., Foigt, N., Fowkes, F. G., Franklin, R. C., Friedman, J., Frostad, J., Furst, T., Futran, N. D., Gabbe, B., Gankpe, F. G., Garcia-Basteiro, A. L., Gebrehiwot, T. T., Gebremedhin, A. T., Geleijnse, J. M., Gibney, K. B., Gillum, R. F., Ginawi, I. A., Giref, A. Z., Giroud, M., Gishu, M. D., Godwin, W. W., Gomez-Dantes, H., Gona, P., Goodridge, A., Gopalani, S. V., Gotay, C. C., Goto, A., Gouda, H. N., Guo, Y., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Gupta, V., Gutierrez, R. A., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Haile, D., Hailu, A. D., Hailu, G. B., Halasa, Y. A., Ribhi, R., Hamadeh, Hamidi, S., Hammami, M., Handal, A. J., Hankey, G. J., Harb, H. L., Harikrishnan, S., Haro, J. M., Hassanvand, M. S., Hassen, T. A., Havmoeller, R., Hay, R. J., Hedayati, M. T., Heredia-Pi, I. B., Heydarpour, P., Hoek, H. W., Hoffman, D. J., Horino, M., Horita, N., Hosgood, H. D., Hoy, D. G., Hsairi, M., Huang, H., Huang, J. J., Iburg, K. M., Idrisov, B. T., Innos, K., Inoue, M., Jacobsen, K. H., Jauregui, A., Jayatilleke, A. U., Jeemon, P., Jha, V., Jiang, G., Jiang, Y., Jibat, T., Jimenez-Corona, A., Jin, Y., Jonas, J. B., Kabir, Z., Kajungu, D. K., Kalkonde, Y., Kamal, R., Kan, H., Kandel, A., Karch, A., Karema, C. K., Karimkhani, C., Kasaeian, A., Katibeh, M., Kaul, A., Kawakami, N., Kazi, D. S., Keiyoro, P. N., Kemp, A. H., Kengne, A. P., Keren, A., Kesavachandran, C. N., Khader, Y. S., Khan, A. R., Khan, E. A., Khang, Y., Khoja, T. A., Khubchandani, J., Kieling, C., Kim, C., Kim, D., Kim, Y. J., Kissoon, N., Kivipelto, M., Knibbs, L. D., Knudsen, A. K., Kokubo, Y., Kolte, D., Kopec, J. A., Koul, P. A., Koyanagi, A., Defo, B. K., Kuchenbecker, R. S., Bicer, B. K., Kuipers, E. J., Kumar, G. A., Kwan, G. F., Lalloo, R., Lallukka, T., Larsson, A., Latif, A. A., Lavados, P. M., Lawrynowicz, A. E., Leasher, J. L., Leigh, J., Leung, R., Li, Y., Li, Y., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, P. Y., Liu, Y., Lloyd, B. K., Logroscino, G., Looker, K. J., Lotufo, P. A., Lucas, R. M., Lunevicius, R., Lyons, R. A., El Razek, H. M., Mandavi, M., Majdan, M., Majeed, A., Malekzadeh, R., Malta, D. C., Marcenes, W., Martinez-Raga, J., Masiye, F., Mason-Jones, A. J., Matzopoulos, R., Mayosi, B. M., McGrath, J. J., McKee, M., Meaney, P. A., Mehari, A., Melaku, Y. A., Memiah, P., Memish, Z. A., Mendoza, W., Meretoja, A., Meretoja, T. J., Mesfin, Y. M., Mhimbira, F. A., Miller, T. R., Mills, E. J., Mirarefin, M., Mirrakhimov, E. M., Mitchell, P. B., Mock, C. N., Mohammad, K. A., Mohammadi, A., Mohammed, S., Monasta, L., Montanez Hernandez, J. C., Montico, M., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Mori, R., Mueller, U. O., Mumford, J. E., Murdoch, M. E., Murthy, G. V., Nachega, J. B., Naheed, A., Naldi, L., Nangia, V., Newton, J. N., Ng, M., Ngalesoni, F. N., Le Nguyen, Q., Nisar, M. I., Pete, P. M., Nolla, J. M., Norheim, O. F., Norman, R. E., Norrving, B., Obermeyer, C. M., Ogbo, F. A., Oh, I., Oladimeji, O., Olivares, P. R., Olusanya, B. O., Olusanya, J. O., Oren, E., Ortiz, A., Ota, E., Oyekale, A. S., Pa, M., Park, E., Parsaeian, M., Patten, S. B., Patton, G. C., Pedro, J. M., Pereira, D. M., Perico, N., Pesudovs, K., Petzold, M., Phillips, M. R., Piel, F. B., Pillay, J. D., Pishgar, F., Plass, D., Polinder, S., Popova, S., Poulton, R. G., Pourmalek, F., Prasad, N. M., Qorbani, M., Rabiee, R. H., Radfar, A., Rafay, A., Rahimi, K., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Rahman, M., Rahman, M. H., Rahman, S. u., Rai, D., Rai, R. K., Rajsic, S., Raju, M., Ram, U., Ranganathan, K., Refaat, A. H., Reitsma, M. B., Remuzzi, G., Resnikoff, S., Reynolds, A., Ribeiro, A. L., Ricci, S., Roba, H. S., Rojas-Rueda, D., Ronfani, L., Roshandel, G., Roth, G. A., Roy, A., Sackey, B. B., Sagar, R., Sanabria, J. R., Dolores Sanchez-Nino, M., Santos, I. S., Santos, J. V., Sarmiento-Suarez, R., Sartorius, B., Satpathy, M., Savic, M., Sawhney, M., Schmidt, M. I., Schneider, I. J., Schutte, A. E., Schwebel, D. C., Seedat, S., Sepanlou, S. G., Servan-Mori, E. E., Shahraz, S., Shaikh, M. A., Sharma, R., She, J., Sheikhbahaei, S., Shen, J., Sheth, K. N., Shibuya, K., Shigematsu, M., Shin, M., Shin, R., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Santos Silva, D. A., Silverberg, J. I., Simard, E. P., Singh, A., Singh, J. A., Singh, P. K., Skirbekk, V., Skogen, J. C., Soljak, M., Soreide, K., Sorensen, R. J., Sreeramareddy, C. T., Stathopoulou, V., Steel, N., Stein, D. J., Stein, M. B., Steiner, T. J., Stovner, L. J., Stranges, S., Stroumpoulis, K., Sunguya, B. F., Sur, P. J., Swaminathan, S., Sykes, B. L., Szoeke, C. E., Tabares-Seisdedos, R., Landon, N., Tanne, D., Tavakkoli, M., Taye, B., Taylor, H. R., Ao, B. J., Tegegne, T. K., Tekle, D. Y., Terkawi, A. S., Tessema, G. A., Thakur, J. S., Thomson, A. J., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Thrift, A. G., Thurston, G. D., Tobe-Gai, R., Tonelli, M., Topor-Madry, R., Topouzis, F., Tran, B. X., Dimbuene, Z. T., Tsilimbaris, M., Tura, A. K., Tuzcu, E. M., Tyrovolas, S., Ukwaja, K. N., Undurraga, E. A., Uneke, C. J., Uthman, O. A., van Gool, C. H., van Os, J., Vasankari, T., Vasconcelos, A. M., Venketasubramanian, N., Violante, F. S., Vlassov, V. V., Vollset, S. E., Wagner, G. R., Wallin, M. T., Wang, L., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R. G., Werdecker, A., WestermaM, R., Wijeratne, T., Wilkinson, J. D., Williams, H. C., Wiysonge, C. S., Woldeyohannes, S. M., Wolfe, C. D., Won, S., Xu, G., Yadav, A. K., Yakob, B., Yan, L. L., Yan, Y., Yaseri, M., Ye, P., Yip, P., Yonemoto, N., Yoon, S., Younis, M. Z., Yu, C., Zaidi, Z., Zaki, M. E., Zeeb, H., Zodpey, S., Zonies, D., Zuhlke, L. J., Zeeb, H., Zodpey, S., Zonies, D., Zuhlke, L. J., Vos, T., Lopez, A. D., Murray, C. J. 2016; 388 (10053): 1603-1658

    Abstract

    Healthy life expectancy (HALE) and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) provide summary measures of health across geographies and time that can inform assessments of epidemiological patterns and health system performance, help to prioritise investments in research and development, and monitor progress toward the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We aimed to provide updated HALE and DALYs for geographies worldwide and evaluate how disease burden changes with development.We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015) for all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and non-fatal disease burden to derive HALE and DALYs by sex for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2015. We calculated DALYs by summing years of life lost (YLLs) and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for each geography, age group, sex, and year. We estimated HALE using the Sullivan method, which draws from age-specific death rates and YLDs per capita. We then assessed how observed levels of DALYs and HALE differed from expected trends calculated with the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator constructed from measures of income per capita, average years of schooling, and total fertility rate.Total global DALYs remained largely unchanged from 1990 to 2015, with decreases in communicable, neonatal, maternal, and nutritional (Group 1) disease DALYs offset by increased DALYs due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Much of this epidemiological transition was caused by changes in population growth and ageing, but it was accelerated by widespread improvements in SDI that also correlated strongly with the increasing importance of NCDs. Both total DALYs and age-standardised DALY rates due to most Group 1 causes significantly decreased by 2015, and although total burden climbed for the majority of NCDs, age-standardised DALY rates due to NCDs declined. Nonetheless, age-standardised DALY rates due to several high-burden NCDs (including osteoarthritis, drug use disorders, depression, diabetes, congenital birth defects, and skin, oral, and sense organ diseases) either increased or remained unchanged, leading to increases in their relative ranking in many geographies. From 2005 to 2015, HALE at birth increased by an average of 2·9 years (95% uncertainty interval 2·9-3·0) for men and 3·5 years (3·4-3·7) for women, while HALE at age 65 years improved by 0·85 years (0·78-0·92) and 1·2 years (1·1-1·3), respectively. Rising SDI was associated with consistently higher HALE and a somewhat smaller proportion of life spent with functional health loss; however, rising SDI was related to increases in total disability. Many countries and territories in central America and eastern sub-Saharan Africa had increasingly lower rates of disease burden than expected given their SDI. At the same time, a subset of geographies recorded a growing gap between observed and expected levels of DALYs, a trend driven mainly by rising burden due to war, interpersonal violence, and various NCDs.Health is improving globally, but this means more populations are spending more time with functional health loss, an absolute expansion of morbidity. The proportion of life spent in ill health decreases somewhat with increasing SDI, a relative compression of morbidity, which supports continued efforts to elevate personal income, improve education, and limit fertility. Our analysis of DALYs and HALE and their relationship to SDI represents a robust framework on which to benchmark geography-specific health performance and SDG progress. Country-specific drivers of disease burden, particularly for causes with higher-than-expected DALYs, should inform financial and research investments, prevention efforts, health policies, and health system improvement initiatives for all countries along the development continuum.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385285000009

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5388857

  • Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 LANCET Wang, H., Naghavi, M., Allen, C., Barber, R. M., Bhutta, Z. A., Carter, A., Casey, D. C., Charlson, F. J., Chen, A. Z., Coates, M. M., Coggeshall, M., Dandona, L., Dicker, D. J., Erskine, H. E., Ferrari, A. J., Fitzmaurice, C., Foreman, K., Forouzanfar, M. H., Fraser, M. S., Pullman, N., Gething, P. W., Goldberg, E. M., Graetz, N., Haagsma, J. A., Hay, S. I., Huynh, C., Johnson, C., Kassebaum, N. J., Kinfu, Y., Kulikoff, X. R., Kutz, M., Kyu, H. H., Larson, H. J., Leung, J., Liang, X., Lim, S. S., Lind, M., Lozano, R., Marquez, N., Mensah, G. A., Mikesell, J., Mokdad, A. H., Mooney, M. D., Nguyen, G., Nsoesie, E., Pigott, D. M., Pinho, C., Roth, G. A., Salomon, J. A., Sandar, L., Silpakit, N., Sligar, A., Sorensen, R. J., Stanaway, J., Steiner, C., Teeple, S., Thomas, B. A., Troeger, C., VanderZanden, A., Vollset, S. E., Wanga, V., Whiteford, H. A., Wolock, T., Zoeckler, L., Abate, K. H., Abbafati, C., Abbas, K. M., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S. F., Abreu, D. M., Abu-Raddad, L. J., Abyu, G. Y., Achoki, T., Adelekan, A. L., Ademi, Z., Adou, A. K., Adsuar, J. C., Afanvi, K. A., Afshin, A., Agardh, E. E., Agarwal, A., Agrawal, A., Kiadaliri, A. A., Ajala, O. N., Akanda, A. S., Akinyemi, R. O., Akinyemiju, T. F., Akseer, N., Al Lami, F. H., Alabed, S., Al-Aly, Z., Alam, K., Alam, N. K., Alasfoor, D., Aldhahri, S. F., Aldridge, R. W., Alegretti, M. A., Aleman, A. V., Alemu, Z. A., Alexander, L. T., Alhabib, S., Ali, R., Alkerwi, A., Alla, F., Allebeck, P., Al-Raddadi, R., Alsharif, U., Altirkawi, K. A., Martin, E. A., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amare, A. T., Amegah, A. K., Ameh, E. A., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Amrock, S. M., Andersen, H. H., Anderson, B., Anderson, G. M., Antonio, C. A., Aregay, A. F., Arnlov, J., Arsenijevic, V. S., Al Artaman, Asayesh, H., Asghar, R. J., Atique, S., Arthur Avokpaho, E. F., Awasthi, A., Azzopardi, P., Bacha, U., Badawi, A., Bahit, M. C., Balakrishnan, K., Banerjee, A., Barac, A., Barker-Collo, S. L., Barnighausen, T., Barregard, L., Barrero, L. H., Basu, A., Basu, S., Bayou, Y. T., Bazargan-Hejazi, S., Beardsley, J., Bedi, N., Beghi, E., Belay, H. A., Bell, B., Bell, M. L., Bello, A. K., Bennett, D. A., Bensenor, I. M., Berhane, A., Bernabe, E., Betsu, B. D., Beyene, A. S., Bhala, N., Bhalla, A., Biadgilign, S., Bikbov, B., Bin Abdulhak, A. A., Biroscak, B. J., Biryukov, S., Bjertness, E., Blore, J. D., Blosser, C. D., Bohensky, M. A., Borschmann, R., Bose, D., Bourne, R. R., Brainin, M., Brayne, C. E., Brazinova, A., Breitborde, N. J., Brenner, H., Brewer, J. D., Brown, A., Brown, J., Brugha, T. S., Buckle, G. C., Butt, Z. A., Calabria, B., Campos-Novato, I. R., Campuzano, J. C., Carapetis, J. R., Cardenas, R., Carpenter, D., Carrero, J. J., Castaneda-Oquela, C. A., Rivas, J. C., Catala-Lopez, F., Cavalleri, F., Cercy, K., Cerda, J., Chen, W., Chew, A., Chiang, P. P., Chibalabala, M., Chibueze, C. E., Chimed-Ochir, O., Chisumpa, V. H., Choi, J. J., Chowdhury, R., Christensen, H., Christopher, D. J., Ciobanu, L. G., Cirillo, M., Cohen, A. J., Colistro, V., Colomar, M., Colquhoun, S. M., Cooper, C., Cooper, L. T., Cortinovis, M., Cowie, B. C., Crump, J. A., Damsere-Derry, J., Danawi, H., Dandona, R., Daoud, F., Darby, S. C., Dargan, P. I., das Neves, J., Davey, G., Davis, A. C., Davitoiu, D. V., de Castro, E. F., de Jager, P., De Leo, D., Degenhardt, L., Dellavalle, R. P., Deribe, K., Deribew, A., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dhillon, P. K., Diaz-Torne, C., Ding, E. L., dos Santos, K. P., Dossou, E., Driscoll, T. R., Duan, L., Dubey, M., Bartholow, B., Ellenbogen, R. G., Lycke, C., Elyazar, I., Endries, A. Y., Ermakov, S. P., Eshrati, B., Esteghamati, A., Estep, K., Faghmous, I. D., Fahimi, S., Jose, E., Farid, T. A., Sa Farinha, C. S., Faro, A., Farvid, M. S., Farzadfar, F., Feigin, V. L., Fereshtehnejad, S., Fernandes, J. G., Fernandes, J. C., Fischer, F., Fitchett, J. R., Flaxman, A., Foigt, N., Fowkes, F. G., Franca, E. B., Franklin, R. C., Friedman, J., Frostad, J., Hirst, T., Futran, N. D., Gall, S. L., Gambashidze, K., Gamkrelidze, A., Ganguly, P., Gankpe, F. G., Gebre, T., Gebrehiwot, T. T., Gebremedhin, A. T., Gebru, A. A., Geleijnse, J. M., Gessner, B. D., Ghoshal, A. G., Gibney, K. B., Gillum, R. F., Gilmour, S., Giref, A. Z., Giroud, M., Gishu, M. D., Giussani, G., Glaser, E., Godwin, W. W., Gomez-Dantes, H., Gona, P., Goodridge, A., Gopalani, S. V., Gosselin, R. A., Gotay, C. C., Goto, A., Gouda, H. N., Greaves, F., Gugnani, H. C., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Gupta, V., Gutierrez, R. A., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Haile, D., Hailu, A. D., Hailu, G. B., Halasa, Y. A., Hamadeh, R. R., Hamidi, S., Hancock, J., Handal, A. J., Hankey, G. J., Hao, Y., Harb, H. L., Harikrishnan, S., Haro, J. M., Havmoeller, R., Heckbert, S. R., Heredia-Pi, I. 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M., Kissoon, N., Knibbs, L. D., Knudsen, A. K., Kokubo, Y., Kolte, D., Kopec, J. A., Kosen, S., Koul, P. A., Koyanagi, A., Krog, N. H., Defo, B. K., Bicer, B. K., Kudom, A. A., Kuipers, E. J., Kulkarni, V. S., Kumar, G. A., Kwan, G. F., Lal, A., Lal, D. K., Lalloo, R., Lam, H., Lam, J. O., Langan, S. M., Lansingh, V. C., Larsson, A., Laryea, D. O., Latif, A. A., Lawrynowicz, A. E., Leigh, J., Levi, M., Li, Y., Lindsay, M. P., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, P. Y., Liu, S., Liu, Y., Lo, L., Logroscino, G., Lotufo, P. A., Lucas, R. M., Lunevicius, R., Lyons, R. A., Ma, S., Pedro Machado, V. M., Mackay, M. T., Maclachlan, J. H., Abd El Razek, H. M., Abd El Razek, M. M., Majdan, M., Majeed, A., Malekzadeh, R., Ayele Manamo, W. A., Mandisarisa, J., Mangalam, S., Mapoma, C. C., Marcenes, W., Margolis, D. J., Martin, G. R., Martinez-Raga, J., Marzan, M. B., Masiye, F., Mason-Jones, A. J., Massano, J., Matzopoulos, R., Mayosi, B. M., McGarvey, S. T., McGrath, J. J., McKee, M., McMahon, B. 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    Abstract

    Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures.We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography-year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61·4-61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5-72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7-17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5-70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1% (2·6-5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0% (15·8-18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1% (12·6-16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1% (11·9-14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1%, 39·1-44·6), malaria (43·1%, 34·7-51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8%, 24·8-34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1%, 19·3-37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000-183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000-532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death.At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5388903

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    Abstract

    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context.We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015. This study included 388 risk-outcome pairs that met World Cancer Research Fund-defined criteria for convincing or probable evidence. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. We developed a metric that allows comparisons of exposure across risk factors-the summary exposure value. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk level, we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We decomposed trends in attributable burden into contributions from population growth, population age structure, risk exposure, and risk-deleted cause-specific DALY rates. We characterised risk exposure in relation to a Socio-demographic Index (SDI).Between 1990 and 2015, global exposure to unsafe sanitation, household air pollution, childhood underweight, childhood stunting, and smoking each decreased by more than 25%. Global exposure for several occupational risks, high body-mass index (BMI), and drug use increased by more than 25% over the same period. All risks jointly evaluated in 2015 accounted for 57·8% (95% CI 56·6-58·8) of global deaths and 41·2% (39·8-42·8) of DALYs. In 2015, the ten largest contributors to global DALYs among Level 3 risks were high systolic blood pressure (211·8 million [192·7 million to 231·1 million] global DALYs), smoking (148·6 million [134·2 million to 163·1 million]), high fasting plasma glucose (143·1 million [125·1 million to 163·5 million]), high BMI (120·1 million [83·8 million to 158·4 million]), childhood undernutrition (113·3 million [103·9 million to 123·4 million]), ambient particulate matter (103·1 million [90·8 million to 115·1 million]), high total cholesterol (88·7 million [74·6 million to 105·7 million]), household air pollution (85·6 million [66·7 million to 106·1 million]), alcohol use (85·0 million [77·2 million to 93·0 million]), and diets high in sodium (83·0 million [49·3 million to 127·5 million]). From 1990 to 2015, attributable DALYs declined for micronutrient deficiencies, childhood undernutrition, unsafe sanitation and water, and household air pollution; reductions in risk-deleted DALY rates rather than reductions in exposure drove these declines. Rising exposure contributed to notable increases in attributable DALYs from high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, occupational carcinogens, and drug use. Environmental risks and childhood undernutrition declined steadily with SDI; low physical activity, high BMI, and high fasting plasma glucose increased with SDI. In 119 countries, metabolic risks, such as high BMI and fasting plasma glucose, contributed the most attributable DALYs in 2015. Regionally, smoking still ranked among the leading five risk factors for attributable DALYs in 109 countries; childhood underweight and unsafe sex remained primary drivers of early death and disability in much of sub-Saharan Africa.Declines in some key environmental risks have contributed to declines in critical infectious diseases. Some risks appear to be invariant to SDI. Increasing risks, including high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, drug use, and some occupational exposures, contribute to rising burden from some conditions, but also provide opportunities for intervention. Some highly preventable risks, such as smoking, remain major causes of attributable DALYs, even as exposure is declining. Public policy makers need to pay attention to the risks that are increasingly major contributors to global burden.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385285000010

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5388856

  • Recommendations for Conduct, Methodological Practices, and Reporting of Cost-effectiveness Analyses: Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. JAMA Sanders, G. D., Neumann, P. J., Basu, A., Brock, D. W., Feeny, D., Krahn, M., Kuntz, K. M., Meltzer, D. O., Owens, D. K., Prosser, L. A., Salomon, J. A., Sculpher, M. J., Trikalinos, T. A., Russell, L. B., Siegel, J. E., Ganiats, T. G. 2016; 316 (10): 1093-1103

    Abstract

    Since publication of the report by the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine in 1996, researchers have advanced the methods of cost-effectiveness analysis, and policy makers have experimented with its application. The need to deliver health care efficiently and the importance of using analytic techniques to understand the clinical and economic consequences of strategies to improve health have increased in recent years.To review the state of the field and provide recommendations to improve the quality of cost-effectiveness analyses. The intended audiences include researchers, government policy makers, public health officials, health care administrators, payers, businesses, clinicians, patients, and consumers.In 2012, the Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine was formed and included 2 co-chairs, 13 members, and 3 additional members of a leadership group. These members were selected on the basis of their experience in the field to provide broad expertise in the design, conduct, and use of cost-effectiveness analyses. Over the next 3.5 years, the panel developed recommendations by consensus. These recommendations were then reviewed by invited external reviewers and through a public posting process.The concept of a "reference case" and a set of standard methodological practices that all cost-effectiveness analyses should follow to improve quality and comparability are recommended. All cost-effectiveness analyses should report 2 reference case analyses: one based on a health care sector perspective and another based on a societal perspective. The use of an "impact inventory," which is a structured table that contains consequences (both inside and outside the formal health care sector), intended to clarify the scope and boundaries of the 2 reference case analyses is also recommended. This special communication reviews these recommendations and others concerning the estimation of the consequences of interventions, the valuation of health outcomes, and the reporting of cost-effectiveness analyses.The Second Panel reviewed the current status of the field of cost-effectiveness analysis and developed a new set of recommendations. Major changes include the recommendation to perform analyses from 2 reference case perspectives and to provide an impact inventory to clarify included consequences.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jama.2016.12195

    View details for PubMedID 27623463

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J., Brenner, H., Briggs, A. D., Broday, D. M., Brooks, P. M., Bruce, N. G., Brugha, T. S., Brunekreef, B., Buchbinder, R., Bui, L. N., Bukhman, G., Bulloch, A. G., Burch, M., Burney, P. G., Campos-Nonato, I. R., Campuzano, J. C., Cantoral, A. J., Caravanos, J., Cardenas, R., Cardis, E., Carpenter, D. O., Caso, V., Castaneda-Orjuela, C. A., Castro, R. E., Catala-Lopez, F., Cavalleri, F., Cavlin, A., Chadha, V. K., Chang, J., Charlson, F. J., Chen, H., Chen, W., Chen, Z., Chiang, P. P., Chimed-Ochir, O., Chowdhury, R., Christophi, C. A., Chuang, T., Chugh, S. S., Cirillo, M., Classen, T. K., Colistro, V., Colomar, M., Colquhoun, S. M., Contreras, A. G., Cooper, C., Cooperrider, K., Cooper, L. T., Coresh, J., Courville, K. J., Criqui, M. H., Cuevas-Nasu, L., Damsere-Derry, J., Danawi, H., Dandona, L., Dandona, R., Dargan, P. I., Davis, A., Davitoiu, D. V., Dayama, A., de Castro, E. F., De la Cruz-Gongora, V., De Leo, D., de Lima, G., Degenhardt, L., Del Pozo-Cruz, B., Dellavalle, R. 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J., Velasquez-Melendez, G., Venketasubramanian, N., Vijayakumar, L., Villalpando, S., Violante, F. S., Vlassov, V. V., Vollset, S. E., Wagner, G. R., Waller, S. G., Wallin, M. T., Wan, X., Wang, H., Wang, J., Wang, L., Wang, W., Wang, Y., Warouw, T. S., Watts, C. H., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R. G., Werdecker, A., Wessells, K. R., Westerman, R., Whiteford, H. A., Wilkinson, J. D., Williams, H. C., Williams, T. N., Woldeyohannes, S. M., Wolfe, C. D., Wong, J. Q., Woolf, A. D., Wright, J. L., Wurtz, B., Xu, G., Yan, L. L., Yang, G., Yano, Y., Ye, P., Yenesew, M., Yentuer, G. K., Yip, P., Yonemoto, N., Yoon, S., Younis, M. Z., Younoussi, Z., Yu, C., Zaki, M. E., Zhao, Y., Zheng, Y., Zhou, M., Zhu, J., Zhu, S., Zou, X., Zunt, J. R., Lopez, A. D., Vos, T., Murray, C. J. 2015; 386 (10010): 2287-2323

    Abstract

    The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol.All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa.Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00128-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365993200031

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4685753

  • Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition LANCET Murray, C. J., Barber, R. M., Foreman, K. J., Ozgoren, A. A., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S. F., Aboyans, V., Abraham, J. P., Abubakar, I., Abu-Raddad, L. J., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., Achoki, T., Ackerman, I. N., Ademi, Z., Adou, A. K., Adsuar, J. C., Afshin, A., Agardh, E. E., Alam, S. S., Alasfoor, D., Albittar, M. I., Alegretti, M. A., Alemu, Z. A., Alfonso-Cristancho, R., Alhabib, S., Ali, R., Alla, F., Allebeck, P., AlMazroa, M. A., Alsharif, U., Alvarez, E., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amare, A. T., Ameh, E. A., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Anderson, H. R., Anderson, B. O., Antonio, C. A., Anwari, P., Arnlov, J., Arsenijevic, V. S., Artaman, A., Asghar, R. J., Assadi, R., Atkins, L. S., Avila, M. A., Awuah, B., Bachman, V. F., Badawi, A., Bahit, M. C., Balakrishnan, K., Banerjee, A., Barker-Collo, S. L., Barquera, S., Barregard, L., Barrero, L. H., Basu, A., Basu, S., Basulaiman, M. O., Beardsley, J., Bedi, N., Beghi, E., Bekele, T., Bell, M. L., Benjet, C., Bennett, D. A., Bensenor, I. M., Benzian, H., Bernabe, E., Bertozzi-Villa, A., Beyene, T. J., Bhala, N., Bhalla, A., Bhutta, Z. A., Bienhoff, K., Bikbov, B., Biryukov, S., Blore, J. D., Blosser, C. D., Blyth, F. M., Bohensky, M. A., Bolliger, I. W., Basara, B. B., Bornstein, N. M., Bose, D., Boufous, S., Bourne, R. R., Boyers, L. N., Brainin, M., Brayne, C. E., Brazinova, A., Breitborde, N. J., Brenner, H., Briggs, A. D., Brooks, P. M., Brown, J. C., Brugha, T. S., Buchbinder, R., Buckle, G. C., Budke, C. M., Bulchis, A., Bulloch, A. G., Campos-Nonato, I. R., Carabin, H., Carapetis, J. R., Cardenas, R., Carpenter, D. O., Caso, V., Castaneda-Orjuela, C. A., Castro, R. E., Catala-Lopez, F., Cavalleri, F., Cavlin, A., Chadha, V. K., Chang, J., Charlson, F. J., Chen, H., Chen, W., Chiang, P. P., Chimed-Ochir, O., Chowdhury, R., Christensen, H., Christophi, C. A., Cirillo, M., Coates, M. M., Coffeng, L. E., Coggeshall, M. S., Colistro, V., Colquhoun, S. M., Cooke, G. S., Cooper, C., Cooper, L. T., Coppola, L. M., Cortinovis, M., Criqui, M. H., Crump, J. A., Cuevas-Nasu, L., Danawi, H., Dandona, L., Dandona, R., Dansereau, E., Dargan, P. I., Davey, G., Davis, A., Davitoiu, D. V., Dayama, A., De Leo, D., Degenhardt, L., Del Pozo-Cruz, B., Dellavalle, R. P., Deribe, K., Derrett, S., Des Jarlais, D. C., Dessalegn, M., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dherani, M. K., Diaz-Torne, C., Dicker, D., Ding, E. L., Dokova, K., Dorsey, E. R., Driscoll, T. R., Duan, L., Duber, H. C., Ebel, B. E., Edmond, K. M., Elshrek, Y. M., Endres, M., Ermakov, S. P., Erskine, H. E., Eshrati, B., Esteghamati, A., Estep, K., Faraon, E. J., Farzadfar, F., Fay, D. F., Feigin, V. L., Felson, D. T., Fereshtehnejad, S., Fernandes, J. G., Ferrari, A. J., Fitzmaurice, C., Flaxman, A. D., Fleming, T. D., Foigt, N., Forouzanfar, M. H., Fowkes, F. G., Paleo, U. F., Franklin, R. C., Fuerst, T., Gabbe, B., Gaffikin, L., Gankpe, F. G., Geleijnse, J. M., Gessner, B. D., Gething, P., Gibney, K. B., Giroud, M., Giussani, G., Gomez Dantes, H., Gona, P., Gonzalez-Medina, D., Gosselin, R. A., Gotay, C. C., Goto, A., Gouda, H. N., Graetz, N., Gugnani, H. C., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Gutierrez, R. A., Haagsma, J., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Hagan, H., Halasa, Y. A., Hamadeh, R. R., Hamavid, H., Hammami, M., Hancock, J., Hankey, G. J., Hansen, G. M., Hao, Y., Harb, H. L., Maria Haro, J., Havmoeller, R., Hay, S. I., Hay, R. J., Heredia-Pi, I. B., Heuton, K. R., Heydarpour, P., Higashi, H., Hijar, M., Hoek, H. W., Hoffman, H. J., Hosgood, H. D., Hossain, M., Hotez, P. J., Hoy, D. G., Hsairi, M., Hu, G., Huang, C., Huang, J. J., Husseini, A., Huynh, C., Iannarone, M. L., Iburg, K. M., Innos, K., Inoue, M., Islami, F., Jacobsen, K. H., Jarvis, D. L., Jassal, S. K., Jee, S. H., Jeemon, P., Jensen, P. N., Jha, V., Jiang, G., Jiang, Y., Jonas, J. B., Juel, K., Kan, H., Karch, A., Karema, C. K., Karimkhani, C., Karthikeyan, G., Kassebaum, N. J., Kaul, A., Kawakami, N., Kazanjan, K., Kemp, A. H., Kengne, A. P., Keren, A., Khader, Y. S., Khalifa, S. E., Khan, E. A., Khan, G., Khang, Y., Kieling, C., Kim, D., Kim, S., Kim, Y., Kinfu, Y., Kinge, J. M., Kivipelto, M., Knibbs, L. D., Knudsen, A. K., Kokubo, Y., Kosen, S., Krishnaswami, S., Defo, B. K., Bicer, B. K., Kuipers, E. J., Kulkarni, C., Kulkarni, V. S., Kumar, G. A., Kyu, H. H., Lai, T., Lalloo, R., Lallukka, T., Lam, H., Lan, Q., Lansingh, V. C., Larsson, A., Lawrynowicz, A. E., Leasher, J. L., Leigh, J., Leung, R., Levitz, C. E., Li, B., Li, Y., Li, Y., Lim, S. S., Lind, M., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, B. K., Lofgren, K. T., Logroscino, G., Looker, K. J., Lortet-Tieulent, J., Lotufo, P. A., Lozano, R., Lucas, R. M., Lunevicius, R., Lyons, R. A., Ma, S., MacIntyre, M. F., Mackay, M. T., Majdan, M., Malekzadeh, R., Marcenes, W., Margolis, D. J., Margono, C., Marzan, M. B., Masci, J. R., Mashal, M. T., Matzopoulos, R., Mayosi, B. M., Mazorodze, T. T., McGill, N. W., McGrath, J. J., McKee, M., McLain, A., Meaney, P. A., Medina, C., Mehndiratta, M. M., Mekonnen, W., Melaku, Y. A., Meltzer, M., Memish, Z. A., Mensah, G. A., Meretoja, A., Mhimbira, F. A., Micha, R., Miller, T. R., Mills, E. J., Mitchell, P. B., Mock, C. N., Ibrahim, N. M., Mohammad, K. A., Mokdad, A. H., Mola, G. L., Monasta, L., Montanez Hernandez, J. C., Montico, M., Montine, T. J., Mooney, M. D., Moore, A. R., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Moran, A. E., Mori, R., Moschandreas, J., Moturi, W. N., Moyer, M. L., Mozaffarian, D., Msemburi, W. T., Mueller, U. O., Mukaigawara, M., Mullany, E. C., Murdoch, M. E., Murray, J., Murthy, K. S., Naghavi, M., Naheed, A., Naidoo, K. S., Naldi, L., Nand, D., Nangia, V., Narayan, K. M., Nejjari, C., Neupane, S. P., Newton, C. R., Ng, M., Ngalesoni, F. N., Nguyen, G., Nisar, M. I., Nolte, S., Norheim, O. F., Norman, R. E., Norrving, B., Nyakarahuka, L., Oh, I., Ohkubo, T., Ohno, S. L., Olusanya, B. O., Opio, J. N., Ortblad, K., Ortiz, A., Pain, A. W., Pandian, J. D., Panelo, C. I., Papachristou, C., Park, E., Park, J., Patten, S. B., Patton, G. C., Paul, V. K., Pavlin, B. I., Pearce, N., Pereira, D. M., Perez-Padilla, R., Perez-Ruiz, F., Perico, N., Pervaiz, A., Pesudovs, K., Peterson, C. B., Petzold, M., Phillips, M. R., Phillips, B. K., Phillips, D. E., Piel, F. B., Plass, D., Poenaru, D., Polinder, S., Pope, D., Popova, S., Poulton, R. G., Pourmalek, F., Prabhakaran, D., Prasad, N. M., Pullan, R. L., Qato, D. M., Quistberg, D. A., Rafay, A., Rahimi, K., Rahman, S. U., Raju, M., Rana, S. M., Razavi, H., Reddy, K. S., Refaat, A., Remuzzi, G., Resnikoff, S., Ribeiro, A. L., Richardson, L., Richardus, J. H., Roberts, D. A., Rojas-Rueda, D., Ronfani, L., Roth, G. A., Rothenbacher, D., Rothstein, D. H., Rowley, J. T., Roy, N., Ruhago, G. M., Saeedi, M. Y., Saha, S., Sahraian, M. A., Sampson, U. K., Sanabria, J. R., Sandar, L., Santos, I. S., Satpathy, M., Sawhney, M., Scarborough, P., Schneider, I. J., Schoettker, B., Schumacher, A. E., Schwebel, D. C., Scott, J. G., Seedat, S., Sepanlou, S. G., Serina, P. T., Servan-Mori, E. E., Shackelford, K. A., Shaheen, A., Shahraz, S., Levy, T. S., Shangguan, S., She, J., Sheikhbahaei, S., Shi, P., Shibuya, K., Shinohara, Y., Shiri, R., Shishani, K., Shiue, I., Shrime, M. G., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Silberberg, D. H., Simard, E. P., Sindi, S., Singh, A., Singh, J. A., Singh, L., Skirbekk, V., Slepak, E. L., Sliwa, K., Soneji, S., Soreide, K., Soshnikov, S., Sposato, L. A., Sreeramareddy, C. T., Stanaway, J. D., Stathopoulou, V., Stein, D. J., Stein, M. B., Steiner, C., Steiner, T. J., Stevens, A., Stewart, A., Stovner, L. J., Stroumpoulis, K., Sunguya, B. F., Swaminathan, S., Swaroop, M., Sykes, B. L., Tabb, K. M., Takahashi, K., Tandon, N., Tanne, D., Tanner, M., Tavakkoli, M., Taylor, H. R., Te Ao, B. J., Tediosi, F., Temesgen, A. M., Templin, T., ten Have, M., Tenkorang, E. Y., Terkawi, A. S., Thomson, B., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Thrift, A. G., Thurston, G. D., Tillmann, T., Tonelli, M., Topouzis, F., Toyoshima, H., Traebert, J., Tran, B. X., Trillini, M., Truelsen, T., Tsilimbaris, M., Tuzcu, E. M., Uchendu, U. S., Ukwaja, K. N., Undurraga, E. A., Uzun, S. B., Van Brakel, W. H., van de Vijver, S., van Gool, C. H., van Os, J., Vasankari, T. J., Venketasubramanian, N., Violante, F. S., Vlassov, V. V., Vollset, S. E., Wagner, G. R., Wagner, J., Waller, S. G., Wan, X., Wang, H., Wang, J., Wang, L., Warouw, T. S., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R. G., Wang Wenzhi, W. Z., Werdecker, A., Westerman, R., Whiteford, H. A., Wilkinson, J. D., Williams, T. N., Wolfe, C. D., Wolock, T. M., Woolf, A. D., Wulf, S., Wurtz, B., Xu, G., Yan, L. L., Yano, Y., Ye, P., Yentur, G. K., Yip, P., Yonemoto, N., Yoon, S., Younis, M. Z., Yu, C., Zaki, M. E., Zhao, Y., Zheng, Y., Zonies, D., Zou, X., Salomon, J. A., Lopez, A. D., Vos, T. 2015; 386 (10009): 2145-2191

    Abstract

    Improving survival and extending the longevity of life for all populations requires timely, robust evidence on local mortality levels and trends. The Global Burden of Disease 2015 Study (GBD 2015) provides a comprehensive assessment of all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015. These results informed an in-depth investigation of observed and expected mortality patterns based on sociodemographic measures.We estimated all-cause mortality by age, sex, geography, and year using an improved analytical approach originally developed for GBD 2013 and GBD 2010. Improvements included refinements to the estimation of child and adult mortality and corresponding uncertainty, parameter selection for under-5 mortality synthesis by spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, and sibling history data processing. We also expanded the database of vital registration, survey, and census data to 14 294 geography-year datapoints. For GBD 2015, eight causes, including Ebola virus disease, were added to the previous GBD cause list for mortality. We used six modelling approaches to assess cause-specific mortality, with the Cause of Death Ensemble Model (CODEm) generating estimates for most causes. We used a series of novel analyses to systematically quantify the drivers of trends in mortality across geographies. First, we assessed observed and expected levels and trends of cause-specific mortality as they relate to the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator derived from measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility. Second, we examined factors affecting total mortality patterns through a series of counterfactual scenarios, testing the magnitude by which population growth, population age structures, and epidemiological changes contributed to shifts in mortality. Finally, we attributed changes in life expectancy to changes in cause of death. We documented each step of the GBD 2015 estimation processes, as well as data sources, in accordance with Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).Globally, life expectancy from birth increased from 61·7 years (95% uncertainty interval 61·4-61·9) in 1980 to 71·8 years (71·5-72·2) in 2015. Several countries in sub-Saharan Africa had very large gains in life expectancy from 2005 to 2015, rebounding from an era of exceedingly high loss of life due to HIV/AIDS. At the same time, many geographies saw life expectancy stagnate or decline, particularly for men and in countries with rising mortality from war or interpersonal violence. From 2005 to 2015, male life expectancy in Syria dropped by 11·3 years (3·7-17·4), to 62·6 years (56·5-70·2). Total deaths increased by 4·1% (2·6-5·6) from 2005 to 2015, rising to 55·8 million (54·9 million to 56·6 million) in 2015, but age-standardised death rates fell by 17·0% (15·8-18·1) during this time, underscoring changes in population growth and shifts in global age structures. The result was similar for non-communicable diseases (NCDs), with total deaths from these causes increasing by 14·1% (12·6-16·0) to 39·8 million (39·2 million to 40·5 million) in 2015, whereas age-standardised rates decreased by 13·1% (11·9-14·3). Globally, this mortality pattern emerged for several NCDs, including several types of cancer, ischaemic heart disease, cirrhosis, and Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. By contrast, both total deaths and age-standardised death rates due to communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional conditions significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, gains largely attributable to decreases in mortality rates due to HIV/AIDS (42·1%, 39·1-44·6), malaria (43·1%, 34·7-51·8), neonatal preterm birth complications (29·8%, 24·8-34·9), and maternal disorders (29·1%, 19·3-37·1). Progress was slower for several causes, such as lower respiratory infections and nutritional deficiencies, whereas deaths increased for others, including dengue and drug use disorders. Age-standardised death rates due to injuries significantly declined from 2005 to 2015, yet interpersonal violence and war claimed increasingly more lives in some regions, particularly in the Middle East. In 2015, rotaviral enteritis (rotavirus) was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to diarrhoea (146 000 deaths, 118 000-183 000) and pneumococcal pneumonia was the leading cause of under-5 deaths due to lower respiratory infections (393 000 deaths, 228 000-532 000), although pathogen-specific mortality varied by region. Globally, the effects of population growth, ageing, and changes in age-standardised death rates substantially differed by cause. Our analyses on the expected associations between cause-specific mortality and SDI show the regular shifts in cause of death composition and population age structure with rising SDI. Country patterns of premature mortality (measured as years of life lost [YLLs]) and how they differ from the level expected on the basis of SDI alone revealed distinct but highly heterogeneous patterns by region and country or territory. Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and diabetes were among the leading causes of YLLs in most regions, but in many cases, intraregional results sharply diverged for ratios of observed and expected YLLs based on SDI. Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases caused the most YLLs throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with observed YLLs far exceeding expected YLLs for countries in which malaria or HIV/AIDS remained the leading causes of early death.At the global scale, age-specific mortality has steadily improved over the past 35 years; this pattern of general progress continued in the past decade. Progress has been faster in most countries than expected on the basis of development measured by the SDI. Against this background of progress, some countries have seen falls in life expectancy, and age-standardised death rates for some causes are increasing. Despite progress in reducing age-standardised death rates, population growth and ageing mean that the number of deaths from most non-communicable causes are increasing in most countries, putting increased demands on health systems.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61340-X

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365992600030

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5388903

  • Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 LANCET Vos, T., Barber, R. M., Bell, B., Bertozzi-Villa, A., Biryukov, S., Bolliger, I., Charlson, F., Davis, A., Degenhardt, L., Dicker, D., Duan, L., Erskine, H., Feigin, V. L., Ferrari, A. J., Fitzmaurice, C., Fleming, T., Graetz, N., Guinovart, C., Haagsma, J., Hansen, G. M., Hanson, S. W., Heuton, K. R., Higashi, H., Kassebaum, N., Kyu, H., Laurie, E., Liang, X., Lofgren, K., Lozano, R., MacIntyre, M. F., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Naghavi, M., Nguyen, G., Odell, S., Ortblad, K., Roberts, D. A., Roth, G. A., Sandar, L., Serina, P. T., Stanaway, J. D., Steiner, C., Thomas, B., Vollset, S. E., Whiteford, H., Wolock, T. M., Ye, P., Zhou, M., Avila, M. A., Aasvang, G. M., Abbafati, C., Ozgoren, A. A., Abd-Allah, F., Aziz, M. I., Abera, S. F., Aboyans, V., Abraham, J. P., Abraham, B., Abubakar, I., Abu-Raddad, L. J., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., Aburto, T. C., Achoki, T., Ackerman, I. N., Adelekan, A., Ademi, Z., Adou, A. K., Adsuar, J. C., Arnlov, J., Agardh, E. E., Al Khabouri, M. J., Alam, S. S., Alasfoor, D., Albittar, M. I., Alegretti, M. A., Aleman, A. V., Alemu, Z. A., Alfonso-Cristancho, R., Alhabib, S., Ali, R., Alla, F., Allebeck, P., Allen, P. J., AlMazroa, M. A., Alsharif, U., Alvarez, E., Alvis-Guzman, N., Ameli, O., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Anderson, B. O., Anderson, H. R., Antonio, C. A., Anwari, P., Apfel, H., Arsenijevic, V. S., Artaman, A., Asghar, R. J., Assadi, R., Atkins, L. S., Atkinson, C., Badawi, A., Bahit, M. C., Bakfalouni, T., Balakrishnan, K., Balalla, S., Banerjee, A., Barker-Collo, S. L., Barquera, S., Barregard, L., Barrero, L. H., Basu, S., Basu, A., Baxter, A., Beardsley, J., Bedi, N., Beghi, E., Bekele, T., Bell, M. L., Benjet, C., Bennett, D. A., Bensenor, I. M., Benzian, H., Bernabe, E., Beyene, T. J., Bhala, N., Bhalla, A., Bhutta, Z. Q., Bienhoff, K., Bikbov, B., Bin Abdulhak, A., Blore, J. D., Blyth, F. M., Bohensky, M. A., Basara, B. B., Borges, G., Bornstein, N. M., Bose, D., Boufous, S., Bourne, R. R., Boyers, L. N., Brainin, M., Brauer, M., Brayne, C. E., Brazinova, A., Breitborde, N. J., Brenner, H., Briggs, A. D., Brooks, P. M., Brown, J., Brugha, T. S., Buchbinder, R., Buckle, G. C., Bukhman, G., Bulloch, A. G., Burch, M., Burnett, R., Cardenas, R., Cabral, N. L., Nonato, I. R., Campuzano, J. C., Carapetis, J. R., Carpenter, D. O., Caso, V., Castaneda-Orjuela, C. A., Catala-Lopez, F., Chadha, V. K., Chang, J., Chen, H., Chen, W., Chiang, P. P., Chimed-Ochir, O., Chowdhury, R., Christensen, H., Christophi, C. A., Chugh, S. S., Cirillo, M., Coggeshall, M., Cohen, A., Colistro, V., Colquhoun, S. M., Contreras, A. G., Cooper, L. T., Cooper, C., Cooperrider, K., Coresh, J., Cortinovis, M., Criqui, M. H., Crump, J. 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    Abstract

    Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013.Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries.Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2·4 billion and 1·6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537·6 million in 1990 to 764·8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114·87 per 1000 people to 110·31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21·1% in 1990 to 31·2% in 2013.Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60692-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000360287900025

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4561509

  • Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 LANCET Naghavi, M., Wang, H., Lozano, R., Davis, A., Liang, X., Zhou, M., Vollset, S. E., Ozgoren, A. A., Abdalla, S., Abd-Allah, F., Aziz, M. I., Abera, S. F., Aboyans, V., Abraham, B., Abraham, J. P., Abuabara, K. E., Abubakar, I., Abu-Raddad, L. J., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., Achoki, T., Adelekan, A., Ademi, Z. N., Adofo, K., Adou, A. K., Adsuar, J. C., Aernlov, J., Agardh, E. E., Akena, D., Al Khabouri, M. J., Alasfoor, D., Albittar, M., Alegretti, M. A., Aleman, A. V., Alemu, Z. A., Alfonso-Cristancho, R., Alhabib, S., Ali, M. K., Ali, R., Alla, F., Al Lami, F., Allebeck, P., AlMazroa, M. A., Salman, R. A., Alsharif, U., Alvarez, E., Alviz-Guzman, N., Amankwaa, A. A., Amare, A. T., Ameli, O., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Anderson, H. R., Anderson, B. O., Antonio, C. 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K., Kokubo, Y., Kosen, S., Kotagal, M., Kravchenko, M. A., Krishnaswami, S., Krueger, H., Defo, B. K., Kuipers, E. J., Bicer, B. K., Kulkarni, C., Kulkarni, V. S., Kumar, K., Kumar, R. B., Kwan, G. F., Kyu, H., Lai, T., Balaji, A. L., Lalloo, R., Lallukka, T., Lam, H., Lan, Q., Lansingh, V. C., Larson, H. J., Larsson, A., Lavados, P. M., Lawrynowicz, A. E., Leasher, J. L., Lee, J., Leigh, J., Leinsalu, M., Leung, R., Levitz, C., Li, B., Li, Y., Li, Y., Liddell, C., Lim, S. S., de Lima, G. M., Lind, M. L., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, B. K., Lofgren, K. T., Logroscino, G., London, S. J., Lortet-Tieulent, J., Lotufo, P. A., Lucas, R. M., Lunevicius, R., Lyons, R. A., Ma, S., Machado, V. M., MacIntyre, M. F., Mackay, M. T., Maclachlan, J. H., Magis-Rodriguez, C., Mahdi, A. A., Majdan, M., Malekzadeh, R., Mangalam, S., Mapoma, C. C., Marape, M., Marcenes, W., Margono, C., Marks, G. B., Marzan, M. B., Masci, J. R., Mashal, M. T., Masiye, F., Mason-Jones, A. J., Matzopolous, R., Mayosi, B. M., Mazorodze, T. T., McGrath, J. J., Mckay, A. C., McKee, M., McLain, A., Meaney, P. A., Mehndiratta, M. M., Mejia-Rodriguez, F., Melaku, Y. A., Meltzer, M., Memish, Z. A., Mendoza, W., Mensah, G. A., Meretoja, A., Mhimbira, F. A., Miller, T. R., Mills, E. J., Misganaw, A., Mishra, S. K., Mock, C. N., Moffitt, T. E., Ibrahim, N. M., Mohammad, K. A., Mokdad, A. H., Mola, G. L., Monasta, L., Monis, J. d., Hernandez, J. C., Montico, M., Montine, T. J., Mooney, M. D., Moore, A. R., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Moran, A. E., Mori, R., Moschandreas, J., Moturi, W. N., Moyer, M. L., Mozaffarian, D., Mueller, U. O., Mukaigawara, M., Mullany, E. C., Murray, J., Mustapha, A., Naghavi, P., Naheed, A., Naidoo, K. S., Naldi, L., Nand, D., Nangia, V., Narayan, K. M., Nash, D., Nasher, J., Nejjari, C., Nelson, R. G., Neuhouser, M., Neupane, S. P., Newcomb, P. A., Newman, L., Newton, C. R., Ng, M., Ngalesoni, F. N., Nguyen, G., Nhung Thi Trang Nguyen, N. T., Nisar, M. I., Nolte, S., Norheim, O. F., Norman, R. E., Norrving, B., Nyakarahuka, L., Odell, S., O'Donnell, M., Ohkubo, T., Ohno, S. L., Olusanya, B. O., Omer, S. B., Opio, J. N., Orisakwe, O. E., Ortblad, K. F., Ortiz, A., Otayza, M. L., Pain, A. W., Pandian, J. D., Panelo, C. I., Panniyammakal, J., Papachristou, C., Paternina Caicedo, A. J., Patten, S. B., Patton, G. C., Paul, V. K., Pavlin, B., Pearce, N., Pellegrini, C. A., Pereira, D. M., Peresson, S. C., Perez-Padilla, R., Perez-Ruiz, F. P., Perico, N., Pervaiz, A., Pesudovs, K., Peterson, C. B., Petzold, M., Phillips, B. K., Phillips, D. E., Phillips, M. R., Plass, D., Piel, F. B., Poenaru, D., Polinder, S., Popova, S., Poulton, R. G., Pourmalek, F., Prabhakaran, D., Qato, D., Quezada, A. D., Quistberg, D. A., Rabito, F., Rafay, A., Rahimi, K., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Rahman, S. u., Raju, M., Rakovac, I., Rana, S. M., Refaat, A., Remuzzi, G., Ribeiro, A. L., Ricci, S., Riccio, P. M., Richardson, L., Richardus, J. H., Roberts, B., Roberts, D. A., Robinson, M., Roca, A., Rodriguez, A., Rojas-Rueda, D., Ronfani, L., Room, R., Roth, G. A., Rothenbacher, D., Rothstein, D. H., Rowley, J. T., Roy, N., Ruhago, G. M., Rushton, L., Sambandam, S., Soreide, K., Saeedi, M. Y., Saha, S., Sahathevan, R., Sahraian, M. A., Sahle, B. W., Salomon, J. A., Salvo, D., Samonte, G. M., Sampson, U., Sanabria, J. R., Sandar, L., Santos, I. S., Satpathy, M., Sawhney, M., Saylan, M., Scarborough, P., Schoettker, B., Schmidt, J. C., Schneider, I. J., Schumacher, A. E., Schwebel, D. C., Scott, J. G., Sepanlou, S. G., Servan-Mori, E. E., Shackelford, K., Shaheen, A., Shahraz, S., Shakh-Nazarova, M., Shangguan, S., She, J., Sheikhbahaei, S., Shepard, D. S., Shibuya, K., Shinohara, Y., Shishani, K., Shiue, I., Shivakoti, R., Shrime, M. G., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Silberberg, D. H., Silva, A. P., Simard, E. P., Sindi, S., Singh, J. A., Singh, L., Sioson, E., Skirbekk, V., Sliwa, K., So, S., Soljak, M., Soneji, S., Soshnikov, S. S., Sposato, L. A., Sreeramareddy, C. T., Stanaway, J. R., Stathopoulou, V. K., Steenland, K., Stein, C., Steiner, C., Stevens, A., Stoeckl, H., Straif, K., Stroumpoulis, K., Sturua, L., Sunguya, B. F., Swaminathan, S., Swaroop, M., Sykes, B. L., Tabb, K. M., Takahashi, K., Talongwa, R. T., Tan, F., Tanne, D., Tanner, M., Tavakkoli, M., Ao, B. T., Teixeira, C. M., Templin, T., Tenkorang, E. Y., Terkawi, A. S., Thomas, B. A., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Thrift, A. G., Thurston, G. D., Tillmann, T., Tirschwell, D. L., Tleyjeh, I. M., Tonelli, M., Topouzis, F., Towbin, J. A., Toyoshima, H., Traebert, J., Tran, B. X., Truelsen, T., Trujillo, U., Trillini, M., Dimbuene, Z. T., Tsilimbaris, M., Tuzcu, E. M., Ubeda, C., Uchendu, U. S., Ukwaja, K. N., Undurraga, E. A., Vallely, A. J., van de Vijver, S., van Gool, C. H., Varakin, Y. Y., Vasankari, T. J., Vasconcelos, A. M., Vavilala, M. S., Venketasubramanian, N., Vijayakumar, L., Villalpando, S., Violante, F. S., Vlassov, V. V., Wagner, G. R., Waller, S. G., Wang, J., Wang, L., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Warouw, T. S., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R. G., Wenzhi, W., Werdecker, A., Wessells, K. R., Westerman, R., Whiteford, H. A., Wilkinson, J. D., Williams, T. N., Woldeyohannes, S. M., Wolfe, C. D., Wolock, T. M., Woolf, A. D., Wong, J. Q., Wright, J. L., Wulf, S., Wurtz, B., Xu, G., Yang, Y. C., Yano, Y., Yatsuya, H., Yip, P., Yonemoto, N., Yoon, S., Younis, M., Yu, C., Jin, K. Y., Zaki, M. E., Zamakhshary, M. F., Zeeb, H., Zhang, Y., Zhao, Y., Zheng, Y., Zhu, J., Zhu, S., Zonies, D., Zou, X. N., Zunt, J. R., Vos, T., Lopez, A. D., Murray, C. J. 2015; 385 (9963): 117-171

    Abstract

    Up-to-date evidence on levels and trends for age-sex-specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality is essential for the formation of global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) we estimated yearly deaths for 188 countries between 1990, and 2013. We used the results to assess whether there is epidemiological convergence across countries.We estimated age-sex-specific all-cause mortality using the GBD 2010 methods with some refinements to improve accuracy applied to an updated database of vital registration, survey, and census data. We generally estimated cause of death as in the GBD 2010. Key improvements included the addition of more recent vital registration data for 72 countries, an updated verbal autopsy literature review, two new and detailed data systems for China, and more detail for Mexico, UK, Turkey, and Russia. We improved statistical models for garbage code redistribution. We used six different modelling strategies across the 240 causes; cause of death ensemble modelling (CODEm) was the dominant strategy for causes with sufficient information. Trends for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias were informed by meta-regression of prevalence studies. For pathogen-specific causes of diarrhoea and lower respiratory infections we used a counterfactual approach. We computed two measures of convergence (inequality) across countries: the average relative difference across all pairs of countries (Gini coefficient) and the average absolute difference across countries. To summarise broad findings, we used multiple decrement life-tables to decompose probabilities of death from birth to exact age 15 years, from exact age 15 years to exact age 50 years, and from exact age 50 years to exact age 75 years, and life expectancy at birth into major causes. For all quantities reported, we computed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). We constrained cause-specific fractions within each age-sex-country-year group to sum to all-cause mortality based on draws from the uncertainty distributions.Global life expectancy for both sexes increased from 65.3 years (UI 65.0-65.6) in 1990, to 71.5 years (UI 71.0-71.9) in 2013, while the number of deaths increased from 47.5 million (UI 46.8-48.2) to 54.9 million (UI 53.6-56.3) over the same interval. Global progress masked variation by age and sex: for children, average absolute differences between countries decreased but relative differences increased. For women aged 25-39 years and older than 75 years and for men aged 20-49 years and 65 years and older, both absolute and relative differences increased. Decomposition of global and regional life expectancy showed the prominent role of reductions in age-standardised death rates for cardiovascular diseases and cancers in high-income regions, and reductions in child deaths from diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and neonatal causes in low-income regions. HIV/AIDS reduced life expectancy in southern sub-Saharan Africa. For most communicable causes of death both numbers of deaths and age-standardised death rates fell whereas for most non-communicable causes, demographic shifts have increased numbers of deaths but decreased age-standardised death rates. Global deaths from injury increased by 10.7%, from 4.3 million deaths in 1990 to 4.8 million in 2013; but age-standardised rates declined over the same period by 21%. For some causes of more than 100,000 deaths per year in 2013, age-standardised death rates increased between 1990 and 2013, including HIV/AIDS, pancreatic cancer, atrial fibrillation and flutter, drug use disorders, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and sickle-cell anaemias. Diarrhoeal diseases, lower respiratory infections, neonatal causes, and malaria are still in the top five causes of death in children younger than 5 years. The most important pathogens are rotavirus for diarrhoea and pneumococcus for lower respiratory infections. Country-specific probabilities of death over three phases of life were substantially varied between and within regions.For most countries, the general pattern of reductions in age-sex specific mortality has been associated with a progressive shift towards a larger share of the remaining deaths caused by non-communicable disease and injuries. Assessing epidemiological convergence across countries depends on whether an absolute or relative measure of inequality is used. Nevertheless, age-standardised death rates for seven substantial causes are increasing, suggesting the potential for reversals in some countries. Important gaps exist in the empirical data for cause of death estimates for some countries; for example, no national data for India are available for the past decade.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000347715900024

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4340604

  • Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet Murray, C. J., Ortblad, K. F., Guinovart, C., Lim, S. S., Wolock, T. M., Roberts, D. A., Dansereau, E. A., Graetz, N., Barber, R. M., Brown, J. C., Wang, H., Duber, H. C., Naghavi, M., Dicker, D., Dandona, L., Salomon, J. A., Heuton, K. R., Foreman, K., Phillips, D. E., Fleming, T. D., Flaxman, A. D., Phillips, B. K., Johnson, E. K., Coggeshall, M. S., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S. F., Abraham, J. P., Abubakar, I., Abu-Raddad, L. J., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., Achoki, T., Adeyemo, A. O., Adou, A. K., Adsuar, J. C., Agardh, E. E., Akena, D., Al Kahbouri, M. J., Alasfoor, D., Albittar, M. I., Alcalá-Cerra, G., Alegretti, M. A., Alemu, Z. A., Alfonso-Cristancho, R., Alhabib, S., Ali, R., Alla, F., Allen, P. J., Alsharif, U., Alvarez, E., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amankwaa, A. A., Amare, A. T., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Anderson, B. O., Antonio, C. A., Anwari, P., Arnlöv, J., Arsenijevic, V. S., Artaman, A., Asghar, R. J., Assadi, R., Atkins, L. S., Badawi, A., Balakrishnan, K., Banerjee, A., Basu, S., Beardsley, J., Bekele, T., Bell, M. L., Bernabe, E., Beyene, T. J., Bhala, N., Bhalla, A., Bhutta, Z. A., Abdulhak, A. B., Binagwaho, A., Blore, J. D., Basara, B. B., Bose, D., Brainin, M., Breitborde, N., Castañeda-Orjuela, C. A., Catalá-López, F., Chadha, V. K., Chang, J., Chiang, P. P., Chuang, T., Colomar, M., Cooper, L. T., Cooper, C., Courville, K. J., Cowie, B. C., Criqui, M. H., Dandona, R., Dayama, A., De Leo, D., Degenhardt, L., Del Pozo-Cruz, B., Deribe, K., Des Jarlais, D. C., Dessalegn, M., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dilmen, U., Ding, E. L., Driscoll, T. R., Durrani, A. M., Ellenbogen, R. G., Ermakov, S. P., Esteghamati, A., Faraon, E. J., Farzadfar, F., Fereshtehnejad, S., Fijabi, D. O., Forouzanfar, M. H., Fra Paleo, U., Gaffikin, L., Gamkrelidze, A., Gankpé, F. G., Geleijnse, J. M., Gessner, B. D., Gibney, K. B., Ginawi, I. A., Glaser, E. L., Gona, P., Goto, A., Gouda, H. N., Gugnani, H. C., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Hamadeh, R. R., Hammami, M., Hankey, G. J., Harb, H. L., Haro, J. M., Havmoeller, R., Hay, S. I., Hedayati, M. T., Pi, I. B., Hoek, H. W., Hornberger, J. C., Hosgood, H. D., Hotez, P. J., Hoy, D. G., Huang, J. J., Iburg, K. M., Idrisov, B. T., Innos, K., Jacobsen, K. H., Jeemon, P., Jensen, P. N., Jha, V., Jiang, G., Jonas, J. B., Juel, K., Kan, H., Kankindi, I., Karam, N. E., Karch, A., Karema, C. K., Kaul, A., Kawakami, N., Kazi, D. S., Kemp, A. H., Kengne, A. P., Keren, A., Kereselidze, M., Khader, Y. S., Khalifa, S. E., Khan, E. A., Khang, Y., Khonelidze, I., Kinfu, Y., Kinge, J. M., Knibbs, L., Kokubo, Y., Kosen, S., Defo, B. K., Kulkarni, V. S., Kulkarni, C., Kumar, K., Kumar, R. B., Kumar, G. A., Kwan, G. F., Lai, T., Balaji, A. L., Lam, H., Lan, Q., Lansingh, V. C., Larson, H. J., Larsson, A., Lee, J., Leigh, J., Leinsalu, M., Leung, R., Li, Y., Li, Y., de Lima, G. M., Lin, H., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, B. K., Lotufo, P. A., Machado, V. M., Maclachlan, J. H., Magis-Rodriguez, C., Majdan, M., Mapoma, C. C., Marcenes, W., Marzan, M. B., Masci, J. R., Mashal, M. T., Mason-Jones, A. J., Mayosi, B. M., Mazorodze, T. T., Mckay, A. C., Meaney, P. A., Mehndiratta, M. M., Mejia-Rodriguez, F., Melaku, Y. A., Memish, Z. A., Mendoza, W., Miller, T. R., Mills, E. J., Mohammad, K. A., Mokdad, A. H., Mola, G. L., Monasta, L., Montico, M., Moore, A. R., Mori, R., Moturi, W. N., Mukaigawara, M., Murthy, K. S., Naheed, A., Naidoo, K. S., Naldi, L., Nangia, V., Narayan, K. M., Nash, D., Nejjari, C., Nelson, R. G., Neupane, S. P., Newton, C. R., Ng, M., Nisar, M. I., Nolte, S., Norheim, O. F., Nowaseb, V., Nyakarahuka, L., Oh, I., Ohkubo, T., Olusanya, B. O., Omer, S. B., Opio, J. N., Orisakwe, O. E., Pandian, J. D., Papachristou, C., Caicedo, A. J., Patten, S. B., Paul, V. K., Pavlin, B. I., Pearce, N., Pereira, D. M., Pervaiz, A., Pesudovs, K., Petzold, M., Pourmalek, F., Qato, D., Quezada, A. D., Quistberg, D. A., Rafay, A., Rahimi, K., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Ur Rahman, S., Raju, M., Rana, S. M., Razavi, H., Reilly, R. Q., Remuzzi, G., Richardus, J. H., Ronfani, L., Roy, N., Sabin, N., Saeedi, M. Y., Sahraian, M. A., Samonte, G. M., Sawhney, M., Schneider, I. J., Schwebel, D. C., Seedat, S., Sepanlou, S. G., Servan-Mori, E. E., Sheikhbahaei, S., Shibuya, K., Shin, H. H., Shiue, I., Shivakoti, R., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Silberberg, D. H., Silva, A. P., Simard, E. P., Singh, J. A., Skirbekk, V., Sliwa, K., Soneji, S., Soshnikov, S. S., Sreeramareddy, C. T., Stathopoulou, V. K., Stroumpoulis, K., Swaminathan, S., Sykes, B. L., Tabb, K. M., Talongwa, R. T., Tenkorang, E. Y., Terkawi, A. S., Thomson, A. J., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Towbin, J. A., Traebert, J., Tran, B. X., Dimbuene, Z. T., Tsilimbaris, M., Uchendu, U. S., Ukwaja, K. N., Uzun, S. B., Vallely, A. J., Vasankari, T. J., Venketasubramanian, N., Violante, F. S., Vlassov, V. V., Vollset, S. E., Waller, S., Wallin, M. T., Wang, L., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R. G., Westerman, R., White, R. A., Wilkinson, J. D., Williams, T. N., Woldeyohannes, S. M., Wong, J. Q., Xu, G., Yang, Y. C., Yano, Y., Yentur, G. K., Yip, P., Yonemoto, N., Yoon, S., Younis, M., Yu, C., Jin, K. Y., El Sayed Zaki, M., Zhao, Y., Zheng, Y., Zhou, M., Zhu, J., Zou, X. N., Lopez, A. D., Vos, T. 2014; 384 (9947): 1005-1070

    Abstract

    The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether accelerated progress has occured since the Millennium Declaration.To estimate incidence and mortality for HIV, we used the UNAIDS Spectrum model appropriately modified based on a systematic review of available studies of mortality with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). For concentrated epidemics, we calibrated Spectrum models to fit vital registration data corrected for misclassification of HIV deaths. In generalised epidemics, we minimised a loss function to select epidemic curves most consistent with prevalence data and demographic data for all-cause mortality. We analysed counterfactual scenarios for HIV to assess years of life saved through prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and ART. For tuberculosis, we analysed vital registration and verbal autopsy data to estimate mortality using cause of death ensemble modelling. We analysed data for corrected case-notifications, expert opinions on the case-detection rate, prevalence surveys, and estimated cause-specific mortality using Bayesian meta-regression to generate consistent trends in all parameters. We analysed malaria mortality and incidence using an updated cause of death database, a systematic analysis of verbal autopsy validation studies for malaria, and recent studies (2010-13) of incidence, drug resistance, and coverage of insecticide-treated bednets.Globally in 2013, there were 1·8 million new HIV infections (95% uncertainty interval 1·7 million to 2·1 million), 29·2 million prevalent HIV cases (28·1 to 31·7), and 1·3 million HIV deaths (1·3 to 1·5). At the peak of the epidemic in 2005, HIV caused 1·7 million deaths (1·6 million to 1·9 million). Concentrated epidemics in Latin America and eastern Europe are substantially smaller than previously estimated. Through interventions including PMTCT and ART, 19·1 million life-years (16·6 million to 21·5 million) have been saved, 70·3% (65·4 to 76·1) in developing countries. From 2000 to 2011, the ratio of development assistance for health for HIV to years of life saved through intervention was US$4498 in developing countries. Including in HIV-positive individuals, all-form tuberculosis incidence was 7·5 million (7·4 million to 7·7 million), prevalence was 11·9 million (11·6 million to 12·2 million), and number of deaths was 1·4 million (1·3 million to 1·5 million) in 2013. In the same year and in only individuals who were HIV-negative, all-form tuberculosis incidence was 7·1 million (6·9 million to 7·3 million), prevalence was 11·2 million (10·8 million to 11·6 million), and number of deaths was 1·3 million (1·2 million to 1·4 million). Annualised rates of change (ARC) for incidence, prevalence, and death became negative after 2000. Tuberculosis in HIV-negative individuals disproportionately occurs in men and boys (versus women and girls); 64·0% of cases (63·6 to 64·3) and 64·7% of deaths (60·8 to 70·3). Globally, malaria cases and deaths grew rapidly from 1990 reaching a peak of 232 million cases (143 million to 387 million) in 2003 and 1·2 million deaths (1·1 million to 1·4 million) in 2004. Since 2004, child deaths from malaria in sub-Saharan Africa have decreased by 31·5% (15·7 to 44·1). Outside of Africa, malaria mortality has been steadily decreasing since 1990.Our estimates of the number of people living with HIV are 18·7% smaller than UNAIDS's estimates in 2012. The number of people living with malaria is larger than estimated by WHO. The number of people living with HIV, tuberculosis, or malaria have all decreased since 2000. At the global level, upward trends for malaria and HIV deaths have been reversed and declines in tuberculosis deaths have accelerated. 101 countries (74 of which are developing) still have increasing HIV incidence. Substantial progress since the Millennium Declaration is an encouraging sign of the effect of global action.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60844-8

    View details for PubMedID 25059949

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4202387

  • Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 LANCET Wang, H., Liddell, C. A., Coates, M. M., Mooney, M. D., Levitz, C. E., Schumacher, A. E., Apfel, H., Iannarone, M., Phillips, B., Lofgren, K. T., Sandar, L., Dorrington, R. E., Rakovac, I., Jacobs, T. A., Liang, X., Zhou, M., Zhu, J., Yang, G., Wang, Y., Liu, S., Li, Y., Ozgoren, A. A., Abera, S. F., Abubakar, I., Achoki, T., Adelekan, A., Ademi, Z., Alemu, Z. A., Allen, P. J., AlMazroa, M. A., Alvarez, E., Amankwaa, A. A., Amare, A. T., Ammar, W., Anwari, P., Cunningham, S. A., Asad, M. M., Assadi, R., Banerjee, A., Basu, S., Bedi, N., Bekele, T., Bell, M. L., Bhutta, Z. Q., Blore, J. D., Basara, B. B., Boufous, S., Breitborde, N., Bruce, N. G., Linh Ngoc Bui, L. N., Carapetis, J. R., Cardenas, R., Carpenter, D. O., Caso, V., Estanislao Castro, R., Catala-Lopez, F., Cavlin, A., Che, X., Chiang, P. P., Chowdhury, R., Christophi, C. A., Chuang, T., Cirillo, M., Leite, I. d., Courville, K. J., Dandona, L., Dandona, R., Davis, A., Dayama, A., Deribe, K., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dherani, M. K., Dilmen, U., Ding, E. L., Edmond, K. M., Ermakov, S. P., Farzadfar, F., Fereshtehnejad, S., Fijabi, D. O., Foigt, N., Forouzanfar, M. H., Garcia, A. C., Geleijnse, J. M., Gessner, B. D., Goginashvili, K., Gona, P., Goto, A., Gouda, H. N., Green, M. A., Greenwell, K. F., Gugnani, H. C., Gupta, R., Hamadeh, R. R., Hammami, M., Harb, H. L., Hay, S., Hedayati, M. T., Hosgood, H. D., Hoy, D. G., Idrisov, B. T., Islami, F., Ismayilova, S., Jha, V., Jiang, G., Jonas, J. B., Juel, K., Kabagambe, E. K., Kazi, D. S., Kengne, A. P., Kereselidze, M., Khader, Y. S., Khalifa, S. E., Khang, Y., Kim, D., Kinfu, Y., Kinge, J. M., Kokubo, Y., Kosen, S., Defo, B. K., Kumar, G. A., Kumar, K., Kumar, R. B., Lai, T., Lan, Q., Larsson, A., Lee, J., Leinsalu, M., Lim, S. S., Lipshultz, S. E., Logroscino, G., Lotufo, P. A., Lunevicius, R., Lyons, R. A., Ma, S., Mahdi, A. A., Marzan, M. B., Mashal, M. T., Mazorodze, T. T., McGrath, J. J., Memish, Z. A., Mendoza, W., Mensah, G. A., Meretoja, A., Miller, T. R., Mills, E. J., Mohammad, K. A., Mokdad, A. H., Monasta, L., Montico, M., Moore, A. R., Moschandreas, J., Msemburi, W. T., Mueller, U. O., Muszynska, M. M., Naghavi, M., Naidoo, K. S., Narayan, K. M., Nejjari, C., Ng, M., de Dieu Ngirabega, J., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Nyakarahuka, L., Ohkubo, T., Omer, S. B., Paternina Caicedo, A. J., Pillay-Van Wyk, V., Pope, D., Pourmalek, F., Prabhakaran, D., Rahman, S. u., Rana, S. M., Reilly, R. Q., Rojas-Rueda, D., Ronfani, L., Rushton, L., Saeedi, M. Y., Salomon, J. A., Sampson, U., Santos, I. S., Sawhney, M., Schmidt, J. C., Shakh-Nazarova, M., She, J., Sheikhbahaei, S., Shibuya, K., Shin, H. H., Shishani, K., Shiue, I., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Singh, J. A., Skirbekk, V., Sliwa, K., Soshnikov, S. S., Sposato, L. A., Stathopoulou, V. K., Stroumpoulis, K., Tabb, K. M., Talongwa, R. T., Teixeira, C. M., Terkawi, A. S., Thomson, A. J., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Toyoshima, H., Dimbuene, Z. T., Uwaliraye, P., Uzun, S. B., Vasankari, T. J., Nogales Vasconcelos, A. M., Vlassov, V. V., Vollset, S. E., Waller, S., Wan, X., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R. G., Westerman, R., Wilkinson, J. D., Williams, H. C., Yang, Y. C., Yentur, G. K., Yip, P., Yonemoto, N., Younis, M., Yu, C., Jin, K. Y., Zaki, M. E., Zhu, S., Vos, T., Lopez, A. D., Murray, C. J. 2014; 384 (9947): 957-979
  • Global, regional, and national incidence and mortality for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 LANCET Murray, C. J., Ortblad, K. F., Guinovart, C., Lim, S. S., Wolock, T. M., Roberts, D. A., Dansereau, E. A., Graetz, N., Barber, R. M., Brown, J. C., Wang, H., Duber, H. C., Naghavi, M., Dicker, D., Dandona, L., Salomon, J. A., Heuton, K. R., Foreman, K., Phillips, D. E., Fleming, T. D., Flaxman, A. D., Phillips, B. K., Johnson, E. K., Coggeshall, M. S., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S. F., Abraham, J. P., Abubakar, I., Abu-Raddad, L. J., Abu-Rmeileh, N. M., Achoki, T., Adeyemo, A. O., Adou, A. K., Adsuar, J. C., Agardh, E. E., Akena, D., Al Kahbouri, M. J., Alasfoor, D., Albittar, M. I., Alcala-Cerra, G., Angel Alegretti, M., Alemu, Z. A., Alfonso-Cristancho, R., Alhabib, S., Ali, R., Alla, F., Allen, P. J., Alsharif, U., Alvarez, E., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amankwaa, A. A., Amare, A. T., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Anderson, B. O., Antonio, C. A., Anwari, P., Arnlov, J., Arsenijevic, V. S., Artaman, A., Asghar, R. J., Assadi, R., Atkins, L. S., Badawi, A., Balakrishnan, K., Banerjee, A., Basu, S., Beardsley, J., Bekele, T., Bell, M. L., Bernabe, E., Beyene, T. J., Bhala, N., Bhalla, A., Bhutta, Z. A., Bin Abdulhak, A., Binagwaho, A., Blore, J. D., Basara, B. B., Bose, D., Brainin, M., Breitborde, N., Castaneda-Orjuela, C. A., Catala-Lopez, F., Chadha, V. K., Chang, J., Chiang, P. P., Chuang, T., Colomar, M., Cooper, L. T., Cooper, C., Courville, K. J., Cowie, B. C., Criqui, M. H., Dandona, R., Dayama, A., De Leo, D., Degenhardt, L., Del Pozo-Cruz, B., Deribe, K., Des Jarlais, D. C., Dessalegn, M., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dilmen, U., Ding, E. L., Driscoll, T. R., Durrani, A. M., Ellenbogen, R. G., Ermakov, S. P., Esteghamati, A., Faraon, E. J., Farzadfar, F., Fereshtehnejad, S., Fijabi, D. O., Forouzanfar, M. H., Paleo, U. F., Gaffikin, L., Gamkrelidze, A., Gankpe, F. G., Geleijnse, J. M., Gessner, B. D., Gibney, K. B., Ginawi, I. A., Glaser, E. L., Gona, P., Goto, A., Gouda, H. N., Gugnani, H. C., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Hamadeh, R. R., Hammami, M., Hankey, G. J., Harb, H. L., Maria Haro, J., Havmoeller, R., Hay, S. I., Hedayati, M. T., Heredia Pi, I. B., Hoek, H. W., Hornberger, J. C., Hosgood, H. D., Hotez, P. J., Hoy, D. G., Huang, J. J., Iburg, K. M., Idrisov, B. T., Innos, K., Jacobsen, K. H., Jeemon, P., Jensen, P. N., Jha, V., Jiang, G., Jonas, J. B., Juel, K., Kan, H., Kankindi, I., Karam, N. E., Karch, A., Karema, C. K., Kaul, A., Kawakami, N., Kazi, D. S., Kemp, A. H., Kengne, A. P., Keren, A., Kereselidze, M., Khader, Y. S., Khalifa, S. E., Khan, E. A., Khang, Y., Khonelidze, I., Kinfu, Y., Kinge, J. M., Knibbs, L., Kokubo, Y., Kosen, S., Defo, B. K., Kulkarni, V. S., Kulkarni, C., Kumar, K., Kumar, R. B., Kumar, G. A., Kwan, G. F., Lai, T., Balaji, A. L., Lam, H., Lan, Q., Lansingh, V. C., Larson, H. J., Larsson, A., Lee, J., Leigh, J., Leinsalu, M., Leung, R., Li, Y., Li, Y., Ferreira De Lima, G. M., Lin, H., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, B. K., Lotufo, P. A., Pedro Machado, V. M., Maclachlan, J. H., Magis-Rodriguez, C., Majdan, M., Mapoma, C. C., Marcenes, W., Barrieotos Marzan, M., Masci, J. R., Mashal, M. T., Mason-Jones, A. J., Mayosi, B. M., Mazorodze, T. T., Mckay, A. C., Meaney, P. A., Mehndiratta, M. M., Mejia-Rodriguez, F., Melaku, Y. A., Memish, Z. A., Mendoza, W., Miller, T. R., Mills, E. J., Mohammad, K. A., Mokdad, A. H., Mola, G. L., Monasta, L., Montico, M., Moore, A. R., Mori, R., Moturi, W. N., Mukaigawara, M., Murthy, K. S., Naheed, A., Naidoo, K. S., Naldi, L., Nangia, V., Narayan, K. M., Nash, D., Nejjari, C., Nelson, R. G., Neupane, S. P., Newton, C. R., Ng, M., Nisar, M. I., Nolte, S., Norheim, O. F., Nowaseb, V., Nyakarahuka, L., Oh, I., Ohkubo, T., Olusanya, B. O., Omer, S. B., Opio, J. N., Orisakwe, O. E., Pandian, J. D., Papachristou, C., Paternina Caicedo, A. J., Patten, S. B., Paul, V. K., Pavlin, B. I., Pearce, N., Pereira, D. M., Pervaiz, A., Pesudovs, K., Petzold, M., Pourmalek, F., Qato, D., Quezada, A. D., Quistberg, D. A., Rafay, A., Rahimi, K., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., Rahman, S. u., Raju, M., Rana, S. M., Razavi, H., Reilly, R. Q., Remuzzi, G., Richardus, J. H., Ronfani, L., Roy, N., Sabin, N., Saeedi, M. Y., Sahraian, M. A., Samonte, G. M., Sawhney, M., Schneider, I. J., Schwebel, D. C., Seedat, S., Sepanlou, S. G., Servan-Mori, E. E., Sheikhbahaei, S., Shibuya, K., Shin, H. H., Shiue, I., Shivakoti, R., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Silberberg, D. H., Silva, A. P., Simard, E. P., Singh, J. A., Skirbekk, V., Sliwa, K., Soneji, S., Soshnikov, S. S., Sreeramareddy, C. T., Stathopoulou, V. K., Stroumpoulis, K., Swaminathan, S., Sykes, B. L., Tabb, K. M., Talongwa, R. T., Tenkorang, E. Y., Terkawi, A. S., Thomson, A. J., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Towbin, J. A., Traebert, J., Tran, B. X., Dimbuene, Z. T., Tsilimbaris, M., Uchendu, U. S., Ukwaja, K. N., Uzun, S. B., Vallely, A. J., Vasankari, T. J., Venketasubramanian, N., Violante, F. S., Vlassov, V. V., Vollset, S. E., Waller, S., Wallin, M. T., Wang, L., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R. G., Westerman, R., White, R. A., Wilkinson, J. D., Williams, T. N., Woldeyohannes, S. M., Wong, J. Q., Xu, G., Yang, Y. C., Yano, Y., Yentur, G. K., Yip, P., Yonemoto, N., Yoon, S., Younis, M., Yu, C., Jin, K. Y., Zaki, M. E., Zhao, Y., Zheng, Y., Zhou, M., Zhu, J., Zou, X. N., Lopez, A. D., Vos, T. 2014; 384 (9947): 1005-1070

    Abstract

    The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether accelerated progress has occured since the Millennium Declaration.To estimate incidence and mortality for HIV, we used the UNAIDS Spectrum model appropriately modified based on a systematic review of available studies of mortality with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). For concentrated epidemics, we calibrated Spectrum models to fit vital registration data corrected for misclassification of HIV deaths. In generalised epidemics, we minimised a loss function to select epidemic curves most consistent with prevalence data and demographic data for all-cause mortality. We analysed counterfactual scenarios for HIV to assess years of life saved through prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and ART. For tuberculosis, we analysed vital registration and verbal autopsy data to estimate mortality using cause of death ensemble modelling. We analysed data for corrected case-notifications, expert opinions on the case-detection rate, prevalence surveys, and estimated cause-specific mortality using Bayesian meta-regression to generate consistent trends in all parameters. We analysed malaria mortality and incidence using an updated cause of death database, a systematic analysis of verbal autopsy validation studies for malaria, and recent studies (2010-13) of incidence, drug resistance, and coverage of insecticide-treated bednets.Globally in 2013, there were 1·8 million new HIV infections (95% uncertainty interval 1·7 million to 2·1 million), 29·2 million prevalent HIV cases (28·1 to 31·7), and 1·3 million HIV deaths (1·3 to 1·5). At the peak of the epidemic in 2005, HIV caused 1·7 million deaths (1·6 million to 1·9 million). Concentrated epidemics in Latin America and eastern Europe are substantially smaller than previously estimated. Through interventions including PMTCT and ART, 19·1 million life-years (16·6 million to 21·5 million) have been saved, 70·3% (65·4 to 76·1) in developing countries. From 2000 to 2011, the ratio of development assistance for health for HIV to years of life saved through intervention was US$4498 in developing countries. Including in HIV-positive individuals, all-form tuberculosis incidence was 7·5 million (7·4 million to 7·7 million), prevalence was 11·9 million (11·6 million to 12·2 million), and number of deaths was 1·4 million (1·3 million to 1·5 million) in 2013. In the same year and in only individuals who were HIV-negative, all-form tuberculosis incidence was 7·1 million (6·9 million to 7·3 million), prevalence was 11·2 million (10·8 million to 11·6 million), and number of deaths was 1·3 million (1·2 million to 1·4 million). Annualised rates of change (ARC) for incidence, prevalence, and death became negative after 2000. Tuberculosis in HIV-negative individuals disproportionately occurs in men and boys (versus women and girls); 64·0% of cases (63·6 to 64·3) and 64·7% of deaths (60·8 to 70·3). Globally, malaria cases and deaths grew rapidly from 1990 reaching a peak of 232 million cases (143 million to 387 million) in 2003 and 1·2 million deaths (1·1 million to 1·4 million) in 2004. Since 2004, child deaths from malaria in sub-Saharan Africa have decreased by 31·5% (15·7 to 44·1). Outside of Africa, malaria mortality has been steadily decreasing since 1990.Our estimates of the number of people living with HIV are 18·7% smaller than UNAIDS's estimates in 2012. The number of people living with malaria is larger than estimated by WHO. The number of people living with HIV, tuberculosis, or malaria have all decreased since 2000. At the global level, upward trends for malaria and HIV deaths have been reversed and declines in tuberculosis deaths have accelerated. 101 countries (74 of which are developing) still have increasing HIV incidence. Substantial progress since the Millennium Declaration is an encouraging sign of the effect of global action.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)60844-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000341679700032

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4202387

  • Global, regional, and national levels and causes of maternal mortality during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 LANCET Kassebaum, N. J., Bertozzi-Villa, A., Coggeshall, M. S., Shackelford, K. A., Steiner, C., Heuton, K. R., Gonzalez-Medina, D., Barber, R., Huynh, C., Dicker, D., Templin, T., Wolock, T. M., Ozgoren, A. A., Abd-Allah, F., Abera, S. F., Abubakar, I., Achoki, T., Adelekan, A., Ademi, Z., Adou, A. K., Adsuar, J. C., Agardh, E. E., Akena, D., Alasfoor, D., Alemu, Z. A., Alfonso-Cristancho, R., Alhabib, S., Ali, R., Al Kahbouri, M. J., Alla, F., Allen, P. J., AlMazroa, M. A., Alsharif, U., Alvarez, E., Alvis-Guzman, N., Amankwaa, A. A., Amare, A. T., Amini, H., Ammar, W., Antonio, C. A., Anwari, P., Arnlov, J., Arsic Arsenijevic, V. S., Artaman, A., Asad, M. M., Asghar, R. J., Assadi, R., Atkins, L. S., Badawi, A., Balakrishnan, K., Basu, A., Basu, S., Beardsley, J., Bedi, N., Bekele, T., Bell, M. L., Bernabe, E., Beyene, T. J., Bhutta, Z., Bin Abdulhak, A., Blore, J. D., Basara, B. B., Bose, D., Breitborde, N., Cardenas, R., Castaneda-Orjuela, C. A., Castro, R. E., Catala-Lopez, F., Cavlin, A., Chang, J., Che, X., Christophi, C. A., Chugh, S. S., Cirillo, M., Colquhoun, S. M., Cooper, L. T., Cooper, C., Leite, I. d., Dandona, L., Dandona, R., Davis, A., Dayama, A., Degenhardt, L., De Leo, D., Del Pozo-Cruz, B., Deribe, K., Dessalegn, M., deVeber, G. A., Dharmaratne, S. D., Dilmen, U., Ding, E. L., Dorrington, R. E., Driscoll, T. R., Ermakov, S. P., Esteghamati, A., Faraon, E. J., Farzadfar, F., Felicio, M. M., Fereshtehnejad, S., Ferreira De Lima, G. M., Forouzanfar, M. H., Franca, E. B., Gaffikin, L., Gambashidze, K., Gankpe, F. G., Garcia, A. C., Geleijnse, J. M., Gibney, K. B., Giroud, M., Glaser, E. L., Goginashvili, K., Gona, P., Gonzalez-Castell, D., Goto, A., Gouda, H. N., Gugnani, H. C., Gupta, R., Gupta, R., Hafezi-Nejad, N., Hamadeh, R. R., Hammami, M., Hankey, G. J., Harb, H. L., Havmoeller, R., Hay, S. I., Heredia Pi, I. B., Hoek, H. W., Hosgood, H. D., Hoy, D. G., Husseini, A., Idrisov, B. T., Innos, K., Inoue, M., Jacobsen, K. H., Jahangir, E., Jee, S. H., Jensen, P. N., Jha, V., Jiang, G., Jonas, J. B., Juel, K., Kabagambe, E. K., Kan, H., Karam, N. E., Karch, A., Karema, C. K., Kaul, A., Kawakami, N., Kazanjan, K., Kazi, D. S., Kemp, A. H., Kengne, A. P., Kereselidze, M., Khader, Y. S., Khalifa, S. E., Khan, E. A., Khang, Y., Knibbs, L., Kokubo, Y., Kosen, S., Defo, B. K., Kulkarni, C., Kulkarni, V. S., Kumar, G. A., Kumar, K., Kumar, R. B., Kwan, G., Lai, T., Lalloo, R., Lam, H., Lansingh, V. C., Larsson, A., Lee, J., Leigh, J., Leinsalu, M., Leung, R., Li, X., Li, Y., Li, Y., Liang, J., Liang, X., Lim, S. S., Lin, H., Lipshultz, S. E., Liu, S., Liu, Y., Lloyd, B. K., London, S. J., Lotufo, P. A., Ma, J., Ma, S., Pedro Machado, V. M., Mainoo, N. K., Majdan, M., Mapoma, C. C., Marcenes, W., Barrientos Marzan, M., Mason-Jones, A. J., Mehndiratta, M. M., Mejia-Rodriguez, F., Memish, Z. A., Mendoza, W., Miller, T. R., Mills, E. J., Mokdad, A. H., Mola, G. L., Monasta, L., de la Cruz Monis, J., Montanez Hernandez, J. C., Moore, A. R., Moradi-Lakeh, M., Mori, R., Mueller, U. O., Mukaigawara, M., Naheed, A., Naidoo, K. S., Nand, D., Nangia, V., Nash, D., Nejjari, C., Nelson, R. G., Neupane, S. P., Newton, C. R., Ng, M., Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J., Nisar, M. I., Nolte, S., Norheim, O. F., Nyakarahuka, L., Oh, I., Ohkubo, T., Olusanya, B. O., Omer, S. B., Opio, J. N., Orisakwe, O. E., Pandian, J. D., Papachristou, C., Park, J., Paternina Caicedo, A. J., Patten, S. B., Paul, V. K., Pavlin, B. I., Pearce, N., Pereira, D. M., Pesudovs, K., Petzold, M., Poenaru, D., Polanczyk, G. V., Polinder, S., Pope, D., Pourmalek, F., Qato, D., Quistberg, D. A., Rafay, A., Rahimi, K., Rahimi-Movaghar, V., ur Rahman, S., Raju, M., Rana, S. M., Refaat, A., Ronfani, L., Roy, N., Sanchez Pimienta, T. G., Sahraian, M. A., Salomon, J. A., Sampson, U., Santos, I. S., Sawhney, M., Sayinzoga, F., Schneider, I. J., Schumacher, A., Schwebel, D. C., Seedat, S., Sepanlou, S. G., Servan-Mori, E. E., Shakh-Nazarova, M., Sheikhbahaei, S., Shibuya, K., Shin, H. H., Shiue, I., Sigfusdottir, I. D., Silberberg, D. H., Silva, A. P., Singh, J. A., Skirbekk, V., Sliwa, K., Soshnikov, S. S., Sposato, L. A., Sreeramareddy, C. T., Stroumpoulis, K., Sturua, L., Sykes, B. L., Tabb, K. M., Talongwa, R. T., Tan, F., Teixeira, C. M., Tenkorang, E. Y., Terkawi, A. S., Thorne-Lyman, A. L., Tirschwell, D. L., Towbin, J. A., Tran, B. X., Tsilimbaris, M., Uchendu, U. S., Ukwaja, K. N., Undurraga, E. A., Uzun, S. B., Vallely, A. J., van Gool, C. H., Vasankari, T. J., Vavilala, M. S., Venketasubramanian, N., Villalpando, S., Violante, F. S., Vlassov, V. V., Vos, T., Waller, S., Wang, H., Wang, L., Wang, X., Wang, Y., Weichenthal, S., Weiderpass, E., Weintraub, R. G., Westerman, R., Wilkinson, J. D., Woldeyohannes, S. M., Wong, J. Q., Wordofa, M. A., Xu, G., Yang, Y. C., Yano, Y., Yentur, G. K., Yip, P., Yonemoto, N., Yoon, S., Younis, M. Z., Yu, C., Jin, K. Y., Zaki, M. E., Zhao, Y., Zheng, Y., Zhou, M., Zhu, J., Zou, X. N., Lopez, A. D., Naghavi, M., Murray, C. J., Lozano, R. 2014; 384 (9947): 980-1004
  • HIV Treatment as Prevention: Systematic Comparison of Mathematical Models of the Potential Impact of Antiretroviral Therapy on HIV Incidence in South Africa PLOS MEDICINE Eaton, J. W., Johnson, L. F., Salomon, J. A., Baernighausen, T., Bendavid, E., Bershteyn, A., Bloom, D. E., Cambiano, V., Fraser, C., Hontelez, J. A., Humair, S., Klein, D. J., Long, E. F., Phillips, A. N., Pretorius, C., Stover, J., Wenger, E. A., Williams, B. G., Hallett, T. B. 2012; 9 (7)

    Abstract

    Many mathematical models have investigated the impact of expanding access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on new HIV infections. Comparing results and conclusions across models is challenging because models have addressed slightly different questions and have reported different outcome metrics. This study compares the predictions of several mathematical models simulating the same ART intervention programmes to determine the extent to which models agree about the epidemiological impact of expanded ART.Twelve independent mathematical models evaluated a set of standardised ART intervention scenarios in South Africa and reported a common set of outputs. Intervention scenarios systematically varied the CD4 count threshold for treatment eligibility, access to treatment, and programme retention. For a scenario in which 80% of HIV-infected individuals start treatment on average 1 y after their CD4 count drops below 350 cells/µl and 85% remain on treatment after 3 y, the models projected that HIV incidence would be 35% to 54% lower 8 y after the introduction of ART, compared to a counterfactual scenario in which there is no ART. More variation existed in the estimated long-term (38 y) reductions in incidence. The impact of optimistic interventions including immediate ART initiation varied widely across models, maintaining substantial uncertainty about the theoretical prospect for elimination of HIV from the population using ART alone over the next four decades. The number of person-years of ART per infection averted over 8 y ranged between 5.8 and 18.7. Considering the actual scale-up of ART in South Africa, seven models estimated that current HIV incidence is 17% to 32% lower than it would have been in the absence of ART. Differences between model assumptions about CD4 decline and HIV transmissibility over the course of infection explained only a modest amount of the variation in model results.Mathematical models evaluating the impact of ART vary substantially in structure, complexity, and parameter choices, but all suggest that ART, at high levels of access and with high adherence, has the potential to substantially reduce new HIV infections. There was broad agreement regarding the short-term epidemiologic impact of ambitious treatment scale-up, but more variation in longer term projections and in the efficiency with which treatment can reduce new infections. Differences between model predictions could not be explained by differences in model structure or parameterization that were hypothesized to affect intervention impact.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001245

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307106400005

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3393664

  • Quantifying Child Mortality Reductions Related to Measles Vaccination PLOS ONE Goldhaber-Fiebert, J. D., Lipsitch, M., Mahal, A., Zaslavsky, A. M., Salomon, J. A. 2010; 5 (11)

    Abstract

    This study characterizes the historical relationship between coverage of measles containing vaccines (MCV) and mortality in children under 5 years, with a view toward ongoing global efforts to reduce child mortality.Using country-level, longitudinal panel data, from 44 countries over the period 1960-2005, we analyzed the relationship between MCV coverage and measles mortality with (1) logistic regressions for no measles deaths in a country-year, and (2) linear regressions for the logarithm of the measles death rate. All regressions allowed a flexible, non-linear relationship between coverage and mortality. Covariates included birth rate, death rates from other causes, percent living in urban areas, population density, per-capita GDP, use of the two-dose MCV, year, and mortality coding system. Regressions used lagged covariates, country fixed effects, and robust standard errors clustered by country. The likelihood of no measles deaths increased nonlinearly with higher MCV coverage (ORs: 13.8 [1.6-122.7] for 80-89% to 40.7 [3.2-517.6] for ≥95%), compared to pre-vaccination risk levels. Measles death rates declined nonlinearly with higher MCV coverage, with benefits accruing more slowly above 90% coverage. Compared to no coverage, predicted average reductions in death rates were -79% at 70% coverage, -93% at 90%, and -95% at 95%.40 years of experience with MCV vaccination suggests that extremely high levels of vaccination coverage are needed to produce sharp reductions in measles deaths. Achieving sustainable benefits likely requires a combination of extended vaccine programs and supplementary vaccine efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0013842

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283838600016

    View details for PubMedID 21079809

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2973966