Doctor of Philosophy, Stanford University, CSB-PHD (2015)
Bachelor of Science, Pohang Inst Science & Technology, Life Science (2007)
Phospholipase D (PLD) is a key enzyme that mediates a variety of cellular phenomena including endocytosis, actin rearrangement, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. Serving as a PLD-interacting partner, dynamin is a large guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein that functions as a mechanochemical enzyme involved in endocytosis by hydrolyzing GTP. Although both PLD and dynamin are known to regulate the actin cytoskeleton, their role in the regulation of fibronectin (FN)-induced cell spreading is not known. Furthermore, the role of dynamin as a GTP-dependent regulator through its interaction with other proteins has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that dynamin regulates PLD in a GTP-dependent manner, which is critical for FN-mediated cell spreading. First, we verified that GTP-loaded dynamin can mediate the cell spreading by FN by using the GTP-binding-deficient mutant of dynamin (K44A). In addition, we confirmed that blocking the PLD activity inhibited FN-induced cell spreading, and not cell adhesion. Moreover, in FN signaling, PLD interacted with dynamin in a GTP-dependent manner, which was crucial for FN-induced PLD activation and cell spreading. We also found that the PLD mutant (R128K) that did not have a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity increased the GTP-dependent interaction between PLD and dynamin, in addition to increasing the PLD activity and cell spreading. These findings suggest that PLD activity can be increased by enhancing the binding of PLD with dynamin, in turn facilitating FN-induced cell spreading. These results imply that GTP-loaded dynamin, such as a small GTPase, can mediate a "switch on" signaling by interacting with a PLD that functions as an effector.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cellsig.2015.08.019
View details for PubMedID 26341143
The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) regulates many biological pathways by post-translationally ubiquitylating proteins for degradation. Although maintaining a dynamic balance between free ubiquitin and ubiquitylated proteins is key to UPS function, the mechanisms that regulate ubiquitin homeostasis in different tissues through development are not clear. Here we show, via analysis of the magellan (magn) complementation group, that loss of function of the Drosophila polyubiquitin Ubi-p63E results specifically in meiotic arrest sterility in males. Ubi-p63E contributes predominantly to maintaining the free ubiquitin pool in testes. The function of Ubi-p63E is required cell-autonomously for proper meiotic chromatin condensation, cell cycle progression and spermatid differentiation. magn mutant germ cells develop normally to the spermatocyte stage but arrest at the G2/M transition of meiosis I, with lack of protein expression of the key meiotic cell cycle regulators Boule and Cyclin B. Loss of Ubi-p63E function did not strongly affect the spermatocyte transcription program regulated by the testis TBP-associated factor (tTAF) or meiosis arrest complex (tMAC) genes. Knocking down proteasome function specifically in spermatocytes caused a different meiotic arrest phenotype, suggesting that the magn phenotype might not result from general defects in protein degradation. Our results suggest a conserved role of polyubiquitin genes in male meiosis and a potential mechanism leading to meiosis I maturation arrest.
View details for DOI 10.1242/dev.098947
View details for PubMedID 23884444
In adult stem cell lineages, progenitor cells commonly undergo mitotic transit amplifying (TA) divisions before terminal differentiation, allowing production of many differentiated progeny per stem cell division. Mechanisms that limit TA divisions and trigger the switch to differentiation may protect against cancer by preventing accumulation of oncogenic mutations in the proliferating population. Here we show that the switch from TA proliferation to differentiation in the Drosophila male germline stem cell lineage is mediated by translational control. The TRIM-NHL tumor suppressor homolog Mei-P26 facilitates accumulation of the differentiation regulator Bam in TA cells. In turn, Bam and its partner Bgcn bind the mei-P26 3' untranslated region and repress translation of mei-P26 in late TA cells. Thus, germ cells progress through distinct, sequential regulatory states, from Mei-P26 on/Bam off to Bam on/Mei-P26 off. TRIM-NHL homologs across species facilitate the switch from proliferation to differentiation, suggesting a conserved developmentally programmed tumor suppressor mechanism.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2012.08.012
View details for Web of Science ID 000311471900014
View details for PubMedID 23122292
Cells in endothelial cell monolayers maintain a tight barrier between blood and tissue, but it is not well understood how endothelial cells move within monolayers, pass each other, migrate when stimulated with growth factor, and also retain monolayer integrity. Here, we develop a quantitative steering model based on functional classes of genes identified previously in a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen to explain how cells locally coordinate their movement to maintain monolayer integrity and collectively migrate in response to growth factor. In the model, cells autonomously migrate within the monolayer and turn in response to mechanical cues resulting from adhesive, drag, repulsive, and directed steering interactions with neighboring cells. We show that lateral-drag steering explains the local coordination of cell movement and the maintenance of monolayer integrity by allowing closure of small lesions. We further demonstrate that directional steering of cells at monolayer boundaries, combined with adhesive steering of cells behind, can explain growth factor-triggered collective migration into open space. Together, this model provides a mechanistic explanation for the observed genetic modularity and a conceptual framework for how cells can dynamically maintain sheet integrity and undergo collective directed migration.
View details for DOI 10.1128/MCB.00800-10
View details for Web of Science ID 000285621900010
View details for PubMedID 20974808
Various cancer cells, including those of colorectal cancer (CRC), release microvesicles (exosomes) into surrounding tissues and peripheral circulation. These microvesicles can mediate communication between cells and affect various tumor-related processes in their target cells.We present potential roles of CRC cell-derived microvesicles in tumor progression via a global comparative microvesicular and cellular transcriptomic analysis of human SW480 CRC cells. We first identified 11,327 microvesicular mRNAs involved in tumorigenesis-related processes that reflect the physiology of donor CRC cells. We then found 241 mRNAs enriched in the microvesicles above donor cell levels, of which 27 were involved in cell cycle-related processes. Network analysis revealed that most of the cell cycle-related microvesicle-enriched mRNAs were associated with M-phase activities. The integration of two mRNA datasets showed that these M-phase-related mRNAs were differentially regulated across CRC patients, suggesting their potential roles in tumor progression. Finally, we experimentally verified the network-driven hypothesis by showing a significant increase in proliferation of endothelial cells treated with the microvesicles.Our study demonstrates that CRC cell-derived microvesicles are enriched in cell cycle-related mRNAs that promote proliferation of endothelial cells, suggesting that microvesicles of cancer cells can be involved in tumor growth and metastasis by facilitating angiogenesis-related processes. This information will help elucidate the pathophysiological functions of tumor-derived microvesicles, and aid in the development of cancer diagnostics, including colorectal cancer.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2164-10-556
View details for Web of Science ID 000272358900001
View details for PubMedID 19930720