Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Breast Reconstruction
  • Aesthetics
  • surgery
  • skin
  • Back
  • Abdominal Wall
  • Facelift
  • thighs
  • arms
  • Breast Diseases
  • Plastic Surgery
  • Eyes
  • Abdomen
  • Breast
  • Implant Capsular Contracture
  • Breast Conserving Surgery
  • Perforator flap
  • Cancer of Esophagus
  • Microsurgery
  • Cancer
  • Breast Implantation
  • DIEP, SIEA, TUG, SGAP flaps
  • Breast Implants
  • Cosmetic Surgery
  • Hernia
  • Rhinoplasty
  • Liposuction
  • Nose
  • reconstruction
  • Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
  • Face

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Program Director, Stanford Plastic Surgery Residency (2008 - Present)
  • Director of Microsurgery, Stanford Plastic Surgery (2006 - Present)
  • Associate Program Director, Stanford Plastic Surgery Residency (2006 - 2008)

Honors & Awards


  • Henry J. Kaiser Award for Excellence in Clinical Teaching, Stanford School of Medicine (2012)
  • Outstanding Teaching Award, Plastic Surgery Residency Program (2011)
  • Who's Who in America 2009, Strathmore (2009)
  • Outstanding Teaching Award, Plastic Surgery Residency Program (2009)
  • America's Top Surgeon 2009, Consumer's Research Council (2009)
  • Outstanding Teaching Award, Plastic Surgery Residency Program (June 2008)
  • Baronio Scholar, Plastic Surgery Research Council (2003)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations


  • Member, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Inc. (2006 - Present)
  • Diplomate, American Board of Plastic Surgery, Inc. (2005 - Present)
  • Member, American Society for Reconstructive Microsurgery (2007 - Present)
  • Founding Member, American Society for Reconstructive Transplantation (2008 - Present)
  • Member, Association of American Plastic Surgeons (2011 - Present)
  • Member, American Council of Academic Plastic Surgeons (2006 - Present)
  • Member, California Society of Plastic Surgeons (2008 - Present)
  • Section Editor, Microsurgery, Annals of Plastic Surgery Journal (2007 - Present)
  • Editorial Board Member, Microsurgery Journal (2007 - Present)
  • Fellow, American College of Surgeons (2010 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Fellowship:MD Anderson Cancer Center (2004) TX
  • Internship:UCLA (1998) CA
  • Residency:UCLA (2003) CA
  • Board Certification: Plastic Surgery, American Board of Plastic Surgery (2005)
  • Medical Education:Stanford University Medical Center (1997) CA
  • MD, Stanford School of Medicine, Medicine (1997)
  • BS, U.C.L.A., Biology (1992)

Community and International Work


  • Scientific Program Committee

    Partnering Organization(s)

    California Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Location

    US

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Symposia Committee

    Partnering Organization(s)

    ASPS/PSEF

    Location

    US

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Instructional Course Committee

    Partnering Organization(s)

    American Society of Plastic Surgeons, Inc.

    Location

    US

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Program Director Liason

    Partnering Organization(s)

    California Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Populations Served

    Plastic Surgery Residents and Program Directors

    Location

    California

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • In-Service Exam Committee

    Topic

    Plastic Surgery Residency Education

    Partnering Organization(s)

    NBME

    Populations Served

    Plastic Surgery Residents

    Location

    US

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Education Committee

    Topic

    Residency Education in Plastic Surgery

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Association of Academic Chairmen in Plastic Surgery (AACPS)

    Location

    US

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Health Policy Committee

    Partnering Organization(s)

    American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    Location

    US

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Dr, Lee is nationally and internationally recognized for his contributions to surgical education and training in plastic surgery. He has given lectures across the United States and around the world on the subject of surgical simulation and training. He has published numerous articles on surgical education. He also has studied surgical outcomes in breast reconstruction, head and neck reconstruction, abdominal wall reconstruction, and genital reconstruction. He has research grants for his work in surgical education, as well for reconstructive surgery. Dr. Lee has mentored many research fellows, residents, and students. He has helped them develop research projects, present at scientific meetings, and publish manuscripts in peer-reviewed journals.

Dr. Lee also has collaborations with the basic scientist in examining stem cells in human muscle, and fat. Dr. Lee has also published work on biologic materials used for soft tissue reinforcement in reconstructive surgery, and has looked at the ways in which they undergo revascularization and tissue incorporation.

Novel techniques in microsurgery and complex reconstructive surgery. Plastic Surgery Outcomes Research and Education. Breast reconstruction. Esophagus reconstruction. Head and Neck reconstruction. Perineal and genital reconstruction.

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Tube-in-a-tube anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of a complex esophageal and anterior neck defect. Annals of plastic surgery Komorowska-Timek, E., Lee, G. K. 2014; 72 (1): 64-66

    Abstract

    ABSTRACT: Restoration of a functional digestive track along with acceptable external neck coverage traditionally requires 2 separate flaps. We present a case of a 65-year-old man with a large cervical and esophageal defect treated successfully with a single anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap. This patient had been treated with primary chemoradiation for laryngeal cancer, and subsequently, developed a severe esophageal stricture. He had undergone prior multiple attempts at reconstruction with a pectoralis major, radial forearm, and deltopectoral flaps, skin grafts, and gastric pull-up, which had all failed. We used an ALT free flap that was designed in a "tube-in-a-tube" fashion to simultaneously reconstruct the cervical esophagus while resurfacing the anterior neck. The patient successfully restarted a liquid diet on the 19th postoperative day. Tube-in-a-tube ALT flap design is a reliable and efficient way to concurrently restore esophageal continuity and provide anterior neck coverage in a single-stage procedure.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0b013e3182605400

    View details for PubMedID 23241776

  • Essential Hand Surgery Procedures for Mastery by Graduating Plastic Surgery Residents: A Survey of Program Directors PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Noland, S. S., Fischer, L. H., Lee, G. K., Friedrich, J. B., Hentz, V. R. 2013; 132 (6): 977E-984E

    Abstract

    This study was designed to establish the essential hand surgery procedures that should be mastered by graduating plastic surgery residents. This framework can then be used as a guideline for developing Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill to teach technical skills in hand surgery.Ten expert hand surgeons were surveyed regarding the essential hand surgery procedures that should be mastered by graduating plastic surgery residents. The top 10 procedures from this survey were then used to survey all 89 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved plastic surgery program directors.There was a 69 percent response rate to the program director survey (n = 61). The top nine hand surgery procedures included open carpal tunnel release, open A1 pulley release, digital nerve repair with microscope, closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of metacarpal fracture, excision of dorsal or volar ganglion, zone II flexor tendon repair with multistrand technique, incision and drainage of the flexor tendon sheath for flexor tenosynovitis, flexor tendon sheath steroid injection, and open cubital tunnel release.Surgical educators need to develop objective methods to teach and document technical skill. The Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill is a valid method for accomplishing this task. There has been no consensus regarding which hand surgery procedures should be mastered by graduating plastic surgery residents. The authors have identified nine procedures that are overwhelmingly supported by plastic surgery program directors. These nine procedures can be used as a guideline for developing Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill to teach and document technical skills in hand surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.prs.0b013e3182a8066b

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330465800009

    View details for PubMedID 24281644

  • Commentary to "current microsurgery training programs in India". Annals of plastic surgery Satterwhite, T. S., Lee, G. K. 2013; 71 (5): 624-625

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0b013e318283d1b8

    View details for PubMedID 23728244

  • Lag-Time to Publication in Plastic Surgery Potential Impact on the Timely Practice of Evidence-Based Medicine ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Lee, D. T., Lacombe, J., Chung, C. K., Kattan, A., Lee, G. K. 2013; 71 (4): 410-414
  • Breast reconstruction national trends and healthcare implications. breast journal Hernandez-Boussard, T., Zeidler, K., Barzin, A., Lee, G., Curtin, C. 2013; 19 (5): 463-469

    Abstract

    Breast reconstruction improves quality-of-life of breast cancer patients. Different reconstructive options exist, yet commentary in the plastic surgery literature suggests that financial constraints are limiting access to autologous reconstruction (AR). This study follows national trends in breast reconstruction and identifies factors associated with reconstructive choices. Data were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2008. Patients were categorized as having either implant or ARs. Bivariate and multivariate regression analysis identified variables associated with receiving implants versus AR. Physician fee schedules were analyzed using national average Medicare physician reimbursement rates. From 1998 to 2008, 324,134 breast reconstructions were performed. Reconstructions increased 4% per year. The proportion of implant reconstructions increased 11% per year, whereasARs decreased 5% per year (p < 0.05). Our model showed that the odds of having implant-based versus AR were significantly associated with age, disease severity, payer type, hospital teaching status, and year of surgery. Year of surgery was the strongest predictor of implant reconstruction; patients receiving breast reconstructive surgery in 2009 were three times more likely to have implant breast reconstructive surgery compared with similar patients in 2002. Medicare reimbursement steadily declined for AR over a similar time frame. From 1998 to 2008, autologous breast reconstruction has significantly declined, parallel to a decrease in physician reimbursement. Our data found no significant change in patient characteristics supporting the lack of choice of AR. Further research is warranted to better understand this shift to implant reconstruction and to ensure future access of these complex reconstructive procedures.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbj.12148

    View details for PubMedID 23758582

  • Nipple reconstruction after implant-based breast reconstruction: A "matched-pair" outcome analysis focusing on the effects of radiotherapy. Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS Momeni, A., Ghaly, M., Gupta, D., Gurtner, G., Kahn, D. M., Karanas, Y. L., Lee, G. K. 2013; 66 (9): 1202-1205

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: The major focus of research when addressing nipple reconstruction has been on developing new techniques to provide for long-lasting nipple projection. Rarely, has the outcome of nipple reconstruction as it relates to postoperative morbidity, particularly after implant-based breast reconstruction, been analyzed. METHODS: A "matched-pair" study was designed to specifically answer the question whether a history of radiotherapy predisposes to a higher complication rate after nipple reconstruction in patients after implant-based breast reconstruction. Only patients with a history of unilateral radiotherapy who underwent bilateral mastectomy and implant-based breast reconstruction followed by bilateral nipple reconstruction were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 17 patients (i.e. 34 nipple reconstructions) were identified who met inclusion criteria. The mean age of the study population was 43.5 years (range, 23-69). Complications were seen after a total of 8 nipple reconstructions (23.5 percent). Of these, 7 complications were seen on the irradiated side (41.2 percent) (p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: While nipple reconstruction is a safe procedure after implant-based breast reconstruction in patients without a history of radiotherapy the presence of an irradiated field converts it to a procedure with a significant increase in postoperative complication rate.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2013.04.052

    View details for PubMedID 23664573

  • Intra-abdominal pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flap for treatment of high-output enterocutaneous fistulae: Case reports and review of literature JOURNAL OF PLASTIC RECONSTRUCTIVE AND AESTHETIC SURGERY Carey, J. N., Sheckter, C. C., Watt, A. J., Lee, G. K. 2013; 66 (8): 1145-1148

    Abstract

    Despite advances in nutritional supplementation, sepsis management, percutaneous drainage and surgical technique, enterocutaneous fistulae remain a considerable source of morbidity and mortality. Use of adjunctive modalities including negative pressure wound therapy and fibrin glue have been shown to improve the rapidity of fistula closure; however, the overall rate of closure remains poor. The challenge of managing chronic, high-output proximal enterocutaneous fistulae can be successfully achieved with appropriate medical management and intra-abdominal placement of pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flaps. We report two cases of recalcitrant high output enterocutaneous fistulae that were treated successfully with pedicled intra-abdominal rectus muscle flaps. Indications for pedicled intra-abdominal rectus muscle flaps include persistent patency despite a reasonable trial of non-operative intervention, failure of traditional operative interventions (serosal patch, Graham patch), and persistent electrolyte and nutritional abnormalities in the setting of a high-output fistula.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2012.12.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321441300026

    View details for PubMedID 23317765

  • Surgical Management of Silicone Mastitis: Case Series and Review of the Literature AESTHETIC PLASTIC SURGERY Echo, A., Otake, L. R., Mehrara, B. J., Kraneburg, U. M., Agrawal, N., Da Lio, A. L., Shaw, W. W., Lee, G. K. 2013; 37 (4): 738-745

    Abstract

    Free silicone injection for breast augmentation, which became widespread in the 1960s and continues illicitly to this day, has well-known adverse effects. In this retrospective chart review of 14 patients treated for silicone mastitis from 1990 to 2002, we present our experience with the surgical management of patients with silicone mastitis.All the patients were women, ranging in age from 49 to 76 years old (mean age = 58.8). Patients presented to us a mean of 29.9 years after their free silicone breast injection. Treatment modalities were analyzed, and, specifically, methods of breast reconstruction involving autologous tissue transfers, implants, or a combination were evaluated.The majority of patients (12 of 14) required mastectomies for extensive silicone-infiltrated tissues. The remaining two patients had focal areas of disease and were successfully treated with excision and local breast parenchyma flaps. Autologous reconstruction was performed with a total of 20 flaps, including 12 free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, 4 free superior gluteal artery perforator (SGAP) flaps, and 4 pedicled latissimus dorsi (LD) flaps. Two patients had bilateral implant-based breast reconstruction.A variety of reconstructive options are available for patients presenting with silicone mastitis. Once an appropriate breast cancer workup has been performed, the surgical goal is to excise as much of the silicone-infiltrated tissues as possible before reconstruction. To our knowledge, this is the first reported series that incorporates the use of SGAP and LD flaps as a means of autologous tissue reconstruction for silicone-infiltrated breasts.This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00266-013-0170-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322005400016

    View details for PubMedID 23812611

  • Development of an Affordable System for Personalized Video-Documented Surgical Skill Analysis for Surgical Residency Training ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Berger, A. J., Gaster, R. S., Lee, G. K. 2013; 70 (4): 442-446
  • The Quality of Systematic Reviews in Hand Surgery: An Analysis Using AMSTAR PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Momeni, A., Lee, G. K., Talley, J. R. 2013; 131 (4): 831-837

    Abstract

    Systematic reviews constitute the top of the "level-of-evidence pyramid." Despite their strengths, they have been found to be of varying quality, thus raising concerns about their validity and role in influencing clinical practice. In the present study, a quality analysis of systematic reviews with a focus on hand surgery was performed.A PubMed search was performed to identify all systematic reviews published up to and including December of 2011 in eight surgical journals. Two authors independently reviewed the literature and extracted data from included reviews. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. Quality assessment was performed using AMSTAR.The initial search retrieved 687 articles. After screening titles and abstracts, 635 articles were excluded. Full-text review of the remaining 52 articles resulted in further exclusion of 10 articles, leaving 42 systematic reviews for final analysis. A significant increase in the number of published systematic reviews over time was noted (p = 0.04), with the majority of systematic reviews being published in The Journal of Hand Surgery (n = 19) and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (n = 12). Although a significant improvement in the quality of systematic reviews was noted over time (p = 0.01), a median AMSTAR score of 7 indicated the bulk of reviews to be of fair to good quality.The trend to publish more systematic reviews in hand surgery is paralleled by an increase in the quality of systematic reviews. Nonetheless, increased efforts are indicated to further improve the quality of systematic reviews in hand surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3182818d24

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317282800062

    View details for PubMedID 23542254

  • Essential hand surgery procedures for mastery by graduating orthopedic surgery residents: a survey of program directors. journal of hand surgery Noland, S. S., Fischer, L. H., Lee, G. K., Hentz, V. R. 2013; 38 (4): 760-765

    Abstract

    To establish the essential hand surgery procedures that should be mastered by graduating orthopedic surgery residents. This framework can then be used as a guideline for developing an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill to teach and document technical skill in hand surgery.A select group of 10 expert hand surgeons was surveyed regarding the essential hand surgery procedures that should be mastered by graduating orthopedic surgery residents. The top 10 procedures from this survey were then used to survey all 155 American Council of Graduate Medical Education-approved orthopedic surgery program directors regarding the essential procedures that should be mastered by graduating orthopedic surgery residents.We had a 39% response rate to the program director survey. The top 8 hand surgery procedures as determined by the orthopedic surgery program directors included open carpal tunnel release, open A1 pulley release, open reduction internal fixation of distal radius fracture, flexor tendon sheath steroid injection, excision of dorsal or volar ganglion, closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of metacarpal fracture, open cubital tunnel release, and incision and drainage of flexor tendon sheath for flexor tenosynovitis.Surgical educators need to develop objective methods to teach and document technical skill. The Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill is a valid method to accomplish this task. However, there has been no consensus regarding which hand surgery procedures should be mastered by graduating orthopedic surgery residents. We have identified 8 procedures that were overwhelmingly supported by orthopedic surgery program directors. These 8 procedures can be used as a guideline for developing an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill to teach and document technical skill in hand surgery.This study addresses the future of orthopedic surgery education as it pertains to hand surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2012.12.035

    View details for PubMedID 23433941

  • Histologic Analysis of Fetal Bovine Derived Acellular Dermal Matrix in Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Gaster, R. S., Berger, A. J., Monica, S. D., Sweeney, R. T., Endress, R., Lee, G. K. 2013; 70 (4): 447-453
  • Microsurgical Head and Neck Reconstruction After Oncologic Ablation A Study Analyzing Health-Related Quality of Life ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Momeni, A., Kim, R. Y., Kattan, A., Lee, G. K. 2013; 70 (4): 462-469
  • The Matrix Rib Plating System Improving Aesthetic Outcomes in Microvascular Breast Reconstruction ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Ahdoot, M. A., Echo, A., Otake, L. R., Son, J., Zeidler, K. R., Saadian, I., Lee, G. K. 2013; 70 (4): 384-388
  • Transverse Tensor Fascia Lata Myocutaneous Flap for Microvascular Breast Reconstruction Case Report and Review of the Literature ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Zeidler, K. R., Son, J. H., Carey, J. N., Watt, A. J., Ho, O. H., Lee, G. K. 2013; 70 (4): 438-441
  • Teaching Core Competencies of Reconstructive Microsurgery With the Use of Standardized Patients ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Son, J., Zeidler, K. R., Echo, A., Otake, L., Ahdoot, M., Lee, G. K. 2013; 70 (4): 476-481
  • White light spectroscopy for free flap monitoring MICROSURGERY Fox, P. M., Zeidler, K., Carey, J., Lee, G. K. 2013; 33 (3): 198-202

    Abstract

    White light spectroscopy non-invasively measures hemoglobin saturation at the capillary level rendering an end-organ measurement of perfusion. We hypothesized this technology could be used after microvascular surgery to allow for early detection of ischemia and thrombosis. The Spectros T-Stat monitoring device, which utilizes white light spectroscopy, was compared with traditional flap monitoring techniques including pencil Doppler and clinical exam. Data were prospectively collected and analyzed. Results from 31 flaps revealed a normal capillary hemoglobin saturation of 40-75% with increase in saturation during the early postoperative period. One flap required return to the operating room 12 hours after microvascular anastomosis. The T-stat system recorded an acute decrease in saturation from ~50% to less than 30% 50 min prior to identification by clinical exam. Prompt treatment resulted in flap salvage. The Spectros T-Stat monitor may be a useful adjunct for free flap monitoring providing continuous, accurate perfusion assessment postoperatively.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.22069

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316335400005

    View details for PubMedID 23280724

  • The Chicken Foot Dorsal Vessel as a High-Fidelity Microsurgery Practice Model PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Satterwhite, T., Son, J., Echo, A., Lee, G. 2013; 131 (2): 311E-312E

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0b013e318278d760

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314355700041

    View details for PubMedID 23358048

  • Is routine histological examination of mastectomy scars justified? An analysis of 619 scars JOURNAL OF PLASTIC RECONSTRUCTIVE AND AESTHETIC SURGERY Momeni, A., Tran, P., Dunlap, J., Lee, G. K. 2013; 66 (2): 182-186

    Abstract

    The increasing incidence of breast cancer is paralleled by an increasing demand for post-mastectomy breast reconstruction. At the time of breast reconstruction routine submission of mastectomy scars has been considered appropriate clinical practice to ensure that no residual cancer exists. However, this practice has been challenged by some and has become the topic of controversy. In a retrospective analysis we wished to assess whether routine submission of mastectomy scars altered treatment.Utilizing the Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment (STRIDE) all patients who underwent implant-based breast reconstruction with routine histological analysis of mastectomy scars were identified. The following parameters were retrieved and analyzed: age, cancer histology, cancer stage (according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system), receptor status (estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor [PR], Her2neu), time interval between mastectomy and reconstruction, and scar histology.A total of 442 patients with a mean age of 45.9 years (range, 22-73 years) were included in the study. Mastectomy with subsequent reconstruction was performed for in-situ disease and invasive cancer in 83 and 359 patients, respectively. A total of 619 clinically unremarkable mastectomy scars were sent for histological analysis, with the most common finding being unremarkable scar tissue (i.e. collagen fibers). Of note, no specimen revealed the presence of carcinoma.According to published reports routine histological examination of mastectomy scars may detect early local recurrence. However, we were not able to detect this benefit in our patient population. As such, particularly in the current health-care climate the cost-effectiveness of this practice deserves further attention. A more selective use of histological analysis of mastectomy scars in patients with tumors that display poor prognostic indicators may be a more reasonable utilization of resources.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2012.09.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313620600012

    View details for PubMedID 23044349

  • Histologic Analysis of Fetal Bovine Derived Acellular Dermal Matrix in Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction. Annals of plastic surgery Gaster, R. S., Berger, A. J., Monica, S. D., Sweeney, R. T., Endress, R., Lee, G. K. 2013

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: This study seeks to determine human host response to fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in staged implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: A prospective study was performed for patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction with tissue expander placement and SurgiMend acellular fetal bovine dermis. At the time of exchange for permanent implant, we obtained tissue specimens of SurgiMend and native capsule. Histological and immunohistochemical assays were performed to characterize the extent of ADM incorporation/degradation, host cell infiltration, neovascularization, inflammation, and host replacement of acellular fetal bovine collagen. RESULTS: Seventeen capsules from 12 patients were included in our study. The average "implantation" time of SurgiMend was 7.8 months (range, 2-23 months). Histological analysis of the biopsy of tissue revealed rare infiltration of host inflammatory cells, even at 23 months. One patient had an infection requiring removal of the tissue expander at 2 months. Contracture, inflammatory changes, edema, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration were rare in the ADM. An acellular capsule was seen in many cases, at the interface of SurgiMend with the tissue expander. CONCLUSIONS: SurgiMend demonstrated a very infrequent inflammatory response. An antibody specific to bovine collagen allowed for direct identification of bovine collagen separate from human collagen. Cellular infiltration and neovascularization of SurgiMend correlated with the quality of the mastectomy skin flap rather than the duration of implantation. Future studies are needed to further characterize the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue incorporation of this product.

    View details for PubMedID 23486129

  • Development of an Affordable System for Personalized Video-Documented Surgical Skill Analysis for Surgical Residency Training. Annals of plastic surgery Berger, A. J., Gaster, R. S., Lee, G. K. 2013

    Abstract

    Surgical competency requires the development of decision-making and technical skills. Despite lectures, literature, and written and oral examinations, both skill sets are difficult to systematically teach and analyze. With the advent of head-mounted video cameras, we seek to incorporate a surgical video database into our surgical training curriculum. We hope to not only change the way and rate at which surgical trainees develop their surgical skills but to also introduce a novel tool for surgical skill assessment.

    View details for PubMedID 23486125

  • The Matrix Rib Plating System: Improving Aesthetic Outcomes in Microvascular Breast Reconstruction. Annals of plastic surgery Ahdoot, M. A., Echo, A., Otake, L. R., Son, J., Zeidler, K. R., Saadian, I., Lee, G. K. 2013

    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION: During microvascular breast reconstruction, exposure of internal mammary vessels (IMVs) is facilitated by the removal of a portion of the rib resulting in occasional chest contour deformity (CCD). The use of rib plating may reduce CCD and reduce postoperative pain. METHODS: All patients underwent microvascular breast reconstruction using IMVs. In the retrospective arm, photographs were assessed by a blinded reviewer for CCDs. In the prospective cohort, patients were randomized to rib plating with the Synthes Matrix Rib Plating System or no rib plating. Postoperatively, patients were assessed for CCD and pain. RESULTS: In the retrospective arm, 11 of 98 (11.2%) patients representing 12 of 130 (9.2%) breast reconstructions had a noticeable contour deformity. The average body mass index (BMI) of patients with CCDs was 26.6 kg/m. In the prospective arm, there was 16% (3 of 19) rate of visible and palpable CCDs among controls, compared to 0% rate of palpable and visible contour deformity in the rib plating group. Pain was decreased in the rib plating group on all postoperative days. The pain reduction was statistically significant at rest by postoperative day 30. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients (9 of 11) with compromised aesthetic outcomes had a BMI less than 30 kg/m, suggesting a paucity of overlying soft tissue contributed to visibility of these bony defects. Rib plating prevented chest contour deformity, reduced postoperative pain, and added limited additional morbidity. We believe that rib plating is a safe, useful adjunct to microvascular breast reconstruction using IMVs, as it may improve aesthetic outcomes and reduce postoperative pain.

    View details for PubMedID 23486136

  • Single-Institution Financial Analysis of Biologic Versus Synthetic Mesh Hernia Repair: A Retrospective Analysis of Patients Readmitted for Hernia Repair. Annals of plastic surgery Otake, L. R., Satterwhite, T., Echo, A., Chiou, G., Lee, G. K. 2013

    Abstract

    The advent and proliferation of commercially available biologic mesh material has expanded the repertoire of hernia repair materials available to the surgeon. Given the higher initial cost of these mesh materials relative to synthetic materials such as polypropylene, there has been debate regarding the purported benefit of the use of biologic mesh. This study is a single-institution review of complex hernia repairs using both biologic and synthetic mesh materials. The patients included in the analyses were admitted to the institution at least twice for management of hernia; this permitted specific evaluation of a given diagnosis, hernia, in the same patient, but at different points in time. In a subset of patients, hernia repair was performed upon the second admission with conversion from biologic or synthetic mesh, which had been placed at the initial repair. The objective of this study was to evaluate the financial implications of mesh choice. Specific parameters reviewed included type of mesh used, total costs of hospitalization, direct cost associated with the hernia repair, total collections, and percentage of collections relative to total charges. Through such analysis, our aim was to determine whether there were any variances in revenue and costs associated with the application of either mesh material or the associated clinical scenarios.

    View details for PubMedID 23851372

  • Microsurgical Head and Neck Reconstruction After Oncologic Ablation: A Study Analyzing Health-Related Quality of Life. Annals of plastic surgery Momeni, A., Kim, R. Y., Kattan, A., Lee, G. K. 2013

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Evaluation of quality of life (QOL) measures is increasingly being valued as an essential parameter to determine treatment results after head and neck reconstruction. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of microsurgical reconstruction on patient-reported QOL. METHODS: Patients undergoing microsurgical reconstruction after radical oncosurgical ablation of head and neck malignancies from March 2007 to March 2010 were included in the study. To assess health-related QOL, the following questionnaires were sent to patients who met inclusion criteria: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30 [Version 3.0]) and Head and Neck Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-H and N35). RESULTS: A total of 60 patients underwent microsurgical reconstruction of postablative head and neck defects during the study period. Twenty-one patients were successfully contacted, all of which completed the surveys. Satisfactory global QOL scores were achieved. Advanced age correlated with greater impairment for the ability to taste and smell (P = 0.05). Radiotherapy seemed to be associated with "sticky saliva"; although this was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). Recurrent disease at the time of surgical ablation and microsurgical reconstruction did not seem to have any appreciable impact on QOL. Finally, patients who developed postoperative complications had lower levels of "cognitive functioning" (P = 0.04), problems with "insomnia" (P = 0.04) and "social contact" (P = 0.03), and more commonly "felt ill" (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Improved global QOL scores were observed after microsurgical reconstruction of various head and neck defects when compared to reported pretreatment scores. Of the parameters analyzed, it seems that postoperative complications have the most profound effect on items assessed with the EORTC QLQ-C30 and H and N35 surveys. Our findings provide further scientific evidence that patients with head and neck malignancy benefit from surgical intervention with respect to postoperative QOL.

    View details for PubMedID 23486123

  • Transverse Tensor Fascia Lata Myocutaneous Flap for Microvascular Breast Reconstruction: Case Report and Review of the Literature. Annals of plastic surgery Zeidler, K. R., Son, J. H., Carey, J. N., Watt, A. J., Ho, O. H., Lee, G. K. 2013

    Abstract

    The transverse tensor fascia lata (TTFL) flap is an important alternative flap for autologous breast reconstruction. It is a horizontal variant of the tensor fascia lata myocutaneous flap and contains fat from the prominence of the upper lateral thigh (saddle bag). We present the surgical management of a woman with trochanteric lipodystrophy, who underwent staged bilateral mastectomy and autologous breast reconstruction with TTFL flaps. We discuss technical points in TTFL flap design and harvest. Breast reconstruction was successful and the thigh donor sites had excellent aesthetic contour. There were no complications at either recipient or donor sites. The TTFL flap is an important alternative flap for autologous breast reconstruction when other options are less optimal, and has a secondary benefit of thigh donor site closure with lateral thigh lift techniques. The TTFL flap should be presented as an option for autologous breast reconstruction in women with prominent trochanteric lipodystrophy of the upper lateral thighs.

    View details for PubMedID 23486142

  • Teaching Core Competencies of Reconstructive Microsurgery With the Use of Standardized Patients. Annals of plastic surgery Son, J., Zeidler, K. R., Echo, A., Otake, L., Ahdoot, M., Lee, G. K. 2013

    Abstract

    The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education has defined 6 core competencies that residents must master before completing their training. Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) using standardized patients are effective educational tools to assess and teach core competencies. We developed an OSCE specific for microsurgical head and neck reconstruction. Fifteen plastic surgery residents participated in the OSCE simulating a typical new patient consultation, which involved a patient with oral cancer. Residents were scored in all 6 core competencies by the standardized patients and faculty experts. Analysis of participant performance showed that although residents performed well overall, many lacked proficiency in systems-based practice. Junior residents were also more likely to omit critical elements of the physical examination compared to senior residents. We have modified our educational curriculum to specifically address these deficiencies. Our study demonstrates that the OSCE is an effective assessment tool for teaching and assessing all core competencies in microsurgery.

    View details for PubMedID 23486137

  • Tissue expander with acellular dermal matrix for breast reconstruction infected by an unusual pathogen: Candida parapsilosis JOURNAL OF PLASTIC RECONSTRUCTIVE AND AESTHETIC SURGERY Fox, P. M., Lee, G. K. 2012; 65 (10): E286-E289

    Abstract

    Infections occur in approximately 2-5% percent of women undergoing breast reconstruction by tissue expansion depending on patient characteristics and timing of reconstruction. Bacteria, specifically Staphylococci, are the most common pathogens. Treatment varies depending on the surgeon and the aggressiveness of the infection. We report a case of unilateral tissue expander infection with Candida parapsilosis in an otherwise healthy female undergoing immediate tissue expander placement after bilateral nipple-sparing mastectomies. The patient was treated with a one-stage irrigation, debridement, and tissue expander exchange as well as a 21-day course of oral antifungal therapy. Her infection resolved and she was able to complete her implant-based reconstruction. C. parapsilosis is usually responsible for infections in critically ill patients found in association with central lines, peritoneal dialysis catheters and prosthetic heart valves. The affinity of C. parapsilosis for foreign material makes it a causative agent worth considering in difficult to treat tissue expander infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2012.04.049

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308995700003

    View details for PubMedID 22633394

  • Free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction of a massive lumbosacral defect using superior gluteal artery perforator vessels MICROSURGERY Gaster, R. S., Bhatt, K. A., Shelton, A. A., Lee, G. K. 2012; 32 (5): 388-392

    Abstract

    Despite significant advances in reconstructive surgery, the repair of massive lumbosacral defects poses significant challenges. When the extent of soft tissue loss, tumor resection, and/or radiation therapy preclude the use of traditional local options, such as gluteal advancement flaps or pedicled thigh flaps, then distant flaps are required. We report a case of a 64-year-old male who presented with a large sacral Marjolin's ulcer secondary to recurrent pilonidal cysts and ulcerations. The patient underwent wide local composite resection, which resulted in a wound measuring 450 cm(2) with exposed rectum and sacrum. The massive defect was successfully covered with a free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap, providing a well-vascularized skin paddle and obviating the need for a latissimus flap with skin graft. The free-TRAM flap proved to be a very robust flap in this situation and would be one of our flaps of choice for similar defects.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.21981

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306178000009

    View details for PubMedID 22473859

  • Supercharged Free Fibula for Complex Ankle Arthrodesis A Case Report ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Fox, P. M., Chou, L., Lee, G. K. 2012; 68 (4): 342-345

    Abstract

    We report the successful use of a supercharged free fibula for tibial reconstruction and ankle arthrodesis. A 28-year-old woman underwent resection of a giant cell tumor of the distal tibia and reconstruction using a methyl methacrylate cement spacer 12 years prior. The spacer eroded into her ankle joint causing significant pain with ambulation. Therefore, she required ankle arthrodesis but lacked distal tibia bone stock. The ipsilateral fibula was harvested for reconstruction and transferred on its distal blood supply into the bony tibial defect. The proximal blood supply of the fibula flap was then anastomosed to the posterior tibial vessels to supercharge the blood supply. An Ilizarov was placed for external fixation. The combination of a supercharged free fibula and stable external fixation for tibial reconstruction led to timely bony union and ambulation, as well as avoiding the potential complications that can occur with other reconstructive options.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31824189d0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301800600004

    View details for PubMedID 22421475

  • Outcomes of Complex Abdominal Herniorrhaphy Experience With 106 Cases ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Satterwhite, T. S., Miri, S., Chung, C., Spain, D., Lorenz, H. P., Lee, G. K. 2012; 68 (4): 382-388

    Abstract

    Reconstruction of abdominal wall defects is a challenging problem. Often, the surgeon is presented with a patient having multiple comorbidities, who has already endured numerous unsuccessful operations, leaving skin and fascia that are attenuated and unreliable. Our study investigated preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors and techniques during abdominal wall reconstruction to determine which variables were associated with poor outcomes.Data were collected on all patients who underwent ventral abdominal hernia repair by 3 senior-level surgeons at our institution during an 8-year period. In all cases, placement of either a synthetic or a biologic mesh was used to provide additional reinforcement of the repair.A total of 106 patients were included. Seventy-nine patients (75%) had preoperative comorbid conditions. Sixty-seven patients developed a postoperative complication (63%). Skin necrosis was the most common complication (n = 21, 19.8%). Other complications included seroma (n = 19, 17.9%), cellulitis (n = 19, 17.9%), abscess (n = 14 13.2%), pulmonary embolus/deep vein thrombosis (n = 3, 2.8%), small bowel obstruction (n = 2, 1.9%), and fistula (n = 8, 7.5%). Factors that significantly contributed to postoperative complications (P < 0.05) included obesity, diabetes, hypertension, fistula at the time of the operation, a history of >2 prior hernia repairs, a history of >3 prior abdominal operations, hospital stay for >14 days, defect size > 300 square cm, and the use of human-derived mesh allograft. Factors that significantly increased the likelihood of a hernia recurrence (P < 0.05) included a history of >2 prior hernia repairs, the use of human-derived allograft, using an overlay-only mesh placement, and the presence of a postoperative complication, particularly infection. Hernia recurrences were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by using a "sandwich" repair with both a mesh overlay and underlay and by using component separation.A history of multiple abdominal operations is a major predictor of complications and recurrences. If needed, component separation should be used to achieve primary tension-free closure, which helps to reduce the likelihood of hernia recurrences. Our data suggest that mesh reinforcement used concomitantly in a "sandwich" repair with component separation release may lead to reduced recurrence rates and may provide the optimal repair in complex hernia defects.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31823b68b1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301800600013

    View details for PubMedID 22421484

  • Use of Fetal Bovine Acellular Dermal Xenograft With Tissue Expansion for Staged Breast Reconstruction ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Endress, R., Choi, M. S., Lee, G. K. 2012; 68 (4): 338-341

    Abstract

    Staged breast reconstruction with implants and human acellular cadaveric dermis offers advantages of precise expander positioning, higher initial expander fill volumes, and improved outcomes. This study reports breast reconstruction using fetal bovine acellular dermal matrix (FBADM). The high type III collagen content of FBADM may allow for more rapid tissue incorporation and healing.A total of 49 breast reconstructions in 28 patients (group A) with FBADM were retrospectively compared with 123 reconstructions in 91 patients operated without FBADM (group B).FBADM sizes ranged from 48 to 100 cm2 (mean size: 70.6 cm2). The mean immediate fill volume in group A was 181.2 ± 148.3 mL and 117.7 ± 66.3 mL in group B (P < 0.001). The duration of drainage was significantly shorter in group A (8.51 ± 3.4 days) as compared with controls (11.07 ± 5.1 days), t-test (P = 0.015). There was no significant difference in the overall complication rate (20.8% in group A, 13.0% in group B). Further subgroup analysis of group A patients with complications and without complications, showed that group with complications had significantly longer drain removal time (9.48 vs. 7.97 days), larger initial fill volumes (238.1 vs. 145.3 mL), and a higher BMI (25.8 vs. 22.6 kg/m2) when compared with the complication-free subgroup.The use of FBADM in breast reconstruction offers results comparable with that of human acellular dermal matrix as reported in the literature. However, FBADM significantly reduced wound drainage time in our study when compared with patients without FBADM.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31823b68d0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301800600003

    View details for PubMedID 22421474

  • Is Microsurgical Head and Neck Reconstruction Profitable? Analysis at an Academic Medical Center ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Momeni, A., Kattan, A., Lee, G. K. 2012; 68 (4): 401-403

    Abstract

    The complexity of modern head and neck reconstruction is paralleled by consumption of large amounts of resources provided by both treating physicians as well as the institution, that is, hospital. In times of increasing economic constraints, analysis of the financial value of providing these services seems prudent. A retrospective analysis of medical and billing records of patients who underwent immediate microsurgical reconstruction of postablative head and neck defects from 2007 to 2010 at Stanford University Medical Center was performed. Financial data related to the treatment of 60 patients were analyzed. Total reimbursement for plastic surgery services was $319,609, representing a collection rate of 18.4%. Total hospital charges were $31,038,846.10. Actual reimbursement was $9,109,776.55, which represents a collection rate of 29.3%. Analysis of hospital revenue revealed a net profit of $1,512,136.46, which represents a mean net revenue of $25,202.27 per case. Microsurgical reconstruction secures substantial revenue for the institution. Innovative reimbursement models need to be implemented to attract skilled microsurgeons, who represent the backbone of these services.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31823d2dec

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301800600017

    View details for PubMedID 22421488

  • Plastic Surgery Residency Graduate Outcomes A 43-Year Experience at a Single Institution and the First "Integrated" Training Program in the United States ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Noland, S. S., Lee, G. K. 2012; 68 (4): 404-409

    Abstract

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education emphasizes outcome-based residency education. This project is an outcomes study on graduates of the Stanford University Integrated Plastic Surgery Residency.A survey assessing various outcomes, including practice profile, financial, personal, and educational issues, was electronically distributed to all 130 graduates between 1966 and 2009.There was a 65% response rate. Nearly all respondents are currently in practice. Popular fellowships included hand and microsurgery. Most respondents participated in research and held leadership roles. Adequate residency education was noted in areas of patient care, board preparation, and ethical and legal issues. Inadequate residency education was noted in areas of managing a practice, coding, and cost-effective medicine.This is the first long-term outcomes study of plastic surgery graduates. Most are in active, successful practice. We have incorporated educational content related to running a small business, contract negotiating, and marketing to better prepare our residents for future practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31823b6902

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301800600018

    View details for PubMedID 22421489

  • Vertical Island Trapezius Myocutaneous Flap for Cervical Esophagoplasty Case Report and Review of the Literature ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Lee, G. K., Yamin, F., Ho, O. H. 2012; 68 (4): 362-365

    Abstract

    Reconstruction of the cervical esophagus can be fraught with a variety of complications, such as fistula formation or stricture. Additional complicating factors may include local tumor recurrence, failed prior reconstruction, partial or total flap necrosis, and compromised tissues in an irradiated field. Once complications occur, the chance of a successful reconstruction in subsequent operations is greatly reduced. We report a case of a patient who had local tumor recurrence despite chemoradiotherapy necessitating cervical esophagectomy. Reconstruction of the esophagus was initially performed with a tubed anterolateral thigh flap, which was complicated by partial flap necrosis and salivary fistula. Since the patient was elderly and already had a pectoralis flap used in a previous operation, we elected to perform a vertical island trapezius myocutaneous flap as a salvage procedure to restore esophageal continuity. Postoperatively, the patient had no evidence of further fistula and was able to tolerate a regular diet.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31823b68eb

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301800600008

    View details for PubMedID 22421479

  • "Phantom" Publications Among Plastic Surgery Residency Applicants ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Chung, C. K., Hernandez-Boussard, T., Lee, G. K. 2012; 68 (4): 391-395

    Abstract

    Previous studies in other medical specialties have shown a significant percentage of publications represented in residency applications are not actually published. A comprehensive evaluation of applicants to plastic surgery residency over an extended period has not been previously reported in the literature. The purpose of our study was to determine the incidence of misrepresented or "phantom" publications in plastic surgery residency applicants and to identify possible predisposing characteristics.We used the Electronic Residency Application Services database to our plastic surgery residency program during a 4-year period from 2006 to 2009. Applicant demographic information and listed citations were extracted. Peer-reviewed journal article citations were verified using robust methods including PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, and Google. Unverifiable articles were categorized as phantom publications and then evaluated with respect to applicant demographic information and characteristics.During the 4-year study period, there were 804 applications (average, 201 applicants per year). There was a total of 4725 publications listed; of which, 1975 had been categorized as peer-reviewed journal articles. Two hundred seventy-six (14%) of peer-reviewed publications could not be verified and were categorized as phantom publications. There was an overall significant positive trend in percentage of phantom publications during the 4 application years (P = 0.005). A positive predictive factor for having phantom publications was being a foreign medical graduate (P = 0.02). A negative predictive factor for phantom publications was being a female applicant (P = 0.03). There also appeared to be a positive correlation with the number of publications listed and likelihood of phantom publications.Among plastic surgery residency applicants, we found a significant percentage of unverifiable publications. There are several possible explanations for our findings, which include the fact that plastic surgery is a highly sought-after specialty and applicants may feel the need to appear competitive to residency programs. Publications are an important aspect of the residency selection process and factors into applicant ranking, but our study suggests publications listed in plastic surgery residency applications may not necessarily be an accurate representation of actual published articles. Program directors and faculty are advised to scrutinize listed publications carefully when evaluating applicants.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31823d2c4e

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301800600015

    View details for PubMedID 22421486

  • Should we continue to consider obesity a relative contraindication for autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction? JOURNAL OF PLASTIC RECONSTRUCTIVE AND AESTHETIC SURGERY Momeni, A., Ahdoot, M. A., Kim, R. Y., Leroux, E., Galaiya, D. J., Lee, G. K. 2012; 65 (4): 420-425

    Abstract

    Obesity is not only a causative factor for premature mortality, it has also been demonstrated to be associated with an increased postoperative complication rate. As such, it has traditionally been considered a relative contraindication to autologous breast reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to assess whether this recommendation is justified.A retrospective study was conducted analyzing the effect of obesity on complication rate after microsurgical autologous breast reconstruction using abdominal tissue. Patients undergoing breast reconstruction between November 2006 and February 2011 were included. In contrast to prior studies, only patients meeting criteria to undergo bariatric surgery were included in the study, thus, representing a particularly high-risk subset of patients (Group 1: BMI greater 40 kg/m(2); Group 2: BMI greater 35 kg/m(2) with co-morbidities).A total of 42 breast reconstructions were performed in 28 patients who met inclusion criteria. Surgical complications were seen in a total of 9 patients (p = 1.00). All complications were successfully managed conservatively and did not prolong hospitalization. No differences were seen among study groups with respect to donor-site (p = 0.57) and recipient-site complications (p = 1.00). Of note, no partial or total flap loss was seen in this study.Obesity is associated with a relatively high risk of minor complications postoperatively. However, complications can typically be managed non-operatively and on an outpatient basis with fairly minimal patient morbidity. We believe that obesity should not be considered a relative contraindication to autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction. Patients should, however, be informed preoperatively about their higher risk of postoperative complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2011.10.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301982000012

    View details for PubMedID 22024538

  • Split, Temporalis Muscle Flap for Repair of Recalcitrant Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks of the Anterior Cranial Fossa JOURNAL OF CRANIOFACIAL SURGERY Lesavoy, M. A., Lee, G. K., Fan, K., Dickinson, B. 2012; 23 (2): 539-542

    Abstract

    Cerebrospinal fluid repair after dural disruption is critical in preventing morbidity and mortality in trauma and cancer patients. Among reconstructive options, coverage with the temporalis muscle has been a staple in many surgeons' armamentarium. However, the donor-site morbidity has been a major drawback in the use of this technique. Here, we present our method of split, temporalis harvest for anterior cranial base reconstruction, which seeks to regain dural integrity, while maintaining aesthetic and functional elements of the donor site. We present 2 patients, demonstrating the ease of harvest, fulfillment of both cosmetic and reconstructive goals, widespread applicability, and versatility of our split, temporalis muscle flap.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SCS.0b013e3182418f18

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302171700084

    View details for PubMedID 22421850

  • Abdominal wall reconstruction with dual layer cross-linked porcine dermal xenograft: The "Pork Sandwich" herniorraphy JOURNAL OF PLASTIC RECONSTRUCTIVE AND AESTHETIC SURGERY Satterwhite, T. S., Miri, S., Chung, C., Spain, D. A., Lorenz, H. P., Lee, G. K. 2012; 65 (3): 333-341

    Abstract

    The repair of large ventral hernias is a challenging problem. This study investigated the use of decellularized, chemically cross-linked porcine dermal xenograft in conjunction with component separation (a.k.a. the "Pork Sandwich" Herniorraphy) in the repair of abdominal wall defects.We prospectively collected data over a 3-year period. Primary or near-total primary fascial closure was our goal in operative repair. A cross-linked porcine dermal xenograft mesh underlay and overlay were used to provide maximal reinforcement of the repair. Outcomes were compared with a case-controlled cohort of 84 patients who underwent ventral hernia repairs with alternative methods at our institution.Nineteen patients were included. Mean age was 55 years old, and mean body mass index (BMI) was 30 kg/m(2). Mean defect size was 321 cm(2). Post-operative complications were observed in ten out of 19 patients. Complications included seroma (n = 2), wound infection (n = 2), abscess (n = 1), skin necrosis (n = 6), and fistula formation (n = 3). Seven patients required re-operation. Statistically significant factors (p < 0.05) that contributed to increased post-operative complications or re-operation rates included smoking, presence of pre-operative enterocutaneous fistulae, extended post-operative hospital stay (>2 weeks), and a defect size greater than 300 cm(2). There were no hernia recurrences in our "Pork Sandwich" group, which contrasted favorably to the retrospective case-control group in which the hernia recurrence rate was 19% (p = 0.038).For the repair of abdominal hernias, primary closure, with component separation as needed, with an underlay and overlay of cross-liked porcine xenograft should be considered to minimize risk of recurrent herniation. Additional long-term prospective comparative studies are needed for further validation of the optimal method and material for repair.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2011.09.044

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300524800016

    View details for PubMedID 22000333

  • Free Flap Scalp Reconstruction in a 91-Year-Old Patient under Local-Regional Anesthesia: Case Report and Review of the Literature JOURNAL OF RECONSTRUCTIVE MICROSURGERY Carey, J. N., Watt, A. J., Ho, O., Zeidler, K., Lee, G. K. 2012; 28 (3): 189-193

    Abstract

    In the elderly population with significant medical comorbidities, the safety of general anesthesia is often in question. In the head and neck, where regional and extradural anesthesia are not options, reconstruction of defects requiring free tissue transfer becomes a particular challenge for patients in whom general anesthesia is contraindicated. We present a case of a scalp reconstruction utilizing a latissimus dorsi free flap in a 91-year-old man performed entirely under local and regional anesthesia. General anesthesia was contraindicated secondary to the patient's multiple medical comorbidities. A paravertebral block was used for the harvest of the latissimus dorsi muscle and skin grafts. The microvascular portion of the procedure and the inset were performed under local anesthesia alone. The patient tolerated the procedure, and the operation was successful. This case is unique in that there are no published reports of head and neck free tissue transfer being performed entirely under local-regional anesthesia. We conclude that despite the medical challenges of performing complex reconstruction in elderly patients, expedient free tissue transfer can offer patients access to successful reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0031-1301070

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302138200007

    View details for PubMedID 22274769

  • Tarsal ectropion repair and lower blepharoplasty: A case report and review of literature JOURNAL OF PLASTIC RECONSTRUCTIVE AND AESTHETIC SURGERY Garza, R. M., Lee, G. K., Press, B. H. 2012; 65 (2): 249-251

    Abstract

    Ectropion is frequently encountered in plastic surgery. A variety of etiologies exist, but tarsal ectropion, defined as complete eversion of the tarsal plate and its overlying conjunctiva, is rarely considered. First described in 1960 by Fox, this variant was initially attributed to pre-septal orbicularis oculi spasm or tarsoligamentous relaxation. However, subsequent investigators determined that the true etiology involved lower lid retractor disinsertion on the tarsal plate. We present a case of chronic right lower lid ectropion in a 66-year-old male. Through understanding of eyelid anatomy, especially that of the lower eyelid retractors, tarsal ectropion was correctly identified in our patient preoperatively. A repair including correction of retractor disinsertion on the tarsus was planned, and given our patient's degree of lower lid delamination and mobilization, we also proceeded with bilateral lower lid blepharoplasty with canthal and lower lid soft tissue support. Ultimately, we were able to achieve an improved aesthetic appearance for our patient, along with resolution of his symptoms.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2011.06.035

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299111100022

    View details for PubMedID 21764653

  • The effect of preoperative radiotherapy on complication rate after microsurgical head and neck reconstruction JOURNAL OF PLASTIC RECONSTRUCTIVE AND AESTHETIC SURGERY Momeni, A., Kim, R. Y., Kattan, A., Tennefoss, J., Lee, T. H., Lee, G. K. 2011; 64 (11): 1454-1459

    Abstract

    The introduction of radiotherapy (XRT) has resulted in increased survival of patients diagnosed with head and neck malignancies. However, the potentially deleterious impact of radiotherapy on reconstructive efforts continues to be the subject of intense debate. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of preoperative XRT on complication rates in patients undergoing microsurgical reconstruction of head and neck defects after oncosurgical resection.A retrospective cohort study was conducted of all patients who underwent immediate microsurgical reconstruction of post-ablative defects over a 3-year period. Study subjects were divided into two groups: (1) those who did not receive XRT and (2) those who received preoperative XRT. Clinical variables examined and analysed included age, gender, co-morbid conditions, tobacco history, the presence of recurrent disease and ischaemia time. Outcomes of interest included length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay and postoperative complications. Complications were further classified as flap-related as well as 'medical'.A total of 60 patients were included in this study (group 1: 26 patients; group 2: 34 patients). Results were similar between the study groups with the exception of a higher rate of flap-related complications in patients undergoing XRT. Overall, 19 patients (31.7%) experienced flap-related complications, with 12% of the patients being in group 1 (N=3) versus 47% of patients being in group 2 (N=16) (p=0.003).Our data suggest that preoperative radiotherapy is associated with a significant increase in postoperative flap-related complications. However, these did not result in a prolonged hospital stay, reflecting the fact that the majority of flap-related complications can be managed on an outpatient basis. Although microsurgical reconstruction is frequently successful, patients with a history of XRT should be informed preoperatively about their increased risk of complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2011.06.043

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296579400015

    View details for PubMedID 21783448

  • Micro-Seed Grant Funding for Residents: Fostering Academic Productivity in Plastic Surgery PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Chung, C. K., Richards, T. A., Lee, G. K. 2011; 128 (1): 43E-44E

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3182174426

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292499600021

    View details for PubMedID 21701317

  • The Use of Standardized Patients in the Plastic Surgery Residency Curriculum: Teaching Core Competencies with Objective Structured Clinical Examinations PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Davis, D., Lee, G. 2011; 128 (1): 291-298

    Abstract

    As of 2006, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education had defined six "core competencies" of residency education: interpersonal communication skills, medical knowledge, patient care, professionalism, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice. Objective structured clinical examinations using standardized patients are becoming effective educational tools, and the authors developed a novel use of the examinations in plastic surgery residency education that assesses all six competencies.Six plastic surgery residents, two each from postgraduate years 4, 5, and 6, participated in the plastic surgery-specific objective structured clinical examination that focused on melanoma. The examination included a 30-minute videotaped encounter with a standardized patient actor and a postencounter written exercise. The residents were scored on their performance in all six core competencies by the standardized patients and faculty experts on a three-point scale (1 = novice, 2 = moderately skilled, and 3 = proficient).Resident performance was averaged for each postgraduate year, stratified according to core competency, and scored from a total of 100 percent. Residents overall scored well in interpersonal communications skills (84 percent), patient care (83 percent), professionalism (86 percent), and practice-based learning (84 percent). Scores in medical knowledge showed a positive correlation with level of training (86 percent). All residents scored comparatively lower in systems-based practice (65 percent). The residents reported unanimously that the objective structured clinical examination was realistic and educational.The objective structured clinical examination provided comprehensive and meaningful feedback and identified areas of strengths and weakness for the residents and for the teaching program. The examination is an effective assessment tool for the core competencies and a valuable adjunct to residency training.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0b013e31821962d2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292499600066

    View details for PubMedID 21701346

  • Non-viral Delivery of Inductive and Suppressive Genes to Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Osteogenic Differentiation PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH Ramasubramanian, A., Shiigi, S., Lee, G. K., Yang, F. 2011; 28 (6): 1328-1337

    Abstract

    To assess the effects of co-delivering osteoinductive DNA and/or small interfering RNA in directing the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) using a combinatorial, non-viral gene delivery approach.hADSCs were transfected using combinations of the following genes: BMP2, siGNAS and siNoggin using poly(?-amino esters) or lipid-like molecules. A total of 15 groups were evaluated by varying DNA doses, timing of treatment, and combinations of signals. All groups were cultured in osteogenic medium for up to 37 days, and outcomes were measured using gene expression, biochemical assays, and histology.Biomaterials-mediated gene delivery led to a dose-dependent up-regulation of BMP2 and significant gene silencing of GNAS and Noggin in hADSCs. BMP2 alone slightly up-regulates osteogenic marker expression in hADSCs. In contrast, co-delivery of BMP2 and siGNAS or siNoggin significantly accelerates the hADSC differentiation towards osteogenic differentiation, with marked increase in bone marker expression and mineralization.We report a combinatorial platform for identifying synergistic interactions among multiple genetic signals associated with osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs. Our results suggest that inductive or suppressive genetic switches interact in a complex manner, and highlight the promise of combinatorial approaches towards rapidly identifying optimal signals for promoting desired stem cell differentiation.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11095-011-0406-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290804000009

    View details for PubMedID 21424160

  • THE STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID MYOCUTANEOUS "PATCH ESOPHAGOPLASTY" FOR CERVICAL ESOPHAGEAL STRICTURE MICROSURGERY Noland, S. S., Ingraham, J. M., Lee, G. K. 2011; 31 (4): 318-322

    Abstract

    Esophageal strictures may be caused by many etiologies. Patients suffer from dysphagia and many are tube-feed dependent. Cervical esophageal reconstruction is challenging for the plastic surgeon, and although there are reports utilizing chest wall flaps or even free flaps, the use of a sternocleidomastoid (SCM) myocutaneous flap provides an ideal reconstruction in select patients who require noncircumferential "patch" cervical esophagoplasty. We present two cases of esophageal reconstruction in which we demonstrate our technique for harvesting and insetting the SCM flap, with particular emphasis on design of the skin paddle and elucidation of the vascular anatomy. We believe that the SCM flap is simple, reliable, convenient, and technically easy to perform. There is minimal donor site morbidity with no functional loss. The SCM myocutaneous flap is a viable option for reconstructing partial esophageal defects and obviates the need to perform staged procedures or more extensive operations such as free tissue transfer.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.20880

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290479000012

    View details for PubMedID 21500276

  • Adverse Events Following Digital Replantation in the Elderly JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Barzin, A., Hernandez-Boussard, T., Lee, G. K., Curtin, C. 2011; 36A (5): 870-874

    Abstract

    The decision to proceed with digital replantation in the elderly can be challenging. In addition to success of the replanted part, perioperative morbidity and mortality must be considered. The purpose of this study was to compare adverse events in patients less than 65 years of age compared with those 65 years and older after digital replantation. We hypothesize that there is an increased incidence of mortality and sentinel adverse events in patients aged 65 and older.We obtained data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample over a 10-year period from 1998 to 2007. Replantation was identified using International Classification of Diseases-9 procedure codes for finger and thumb reattachment (84.21 and 84.22). Adverse events were identified using Patient Safety Indicators (PSI) to identify adverse events occurring during hospitalization. We used the Charlson index to study medical comorbidities and bivariate statistics.During the study period 15,413 finger and thumb replantations were performed in the United States, with 616 performed on patients age 65 and older. The overall in-hospital mortality was 0.04% with no statistical difference when factoring age. For the entire group, the percentage of PSI was 0.6%, the most common being postoperative deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus. Overall, there was no difference in PSI between the 2 groups. The older group had a higher rate of transfusion, 4% versus 8% (p < .05) and were more likely to have a nonroutine disposition (ie, nursing home) (p < .001). We found no correlation between the Charlson index and PSI.This study found no difference in sentinel perioperative complications or mortality when comparing replantation patients under 65 years of age and those age 65 and older. Age alone should not be an absolute contraindication to finger replantation. Instead, the patient's functional demands, type of injury, general state of health, and rehabilitative potential should drive the decision of whether to proceed with replantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2011.01.031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290185700017

  • Supercharged Jejunum Flap for Total Esophageal Reconstruction: Single-Surgeon 3-Year Experience and Outcomes Analysis PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Barzin, A., Norton, J. A., Whyte, R., Lee, G. K. 2011; 127 (1): 173-180

    Abstract

    Esophageal reconstruction after total esophagectomy remains a formidable task irrespective of the conduit chosen. Historically, the gastric pull-up and colonic interposition have served as primary choices for such defects. However, where the stomach and colon are unavailable or unsuitable, the jejunum serves as a reliable alternative for the reconstruction of total esophageal defects.The authors performed an outcomes analysis of a single surgeon's surgical technique and experience. Patients who received supercharged pedicled jejunum flaps for reconstruction of total esophageal defects over a 3-year period were included in this study. Data were collected prospectively evaluating operative technique, length of hospital stay, operative time, complications, postoperative diet, and quality-of-life outcomes analysis.Five patients underwent supercharged pedicled jejunal flap surgery during this study period. All flaps had complete viability and no microvascular complications. One patient had a radiographic anastomotic leak detected by barium swallow that was reexplored and closed primarily and reinforced with a pectoralis advancement flap with subsequent resolution. All patients are currently tolerating a regular diet and there are no symptoms of reflux or dumping. No conduit strictures or redundancy has been found to date, and there has been no need for reoperation in the long term.The supercharged jejunum flap is a reliable alternative to the gastric pull-up and colonic interposition for total esophageal reconstruction. In our experience, the key maneuver in this technique is a substernal tunnel for the jejunal conduit and exposure of recipient vessels and the esophageal stump by means of a manubriectomy, clavicle resection, partial first rib resection and, occasionally, a second rib resection.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181f95a36

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285992100023

    View details for PubMedID 21200211

  • A CASE OF INTRAOPERATIVE VENOUS CONGESTION OF THE ENTIRE DIEP-FLAP-A NOVEL SALVAGE TECHNIQUE AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE MICROSURGERY Momeni, A., Lee, G. K. 2010; 30 (6): 443-446

    Abstract

    The deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap is gaining popularity for autologous breast reconstruction as it reportedly reduces abdominal donor site morbidity when compared with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap. Disadvantages include greater technical difficulties during flap harvest and a greater incidence of vascular compromise. A well-known and feared complication is venous congestion which requires immediate intervention. We present a novel salvage technique in a case of total flap venous congestion in the setting of absent drainage via the deep inferior epigastric vein (DIEV). Utilizing the superficial venous system via the superficial inferior epigastric vein (SIEV) and using the DIEV as a venous interposition graft resulted in successful salvage of the DIEP flap.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.20774

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282253300004

    View details for PubMedID 20878727

  • COLD ISCHEMIA IN MICROVASCULAR BREAST RECONSTRUCTION MICROSURGERY Lee, D. T., Lee, G. 2010; 30 (5): 361-367

    Abstract

    A major drawback to microvascular free flap breast reconstruction is the length of operation-up to 9 hours or more for bilateral reconstruction. This takes a significant mental and physical toll on the surgical team, producing fatigue that may compromise surgical outcome. To facilitate the operation we have incorporated a period of cold ischemia of the flaps such that members of the surgical team can alternate a brief respite during the operation.We retrospectively reviewed our series of microvascular free flap breast reconstructions performed over a four-year period in which cold ischemia of the flaps were induced.Seventy patients underwent free flap breast reconstruction with 104 flaps. Mean cold ischemia time for all flaps was 2 hours 36 min. Average rest time per surgeon per case was 35 min. Complications included two total flap losses (1.9%), one partial flap loss (1.0%), one anastomotic thrombosis (1.0%), two hematomas (1.9%), three fat necrosis (2.9%), and two delayed healing (1.9%). Statistical analysis revealed that the probability of complications is inversely related to cold ischemia time (P = 0.0163).Cold ischemia facilitates breast reconstruction by allowing the surgical team to alternate breaks during the operation. This helps reduce surgeon fatigue and is well tolerated by the flap. Thus, we believe that the use of cold ischemia is safe and advantageous in microvascular breast reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.20739

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280085900004

    View details for PubMedID 20146383

  • SUPERCHARGED REVERSE PEDICLE ANTEROLATERAL THIGH FLAP IN RECONSTRUCTION OF A MASSIVE DEFECT: A CASE REPORT MICROSURGERY Komorowska-Timek, E., Gurtner, G., Lee, G. K. 2010; 30 (5): 397-400

    Abstract

    Secondary reconstruction of lower extremity defects using local tissues is demanding and fraught with potential complications. Reconstructive efforts may be challenged by pre-existing scarring, paucity of recipient vessels, and patient co-morbidities limiting tolerance for prolonged and extensive surgery. We present a case of an 81-year-old male with a recurrent malignant melanoma invading the proximal and middle third of the tibia, who previously underwent reconstruction with the medial gastrocnemius muscle and a skin graft. After wide local re-excision and tibia fixation, a 12 cm x 28 cm reverse anterolateral thigh flap was used for soft tissue coverage. Because of the relatively large size of the flap based upon retrograde flow, we elected to supercharge the flap to augment its blood supply. Supercharging of the flap pedicle was accomplished by anastamosing the lateral circumflex femoral vessels to the anterior tibial vessels. The donor site wasclosed primarily. The flap survived entirely and successfully endured subsequent radiation therapy. Supercharging enhances reliability of the reverse anterolateral thigh flap, and thus, permits harvest of large tissue bulk for coverage of up to proximal two-thirds of the tibia.This is the first report describing successful supercharging of a large reverse anterolateral thigh flap which resulted in entire flap survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.20761

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280085900010

    View details for PubMedID 20238382

  • Flexor Tendon Tissue Engineering: Temporal Distribution of Donor Tenocytes versus Recipient Cells PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Thorfinn, J., Saber, S., Angelidis, I. K., Ki, S. H., Zhang, A. Y., Chong, A. K., Pham, H. M., Lee, G. K., Chang, J. 2009; 124 (6): 2019-2026

    Abstract

    Tissue-engineered tendon material may address tendon shortages in mutilating hand injuries. Tenocytes from rabbit flexor tendon can be successfully seeded onto acellularized tendons that are used as tendon constructs. These constructs in vivo exhibit a population of tenocyte-like cells; however, it is not known to what extent these cells are of donor or recipient origin. Furthermore, the temporal distribution is also not known.Tenocytes from New Zealand male rabbits were cultured and seeded onto acellularized rabbit forepaw flexor tendons (n = 48). These tendon constructs were transplanted into female recipients. Tendons were examined after 3, 6, 12, and 30 weeks using fluorescent in situ hybridization to detect the Y chromosome in the male donor cells. One unseeded, acellularized allograft in each animal was used as a control.The donor male tenocytes populate the epitenon and endotenon of the grafts at greater numbers than the recipient female tenocytes at 3 and 6 weeks. The donor and recipient tenocytes are present jointly in the grafts until 12 weeks. At 30 weeks, nearly all cells are recipient tenocyte-like cells.Donor male cells survive in decreasing numbers over time until 30 weeks. The presence of cells in tissue-engineered tendon grafts has been shown in prior studies to add to the strength of the constructs in vitro. This study shows that recipient cells can migrate into and repopulate the tendon construct. Cell seeding onto tendon material may create stronger constructs that will allow the initiation of motion earlier.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181bcf320

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272615600032

    View details for PubMedID 19952658

  • Transverse Singapore Flap for Reconstruction of a Congenital Rectovaginal Fistula in an 18-Month-Old Infant ANNALS OF PLASTIC SURGERY Lee, D. T., Lee, G. K. 2009; 63 (6): 650-653

    Abstract

    Many different types of flaps have been used for reconstruction of rectovaginal fistulae. This is the first report of using a transverse Singapore flap for repairing a large 3 cm by 3-cm complex congenital rectovaginal fistula in an 18-month-old infant with VATER syndrome. A right transverse Singapore flap was used to reconstruct both the posterior wall of the vagina and the anterior wall of the rectum while simultaneously joining the 2 structures to the perineum. Despite minor postoperative delayed healing which resolved, the patient has maintained a functionally and cosmetically satisfactory result at 20-month follow-up. For complex rectovaginal fistulae reconstruction in the pediatric patient, the transverse Singapore flap is a reliable and viable option for the reconstructive surgeon.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31819ae002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272316400016

    View details for PubMedID 19816154

  • A Novel Single-Flap Technique for Total Penile Reconstruction: The Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Lee, G. K., Lim, A. F., Bird, E. T. 2009; 124 (1): 163-166

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181ab2593

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267895000021

    View details for PubMedID 19568056

  • Invited discussion: Harvesting of forearm perforator flaps based on intraoperative vascular exploration: Clinical experiences and literature review MICROSURGERY Lee, G. K. 2008; 28 (5): 331-332

    Abstract

    Advancements in microsurgery and a better understanding of vascular anatomy has allowed for expanding indications for perforators flaps in reconstructive surgery. The use of perforator flaps in the forearm has not become widespread, yet the benefit of sparing a major peripheral artery such as the ulnar or radial is certainly worth considering. The authors present their experience with perforator flaps in the forearm.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/micr.20498

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257818200005

    View details for PubMedID 18537175

  • The impact of immediate breast reconstruction on the technical delivery of postmastectomy radiotherapy INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS Motwani, S. B., Strom, E. A., Schechter, N. R., Butler, C. E., Lee, G. K., Langstein, H. N., Kronowitz, S. J., Meric-Bernstam, F., Ibrahim, N. K., Buchholz, T. A. 2006; 66 (1): 76-82

    Abstract

    To quantify the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) planning.A total of 110 patients (112 treatment plans) who had mastectomy with immediate reconstruction followed by radiotherapy were compared with contemporaneous stage-matched patients who had undergone mastectomy without intervening reconstruction. A scoring system was used to assess optimal radiotherapy planning using four parameters: breadth of chest wall coverage, treatment of the ipsilateral internal mammary chain, minimization of lung, and avoidance of heart. An "optimal" plan achieved all objectives or a minor 0.5 point deduction; "moderately" compromised treatment plans had 1.0 or 1.5 point deductions; and "major" compromised plans had > or =2.0 point deductions.Of the 112 PMRT plans scored after reconstruction, 52% had compromises compared with 7% of matched controls (p < 0.0001). Of the compromised plans after reconstruction, 33% were considered to be moderately compromised plans and 19% were major compromised treatment plans. Optimal chest wall coverage, treatment of the ipsilateral internal mammary chain, lung minimization, and heart avoidance was achieved in 79%, 45%, 84%, and 84% of the plans in the group undergoing immediate reconstruction, compared respectively with 100%, 93%, 97%, and 92% of the plans in the control group (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.0015, and p = 0.1435). In patients with reconstructions, 67% of the "major" compromised radiotherapy plans were left-sided (p < 0.16).Radiation treatment planning after immediate breast reconstruction was compromised in more than half of the patients (52%), with the largest compromises observed in those with left-sided cancers. For patients with locally advanced breast cancer, the potential for compromised PMRT planning should be considered when deciding between immediate and delayed reconstruction.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2006.03.040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239931500011

    View details for PubMedID 16765534

  • The economics of plastic surgery practices: Trends in income, procedure mix, and volume PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Krieger, L. M., Lee, G. K. 2004; 114 (1): 192-199

    Abstract

    Anecdotally, plastic surgeons have complained of working harder for the same or less income in recent years. They also complain of falling fees for reconstructive surgery and increasing competition for cosmetic surgery. This study examined these notions using the best available data. To gain a better understanding of the current plastic surgery market, plastic surgeon incomes, fees, volume, and relative mix of cosmetic and reconstructive surgery were analyzed between the years 1992 and 2002. To gain a broader perspective, plastic surgeon income trends were then compared with those of other medical specialties and of nonmedical professions. The data show that in real dollars, plastic surgeon incomes have remained essentially steady in recent years, despite plastic surgeons increasing their surgery load by an average of 41 percent over the past 10 years. The overall income trend is similar to that of members of other medical specialties and other nonmedical professionals. The average practice percentage of cosmetic surgery was calculated and found to have increased from 27 percent in 1992 to 58 percent in 2002. This most likely can be explained by the findings that real dollar fees collected for cosmetic surgery have decreased very slightly, whereas those for reconstructive procedures have experienced sharp declines. This study demonstrates that plastic surgeons have adjusted their practice profiles in recent years. They have increased their case loads and shifted their practices toward cosmetic surgery, most likely with the goal of maintaining their incomes. The strategy appears to have been successful in the short term. However, with increasing competition and falling prices for cosmetic surgery, it may represent a temporary bulwark for plastic surgeon incomes unless other steps are taken.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.PRS.0000128820.10811.0A

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222282100034

    View details for PubMedID 15220592

Conference Proceedings


  • Microsurgery Education in Residency Training Validating an Online Curriculum Satterwhite, T., Son, J., Carey, J., Zeidler, K., Bari, S., Gurtner, G., Chang, J., Lee, G. K. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2012: 410-414

    Abstract

    Plastic surgery training has traditionally been modeled as an "apprenticeship," where faculty teach surgical skills to residents on live patients. Although this is a well-established process, the demand by the public and healthcare agencies for improved patient care, outcomes, and patient safety has led to the development of adjunct methods of teaching. The goal of this project is to assess the effectiveness of a web-based microsurgical curriculum.We developed an interactive Web site to teach essential microsurgical competencies. Residents were randomly divided into 2 cohorts: one experimental group completed this online resource and the other control group did not. Pre- and postassessments were administered, consisting of a written test and a recorded microsurgery skills session.A total of 17 plastic surgery residents of various training levels participated in the study. Residents who completed the web-based curriculum showed dramatic improvement in their knowledge and skills, with a 17-percentage point increase in their test scores (P = 0.01) compared with controls (P = 0.80). The experimental group was more likely to perform microanastomoses faster with an average of 4.5-minute improvement compared with 1.25-minute change among the control group. Residents performed self-assessments, and those who rated themselves as "very confident" had higher overall test scores (85% test score vs. 59%, P = 0.004), as well as shorter times to complete the microsurgical task (7.5 minutes vs. 13.6 minutes, P = 0.007). Overall, 62% of residents rated the online webpage as extremely valuable. The majority of residents reported the webpage improved their knowledge and markedly improved their microsurgical technique, which was confirmed by faculty experts.Our interactive Web-based curriculum is a novel resource, teaching microsurgery in an organized, competency-based manner, which we believe is the first Web site of this nature. An individualized, self-paced Web site is ideal for plastic surgery trainees of all levels. Overall, the widespread implementation of our proposed curriculum--online self-directed training combined with regular practice sessions--will establish a strong foundation of microsurgery knowledge and skills acquisition for all plastic surgery residents.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/SAP.0b013e31823b6a1a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301800600019

    View details for PubMedID 22421490

  • Effectiveness of the Asteame Nipple Guard (TM) in maintaining projection following nipple reconstruction: A prospective randomised controlled trial Rosing, J. H., Momeni, A., Kamperman, K., Kahn, D., Gurtner, G., Lee, G. K. ELSEVIER SCI LTD. 2010: 1592-1596

    Abstract

    As the final step in breast reconstruction, nipple reconstruction is considered a minor surgical procedure. However, despite the multitude of techniques and postoperative dressings proposed, none have proven to resist the tendency of the reconstructed nipple to gradually flatten over time. A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted assessing the value of using the Asteame Nipple Guard™ compared to standard gauze dressing in maintaining nipple projection postoperatively. A total of 30 nipple reconstructions in 22 patients were included in the study with randomisation of 15 nipples to each study arm. Nipple projection was measured at various time points postoperatively with calculation of the percent changes in nipple projection. The mean decrease in long-term nipple projection at 6 months in the experimental group was 46.6% vs. 71.8% in the control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, the Nipple Guard™ helps in maintaining nipple projection postoperatively.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bjps.2009.10.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281655500003

    View details for PubMedID 19897430

  • Magnetic resonance imaging detection of vascular occlusion of a pedicled muscle flap Hui, K., Lee, G. K., Zhang, F., Li, K., CHEUNG, L., Lineaweaver, W. C. WILEY-LISS. 1996: 306-312

    Abstract

    Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a highly sensitive monitor of tissue blood perfusion. This technique has been used to assess blood flow through liver, kidney, and certain tumors, but has not been widely applied to the study of skeletal muscle circulation. In our study, we used a novel scanning software to obtain contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted gradient echo MRI images of pedicled quadriceps muscle flaps in rabbits in order to study images of arterial, venous, and arterio-venous occlusion. We administered an intravenous bolus of gadoteridol contrast agent at the initiation of scanning, which produces a decrease in T2*-signal and improves the sensitivity of measuring blood perfusion. Within 30 seconds of MRI scanning, control flaps with intact pedicles exhibited a rapid decrease in T2*-signal intensity, indicating adequate perfusion of blood through muscle tissue; however, occluded pedicled flaps showed no significant change in signal intensity, indicating lack of blood perfusion. Differences in signal intensities as measured by MRI between occluded and control flaps were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Selective vascular occlusion of either artery alone, or both artery and vein were detected within 15 minutes, whereas selective venous occlusion could be detected after 2 hours. We conclude that MRI has the ability to assess skeletal muscle perfusion, and is capable of noninvasively evaluating a cross-section of tissue in both superficial and buried flaps. MRI, therefore, may have the potential for evaluating perfusion in muscle flaps (including buried flaps), and other disorders of muscle circulation such as compartment syndrome.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996XU71700004

    View details for PubMedID 9308714

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