Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics

Academic Appointments


Professional Education


  • Fellowship:Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (2007) PA
  • Residency:UCSF School of Medicine (2000) CA
  • Fellowship:Children's Hospital Oakland (2003) CA
  • Board Certification: Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, American Board of Pediatrics (2006)
  • Fellowship:Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh (2005) PA
  • Internship:UCSF School of Medicine (1998) CA
  • Medical Education:University of Missouri Columbia (1997) MO

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Attention and Internalizing Behaviors in Relation to White Matter in Children Born Preterm JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL AND BEHAVIORAL PEDIATRICS Loe, I. M., Lee, E. S., Feldman, H. M. 2013; 34 (3): 156-164

    Abstract

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique that provides quantitative characterization of white matter tracts in the brain. This study used DTI to examine the degree of association between parent-rated scores of attention, internalizing behaviors including anxiety symptoms, and externalizing behaviors and white matter fractional anisotropy (FA) in children born preterm.Participants were aged 9 to 16 years; 25 were born at <36 weeks of gestation (mean = 28.6 wk, birth weight = 1191 g) and 20 were full term. The authors analyzed the results using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, a technique that generates a skeleton representing the core of white matter tracts throughout the brain. The authors examined the correlations between behavior scores and FA of (1) the whole skeleton and (2) the specific regions of interest.In preterm children, scores on attention and internalizing behavior scales were each associated with whole skeleton FA and several regions of interest; unfavorable scores were consistently associated with lower FA. Externalizing behaviors were not associated with whole skeleton FA, but significant associations were found within a few regions of interest. The network of significant regions for attention and internalizing symptoms was widely distributed and overlapping. In full-term children, no associations of FA and behavior were significant.Attention and internalizing behaviors in preterm children were associated with FA in a widely distributed overlapping network of white matter tracts, suggesting common underlying neurobiology. DTI contributes to understanding individual differences in attention and behavior characteristics in children born preterm.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182842122

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317483400002

    View details for PubMedID 23572166

  • Effects of early language, speech, and cognition on later reading: a mediation analysis. Frontiers in psychology Durand, V. N., Loe, I. M., Yeatman, J. D., Feldman, H. M. 2013; 4: 586-?

    Abstract

    This longitudinal secondary analysis examined which early language and speech abilities are associated with school-aged reading skills, and whether these associations are mediated by cognitive ability. We analyzed vocabulary, syntax, speech sound maturity, and cognition in a sample of healthy children at age 3 years (N = 241) in relation to single word reading (decoding), comprehension, and oral reading fluency in the same children at age 9-11 years. All predictor variables and the mediator variable were associated with the three reading outcomes. The predictor variables were all associated with cognitive abilities, the mediator. Cognitive abilities partially mediated the effects of language on reading. After mediation, decoding was associated with speech sound maturity; comprehension was associated with receptive vocabulary; and oral fluency was associated with speech sound maturity, receptive vocabulary, and syntax. In summary, all of the effects of language on reading could not be explained by cognition as a mediator. Specific components of language and speech skills in preschool made independent contributions to reading skills 6-8 years later. These early precursors to later reading skill represent potential targets for early intervention to improve reading.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00586

    View details for PubMedID 24027549

  • White matter microstructure on diffusion tensor imaging is associated with conventional magnetic resonance imaging findings and cognitive function in adolescents born preterm DEVELOPMENTAL MEDICINE AND CHILD NEUROLOGY Feldman, H. M., Lee, E. S., Loe, I. M., Yeom, K. W., Grill-Spector, K., Luna, B. 2012; 54 (9): 809-814

    Abstract

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to evaluate white matter architecture after preterm birth. The goals were (1) to compare white matter microstructure in two cohorts of preterm- and term-born children; and (2) within preterm groups, to determine if sex, gestational age, birthweight, white matter injury score from conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or IQ was associated with DTI measures.Participants (n=121; 66 females, 55 males) were aged 9 to 16 years. They comprised 58 preterm children (site 1, n=25; and site 2, n=33) born at less than 36 weeks' gestation (mean 29.4 wks; birthweight 1289g) and 63 term children (site 1, n=40; site 2, n=23) born at more than 37 weeks' gestation. DTI was analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics. Diffusion measures were fractional anisotropy, axial, radial, and mean diffusivity.In no region of the white matter skeleton was fractional anisotropy lower in the preterm group at either site. Within the preterm groups, fractional anisotropy was significantly associated with white matter injury score, but not sex, gestational age, or birthweight. At site 1, fractional anisotropy was associated with IQ.DTI contributes to understanding individual differences after preterm birth but may not differentiate a relatively high-functioning group of preterm children from a matched group of term-born children.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2012.04378.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307468700011

    View details for PubMedID 22803787

  • Oculomotor Assessments of Executive Function in Preterm Children JOURNAL OF PEDIATRICS Loe, I. M., Luna, B., Bledsoe, I. O., Yeom, K. W., Fritz, B. L., Feldman, H. M. 2012; 161 (3): 427-?

    Abstract

    To use objective, nonverbal oculomotor tasks to assess executive function and infer the neural basis of impairments in preterm children.Cross-sectional study of preterm children age 9-16 years (n = 69; mean gestational age 29 weeks) and full-term controls (n = 43). Tasks assessed sensorimotor function (reflexive prosaccades); resistance to peripheral distracters (fixation); response inhibition, response preparation, and execution of a voluntary saccade (antisaccades); and spatial working memory (memory-guided saccades). Group differences were analyzed using ANOVA. We used linear regression to analyze the contributions of age, sex, gestational age, and white matter category to task performance.Preterm children did not differ from controls on basic sensorimotor function, response inhibition, and working memory. Compared with controls, preterm children showed greater susceptibility to peripheral distracters (P = .008) and were slower to initiate an inhibitory response (P = .003). Regression models showed contributions of age and white matter category to task performance.Preterm children show intact basic sensorimotor function and demonstrate difficulties in processes underlying executive control, including increased distractibility and prolonged response preparation. These limitations may reflect specific neural abnormalities in fronto-subcortical executive control of behavior.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.02.037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308141700015

    View details for PubMedID 22480696

  • Executive function skills are associated with reading and parent-rated child function in children born prematurely EARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Loe, I. M., Lee, E. S., Luna, B., Feldman, H. M. 2012; 88 (2): 111-118

    Abstract

    Preterm children are at risk for executive function (EF) problems, which have been linked to behavior and learning problems in full term children. In this study, we examine the relationship between EF and functional outcomes in preterm children.To evaluate (1) EF skills of 9- to 16-year-old children born across the spectrum of gestational age (GA), (2) relationship of degree of prematurity to EF skills, and (3) contributions of EF skills to two functional outcomes - reading scores and parent-rated child function.Preterm children <36 weeks gestation (n=72) were compared to full term children (n=42) of similar age, gender and SES, on measures of EF, reading, and parent-ratings of child function. Multiple regression models evaluated contributions to EF skills and functional outcomes.Compared to full term controls, preterm children had poorer EF performance on a complex planning and organization task and did not increase planning time as task difficulty increased. Their spatial memory capacity was not different. GA contributed to EF skills, but was mediated by IQ. EF contributed to the variance in reading skills but did not add to the variance in reading when IQ was considered. EF skills significantly contributed to the variance in parent-rated child function, but IQ did not.EF skills contribute to measures of functional outcome in this high-risk population. The use of EF skills as an early marker for learning and functional problems and as a target for intervention in children born preterm warrants future study.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.07.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301474900012

    View details for PubMedID 21849240

  • Update on Environmental Risk Factors for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder CURRENT PSYCHIATRY REPORTS Froehlich, T. E., Anixt, J. S., Loe, I. M., Chirdkiatgumchai, V., Kuan, L., Gilman, R. C. 2011; 13 (5): 333-344

    Abstract

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurobehavioral disorder affecting 5% to 10% of children. Although considered to be a highly familial disorder, ADHD heritability estimates of 60% to 80% highlight the considerable role that environmental factors may still play in disorder susceptibility. Proposed ADHD environmental risk factors include prenatal substance exposures, heavy metal and chemical exposures, nutritional factors, and lifestyle/psychosocial factors. This paper reviews the literature published in 2010 investigating the association between environmental risk factors and ADHD or related symptomatology. Sources of risk factor exposure and the proposed mechanism by which each exposure is linked to ADHD-related neurobehavioral changes are also reported. Methodologic limitations of the current literature are discussed, and guidelines for future study are proposed. An improved understanding of the role that environmental factors play in ADHD etiology is critical to future ADHD prevention efforts.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11920-011-0221-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294504200005

    View details for PubMedID 21779823

  • Behavior problems of 9-16 year old preterm children: Biological, sociodemographic, and intellectual contributions EARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Loe, I. M., Lee, E. S., Luna, F., Feldman, H. M. 2011; 87 (4): 247-252

    Abstract

    Preterm children are at risk for behavior problems. Studies examining contributions of intellectual and environmental factors to behavior outcomes in preterm children are mixed.(1) To identify the nature of maladaptive behaviors in preterm children age 9 to 16 years born across the spectrum of gestational age and birth weight (BW). (2) To examine contributions of BW as a biological factor, socioeconomic status as an environmental factor, and intelligence quotient (IQ) as indicative of intellectual ability to behavior outcomes.Using the Child Behavior Checklist, parent reports of behavior for 63 preterm children (gestational age 24 to <36 weeks) were compared to 29 full term children of similar age, gender and socioeconomic status. Multiple regression models evaluated effects of prematurity, socioeconomic status, and intellectual ability on behavioral symptom scores.Preterm children had higher total and internalizing problem scores compared to full term children. They also had lower IQ. BW was a significant predictor of total and internalizing behavior problems. Among the syndrome scales, anxious/depressed and attention problems were elevated. Socioeconomic status did not contribute to behavior scores. IQ contributed to total, but not to internalizing or externalizing, scores. IQ contributed to attention problems, but not to anxious/depressed scores.Preterm children had increased behavior problems, especially symptoms of inattention and anxiety. Lower BW predicted more behavior problems. IQ acted as a mediator between BW and attention scores, but not anxiety scores. These findings alert health care providers to assess anxiety in all preterm children regardless of intellectual ability and additional study on the influence of intellectual ability on behavioral outcomes in preterm children is needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2011.01.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289605500002

    View details for PubMedID 21316875

  • Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY Loe, I. M., Feldman, H. M., Yasui, E., Luna, B. 2009; 48 (4): 431-440

    Abstract

    To evaluate cognitive control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using oculomotor tests of executive function.Cross-sectional study of children aged 8 to 13 years with ADHD (n = 26) and controls (n = 33) used oculomotor tasks to assess sensorimotor function (visually guided saccades), resistance to peripheral distractors (fixation), response inhibition (antisaccades), and spatial working memory (memory-guided saccades).All children had intact sensorimotor function and working memory. Children with ADHD showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. Increased interstimulus (IS) fixation periods on the antisaccade task were associated with improved performance and decreased reaction times on correct trials for controls but not for children with ADHD. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-combined and inattentive subtypes showed different patterns of reaction time as a function of IS periods.Response inhibition deficits in ADHD on oculomotor tasks are consistent with other studies. The failure of children with ADHD to use IS time to decrease response inhibition errors and reaction time suggests that IS time is not used to prepare a response. These findings highlight the importance of considering cognitive processing components affected by ADHD in addition to core behavioral symptoms, particularly in designing new treatment strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/CHI.0b013e31819996da

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264507800011

    View details for PubMedID 19238098

  • Early Histories of School-Aged Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder CHILD DEVELOPMENT Loe, I. M., Balestrino, M. D., Phelps, R. A., Kurs-Lasky, M., Chaves-Gnecco, D., Paradise, J. L., Feldman, H. M. 2008; 79 (6): 1853-1868

    Abstract

    In a prospective study of developmental outcomes in relation to early-life otitis media, behavioral, cognitive, and language measures were administered to a large, diverse sample of children at 2, 3, 4, 6, and 9-11 years of age (N = 741). At 9-11 years of age, 9% of the children were categorized as having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on parent report. Compared to the non-ADHD group, the ADHD group had higher (i.e., less favorable) scores on parent and teacher versions of the Child Behavior Checklist at all ages. Children in the ADHD group also had lower scores on cognitive and receptive language measures in preschool. The findings support the concept that ADHD is a cognitive as well as a behavioral disorder.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01230.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261054900022

    View details for PubMedID 19037954

  • Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC PSYCHOLOGY Loe, I. M., Feldman, H. M. 2007; 32 (6): 643-654

    Abstract

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor grades, poor reading and math standardized test scores, and increased grade retention. ADHD is also associated with increased use of school-based services, increased rates of detention and expulsion, and ultimately with relatively low rates of high school graduation and postsecondary education. Children in community samples who show symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity with or without formal diagnoses of ADHD also show poor academic and educational outcomes. Pharmacologic treatment and behavior management are associated with reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and increased academic productivity, but not with improved standardized test scores or ultimate educational attainment. Future research must use conceptually based outcome measures in prospective, longitudinal, and community-based studies to determine which pharmacologic, behavioral, and educational interventions can improve academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/jpepsy/jsl054

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248086000003

    View details for PubMedID 17569716

  • Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD AMBULATORY PEDIATRICS Loe, I. M., Feldman, H. M. 2007; 7 (1): 82-90

    Abstract

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor grades, poor reading and math standardized test scores, and increased grade retention. ADHD is also associated with increased use of school-based services, increased rates of detention and expulsion, and ultimately with relatively low rates of high school graduation and postsecondary education. Children in community samples who show symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity with or without formal diagnoses of ADHD also show poor academic and educational outcomes. Pharmacologic treatment and behavior management are associated with reduction of the core symptoms of ADHD and increased academic productivity, but not with improved standardized test scores or ultimate educational attainment. Future research must use conceptually based outcome measures in prospective, longitudinal, and community-based studies to determine which pharmacologic, behavioral, and educational interventions can improve academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243950000004

    View details for PubMedID 17261487

Stanford Medicine Resources: