Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Diagnostic Radiology
  • Radiology

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Board of Trustees, ISMRM (2008 - 2011)
  • Faculty Fellows, Stanford (2007 - 2008)
  • Education Committee, Stanford Radiology (2002 - 2008)
  • Scientific Program Committee, ISMRM (2000 - 2003)
  • Medical School Faculty Senate, Stanford (2000 - 2007)
  • Medical Scholars Committee, Stanford Medical School (1999 - 2004)

Honors & Awards


  • Cum Laude Award, SCBT/MR (2012)
  • Young Investigator Award, SCBT/MR (2011)
  • Fellow, International Society for Magnetic Resonance In Medicine (2011)
  • ARR Distinguished Investigator, Academy of Radiology Research (2011)
  • Allan Cox Medal for Undergraduate Research, Stanford University (2011)
  • Resident's Teaching Award, Radiology Dept. (2000)
  • Lauterbur Award, SCBT/MR (2001)
  • Lauterbur Award, SCBT/MR (2002)
  • Lauterbur Award, SCBT/MR (2003)
  • Cum Laude Award, SCBT/MR (2004)
  • President's Award, ARRS (2004)
  • Lauterbur Award, SCBT/MR (2005)
  • Kaiser Award for Innovation in Medical Education, Stanford (2006)
  • Lauterbur Award, SCBT/MR (2006)
  • President's Medal, ISS (2007)
  • Moncoda Award, SCBT/MR (2008)
  • Lauterbur Award, SCBT/MR (2008)
  • Young Investigator Award, ASB (2009)
  • Cum Laude Award, SCBT/MR (2009)
  • Thought Leadership Award, GE Healthcare (2009)
  • Young Investigator Award, SCBT/MR (2010)

Professional Education


  • Fellowship:UCSD School of Medicine (1999) CA
  • Internship:Kaiser Permanente/Santa Clara (1993) CA
  • Medical Education:Stanford University School of Medicine (1992) CA
  • Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine (1998) CA
  • Board Certification: Diagnostic Radiology, American Board of Radiology (1998)
  • M.D., Stanford University, Medicine (1992)
  • M.S., Stanford University, Electrical Engineering (1988)
  • B.S., Stanford University, Electrical Engineering (1986)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


My primary focus is application of new MR imaging technology to musculoskeletal problems. Current projects include: Rapid MRI for Osteoarthritis, Weight-bearing cartilage imaging with MRI, and MRI-based models of muscle. We are studing the application of new MR imaging techniques such as rapid imaging, real-time imaging, and short echo time imaging to learn more about biomechanics and pathology of bones and joints.

Clinical Trials


  • Effects of an Herbal Topical Cream on Osteoarthritis Symptoms, Biomarkers, and Disease Progression in the Knee Not Recruiting

    Arthritis Relief Plus (ARP) Cream is a natural, herbal cream that has been shown to provide pain relief and decreased stiffness. Anecdotal reports suggest that pain may continue to be reduced months after cream use is stopped, indicating that there could be some disease-modifying effects of the cream. The purpose of this study is to test the claim that the ARP cream can provide long-term pain relief to osteoarthritis patients after only a short period of use. The study will also try to determine whether the pain relief is accompanied with any measurable indications that the progression of osteoarthritis has slowed or halted

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Jill Fattor, M.S., 650-721-4102.

    View full details

  • A Multicenter Study to Evaluate the Effects of DR-105 on Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Females Not Recruiting

    This study is being conducted to compare the effects of DR-105 to a 28-day oral contraceptive regimen on bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescent females. Subjects will be randomized to either DR-105 or a 28-day oral contraceptive (OC). Subjects not seeking hormonal contraception who meet eligibility criteria will serve as a control group. Duration of the study for study subjects will be approximately 13 months.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Kelsey Lynd, (650) 721 - 1237.

    View full details

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Postdoctoral Advisees


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Hip-femoral acetabular impingement. Clinics in sports medicine Anderson, C. N., Riley, G. M., Gold, G. E., Safran, M. R. 2013; 32 (3): 409-425

    Abstract

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a valuable technology for the diagnosis and treatment of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). This article reviews the basic pathophysiology of FAI, as well as the techniques and indications for MRI and magnetic resonance arthrography. Normal MRI anatomy of the hip and pathologic MRI anatomy associated with FAI are also discussed. Several case examples are presented demonstrating the diagnosis and treatment of FAI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.csm.2013.03.010

    View details for PubMedID 23773875

  • Foot and ankle injuries in sport: imaging correlation with arthroscopic and surgical findings. Clinics in sports medicine Hunt, K. J., Githens, M., Riley, G. M., Kim, M., Gold, G. E. 2013; 32 (3): 525-557

    Abstract

    Foot and ankle injuries are common in sport. Although many available imaging techniques can be useful in identifying and classifying injuries, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high levels of sensitivity and specificity for articular and soft-tissue injuries. Arthroscopic and minimally invasive treatment techniques for foot and ankle injuries are rapidly evolving, minimizing morbidity and improving postoperative rehabilitation and return to play. Correlation between MRI and surgical findings can aid in both accessing and treating pathologic processes and structures.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.csm.2013.03.007

    View details for PubMedID 23773880

  • In vitro analysis of peri-articular soft tissues passive constraining effect on hip kinematics and joint stability. Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA Safran, M. R., Lopomo, N., Zaffagnini, S., Signorelli, C., Vaughn, Z. D., Lindsey, D. P., Gold, G., Giordano, G., Marcacci, M. 2013; 21 (7): 1655-1663

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Aim of the study is to assess the contribution of peri-articular soft tissues to hip joint kinematics and their influence on hip stability. METHODS: Four hemi-corpse specimens (3 males, average age 72 years) were studied using a custom navigation system. Hip kinematics (femoral head motion relative to the acetabulum and joint range of motion) were evaluated with the hip manually positioned in 36 different positions with (I) soft tissues intact, (II) after removal of the skin and muscles and (III) after partial capsulectomy. Each position was repeated 3 times in each state. RESULTS: Excellent interclass correlation for each test was determined (ICC range, 0.84-0.96). Femoral head anatomical centre displacement relative to the acetabulum occurred in all 3 planes, even with all the soft tissue intact (average, 3.3 ± 2.8 mm lateral translation; 1.4 ± 1.8 mm posterior translation and 0.3 ± 1.5 mm distally). These translations increased as more soft tissue was removed, except medial-lateral displacement, with an average 4.6 ± 2.9 mm lateral translation, 0.7 ± 1.3 mm posterior translation and 1.5 ± 1.9 mm distal translation when partial capsulectomy was performed. Range of motion increased in all 3 planes with increasing removal of the soft tissues. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that femoral head anatomical centre displacement within the acetabulum occurs and increases with increasing removal of peri-articular soft tissues, confirming their influence on hip stability. Hip kinematics was also influenced by peri-articular soft tissues; specifically range of motion increases with increasing removal of those tissues. From clinicians' point of view, they have therefore to consider the influence of their surgeries on peri-articular soft tissues, since excessive translations may promote hip arthritis.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00167-012-2091-6

    View details for PubMedID 22752414

  • Regional variation in T1? and T2 times in osteoarthritic human menisci: correlation with mechanical properties and matrix composition. Osteoarthritis and cartilage Son, M., Goodman, S. B., Chen, W., Hargreaves, B. A., Gold, G. E., Levenston, M. E. 2013; 21 (6): 796-805

    Abstract

    Changes in T1? and T2 magnetic resonance relaxation times have been associated with articular cartilage degeneration, but similar relationships for meniscal tissue have not been extensively investigated. This work examined relationships between T1? and T2 measurements and biochemical and mechanical properties across regions of degenerate human menisci.Average T1? and T2 relaxation times were determined for nine regions each of seven medial and 13 lateral menisci from 14 total knee replacement patients. Sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG), collagen and water contents were measured for each region. Biomechanical measurements of equilibrium compressive, dynamic compressive and dynamic shear moduli were made for anterior, central and posterior regions.T1? and T2 times showed similar regional patterns, with longer relaxation times in the (radially) middle region compared to the inner and outer regions. Pooled over all regions, T1? and T2 times showed strong correlations both with one another and with water content. Correlations with biochemical content varied depending on normalization to wet or dry mass, and both imaging parameters showed stronger correlations with collagen compared to sGAG content. Mechanical properties displayed moderate inverse correlations with increasing T1? and T2 times and water content.Both T1? and T2 relaxation times correlated strongly with water content and moderately with mechanical properties in osteoarthritic menisci, but not as strongly with sGAG or collagen contents alone. While the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect early osteoarthritic changes remains the subject of investigation, these results suggest that T1? and T2 relaxation times have limited ability to detect compositional variations in degenerate menisci.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2013.03.002

    View details for PubMedID 23499673

  • Application of advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques in evaluation of the lower extremity. Radiologic clinics of North America Braun, H. J., Dragoo, J. L., Hargreaves, B. A., Levenston, M. E., Gold, G. E. 2013; 51 (3): 529-545

    Abstract

    This article reviews current magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) techniques for imaging the lower extremity, focusing on imaging of the knee, ankle, and hip joints. Recent advancements in MR imaging include imaging at 7 T, using multiple receiver channels, T2* imaging, and metal suppression techniques, allowing more detailed visualization of complex anatomy, evaluation of morphologic changes within articular cartilage, and imaging around orthopedic hardware.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.rcl.2012.12.001

    View details for PubMedID 23622097

  • Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0 T and 7.0 T: A comparison of relaxation times and image contrast EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY Jordan, C. D., Saranathan, M., Bangerter, N. K., Hargreaves, B. A., Gold, G. E. 2013; 82 (5): 734-739

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to measure and compare the relaxation times of musculoskeletal tissues at 3.0 T and 7.0 T, and to use these measurements to select appropriate parameters for musculoskeletal protocols at 7.0 T.We measured the T? and T? relaxation times of cartilage, muscle, synovial fluid, bone marrow and subcutaneous fat at both 3.0 T and 7.0 T in the knees of five healthy volunteers. The T? relaxation times were measured using a spin-echo inversion recovery sequence with six inversion times. The T? relaxation times were measured using a spin-echo sequence with seven echo times. The accuracy of both the T? and T? measurement techniques was verified in phantoms at both magnetic field strengths. We used the measured relaxation times to help design 7.0 T musculoskeletal protocols that preserve the favorable contrast characteristics of our 3.0 T protocols, while achieving significantly higher resolution at higher SNR efficiency.The T? relaxation times in all tissues at 7.0 T were consistently higher than those measured at 3.0 T, while the T? relaxation times at 7.0 T were consistently lower than those measured at 3.0 T. The measured relaxation times were used to help develop high resolution 7.0 T protocols that had similar fluid-to-cartilage contrast to that of the standard clinical 3.0 T protocols for the following sequences: proton-density-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE), T?-weighted FSE, and 3D-FSE-Cube.The T? and T? changes were within the expected ranges. Parameters for musculoskeletal protocols at 7.0 T can be optimized based on these values, yielding improved resolution in musculoskeletal imaging with similar contrast to that of standard 3.0 T clinical protocols.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.09.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317335800012

    View details for PubMedID 22172536

  • Patellar maltracking is prevalent among patellofemoral pain subjects with patella alta: An upright, weightbearing MRI study JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Pal, S., Besier, T. F., Beaupre, G. S., Fredericson, M., Delp, S. L., Gold, G. E. 2013; 31 (3): 448-457

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to determine if patellar maltracking is more prevalent among patellofemoral (PF) pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height. We imaged 37 PF pain and 15 pain free subjects in an open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging scanner while they stood in a weightbearing posture. We measured patella height using the Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, Insall-Salvati, Modified Insall-Salvati, and Patellotrochlear indices, and classified the subjects into patella alta and normal patella height groups. We measured patella tilt and bisect offset from oblique-axial plane images, and classified the subjects into maltracking and normal tracking groups. Patellar maltracking was more prevalent among PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to PF pain subjects with normal patella height (two-tailed Fisher's exact test, p<0.050). Using the Caton-Deschamps index, 67% (8/12) of PF pain subjects with patella alta were maltrackers, whereas only 16% (4/25) of PF pain subjects with normal patella height were maltrackers. Patellofemoral pain subjects classified as maltrackers displayed a greater patella height compared to the pain free and PF pain subjects classified as normal trackers (two-tailed unpaired t-tests with Bonferroni correction, p<0.017). This study adds to our understanding of PF pain in two ways-(1) we demonstrate that patellar maltracking is more prevalent in PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height; and (2) we show greater patella height in PF pain subjects compared to pain free subjects using four indices commonly used in clinics.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.22256

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313980600016

    View details for PubMedID 23165335

  • Human Cartilage Repair with a Photoreactive Adhesive-Hydrogel Composite SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Sharma, B., Fermanian, S., Gibson, M., Unterman, S., Herzka, D. A., Cascio, B., Coburn, J., Hui, A. Y., Marcus, N., Gold, G. E., Elisseeff, J. H. 2013; 5 (167)

    Abstract

    Surgical options for cartilage resurfacing may be significantly improved by advances and application of biomaterials that direct tissue repair. A poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel was designed to support cartilage matrix production, with easy surgical application. A model in vitro system demonstrated deposition of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix in the hydrogel biomaterial and stimulation of adjacent cartilage tissue development by mesenchymal stem cells. For translation to the joint environment, a chondroitin sulfate adhesive was applied to covalently bond and adhere the hydrogel to cartilage and bone tissue in articular defects. After preclinical testing in a caprine model, a pilot clinical study was initiated where the biomaterials system was combined with standard microfracture surgery in 15 patients with focal cartilage defects on the medial femoral condyle. Control patients were treated with microfracture alone. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that treated patients achieved significantly higher levels of tissue fill compared to controls. Magnetic resonance spin-spin relaxation times (T(2)) showed decreasing water content and increased tissue organization over time. Treated patients had less pain compared with controls, whereas knee function [International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC)] scores increased to similar levels between the groups over the 6 months evaluated. No major adverse events were observed over the study period. With further clinical testing, this practical biomaterials strategy has the potential to improve the treatment of articular cartilage defects.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3004838

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313568200004

    View details for PubMedID 23303605

  • T1-weighted sodium MRI of the articulator cartilage in osteoarthritis: a cross sectional and longitudinal study. PloS one Newbould, R. D., Miller, S. R., Upadhyay, N., Rao, A. W., Swann, P., Gold, G. E., Strachan, R. K., Matthews, P. M., Taylor, P. C., Brown, A. P. 2013; 8 (8)

    Abstract

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has shown great utility in diagnosing soft tissue burden in osteoarthritis (OA), though MRI measures of cartilage integrity have proven more elusive. Sodium MRI can reflect the proteoglycan content of cartilage; however, it requires specialized hardware, acquisition sequences, and long imaging times. This study was designed to assess the potential of a clinically feasible sodium MRI acquisition to detect differences in the knee cartilage of subjects with OA versus healthy controls (HC), and to determine whether longitudinal changes in sodium content are observed at 3 and 6 months. 28 subjects with primary knee OA and 19 HC subjects age and gender matched were enrolled in this ethically-approved study. At baseline, 3 and 6 months subjects underwent structural MRI and a 0.4ms echo time 3D T1-weighted sodium scan as well as the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) and knee pain by visual analogue score (VAS). A standing radiograph of the knee was taken for Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) scoring. A blinded reader outlined the cartilage on the structural images which was used to determine median T1-weighted sodium concentrations in each region of interest on the co-registered sodium scans. VAS, K-L, and KOOS all significantly separated the OA and HC groups. OA subjects had higher T1-weighted sodium concentrations, most strongly observed in the lateral tibial, lateral femoral and medial patella ROIs. There were no significant changes in cartilage volume or sodium concentration over 6 months. This study has shown that a clinically-feasible sodium MRI at a moderate 3T field strength and imaging time with fluid attenuation by T1 weighting significantly separated HCs from OA subjects.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0073067

    View details for PubMedID 23940822

  • Quantitative MRI techniques of cartilage composition. Quantitative imaging in medicine and surgery Matzat, S. J., van Tiel, J., Gold, G. E., Oei, E. H. 2013; 3 (3): 162-74

    Abstract

    Due to aging populations and increasing rates of obesity in the developed world, the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA) is continually increasing. Decreasing the societal and patient burden of this disease motivates research in prevention, early detection of OA, and novel treatment strategies against OA. One key facet of this effort is the need to track the degradation of tissues within joints, especially cartilage. Currently, conventional imaging techniques provide accurate means to detect morphological deterioration of cartilage in the later stages of OA, but these methods are not sensitive to the subtle biochemical changes during early disease stages. Novel quantitative techniques with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide direct and indirect assessments of cartilage composition, and thus allow for earlier detection and tracking of OA. This review describes the most prominent quantitative MRI techniques to date-dGEMRIC, T2 mapping, T1rho mapping, and sodium imaging. Other, less-validated methods for quantifying cartilage composition are also described-Ultrashort echo time (UTE), gagCEST, and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). For each technique, this article discusses the proposed biochemical correlates, as well its advantages and limitations for clinical and research use. The article concludes with a detailed discussion of how the field of quantitative MRI has progressed to provide information regarding two specific patient populations through clinical research-patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture and patients with impingement in the hip. While quantitative imaging techniques continue to rapidly evolve, specific challenges for each technique as well as challenges to clinical applications remain.

    View details for PubMedID 23833729

  • Comparison of MRI and 18F-NaF PET/CT in patients with patellofemoral pain JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Draper, C. E., Quon, A., Fredericson, M., Besier, T. F., Delp, S. L., Beaupre, G. S., Gold, G. E. 2012; 36 (4): 928-932

    Abstract

    To determine whether bone metabolic activity corresponds to bone and cartilage damage in patients with patellofemoral pain.We acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and (18) F-NaF positron emission tomography (PET) / computed tomography (CT) scans of the knees of 22 subjects. We compared locations of increased tracer uptake on the (18) F-NaF PET images to bone marrow edema and cartilage damage visualized on MRI.We found that increased bone activity on (18) F-NaF PET does not always correspond to structural damage in the bone or cartilage as seen on MRI.Our results suggest that (18) F-NaF PET/CT may provide additional information in patellofemoral pain patients compared to MRI.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.23682

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308884300018

    View details for PubMedID 22549985

  • Advances in musculoskeletal MRI: Technical considerations JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Shapiro, L., Harish, M., Hargreaves, B., Staroswiecki, E., Gold, G. 2012; 36 (4): 775-787

    Abstract

    The technology of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is advancing at a dramatic rate. MRI is now done at medium and higher field strengths with more specialized surface coils and with more variable pulse sequences and postprocessing techniques than ever before. These innumerable technical advances are advantageous as they lead to an increased signal-to-noise ratio and increased variety of soft-tissue contrast options. However, at the same time they potentially produce more imaging artifacts when compared with past techniques. Substantial technical advances have considerable clinical challenges in musculoskeletal radiology such as postoperative patient imaging, cartilage mapping, and molecular imaging. In this review we consider technical advances in hardware and software of musculoskeletal MRI along with their clinical applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.23629

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308884300002

    View details for PubMedID 22987756

  • Diagnosis of osteoarthritis: Imaging BONE Braun, H. J., Gold, G. E. 2012; 51 (2): 278-288

    Abstract

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, debilitating joint disease characterized by degenerative changes to the bones, cartilage, menisci, ligaments, and synovial tissue. Imaging modalities such as radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and ultrasound (US) permit visualization of these structures and can evaluate disease onset and progression. Radiography is primarily useful for the assessment of bony structures, while OCT is used for evaluation of articular cartilage and US for ligaments and the synovium. MRI permits visualization of all intraarticular structures and pathologies, though US or OCT may be preferential in some circumstances. As OA is a disease of the whole joint, a combination of imaging techniques may be necessary in order to gain the most comprehensive picture of the disease state. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Osteoarthritis".

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bone.2011.11.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305545600013

    View details for PubMedID 22155587

  • Patellar tilt correlates with vastus lateralis: Vastus medialis activation ratio in maltracking patellofemoral pain patients JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Pal, S., Besier, T. F., Draper, C. E., Fredericson, M., Gold, G. E., Beaupre, G. S., Delp, S. L. 2012; 30 (6): 927-933

    Abstract

    Patellofemoral (PF) pain is a common ailment of the lower extremity. A theorized cause for pain is patellar maltracking due to vasti muscle activation imbalance, represented as large vastus lateralis:vastus medialis (VL:VM) activation ratios. However, evidence relating vasti muscle activation imbalance to patellar maltracking is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VL:VM activation ratio and patellar tracking measures, patellar tilt and bisect offset, in PF pain subjects and pain-free controls. We evaluated VL:VM activation ratio and VM activation delay relative to VL activation in 39 PF pain subjects and 15 pain-free controls during walking. We classified the PF pain subjects into normal tracking and maltracking groups based on patellar tilt and bisect offset measured from weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging. Patellar tilt correlated with VL:VM activation ratio only in PF pain subjects classified as maltrackers. This suggests that a clinical intervention targeting vasti muscle activation imbalance may be effective only in PF pain subjects classified as maltrackers.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.22008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302466700012

    View details for PubMedID 22086708

  • UTE T2* mapping detects sub-clinical meniscus degeneration OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE McWalter, E. J., Gold, G. E. 2012; 20 (6): 471-472

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2012.02.640

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304733900002

    View details for PubMedID 22406647

  • T2* measurement of the knee articular cartilage in osteoarthritis at 3T JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Newbould, R. D., Miller, S. R., Toms, L. D., Swann, P., Tielbeek, J. A., Gold, G. E., Strachan, R. K., Taylor, P. C., Matthews, P. M., Brown, A. P. 2012; 35 (6): 1422-1429

    Abstract

    To measure reproducibility, longitudinal and cross-sectional differences in T2* maps at 3 Tesla (T) in the articular cartilage of the knee in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and healthy matched controls.MRI data and standing radiographs were acquired from 33 subjects with OA and 21 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Reproducibility was determined by two sessions in the same day, while longitudinal and cross-sectional group differences used visits at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Each visit contained symptomological assessments and an MRI session consisting of high resolution three-dimensional double-echo-steady-state (DESS) and co-registered T2* maps of the most diseased knee. A blinded reader delineated the articular cartilage on the DESS images and median T2* values were reported.T2* values showed an intra-visit reproducibility of 2.0% over the whole cartilage. No longitudinal effects were measured in either group over 6 months. T2* maps revealed a 5.8% longer T2* in the medial tibial cartilage and 7.6% and 6.5% shorter T2* in the patellar and lateral tibial cartilage, respectively, in OA subjects versus controls (P < 0.02).T2* mapping is a repeatable process that showed differences between the OA subject and control groups.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.23598

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304035100020

    View details for PubMedID 22314961

  • Simultaneous Estimation of T-2 and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Human Articular Cartilage In Vivo with a Modified Three-Dimensional Double Echo Steady State (DESS) Sequence at 3 T MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Staroswiecki, E., Granlund, K. L., Alley, M. T., Gold, G. E., Hargreaves, B. A. 2012; 67 (4): 1086-1096

    Abstract

    T(2) mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging complement morphological imaging for assessing cartilage disease and injury. The double echo steady state sequence has been used for morphological imaging and generates two echoes with markedly different T(2) and diffusion weighting. Modifying the spoiler gradient area and flip angle of the double echo steady state sequence allows greater control of the diffusion weighting of both echoes. Data from two acquisitions with different spoiler gradient areas and flip angles are used to simultaneously estimate the T(2) and apparent diffusion coefficient of each voxel. This method is verified in phantoms and validated in vivo in the knee; estimates from different regions of interest in the phantoms and cartilage are compared to those obtained using standard spin-echo methods. The Pearson correlations were 0.984 for T(2) (?2% relative difference between spin-echo and double echo steady state estimates) and 0.997 for apparent diffusion coefficient (˜1% relative difference between spin-echo and double echo steady state estimates) for the phantom study and 0.989 for T(2) and 0.987 for apparent diffusion coefficient in regions of interest in the human knee in vivo. High accuracy for simultaneous three-dimensional T(2) and apparent diffusion coefficient measurements are demonstrated, while also providing morphologic three-dimensional images without blurring or distortion in reasonable scan times.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.23090

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301533500022

    View details for PubMedID 22179942

  • Simultaneous Fat Suppression and Band Reduction with Large-Angle Multiple-Acquisition Balanced Steady-State Free Precession MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Quist, B., Hargreaves, B. A., Cukur, T., Morrell, G. R., Gold, G. E., Bangerter, N. K. 2012; 67 (4): 1004-1012

    Abstract

    Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) MRI is a rapid and signal-to-noise ratio-efficient imaging method, but suffers from characteristic bands of signal loss in regions of large field inhomogeneity. Several methods have been developed to reduce the severity of these banding artifacts, typically involving the acquisition of multiple bSSFP datasets (and the accompanying increase in scan time). Fat suppression with bSSFP is also challenging; most existing methods require an additional increase in scan time, and some are incompatible with bSSFP band-reduction techniques. This work was motivated by the need for both robust fat suppression and band reduction in the presence of field inhomogeneity when using bSSFP for flow-independent peripheral angiography. The large flip angles used in this application to improve vessel conspicuity and contrast lead to specific absorption rate considerations, longer repetition times, and increased severity of banding artifacts. In this work, a novel method that simultaneously suppresses fat and reduces bSSFP banding artifact with the acquisition of only two phase-cycled bSSFP datasets is presented. A weighted sum of the two bSSFP acquisitions is taken on a voxel-by-voxel basis, effectively synthesizing an off-resonance profile at each voxel that puts fat in the stop band while keeping water in the pass band. The technique exploits the near-sinusoidal shape of the bSSFP off-resonance spectrum for many tissues at large (>50°) flip angles.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.23076

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301533500014

    View details for PubMedID 22038883

  • Oral manganese as an MRI contrast agent for the detection of nociceptive activity NMR IN BIOMEDICINE Jacobs, K. E., Behera, D., Rosenberg, J., Gold, G., Moseley, M., Yeomans, D., Biswal, S. 2012; 25 (4): 563-569

    Abstract

    The ability of divalent manganese to enter neurons via calcium channels makes manganese an excellent MRI contrast agent for the imaging of nociception, the afferent neuronal encoding of pain perception. There is growing evidence that nociceptive neurons possess increased expression and activity of calcium channels, which would allow for the selective accumulation of manganese at these sites. In this study, we show that oral manganese chloride leads to increased enhancement of peripheral nerves involved in nociception on T(1)-weighted MRI. Oral rather than intravenous administration was chosen for its potentially better safety profile, making it a better candidate for clinical translation with important applications, such as pain diagnosis, therapy and research. The spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain was used for the purposes of this study. SNI rats were given, sequentially, increasing amounts of manganese chloride (lowest, 2.29 mg/100 g weight; highest, 20.6 mg/100 g weight) with alanine and vitamin D(3) by oral gavage. Compared with controls, SNI rats demonstrated increased signal-to-background ratios on T(1)-weighted fast spin echo MRI, which was confirmed by and correlated strongly with spectrometry measurements of nerve manganese concentration. We also found the difference between SNI and control rats to be greater at 48 h than at 24 h after dosing, indicating increased manganese retention in addition to increased manganese uptake in nociceptive nerves. This study demonstrates that oral manganese is a viable method for the imaging of nerves associated with increased nociceptive activity.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/nbm.1773

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302015500011

    View details for PubMedID 22447731

  • Patients with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated bone metabolic activity at the patellofemoral joint JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Draper, C. E., Fredericson, M., Gold, G. E., Besier, T. F., Delp, S. L., Beaupre, G. S., Quon, A. 2012; 30 (2): 209-213

    Abstract

    Patellofemoral pain is characterized by pain behind the kneecap and is often thought to be due to high stress at the patellofemoral joint. While we cannot measure bone stress in vivo, we can visualize bone metabolic activity using (18) F NaF PET/CT, which may be related to bone stress. Our goals were to use (18) F NaF PET/CT to evaluate whether subjects with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated bone metabolic activity and to determine whether bone metabolic activity correlates with pain intensity. We examined 20 subjects diagnosed with patellofemoral pain. All subjects received an (18) F NaF PET/CT scan of their knees. Uptake of (18) F NaF in the patella and trochlea was quantified by computing the standardized uptake value and normalizing by the background tracer uptake in bone. We detected increased tracer uptake in 85% of the painful knees examined. We found that the painful knees exhibited increased tracer uptake compared to the pain-free knees of four subjects with unilateral pain (P?=?0.0006). We also found a correlation between increasing tracer uptake and increasing pain intensity (r(2) ?=?0.55; P?=?0.0005). The implication of these results is that patellofemoral pain may be related to bone metabolic activity at the patellofemoral joint.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.21523

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298581200007

    View details for PubMedID 21812024

  • MRI of weight bearing and movement OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE Shapiro, L. M., Gold, G. E. 2012; 20 (2): 69-78

    Abstract

    Conventional, static magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to provide a vast amount of information regarding the anatomy and pathology of the musculoskeletal system. However, patients, especially those whose pain is position dependent or elucidated by movement, may benefit from more advanced imaging techniques that allow for the acquisition of functional information. This manuscript reviews a variety of advancements in MRI techniques that are used to image the musculoskeletal system dynamically, while in motion or under load. The methodologies, advantages and drawbacks of stress MRI, cine-phase contrast MRI and real-time MRI are discussed as each has helped to advance the field by providing a scientific basis for understanding normal and pathological musculoskeletal anatomy and function. Advancements in dynamic MR imaging will certainly lead to improvements in the understanding, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. It is difficult to anticipate that dynamic MRI will replace conventional MRI, however, dynamic MRI may provide additional valuable information to findings of conventional MRI.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2011.11.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300124400001

    View details for PubMedID 22138286

  • Reproducibility of sodium MRI measures of articular cartilage of the knee in osteoarthritis OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE Newbould, R. D., Miller, S. R., Tielbeek, J. A., Toms, L. D., Rao, A. W., Gold, G. E., STRACHAN, R. K., Taylor, P. C., Matthews, P. M., Brown, A. P. 2012; 20 (1): 29-35

    Abstract

    To determine the stability and reproducibility of the sodium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal measured in the articular cartilage of the knee in both healthy volunteers and osteoarthritis (OA) patients.This was a prospective Research Ethics Committee approved study that acquired sodium and proton MRI data from 15 subjects with OA (three males, age 64 ± 10) and five healthy controls age and sex matched over the group. Each subject underwent standing planar radiographs of their knees for radiological scoring as well as symptomatological assessment questionnaires. In two MRI sessions on the same day, high resolution double-echo steady state (DESS) and 3D short echo time sodium MRI images of the most diseased knee were acquired and co-registered in each session. A blinded reader (LT) manually delineated the articular cartilage into four discrete regions, and two combined regions, on the DESS images. These regions were applied to the sodium images, and a median sodium signal from each reported. Within-subject and between-subject coefficients of variation were estimated and intraclass correlation coefficients for the healthy control group, OA subject group, and all pooled subjects group were calculated.Within-subject variability of sodium MRI at 3T was 3.2% overall, and 2.0% in healthy age-matched volunteers compared to a reproducibility of 3.6% on OA subjects.The reproducibility of sodium MRI was similar in both healthy controls and OA subjects. Researchers piloting techniques in healthy controls thus may expect a similar reproducibility in a controlled trial involving subjects with American College of Rheumatology (ACR)-defined OA of the knee.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2011.10.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299501000006

    View details for PubMedID 22040861

  • Three-dimensional fluid-suppressed T2-prep flow-independent peripheral angiography using balanced SSFP MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Bangerter, N. K., Cukur, T., Hargreaves, B. A., Hu, B. S., Brittain, J. H., Park, D., Gold, G. E., Nishimura, D. G. 2011; 29 (8): 1119-1124

    Abstract

    Accurate depiction of the vessels of the lower leg, foot or hand benefits from suppression of bright MR signal from lipid (such as bone marrow) and long-T1 fluid (such as synovial fluid and edema). Signal independence of blood flow velocities, good arterial/muscle contrast and arterial/venous separation are also desirable. The high SNR, short scan times and flow properties of balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) make it an excellent candidate for flow-independent angiography. In this work, a new magnetization-prepared 3D SSFP sequence for flow-independent peripheral angiography is presented. The technique combines a number of component techniques (phase-sensitive fat detection, inversion recovery, T2-preparation and square-spiral phase-encode ordering) to achieve high-contrast peripheral angiograms at only a modest scan time penalty over simple 3D SSFP. The technique is described in detail, a parameter optimization performed and preliminary results presented achieving high contrast and 1-mm isotropic resolution in a normal foot.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mri.2011.04.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295195900011

    View details for PubMedID 21705166

  • Cross-relaxation Imaging of Human Articular Cartilage MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Stikov, N., Keenan, K. E., Pauly, J. M., Smith, R. L., Dougherty, R. F., Gold, G. E. 2011; 66 (3): 725-734

    Abstract

    In this article, cross-relaxation imaging is applied to human ex vivo knee cartilage, and correlations of the cross-relaxation imaging parameters with macromolecular content in articular cartilage are reported. We show that, unlike the more commonly used magnetization transfer ratio, the bound pool fraction, the cross-relaxation rate (k) and the longitudinal relaxation time (T(1)) vary with depth and can therefore provide insight into the differences between the top and bottom layers of articular cartilage. Our cross-relaxation imaging model is more sensitive to macromolecular content in the top layers of cartilage, with bound pool fraction showing moderate correlations with proteoglycan content, and k and T(1) exhibiting moderate correlations with collagen.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.22865

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293988000013

    View details for PubMedID 21416504

  • Metal-Induced Artifacts in MRI AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Hargreaves, B. A., Worters, P. W., Pauly, K. B., Pauly, J. M., Koch, K. M., Gold, G. E. 2011; 197 (3): 547-555

    Abstract

    The purpose of this article is to review some of the basic principles of imaging and how metal-induced susceptibility artifacts originate in MR images. We will describe common ways to reduce or modify artifacts using readily available imaging techniques, and we will discuss some advanced methods to correct readout-direction and slice-direction artifacts.The presence of metallic implants in MRI can cause substantial image artifacts, including signal loss, failure of fat suppression, geometric distortion, and bright pile-up artifacts. These cause large resonant frequency changes and failure of many MRI mechanisms. Careful parameter and pulse sequence selections can avoid or reduce artifacts, although more advanced imaging methods offer further imaging improvements.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.11.7364

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294165600037

    View details for PubMedID 21862795

  • Definition of osteoarthritis on MRI: results of a Delphi exercise OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE Hunter, D. J., Arden, N., Conaghan, P. G., Eckstein, F., Gold, G., Grainger, A., Guermazi, A., Harvey, W., Jones, G., Le Graverand, M. P., Laredo, J. D., Lo, G., Losina, E., Mosher, T. J., Roemer, F., Zhang, W. 2011; 19 (8): 963-969

    Abstract

    Despite a growing body of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) literature in osteoarthritis (OA), there is little uniformity in its diagnostic application. We envisage in the first instance the definition requiring further validation and testing in the research setting before considering implementation/feasibility testing in the clinical setting. The objective of our research was to develop an MRI definition of structural OA.We undertook a multistage process consisting of a number of different steps. The intent was to develop testable definitions of OA (knee, hip and/or hand) on MRI. This was an evidence driven approach with results of a systematic review provided to the group prior to a Delphi exercise. Each participant of the steering group was allowed to submit independently up to five propositions related to key aspects in MRI diagnosis of knee OA. The steering group then participated in a Delphi exercise to reach consensus on which propositions we would recommend for a definition of structural OA on MRI. For each round of voting, ?60% votes led to include and ?20% votes led to exclude a proposition. After developing the proposition one of the definitions developed was tested for its validity against radiographic OA in an extant database.For the systematic review we identified 25 studies which met all of our inclusion criteria and contained relevant diagnostic measure and performance data. At the completion of the Delphi voting exercise 11 propositions were accepted for definition of structural OA on MRI. We assessed the diagnostic performance of the tibiofemoral MRI definition against a radiographic reference standard. The diagnostic performance for individual features was: osteophyte C statistic=0.61, for cartilage loss C statistic=0.73, for bone marrow lesions C statistic=0.72 and for meniscus tear in any region C statistic=0.78. The overall composite model for these four features was a C statistic=0.59. We detected good specificity (1) but less optimal sensitivity (0.46) likely due to detection of disease earlier on MRI.We have developed MRI definition of knee OA that requires further formal testing with regards their diagnostic performance (especially in datasets of persons with early disease), before they are more widely used. Our current analysis suggests that further testing should focus on comparisons other than the radiograph, that may capture later stage disease and thus nullify the potential for detecting early disease that MRI may afford. The propositions are not to detract from, nor to discourage the use of traditional means of diagnosing OA.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2011.04.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294240400005

    View details for PubMedID 21620986

  • Strains Across the Acetabular Labrum During Hip Motion A Cadaveric Model AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE Safran, M. R., Giordano, G., Lindsey, D. P., Gold, G. E., Rosenberg, J., Zaffagnini, S., Giori, N. J. 2011; 39: 92S-102S

    Abstract

    Labral tears commonly cause disabling intra-articular hip pain and are commonly treated with hip arthroscopy. However, the function and role of the labrum are still unclear.(1) Flexion, adduction, and internal rotation (a position clinically defined as the position for physical examination known as the impingement test) places greatest circumferential strain on the anterolateral labrum and posterior labrum; (2) extension with external rotation (a position clinically utilized during physical examination to assess for posterior impingement and for anterior instability) places significant circumferential strains on the anterior labrum; (3) abduction with external rotation during neutral flexion-extension (the position the extremity rests in when a patient lies supine) places the greatest load on the lateral labrum.Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Twelve cadaveric hips (age, 79 years) without labral tears or arthritis were studied. Hips were dissected free of soft tissues, except the capsuloligamentous structures. Differential variable reluctance transducers were placed in the labrum anteriorly, anterolaterally, laterally, and posteriorly to record circumferential strains in all 4 regions as the hip was placed in 36 different positions.The posterior labrum had the greatest circumferential strains identified; the peak was in the flexed position, in adduction or neutral abduction-adduction. The greatest strains anteriorly were in flexion with adduction. The greatest strains anterolaterally were in full extension. External rotation had greater strains than neutral rotation and internal rotation. The greatest strains laterally were at 90° of flexion with abduction, and external or neutral rotation. In the impingement position, the anterolateral strain increased the most, while the posterior labrum showed decreased strain (greatest magnitude of strain change). When the hip is externally rotated and in neutral flexion-extension or fully extended, the posterior labrum has significantly increased strain, while the anterolateral labrum strain is decreased.These are the first comprehensive strain data (of circumferential strain) analyzing the whole hip labrum. For the intact labrum, the greatest strain change was at the posterior acetabulum, whereas clinically, acetabular labral tears occur most frequently anterolaterally or anteriorly. The results are consistent with the impingement test as an assessment of anterolateral acetabular labral stress. The hyperextension-rotation test, often used clinically to assess anterior hip instability and posterior impingement, did not show a change in strain anteriorly, but did reveal an increase in strain posteriorly.Although this study does not include muscular forces across the hip joint, it does provide a clue as to the stresses about the labrum through the complete range of motions of the hip, which may help in providing a better understanding of the cause of labral tears and in the protection of labral repairs.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0363546511414017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292167400014

    View details for PubMedID 21709038

  • New MR Imaging Methods for Metallic Implants in the Knee: Artifact Correction and Clinical Impact JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Chen, C. A., Chen, W., Goodman, S. B., Hargreaves, B. A., Koch, K. M., Lu, W., Brau, A. C., Draper, C. E., Delp, S. L., Gold, G. E. 2011; 33 (5): 1121-1127

    Abstract

    To evaluate two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) and multiacquisition variable-resonance image combination (MAVRIC), for their ability to correct for artifacts in postoperative knees with metal.A total of 25 knees were imaged in this study. Fourteen total knee replacements (TKRs) in volunteers were scanned with SEMAC, MAVRIC, and 2D fast spin-echo (FSE) to measure artifact extent and implant rotation. The ability of the sequences to measure implant rotation and dimensions was compared in a TKR knee model. Eleven patients with a variety of metallic hardware were imaged with SEMAC and FSE to compare artifact extent and subsequent patient management was recorded.SEMAC and MAVRIC significantly reduced artifact extent compared to FSE (P < 0.0001) and were similar to each other (P = 0.58), allowing accurate measurement of implant dimensions and rotation. The TKRs were properly aligned in the volunteers. Clinical imaging with SEMAC in symptomatic knees significantly reduced artifact (P < 0.05) and showed findings that were on the majority confirmed by subsequent noninvasive or invasive patient studies.SEMAC and MAVRIC correct for metal artifact, noninvasively providing high-resolution images with superb bone and soft tissue contrast.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22534

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289999700015

    View details for PubMedID 21509870

  • Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction With Noise Reduction MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Lu, W., Pauly, K. B., Gold, G. E., Pauly, J. M., Hargreaves, B. A. 2011; 65 (5): 1352-1357

    Abstract

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) near metallic implants is often hampered by severe metal artifacts. To obtain distortion-free MR images near metallic implants, SEMAC (Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction) corrects metal artifacts via robust encoding of excited slices against metal-induced field inhomogeneities, followed by combining the data resolved from multiple SEMAC-encoded slices. However, as many of the resolved data elements only contain noise, SEMAC-corrected images can suffer from relatively low signal-to-noise ratio. Improving the signal-to-noise ratio of SEMAC-corrected images is essential to enable SEMAC in routine clinical studies. In this work, a new reconstruction procedure is proposed to reduce noise in SEMAC-corrected images. A singular value decomposition denoising step is first applied to suppress quadrature noise in multi-coil SEMAC-encoded slices. Subsequently, the singular value decomposition-denoised data are selectively included in the correction of through-plane distortions. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed reconstruction procedure significantly improves the SNR without compromising the correction of metal artifacts.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.22796

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289760800018

    View details for PubMedID 21287596

  • MR Imaging of Articular Cartilage Physiology MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Choi, J., Gold, G. E. 2011; 19 (2): 249-?

    Abstract

    The newer magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods can give insights into the initiation, progression, and eventual treatment of osteoarthritis. Sodium imaging is specific for changes in proteoglycan (PG) content without the need for an exogenous contrast agent. T1? imaging is sensitive to early PG depletion. Delayed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging has high resolution and sensitivity. T2 mapping is straightforward and is sensitive to changes in collagen and water content. Ultrashort echo time MR imaging examines the osteochondral junction. Magnetization transfer provides improved contrast between cartilage and fluid. Diffusion-weighted imaging may be a valuable tool in postoperative imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mric.2011.02.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292170100004

    View details for PubMedID 21665090

  • Routine 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Joints JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Kijowski, R., Gold, G. E. 2011; 33 (4): 758-771

    Abstract

    Due to its high spatial resolution and excellent tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the most commonly used imaging method to evaluate joints. Most musculoskeletal MRI is performed using 2D fast spin-echo sequences. However, 3D sequences have also been used for joint imaging and have the advantage of acquiring thin continuous slices through joints, which reduces the effects of partial volume averaging. With recent advances in MR technology, 3D sequences with isotropic resolution have been developed. These sequences allow high-quality multiplanar reformat images to be obtained following a single acquisition, thereby eliminating the need to repeat sequences with identical tissue contrast in different planes. Preliminary results on the diagnostic performance of 3D isotropic resolution sequences are encouraging. However, additional studies are needed to determine whether these sequences can replace currently used 2D fast spin-echo sequences for providing comprehensive joint assessment in clinical practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22342

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288913200001

    View details for PubMedID 21448939

  • Imaging of the Wrist at 1.5 Tesla Using Isotropic Three-Dimensional Fast Spin Echo Cube JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Stevens, K. J., Wallace, C. G., Chen, W., Rosenberg, J. K., Gold, G. E. 2011; 33 (4): 908-915

    Abstract

    To compare three-dimensional fast spin echo Cube (3D-FSE-Cube) with conventional 2D-FSE in MR imaging of the wrist.The wrists of 10 volunteers were imaged in a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner using an eight-channel wrist coil. The 3D-FSE-Cube images were acquired in the coronal plane with 0.5-mm isotropic resolution. The 2D-FSE images were acquired in both coronal and axial planes for comparison. An ROI was placed in fluid, cartilage, and muscle for SNR analysis. Comparable coronal and axial images were selected for each sequence, and paired images were randomized and graded for blurring, artifact, anatomic details, and overall image quality by three blinded musculoskeletal radiologists.SNR of fluid, cartilage and muscle at prescribed locations were higher using 3D-FSE-Cube, without reaching statistical significance. Fluid-cartilage CNR was also higher with 3D-FSE-Cube, but not statistically significant. Blurring, artifact, anatomic details, and overall image quality were significantly better on coronal 3D-FSE-Cube images (P < 0.001), but significantly better on axial 2D-FSE images compared with axial 3D-FSE-Cube reformats (P < 0.01).Isotropic data from 3D-FSE-Cube allows reformations in arbitrary scan planes, which may make multiple 2D acquisitions unnecessary, and improve depiction of complex wrist anatomy. However, axial reformations suffer from blurring, likely due to T2 decay during the long echo train, limiting overall image quality in this plane.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22494

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288913200019

    View details for PubMedID 21448957

  • Phase-sensitive sodium B1 mapping. Magnetic resonance in medicine Allen, S. P., Morrell, G. R., Peterson, B., Park, D., Gold, G. E., Kaggie, J. D., Bangerter, N. K. 2011; 65 (4): 1125-1130

    Abstract

    Quantitative sodium MRI requires accurate knowledge of factors affecting the sodium signal. One important determinant of sodium signal level is the transmit B(1) field strength. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio typical of sodium MRI makes accurate B(1) mapping in reasonable scan times challenging. A new phase-sensitive B(1) mapping technique has recently been shown to work better than the widely used dual-angle method in low-signal-to-noise ratio situations and over a broader range of flip angles. In this work, the phase-sensitive B(1) mapping technique is applied to sodium, and its performance compared to the dual-angle method through both simulation and phantom studies. The phase-sensitive method is shown to yield higher quality B(1) maps at low signal-to-noise ratio and greater consistency of measurement than the dual-angle method. An in vivo sodium B(1) map of the human breast is also shown, demonstrating the phase-sensitive method's feasibility for human studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.22700

    View details for PubMedID 21413078

  • Phase-Sensitive Sodium B-1 Mapping MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Allen, S. P., Morrell, G. R., Peterson, B., Park, D., Gold, G. E., Kaggie, J. D., Bangerter, N. K. 2011; 65 (4): 1126-1131

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.22700

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288612000026

  • Patellar Maltracking Correlates With Vastus Medialis Activation Delay in Patellofemoral Pain Patients AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE Pal, S., Draper, C. E., Fredericson, M., Gold, G. E., Delp, S. L., Beaupre, G. S., Besier, T. F. 2011; 39 (3): 590-598

    Abstract

    Delayed onset of vastus medialis (VM) activity compared with vastus lateralis activity is a reported cause for patellofemoral pain. The delayed onset of VM activity in patellofemoral pain patients likely causes an imbalance in muscle forces and lateral maltracking of the patella; however, evidence relating VM activation delay to patellar maltracking is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between VM activation delay and patellar maltracking measures in pain-free controls and patellofemoral pain patients.Patellar tilt and bisect offset, measures of patellar tracking, correlate with VM activation delay in patellofemoral pain patients classified as maltrackers.Case control study; Level of evidence, 3.Vasti muscle activations were recorded in pain-free (n = 15) and patellofemoral pain (n = 40) participants during walking and jogging. All participants were scanned in an open-configuration magnetic resonance scanner in an upright weightbearing position to acquire the position of the patella with respect to the femur. Patellar tilt and bisect offset were measured, and patellofemoral pain participants were classified into normal tracking and maltracking groups.Correlations between VM activation delay and patellar maltracking measures were statistically significant in only the patellofemoral pain participants classified as maltrackers with both abnormal tilt and abnormal bisect offset (R(2) = .89, P < .001, with patellar tilt during walking; R(2) = .75, P = .012, with bisect offset during jogging). There were no differences between the means of activation delays in pain-free and all patellofemoral pain participants during walking (P = .516) or jogging (P = .731).There was a relationship between VM activation delay and patellar maltracking in the subgroup of patellofemoral pain participants classified as maltrackers with both abnormal tilt and abnormal bisect offset.A clinical intervention such as VM retraining may be effective in only a subset of patellofemoral pain participants-namely, those with excessive tilt and excessive bisect offset measures. The results highlight the importance of appropriate classification of patellofemoral pain patients before selection of a clinical intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0363546510384233

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288063900019

    View details for PubMedID 21076015

  • Differences in Patellofemoral Kinematics between Weight-Bearing and Non-Weight-Bearing Conditions in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Draper, C. E., Besier, T. F., Fredericson, M., Santos, J. M., Beaupre, G. S., Delp, S. L., Gold, G. E. 2011; 29 (3): 312-317

    Abstract

    Patellar maltracking is thought to be one source of patellofemoral pain. Measurements of patellar tracking are frequently obtained during non-weight-bearing knee extension; however, pain typically arises during highly loaded activities, such as squatting, stair climbing, and running. It is unclear whether patellofemoral joint kinematics during lightly loaded tasks replicate patellofemoral joint motion during weight-bearing activities. The purpose of this study was to: evaluate differences between upright, weight-bearing and supine, non-weight-bearing joint kinematics in patients with patellofemoral pain; and evaluate whether the kinematics in subjects with maltracking respond differently to weight-bearing than those in nonmaltrackers. We used real-time magnetic resonance imaging to visualize the patellofemoral joint during dynamic knee extension from 30° to 0° of knee flexion during two conditions: upright, weight-bearing and supine, non-weight-bearing. We compared patellofemoral kinematics measured from the images. The patella translated more laterally during the supine task compared to the weight-bearing task for knee flexion angles between 0° and 5° (p = 0.001). The kinematics of the maltrackers responded differently to joint loading than those of the non-maltrackers. In subjects with excessive lateral patellar translation, the patella translated more laterally during upright, weight-bearing knee extension for knee flexion angles between 25° and 30° (p = 0.001). However, in subjects with normal patellar translation, the patella translated more laterally during supine, non-weight-bearing knee extension near full extension (p = 0.001). These results suggest that patellofemoral kinematics measured during supine, unloaded tasks do not accurately represent the joint motion during weight-bearing activities.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.21253

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287173500002

    View details for PubMedID 20949442

  • Prediction of glycosaminoglycan content in human cartilage by age, T1 rho and T2 MRI OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE Keenan, K. E., Besier, T. F., Pauly, J. M., Han, E., Rosenberg, J., Smith, R. L., Delp, S. L., Beaupre, G. S., Gold, G. E. 2011; 19 (2): 171-179

    Abstract

    A relationship between T1? relaxation time and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content has been demonstrated in chemically degraded bovine cartilage, but has not been demonstrated with quantitative biochemistry in human cartilage. A relationship has also been established between T2 relaxation time in cartilage and osteoarthritis (OA) severity. We hypothesized that T1? relaxation time would be associated with GAG content in human cartilage with normal T2 relaxation times.T2 relaxation time, T1? relaxation time, and glycosaminoglycan as a percentage of wet weight (sGAG) were measured for top and bottom regions at 7 anatomical locations in 21 human cadaver patellae. For our analysis, T2 relaxation time was classified as normal or elevated based on a threshold defined by the mean plus one standard deviation of the T2 relaxation time for all samples.In the normal T2 relaxation time subset, T1? relaxation time correlated with sGAG content in the full-thickness and bottom regions, but only marginally in the top region alone. sGAG content decreased significantly with age in all regions.In the subset of cartilage specimens with normal T2 relaxation time, T1? relaxation time was inversely associated with sGAG content, as hypothesized. A predictive model, which accounts for T2 relaxation time and the effects of age, might be able to determine longitudinal trends in GAG content in the same person based on T1? relaxation time maps.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2010.11.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287470600005

    View details for PubMedID 21112409

  • Comparison of Quadriceps Angle Measurements Using Short-Arm and Long-Arm Goniometers: Correlation With MRI PM&R Draper, C. E., Chew, K. T., Wang, R., Jennings, F., Gold, G. E., Fredericson, M. 2011; 3 (2): 111-116

    Abstract

    To compare the reliability of quadriceps-angle (Q-angle) measurements performed using a short-arm goniometer and a long-arm goniometer and to assess the accuracy of goniometer-based Q-angle measurements compared with anatomic Q angles derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).An intra- and interobserver reliability study.University hospital.Eighteen healthy subjects with no history of knee pain, trauma, or prior surgery were examined.Two physicians, blinded to subject identity, measured Q angles on both knees of all subjects using 2 goniometers: (1) a short-arm goniometer and (2) a long-arm goniometer. Q angles were derived from axial MRIs of the subjects' hip and knees.The intra- and interobserver reliabilities of each goniometer were assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The comparison between clinical and MRI-based Q angles was assessed by using the ICC and a paired t-test.Intra- and interobserver reliabilities of the long-arm goniometer (intraobserver ICC, 0.92; interobserver ICC, 0.88) were better than those of the short-arm goniometer (intraobserver ICC, 0.78; interobserver ICC, 0.56). Although both goniometers measured Q angles that were moderately correlated to the MRI-based measurements (ICC, 0.40), the clinical Q angles were underestimated compared with the MRI-based anatomic Q angles (P < .05).The results of this study suggest that, although reproducible Q-angle measurements can be performed using standardized patient positioning and a long-arm goniometer, methods to improve the accuracy of clinical Q-angle measurements are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pmrj.2010.10.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305437300004

    View details for PubMedID 21333949

  • Articular Cartilage in the Knee: Current MR Imaging Techniques and Applications in Clinical Practice and Research RADIOGRAPHICS Crema, M. D., Roemer, F. W., Marra, M. D., Burstein, D., Gold, G. E., Eckstein, F., Baum, T., Mosher, T. J., Carrino, J. A., Guermazi, A. 2011; 31 (1): 37-U76

    Abstract

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most important imaging modality for the evaluation of traumatic or degenerative cartilaginous lesions in the knee. It is a powerful noninvasive tool for detecting such lesions and monitoring the effects of pharmacologic and surgical therapy. The specific MR imaging techniques used for these purposes can be divided into two broad categories according to their usefulness for morphologic or compositional evaluation. To assess the structure of knee cartilage, standard spin-echo (SE) and gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences, fast SE sequences, and three-dimensional SE and GRE sequences are available. These techniques allow the detection of morphologic defects in the articular cartilage of the knee and are commonly used in research for semiquantitative and quantitative assessments of cartilage. To evaluate the collagen network and proteoglycan content in the knee cartilage matrix, compositional assessment techniques such as T2 mapping, delayed gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging of cartilage (or dGEMRIC), T1? imaging, sodium imaging, and diffusion-weighted imaging are available. These techniques may be used in various combinations and at various magnetic field strengths in clinical and research settings to improve the characterization of changes in cartilage.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/rg.311105084

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286608900004

    View details for PubMedID 21257932

  • Analysis of Vertical and Horizontal Circular C-Arm Trajectories MEDICAL IMAGING 2011: PHYSICS OF MEDICAL IMAGING Maier, A., Choi, J., Keil, A., Niebler, C., Sarmiento, M., Fieselmann, A., Gold, G., Delp, S., Fahrig, R. 2011; 7961

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.878502

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294178500070

  • Imaging Near Metal with a MAVRIC-SEMAC Hybrid MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Koch, K. M., Brau, A. C., Chen, W., Gold, G. E., Hargreaves, B. A., Koff, M., McKinnon, G. C., Potter, H. G., King, K. F. 2011; 65 (1): 71-82

    Abstract

    The recently developed multi-acquisition with variable resonance image combination (MAVRIC) and slice-encoding metal artifact correction (SEMAC) techniques can significantly reduce image artifacts commonly encountered near embedded metal hardware. These artifact reductions are enabled by applying alternative spectral and spatial-encoding schemes to conventional spin-echo imaging techniques. Here, the MAVRIC and SEMAC concepts are connected and discussed. The development of a hybrid technique that utilizes strengths of both methods is then introduced. The presented technique is shown capable of producing minimal artifact, high-resolution images near total joint replacements in a clinical setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.22523

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285963500009

    View details for PubMedID 20981709

  • Advanced MRI of articular cartilage. Imaging in medicine Braun, H. J., Gold, G. E. 2011; 3 (5): 541-555

    Abstract

    Musculoskeletal MRI is advancing rapidly, with innovative technology and significant potential for immediate clinical impact. In particular, cartilage imaging has become a topic of increasing interest as our aging population develops diseases such as osteoarthritis. Advances in MRI hardware and software have led to increased image quality and tissue contrast. Additional developments have allowed the assessment of cartilage macromolecular content, which may be crucial to the early detection of musculoskeletal diseases. This comprehensive article considers current morphological and physiological cartilage imaging techniques, their clinical applications, and their potential to contribute to future improvements in the imaging of cartilage.

    View details for PubMedID 22162977

  • A comparison of four algorithms for metal artifact reduction in CT imaging MEDICAL IMAGING 2011: PHYSICS OF MEDICAL IMAGING Golden, C., Mazin, S. R., Boas, F. E., Tye, G., Ghanouni, P., Gold, G., Sofilos, M., Pelc, N. J. 2011; 7961

    View details for DOI 10.1117/12.878896

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294178500097

  • Three-dimensional T-1, T-2 and proton density mapping with inversion recovery balanced SSFP MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Newbould, R. D., Skare, S. T., Alley, M. T., Gold, G. E., Bammer, R. 2010; 28 (9): 1374-1382

    Abstract

    By combining a balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) readout with an initial inversion pulse, all three contrast parameters, T(1), T(2) and proton density (M(0)), may be rapidly calculated from the signal progression in time. However, here it is shown that this technique is quite sensitive to variation in the applied transmit RF (B(1)) field, leading to pronounced errors in calculated values. Two-dimensional (2D) acquisitions are taxed to accurately quantify the relaxation, as the short RF pulses required by SSFP's rapid TR contain a broad spectrum of excitation angles. A 3D excitation using a large diameter excitation coil was able to correctly quantify the parameters. While the extreme B(1) sensitivity was previously problematic and has precluded use of IR-bSSFP for relaxometry, in this work these obstacles were significantly reduced, allowing the rapid quantification of T(1), T(2) and M(0). The results may further be used to simulate image contrast from common sequences, such as a T(1)-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) examination.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.mri.2010.06.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283906800015

    View details for PubMedID 20692784

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging Near Metal Implants JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Koch, K. M., Hargreaves, B. A., Pauly, K. B., Chen, W., Gold, G. E., King, K. F. 2010; 32 (4): 773-787

    Abstract

    The desire to apply magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in the vicinity of embedded metallic hardware is increasing. The soft-tissue contrast available with MR techniques is advantageous in diagnosing complications near an increasing variety of MR-safe metallic hardware. Near such hardware, the spatial encoding mechanisms utilized in conventional MRI methods are often severely compromised. Mitigating these encoding difficulties has been the focus of numerous research investigations over the past two decades. Such approaches include view-angle tilting, short echo-time projection reconstruction acquisitions, single-point imaging, prepolarized MRI, and postprocessing image correction. Various technical advances have also enabled the recent development of two alternative approaches that have shown promising clinical potential. Here, the physical principals and proposed solutions to the problem of MRI near embedded metal are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22313

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282764800002

    View details for PubMedID 20882607

  • Fabrication of custom-shaped grafts for cartilage regeneration INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ARTIFICIAL ORGANS Koo, S., Hargreaves, B. A., Gold, G. E., Dragoo, J. L. 2010; 33 (10): 731-737

    Abstract

    to create a custom-shaped graft through 3D tissue shape reconstruction and rapid-prototype molding methods using MRI data, and to test the accuracy of the custom-shaped graft against the original anatomical defect.An iatrogenic defect on the distal femur was identified with a 1.5 Tesla MRI and its shape was reconstructed into a three-dimensional (3D) computer model by processing the 3D MRI data. First, the accuracy of the MRI-derived 3D model was tested against a laser-scan based 3D model of the defect. A custom-shaped polyurethane graft was fabricated from the laser-scan based 3D model by creating custom molds through computer aided design and rapid-prototyping methods. The polyurethane tissue was laser-scanned again to calculate the accuracy of this process compared to the original defect.The volumes of the defect models from MRI and laser-scan were 537 mm3 and 405 mm3, respectively, implying that the MRI model was 33% larger than the laser-scan model. The average (±SD) distance deviation of the exterior surface of the MRI model from the laser-scan model was 0.4 ± 0.4 mm. The custom-shaped tissue created from the molds was qualitatively very similar to the original shape of the defect. The volume of the custom-shaped cartilage tissue was 463 mm3 which was 15% larger than the laser-scan model. The average (±SD) distance deviation between the two models was 0.04 ± 0.19 mm.This investigation proves the concept that custom-shaped engineered grafts can be fabricated from standard sequence 3-D MRI data with the use of CAD and rapid-prototyping technology. The accuracy of this technology may help solve the interfacial problem between native cartilage and graft, if the grafts are custom made for the specific defect. The major source of error in fabricating a 3D custom-shaped cartilage graft appears to be the accuracy of a MRI data itself; however, the precision of the model is expected to increase by the utilization of advanced MR sequences with higher magnet strengths.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284234600006

    View details for PubMedID 21058268

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Knee: Optimizing 3 Tesla Imaging SEMINARS IN ROENTGENOLOGY Shapiro, L., Staroswiecki, E., Gold, G. 2010; 45 (4): 238-249

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.ro.2009.12.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281363000003

    View details for PubMedID 20727453

  • Advances in musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging. Topics in magnetic resonance imaging Gold, G., Shapiro, L., Hargreaves, B., Bangerter, N. 2010; 21 (5): 335-338

    Abstract

    The technology of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging is advancing at a dramatic rate. Magnetic resonance imaging is now done at medium and higher field strengths with more specialized surface coils and with more variable pulse sequences and postprocessing techniques than ever before. These numerable technical advances are advantageous because they lead to an increased signal-to-noise ratio and increased variety of soft tissue contrast options. However, at the same time, they potentially produce more imaging artifacts when compared with past techniques. Substantial technical advances have considerable clinical challenges in musculoskeletal radiology such as postoperative patient imaging, cartilage mapping, and molecular imaging. In this review, we consider technical advances in hardware and software of musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging along with their clinical applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/RMR.0b013e31823cd195

    View details for PubMedID 22129646

  • Radiofrequency coils for musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging. Topics in magnetic resonance imaging Asher, K. A., Bangerter, N. K., Watkins, R. D., Gold, G. E. 2010; 21 (5): 315-323

    Abstract

    Dedicated and specialized radiofrequency coils are critical for high quality musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dedicated coils improve the signal to noise ratio, allowing for faster or higher resolution examinations. Transmit-receive coils can reduce heating at high field strength. Finally, novel radiofrequency coils can be used for assessment of tissue biochemistry, as seen with sodium MRI.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/RMR.0b013e31823cd184

    View details for PubMedID 22129644

  • In Vivo Sodium Imaging of Human Patellar Cartilage With a 3D Cones Sequence at 3 T and 7 T JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Staroswiecki, E., Bangerter, N. K., Gurney, P. T., Grafendorfer, T., Gold, G. E., Hargreaves, B. A. 2010; 32 (2): 446-451

    Abstract

    To compare signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and T*(2) maps at 3 T and 7 T using 3D cones from in vivo sodium images of the human knee.Sodium concentration has been shown to correlate with glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage and is a possible biomarker of osteoarthritis. Using a 3D cones trajectory, 17 subjects were scanned at 3 T and 12 at 7 T using custom-made sodium-only and dual-tuned sodium/proton surface coils, at a standard resolution (1.3 x 1.3 x 4.0 mm(3)) and a high resolution (1.0 x 1.0 x 2.0 mm(3)). We measured the SNR of the images and the T*(2) of cartilage at both 3 T and 7 T.The average normalized SNR values of standard-resolution images were 27.1 and 11.3 at 7 T and 3 T. At high resolution, these average SNR values were 16.5 and 7.3. Image quality was sufficient to show spatial variations of sodium content. The average T*(2) of cartilage was measured as 13.2 +/- 1.5 msec at 7 T and 15.5 +/- 1.3 msec at 3 T.We acquired sodium images of patellar cartilage at 3 T and 7 T in under 26 minutes using 3D cones with high resolution and acceptable SNR. The SNR improvement at 7 T over 3 T was within the expected range based on the increase in field strength. The measured T*(2) values were also consistent with previously published values.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22191

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280447300028

    View details for PubMedID 20677276

  • Cartilage Morphology at 3.0T: Assessment of Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Chen, C. A., Kijowski, R., Shapiro, L. M., Tuite, M. J., Davis, K. W., Klaers, J. L., Block, W. F., Reeder, S. B., Gold, G. E. 2010; 32 (1): 173-183

    Abstract

    To compare six new three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) methods for evaluating knee cartilage at 3.0T.We compared: fast-spin-echo cube (FSE-Cube), vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction balanced steady-state free precession (VIPR-bSSFP), iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation combined with spoiled gradient echo (IDEAL-SPGR) and gradient echo (IDEAL-GRASS), multiecho in steady-state acquisition (MENSA), and coherent oscillatory state acquisition for manipulation of image contrast (COSMIC). Five-minute sequences were performed twice on 10 healthy volunteers and once on five osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured from the volunteers. Images of the five volunteers and the five OA patients were ranked on tissue contrast, articular surface clarity, reformat quality, and lesion conspicuity. FSE-Cube and VIPR-bSSFP were compared to IDEAL-SPGR for cartilage volume measurements.FSE-Cube had top rankings for lesion conspicuity, overall SNR, and CNR (P < 0.02). VIPR-bSSFP had top rankings in tissue contrast and articular surface clarity. VIPR and FSE-Cube tied for best in reformatting ability. FSE-Cube and VIPR-bSSFP compared favorably to IDEAL-SPGR in accuracy and precision of cartilage volume measurements.FSE-Cube and VIPR-bSSFP produce high image quality with accurate volume measurement of knee cartilage.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22213

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279439600021

    View details for PubMedID 20578024

  • Accelerated Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Hargreaves, B. A., Chen, W., Lu, W., Alley, M. T., Gold, G. E., Brau, A. C., Pauly, J. M., Pauly, K. B. 2010; 31 (4): 987-996

    Abstract

    To demonstrate accelerated imaging with both artifact reduction and different contrast mechanisms near metallic implants.Slice-encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) is a modified spin echo sequence that uses view-angle tilting and slice-direction phase encoding to correct both in-plane and through-plane artifacts. Standard spin echo trains and short-TI inversion recovery (STIR) allow efficient PD-weighted imaging with optional fat suppression. A completely linear reconstruction allows incorporation of parallel imaging and partial Fourier imaging. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) effects of all reconstructions were quantified in one subject. Ten subjects with different metallic implants were scanned using SEMAC protocols, all with scan times below 11 minutes, as well as with standard spin echo methods.The SNR using standard acceleration techniques is unaffected by the linear SEMAC reconstruction. In all cases with implants, accelerated SEMAC significantly reduced artifacts compared with standard imaging techniques, with no additional artifacts from acceleration techniques. The use of different contrast mechanisms allowed differentiation of fluid from other structures in several subjects.SEMAC imaging can be combined with standard echo-train imaging, parallel imaging, partial-Fourier imaging, and inversion recovery techniques to offer flexible image contrast with a dramatic reduction of metal-induced artifacts in scan times under 11 minutes.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.22112

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276328200026

    View details for PubMedID 20373445

  • Accuracy of 3D Cartilage Models Generated From MR Images Is Dependent on Cartilage Thickness: Laser Scanner Based Validation of In Vivo Cartilage JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING-TRANSACTIONS OF THE ASME Koo, S., Giori, N. J., Gold, G. E., Dyrby, C. O., Andriacchi, T. P. 2009; 131 (12)

    Abstract

    Cartilage morphology change is an important biomarker for the progression of osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of in vivo cartilage thickness measurements from MR image-based 3D cartilage models using a laser scanning method and to test if the accuracy changes with cartilage thickness. Three-dimensional tibial cartilage models were created from MR images (in-plane resolution of 0.55 mm and thickness of 1.5 mm) of osteoarthritic knees of ten patients prior to total knee replacement surgery using a semi-automated B-spline segmentation algorithm. Following surgery, the resected tibial plateaus were laser scanned and made into 3D models. The MR image and laser-scan based models were registered to each other using a shape matching technique. The thicknesses were compared point wise for the overall surface. The linear mixed-effects model was used for statistical test. On average, taking account of individual variations, the thickness measurements in MRI were overestimated in thinner (<2.5 mm) regions. The cartilage thicker than 2.5 mm was accurately predicted in MRI, though the thick cartilage in the central regions was underestimated. The accuracy of thickness measurements in the MRI-derived cartilage models systemically varied according to native cartilage thickness.

    View details for DOI 10.1115/1.4000087

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273614400004

    View details for PubMedID 20524727

  • Geography, Structure, and Evolution of Diffusion and Perfusion Lesions in Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation For Understanding Stroke Evolution (DEFUSE) STROKE Olivot, J., Mlynash, M., Thijs, V. N., Purushotham, A., Kemp, S., Lansberg, M. G., Wechsler, L., Gold, G. E., Bammer, R., Marks, M. P., Albers, G. W. 2009; 40 (10): 3245-3251

    Abstract

    The classical representation of acute ischemic lesions on MRI is a central diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion embedded in a perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) lesion. We investigated spatial relationships between final infarcts and early DWI/PWI lesions before and after intravenous thrombolysis in the Diffusion and perfusion imaging Evaluation For Understanding Stroke Evolution (DEFUSE) study.Baseline and follow-up DWI and PWI lesions and 30-day fluid-attenuated inversion recovery scans of 32 patients were coregistered. Lesion geography was defined by the proportion of the DWI lesion superimposed by a Tmax (time when the residue function reaches its maximum) >4 seconds PWI lesion; Type 1: >50% overlap and Type 2: < or = 50% overlap. Three-dimensional structure was dichotomized into a single lesion (one DWI and one PWI lesion) versus multiple lesions. Lesion reversal was defined by the percentage of the baseline DWI or PWI lesion not superimposed by the early follow-up DWI or PWI lesion. Final infarct prediction was estimated by the proportion of the final infarct superimposed on the union of the DWI and PWI lesions.Single lesion structure with Type 1 geography was present in only 9 patients (28%) at baseline and 4 (12%) on early follow-up. In these patients, PWI and DWI lesions were more likely to correspond with the final infarcts. DWI reversal was greater among patients with Type 2 geography at baseline. Patients with multiple lesions and Type 2 geography at early follow-up were more likely to have early reperfusion.Before thrombolytic therapy in the 3- to 6-hour time window, Type 2 geography is predominant and is associated with DWI reversal. After thrombolysis, both Type 2 geography and multiple lesion structure are associated with reperfusion.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.558635

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270229800016

    View details for PubMedID 19679845

  • Recent Advances in MRI of Articular Cartilage AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Gold, G. E., Chen, C. A., Koo, S., Hargreaves, B. A., Bangerter, N. K. 2009; 193 (3): 628-638

    Abstract

    MRI is the most accurate noninvasive method available to diagnose disorders of articular cartilage. Conventional 2D and 3D approaches show changes in cartilage morphology. Faster 3D imaging methods with isotropic resolution can be reformatted into arbitrary planes for improved detection and visualization of pathology. Unique contrast mechanisms allow us to probe cartilage physiology and detect changes in cartilage macromolecules.MRI has great promise as a noninvasive comprehensive tool for cartilage evaluation.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.09.3042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269305600007

    View details for PubMedID 19696274

  • Knee Joint: Comprehensive Assessment with 3D Isotropic Resolution Fast Spin-Echo MR Imaging-Diagnostic Performance Compared with That of Conventional MR Imaging at 3.0 T RADIOLOGY Kijowski, R., Davis, K. W., Woods, M. A., Lindstrom, M. J., De Smet, A. A., Gold, G. E., Busse, R. F. 2009; 252 (2): 486-495

    Abstract

    To determine whether a three-dimensional isotropic resolution fast spin-echo sequence (FSE-Cube) has similar diagnostic performance as a routine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol for evaluating the cartilage, ligaments, menisci, and osseous structures of the knee joint in symptomatic patients at 3.0 T.This prospective, HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-approved study was performed with a waiver of informed consent. FSE-Cube was added to the routine 3.0-T MR imaging protocol performed in 100 symptomatic patients (54 male patients with a median age of 32 years and 46 female patients with a median age of 33 years) who subsequently underwent arthroscopic knee surgery. All MR imaging studies were independently reviewed twice by two musculoskeletal radiologists. During the first review, the routine MR imaging protocol was used to detect cartilage lesions, ligament tears, meniscal tears, and bone marrow edema lesions. During the second review, FSE-Cube with multiplanar reformations was used to detect these joint abnormalities. With arthroscopic results as the reference standard, the sensitivity and specificity of FSE-Cube and the routine MR imaging protocol in the detection of cartilage lesions, anterior cruciate ligament tears, and meniscal tears were calculated. Permutation tests were used to compare sensitivity and specificity values.FSE-Cube had significantly higher sensitivity (P = .039) but significantly lower specificity (P = .003) than the routine MR imaging protocol for detecting cartilage lesions. There were no significant differences (P = .183-.999) in sensitivity and specificity between FSE-Cube and the routine MR imaging protocol in the detection of anterior cruciate ligament tears, medial meniscal tears, or lateral meniscal tears. FSE-Cube depicted 96.2% of medial collateral ligament tears, 100% of lateral collateral ligament tears, and 85.3% of bone marrow edema lesions identified on images obtained with the routine MR imaging protocol.FSE-Cube has similar diagnostic performance as a routine MR imaging protocol for detecting cartilage lesions, cruciate ligament tears, collateral ligament tears, meniscal tears, and bone marrow edema lesions within the knee joint at 3.0 T.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2523090028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268875900023

    View details for PubMedID 19703886

  • Multiecho IDEAL Gradient-Echo Water-Fat Separation for Rapid Assessment of Cartilage Volume at 1.5 T: Initial Experience RADIOLOGY Chen, C. A., Lu, W., John, C. T., Hargreaves, B. A., Reeder, S. B., Delp, S. L., Siston, R. A., Gold, G. E. 2009; 252 (2): 561-567

    Abstract

    Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. The purpose was to prospectively compare multiecho iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) gradient-echo (GRE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with three-dimensional fat-suppressed (FS) spoiled GRE (SPGR) MR imaging to evaluate the articular cartilage of the knee. Six healthy volunteer and 10 cadaver knees were imaged at 1.5 T. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SNR efficiency, and cartilage volume were measured. SNR and SNR efficiency were significantly higher with multiecho IDEAL GRE than with FS SPGR imaging (P < .031). Both methods produced equivalent cartilage volumes (overall concordance correlation coefficient, 0.998) with high precision and accuracy. The use of a cartilage phantom confirmed high accuracy in volume measurements and high reproducibility for both methods. Multiecho IDEAL GRE provides high signal intensity in cartilage and synovial fluid and is a promising technique for imaging articular cartilage of the knee.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2522081424

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268875900032

    View details for PubMedID 19528355

  • SEMAC: Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction in MRI MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Lu, W., Pauly, K. B., Gold, G. E., Pauly, J. M., Hargreaves, B. A. 2009; 62 (1): 66-76

    Abstract

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) near metallic implants remains an unmet need because of severe artifacts, which mainly stem from large metal-induced field inhomogeneities. This work addresses MRI near metallic implants with an innovative imaging technique called "Slice Encoding for Metal Artifact Correction" (SEMAC). The SEMAC technique corrects metal artifacts via robust encoding of each excited slice against metal-induced field inhomogeneities. The robust slice encoding is achieved by extending a view-angle-tilting (VAT) spin-echo sequence with additional z-phase encoding. Although the VAT compensation gradient suppresses most in-plane distortions, the z-phase encoding fully resolves distorted excitation profiles that cause through-plane distortions. By positioning all spins in a region-of-interest to their actual spatial locations, the through-plane distortions can be corrected by summing up the resolved spins in each voxel. The SEMAC technique does not require additional hardware and can be deployed to the large installed base of whole-body MRI systems. The efficacy of the SEMAC technique in eliminating metal-induced distortions with feasible scan times is validated in phantom and in vivo spine and knee studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.21967

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267404300008

    View details for PubMedID 19267347

  • Knee muscle forces during walking and running in patellofemoral pain patients and pain-free controls JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS Besier, T. F., Fredericson, M., Gold, G. E., Beaupre, G. S., Delp, S. L. 2009; 42 (7): 898-905

    Abstract

    One proposed mechanism of patellofemoral pain, increased stress in the joint, is dependent on forces generated by the quadriceps muscles. Describing causal relationships between muscle forces, tissue stresses, and pain is difficult due to the inability to directly measure these variables in vivo. The purpose of this study was to estimate quadriceps forces during walking and running in a group of male and female patients with patellofemoral pain (n = 27, 16 female; 11 male) and compare these to pain-free controls (n = 16, 8 female; 8 male). Subjects walked and ran at self-selected speeds in a gait laboratory. Lower limb kinematics and electromyography (EMG) data were input to an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model of the knee, which was scaled and calibrated to each individual to estimate forces in 10 muscles surrounding the joint. Compared to controls, the patellofemoral pain group had greater co-contraction of quadriceps and hamstrings (p = 0.025) and greater normalized muscle forces during walking, even though the net knee moment was similar between groups. Muscle forces during running were similar between groups, but the net knee extension moment was less in the patellofemoral pain group compared to controls. Females displayed 30-50% greater normalized hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle forces during both walking and running compared to males (p<0.05). These results suggest that some patellofemoral pain patients might experience greater joint contact forces and joint stresses than pain-free subjects. The muscle force data are available as supplementary material.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2009.01.032

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266299300016

    View details for PubMedID 19268945

  • Using Real-Time MRI to Quantify Altered Joint Kinematics in Subjects with Patellofemoral Pain and to Evaluate the Effects of a Patellar Brace or Sleeve on Joint Motion JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Draper, C. E., Besier, T. F., Santos, J. M., Jennings, F., Fredericson, M., Gold, G. E., Beaupre, G. S., Delp, S. L. 2009; 27 (5): 571-577

    Abstract

    Abnormal patellofemoral joint motion is a possible cause of patellofemoral pain, and patellar braces are thought to alleviate pain by restoring normal joint kinematics. We evaluated whether females with patellofemoral pain exhibit abnormal patellofemoral joint kinematics during dynamic, weight-bearing knee extension and assessed the effects of knee braces on patellofemoral motion. Real-time magnetic resonance (MR) images of the patellofemoral joints of 36 female volunteers (13 pain-free controls, 23 patellofemoral pain) were acquired during weight-bearing knee extension. Pain subjects were also imaged while wearing a patellar-stabilizing brace and a patellar sleeve. We measured axial-plane kinematics from the images. Females with patellofemoral pain exhibited increased lateral translation of the patella for knee flexion angles between 0 degrees and 50 degrees (p = 0.03), and increased lateral tilt for knee flexion angles between 0 degrees and 20 degrees (p = 0.04). The brace and sleeve reduced the lateral translation of the patella; however, the brace reduced lateral displacement more than the sleeve (p = 0.006). The brace reduced patellar tilt near full extension (p = 0.001), while the sleeve had no effect on patellar tilt. Our results indicate that some subjects with patellofemoral pain exhibit abnormal weight-bearing joint kinematics and that braces may be effective in reducing patellar maltracking in these subjects.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.20790

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265009900002

    View details for PubMedID 18985690

  • New resource for the computation of cartilage biphasic material properties with the interpolant response surface method COMPUTER METHODS IN BIOMECHANICS AND BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING Keenan, K. E., Kourtis, L. C., Besier, T. F., Lindsey, D. P., Gold, G. E., Delp, S. L., Beaupre, G. S. 2009; 12 (4): 415-422

    Abstract

    Cartilage material properties are important for understanding joint function and diseases, but can be challenging to obtain. Three biphasic material properties (aggregate modulus, Poisson's ratio and permeability) can be determined using an analytical or finite element model combined with optimisation to find the material properties values that best reproduce an experimental creep curve. The purpose of this study was to develop an easy-to-use resource to determine biphasic cartilage material properties. A Cartilage Interpolant Response Surface was generated from interpolation of finite element simulations of creep indentation tests. Creep indentation tests were performed on five sites across a tibial plateau. A least-squares residual search of the Cartilage Interpolant Response Surface resulted in a best-fit curve for each experimental condition with corresponding material properties. These sites provided a representative range of aggregate moduli (0.48-1.58 MPa), Poisson's ratio (0.00-0.05) and permeability (1.7 x 10(- 15)-5.4 x 10(- 15) m(4)/N s) values found in human cartilage. The resource is freely available from https://simtk.org/home/va-squish.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/10255840802654319

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268912000005

    View details for PubMedID 19675978

  • Ankle: Isotropic MR Imaging with 3D-FSE-Cube-Initial Experience in Healthy Volunteers RADIOLOGY Stevens, K. J., Busse, R. F., Han, E., Brau, A. C., Beatty, P. J., Beaulieu, C. F., Gold, G. E. 2008; 249 (3): 1026-1033

    Abstract

    The purpose of this prospective study was to compare a new isotropic three-dimensional (3D) fast spin-echo (FSE) pulse sequence with parallel imaging and extended echo train acquisition (3D-FSE-Cube) with a conventional two-dimensional (2D) FSE sequence for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the ankle. After institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained and in accordance with HIPAA privacy guidelines, MR imaging was performed in the ankles of 10 healthy volunteers (four men, six women; age range, 25-41 years). Imaging with the 3D-FSE-Cube sequence was performed at 3.0 T by using both one-dimensional- and 2D-accelerated autocalibrated parallel imaging to decrease imaging time. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) with 3D-FSE-Cube were compared with those of the standard 2D FSE sequence. Cartilage, muscle, and fluid SNRs were significantly higher with the 3D-FSE-Cube sequence (P < .01 for all). Fluid-cartilage CNR was similar for both techniques. The two sequences were also compared for overall image quality, blurring, and artifacts. No significant difference for overall image quality and artifacts was demonstrated between the 2D FSE and 3D-FSE-Cube sequences, although the section thickness in 3D-FSE-Cube imaging was much thinner (0.6 mm). However, blurring was significantly greater on the 3D-FSE-Cube images (P < .04). The 3D-FSE-Cube sequence with isotropic resolution is a promising new MR imaging sequence for viewing complex joint anatomy.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2493080227

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261139300036

    View details for PubMedID 19011194

  • The Influence of Femoral Internal and External Rotation on Cartilage Stresses within the Patellofemoral Joint JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Besier, T. F., Gold, G. E., Delp, S. L., Fredericson, M., Beaupre, G. S. 2008; 26 (12): 1627-1635

    Abstract

    Internal and external rotation of the femur plays an important role in defining the orientation of the patellofemoral joint, influencing contact areas, pressures, and cartilage stress distributions. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of femoral internal and external rotation on stresses in the patellofemoral cartilage. We constructed finite element models of the patellofemoral joint using magnetic resonance (MR) images from 16 volunteers (8 male and 8 female). Subjects performed an upright weight-bearing squat with the knee at 60 degrees of flexion inside an open-MR scanner and in a gait laboratory. Quadriceps muscle forces were estimated for each subject using an electromyographic-driven model and input to a finite element analysis. Hydrostatic and octahedral shear stresses within the cartilage were modeled with the tibiofemoral joint in a "neutral" position and also with the femur rotated internally or externally by 5 degrees increments to +/-15 degrees . Cartilage stresses were more sensitive to external rotation of the femur, compared with internal rotation, with large variation across subjects. Peak patellar shear stresses increased more than 10% with 15 degrees of external rotation in 75% of the subjects. Shear stresses were higher in the patellar cartilage compared to the femoral cartilage and patellar cartilage stresses were more sensitive to femoral rotation compared with femoral cartilage stress. Large variation in the cartilage stress response between individuals reflects the complex nature of the extensor mechanism and has clinical relevance when considering treatment strategies designed to reduce cartilage stresses by altering femoral internal and external rotation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.20663

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260934700012

    View details for PubMedID 18524000

  • Averaging Different Alignment Axes Improves Femoral Rotational Alignment in Computer-Navigated Total Knee Arthroplasty JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Siston, R. A., Cromie, M. J., Gold, G. E., Goodman, S. B., Delp, S. L., Maloney, W. J., Giori, N. J. 2008; 90A (10): 2098-2104

    Abstract

    Computer navigation systems generally establish the rotational alignment axis of the femoral component on the basis of user-defined anatomic landmarks. However, navigation systems can also record knee kinematics and average alignment axes established with multiple techniques. We hypothesized that establishing femoral rotational alignment with the use of kinematic techniques is more accurate and precise (repeatable) than the use of anatomic techniques and that establishing femoral rotational alignment by averaging the results of different alignment techniques is more accurate and precise than the use of a single technique.Twelve orthopaedic surgeons used three anatomic and two kinematic alignment techniques to establish femoral rotational alignment axes in a series of nine cadaver knees. The axes derived with the individual anatomic and kinematic techniques as well as the axes derived with six combination techniques--i.e., those involving averaging of the alignments established with two of the individual techniques--were compared against a reference axis established with computed tomography images of each femur.The kinematic methods were not more accurate (did not have smaller mean errors) or more precise (repeatable) than the anatomic techniques. The combination techniques were accurate (five of the six had a mean error of <5 degrees ) and significantly more precise than all but one of the single methods. The percentage of measurements with <5 degrees of error as compared with the reference epicondylar axis was 37% for the individual anatomic techniques, 30% for the individual kinematic techniques, and 58% for the combination techniques.Averaging the results of kinematic and anatomic techniques, which is possible with computer navigation systems, appears to improve the accuracy of rotational alignment of the femoral component. The number of rotational alignment outliers was reduced when combination techniques were used; however, they are still a problem and continued improvement in methods to accurately establish rotation of the femoral component in total knee arthroplasty is needed.

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.G.00996

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259873300006

  • Feasibility of using real-time MRI to measure joint kinematics in 1.5T and open-bore 0.5T systems JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Draper, C. E., Santos, J. M., Kourtis, L. C., Besier, T. F., Fredericson, M., Beaupre, G. S., Gold, G. E., Delp, S. L. 2008; 28 (1): 158-166

    Abstract

    To test the feasibility and accuracy of measuring joint motion with real-time MRI in a 1.5T scanner and in a 0.5T open-bore scanner and to assess the dependence of measurement accuracy on movement speed.We developed an MRI-compatible motion phantom to evaluate the accuracy of tracking bone positions with real-time MRI for varying movement speeds. The measurement error was determined by comparing phantom positions estimated from real-time MRI to those measured using optical motion capture techniques. To assess the feasibility of measuring in vivo joint motion, we calculated 2D knee joint kinematics during knee extension in six subjects and compared them to previously reported measurements.Measurement accuracy decreased as the phantom's movement speed increased. The measurement accuracy was within 2 mm for velocities up to 217 mm/s in the 1.5T scanner and 38 mm/s in the 0.5T scanner. We measured knee joint kinematics with small intraobserver variation (variance of 0.8 degrees for rotation and 3.6% of patellar width for translation).Our results suggest that real-time MRI can be used to measure joint kinematics when 2 mm accuracy is sufficient. They can also be used to prescribe the speed of joint motion necessary to achieve certain measurement accuracy.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.21413

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257865800021

    View details for PubMedID 18581329

  • Early findings of small-animal MRI and small-animal computed tomography correlate with histological changes in a rat model of rheumatoid arthritis NMR IN BIOMEDICINE Lee, S., Greve, J. M., Leaffer, D., Lollini, L., Bailey, P., Gold, G. E., Biswal, S. 2008; 21 (5): 527-536

    Abstract

    With the use of a commonly utilized animal model of rheumatoid arthritis, the central goal of this work was to determine how well the small-animal imaging tools, small-animal MRI (microMRI) and small-animal X-ray computed tomography (microCT), can detect very early histological changes that occur immediately after induction of the disease. Arthritis was induced in rats by injecting complete Freund's adjuvant into the tail. Right hind paws of living rats were evaluated with 4.7 T microMRI with T1-weighted spin echo and inversion recovery sequences. Paw specimens were also evaluated with microCT and by histological examination (n = 29). MicroMR images were scored for the presence of joint effusion, soft tissue swelling, bone marrow changes, and bone erosions. MicroCT measured bone mineral density (BMD). Histology scores were obtained from representative slides from the same rats. The correlation between BMD, MRI and histology was analyzed using linear regression analysis and analysis of covariance. MRI abnormalities were detected on day 5 after induction as joint effusion and soft tissue swelling, followed by bone marrow changes on day 6 and bone erosion on day 8. BMD measured by microCT decreased, the decrease becoming significant on day 7 (P < 0.019). Soft tissue swelling, joint effusion, and bone erosion scores on microMRI correlated with histology (r2 approximately 0.7). Bone marrow changes were seen more clearly with microMRI than by histological examination. Bone loss could be detected earlier by microCT than on histological sections. In conclusion, microMRI and microCT can be used to evaluate early disease changes within 1 week of induction in the adjuvant-induced arthritis model, and have the ability to detect certain manifestations of disease earlier than histological analysis. The use of small-animal imaging techniques potentially allows earlier diagnosis, improved subject stratification, earlier drug implementation, and therefore improved drug trials in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/nbm.1225

    View details for Web of Science ID 000257171800012

    View details for PubMedID 18023077

  • Reduction of truncation artifacts in rapid 3D articular cartilage imaging JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Rakow-Penner, R., Gold, G., Daniel, B., Stevens, K., Rosenberg, J., Mazin, S. 2008; 27 (4): 860-865

    Abstract

    To reduce Gibbs ringing artifact in three-dimensional (3D) articular knee cartilage imaging with linear prediction (LP).A reconstruction method using LP in 3D was applied to truncated data sets of six healthy knees. The technique first linearizes the data before applying the prediction algorithm. Three radiologists blindly reviewed and ranked images of the full, truncated, and predicted data sets. Statistical analysis of the radiologists' reviews was performed for image quality, clinical acceptability of the images, and equivalence with the gold standard.LP applied to 3D knee cartilage imaging allows for 40% decreased scan time while providing image quality with statistical equivalence to a full data set.3D spoiled gradient echo imaging (SPGR) knee cartilage imaging requires significant scan time. This 40% reduction in scan time will allow such scans to be more feasible without sacrificing clinical acceptability.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.21312

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254709500024

    View details for PubMedID 18383247

  • Abduction and external rotation in shoulder impingement: An open MR study on healthy volunteers - Initial experience RADIOLOGY Gold, G. E., Pappas, G. P., Blemker, S. S., Whalen, S. T., Campbell, G., McAdams, T. A., Beaulieu, C. F. 2007; 244 (3): 815-822

    Abstract

    To prospectively evaluate rotator cuff contact with the glenoid in healthy volunteers placed in the unloaded and loaded abduction and external rotation (ABER) positions in an open magnetic resonance (MR) imager.The study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant, and informed consent was received. Eight male volunteers with no history of shoulder pain or pathology were imaged in a 0.5-T open MR imager. Volunteers were imaged in an unloaded ABER position with the arm at 90 degrees abduction and in a loaded ABER position, with a 1-kg load that produced an average external rotation of 111 degrees+/-6 (standard deviation). Two radiologists graded rotator cuff contact on a three-point scale. Three-dimensional anatomic models generated from the MR images were used to measure distances. Minimum distances were computed between the tendon insertion sites and the glenoid, acromion, and coracoid for the loaded ABER position. Minimum distances were compared by using a paired Student t test.In the unloaded ABER position, contact was seen between the infraspinatus and supraspinatus tendons and the glenoid in all eight volunteers. In the loaded ABER position, contact was also observed between the infraspinatus and supraspinatus and the posterior and posterosuperior glenoid, respectively. Deformation of the infraspinatus on the glenoid was seen in four volunteers, whereas supraspinatus deformation was only seen in one volunteer. The minimum distance between the supraspinatus insertion and acromion in the loaded ABER position decreased significantly (P<.01). Supraspinatus tendon to glenoid and infraspinatus tendon to glenoid minimum distances also decreased significantly (P<.01).The unloaded and loaded ABER positions resulted in contact of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus with the glenoid in all volunteers. Distances between the rotator cuff insertion sites and the glenoid decreased in the loaded ABER position.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2443060998

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248993500021

    View details for PubMedID 17690321

  • T-2-selective magnetization preparation pulses IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING Vidarsson, L., Cunningham, C., Gold, G. E., Pauly, J. A. 2007; 26 (7): 981-989

    Abstract

    The purpose of this work was to present and evaluate a new method for directly designing T2-selective preparation pulses. Using a modified Shinnar-Le-Roux (SLR) transform, the design of T2-selective pulses becomes equivalent to designing a pair of polynomials one of which represents the longitudinal magnetization and the other the transverse magnetization. The polynomials enable one to directly analyze the various tradeoffs involved in the design. To evaluate the new method, a short-T2-selective magnetization preparation pulse was designed. Following the preparation pulse, a 2D Fourier transform (2DFT) multislice gradient echo sequence was used for imaging. For verification Bloch equation simulations were performed along with both in vivo and phantom scans. Phantom scans showed good signal suppression of long-T2 species. This is supported by good long-T2 signal suppression seen on the in vivo images. Simulations indicate that the pulse is robust to +/-150 Hz B0 inhomogeneities and +/-10% B1 inhomogeneities.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/TMI.2007.897390

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247832700009

    View details for PubMedID 17649911

  • Quantitative evaluation of the relaxivity effects of iodine on Gd-DTPA enhanced MR arthrography JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Ganguly, A., Gold, G. E., Pauly, K. B., Mayer, D., Moseley, M. M., Pelc, N. J., Fahrig, R. 2007; 25 (6): 1219-1225

    Abstract

    To quantify the effect of iodine on the gadolinium (Gd) contrast-enhanced signal in MR arthrography.Saline solutions of Gd contrast agent (0-1 mmol/liter) were mixed with iodinated contrast agent (0-185 mmol/liter). The T1 and T2 relaxation constants of these solutions were measured at 1.5T. Different types of commonly used iodinated contrast agents as well as sodium iodide (NaI) solutions were also analyzed.Iodine caused significant T2 shortening and some T1 shortening in Gd contrast solutions. Both contrast agents independently obeyed the standard relaxation relation, and their mixture obeyed a modified version of this relation. The side chains in various iodine molecules and their viscosities affected the relaxation properties differently. For various spin-echo (SE) sequences, the signal from synovial fluid containing different concentrations of the two contrast agents was calculated. The T2-weighted signal appeared to be most affected by the increase in iodine concentrations. In the absence of Gd contrast, all SE sequences showed an initial increase in signal from iodine contrast.A generalized relation for the relaxivities of Gd contrast in the presence of iodine was established. The side chains of iodine contrast were found to alter the relaxivities of Gd contrast. Imaging with proton density (PD)-weighted SE with only iodine contrast agent was found to be feasible.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20934

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246824100017

    View details for PubMedID 17520728

  • Isotropic MRI of the knee with 3D fast spin-echo extended echo-train acquisition (XETA): Initial experience AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Gold, G. E., Busse, R. F., Beehler, C., Han, E., Brau, A. C., Beatty, P. J., Beaulieu, C. F. 2007; 188 (5): 1287-1293

    Abstract

    The purpose of our study was to prospectively compare a recently developed method of isotropic 3D fast spin-echo (FSE) with extended echo-train acquisition (XETA) with 2D FSE and 2D fast recovery FSE (FRFSE) for MRI of the knee.Institutional review board approval, Health Insurance Portability and Accounting Act (HIPAA) compliance, and informed consent were obtained. We studied 10 healthy volunteers and one volunteer with knee pain using 3D FSE XETA, 2D FSE, and 2D FRFSE. Images were obtained both with and without fat suppression. Cartilage and muscle signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and cartilage-fluid contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were compared using a Student's t test. We also compared reformations of 3D FSE XETA with 2D FSE images directly acquired in the axial plane.Cartilage SNR was higher with 3D FSE XETA (56.8 +/- 9 [SD]) compared with the 2D FSE (45.8 +/- 8, p < 0.01) and 2D FRFSE (32.5 +/- 5.3, p < 0.01). Muscle SNR was significantly higher with 3D FSE XETA (52.1 +/- 4.3) than 2D FSE (45.2 +/- 9, p < 0.01) and 2D FRFSE (23.6 +/- 6.2, p < 0.01). Fluid SNR was significantly higher for 2D FSE (144.9 +/- 33) than 3D FSE XETA (104.7 +/- 18, p < 0.01). Compared with 2D FSE and 2D FRFSE, 3D FSE XETA had lower cartilage-fluid CNR due to higher cartilage SNR (p < 0.01). Three-dimensional FSE XETA acquired volumetric data sets with isotropic resolution. Reformatted images in the axial plane were similar to axial 2D FSE acquisitions but with thinner slices.Three-dimensional FSE XETA acquires high-resolution (approximately 0.7 mm) isotropic data with intermediate and T2-weighting that may be reformatted in arbitrary planes. Three-dimensional FSE XETA is a promising technique for MRI of the knee.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.06.1208

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246013000027

    View details for PubMedID 17449772

  • Water-fat separation with IDEAL gradient-echo imaging JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Reeder, S. B., McKenzie, C. A., Pineda, A. R., Yu, H., Shimakawa, A., Brau, A. C., Hargreaves, B. A., Gold, G. E., Brittain, J. H. 2007; 25 (3): 644-652

    Abstract

    To combine gradient-echo (GRE) imaging with a multipoint water-fat separation method known as "iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least squares estimation" (IDEAL) for uniform water-fat separation. Robust fat suppression is necessary for many GRE imaging applications; unfortunately, uniform fat suppression is challenging in the presence of B(0) inhomogeneities. These challenges are addressed with the IDEAL technique.Echo shifts for three-point IDEAL were chosen to optimize noise performance of the water-fat estimation, which is dependent on the relative proportion of water and fat within a voxel. Phantom experiments were performed to validate theoretical SNR predictions. Theoretical echo combinations that maximize noise performance are discussed, and examples of clinical applications at 1.5T and 3.0T are shown.The measured SNR performance validated theoretical predictions and demonstrated improved image quality compared to unoptimized echo combinations. Clinical examples of the liver, breast, heart, knee, and ankle are shown, including the combination of IDEAL with parallel imaging. Excellent water-fat separation was achieved in all cases. The utility of recombining water and fat images into "in-phase," "out-of-phase," and "fat signal fraction" images is also discussed.IDEAL-SPGR provides robust water-fat separation with optimized SNR performance at both 1.5T and 3.0T with multicoil acquisitions and parallel imaging in multiple regions of the body.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20831

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244698800025

    View details for PubMedID 17326087

  • Image-based musculoskeletal modeling: Applications, advances, and future opportunities JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Blemker, S. S., Asakawa, D. S., Gold, G. E., Delp, S. L. 2007; 25 (2): 441-451

    Abstract

    Computer models of the musculoskeletal system are broadly used to study the mechanisms of musculoskeletal disorders and to simulate surgical treatments. Musculoskeletal models have historically been created based on data derived in anatomical and biomechanical studies of cadaveric specimens. MRI offers an abundance of novel methods for acquisition of data from living subjects and is revolutionizing the field of musculoskeletal modeling. The need to create accurate, individualized models of the musculoskeletal system is driving advances in MRI techniques including static imaging, dynamic imaging, diffusion imaging, body imaging, pulse-sequence design, and coil design. These techniques apply to imaging musculoskeletal anatomy, muscle architecture, joint motions, muscle moment arms, and muscle tissue deformations. Further advancements in image-based musculoskeletal modeling will expand the accuracy and utility of models used to study musculoskeletal and neuromuscular impairments.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20805

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244133000020

    View details for PubMedID 17260405

  • Balanced SSFP imaging of the musculoskeletal system JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Gold, G. E., Hargreaves, B. A., Reeder, S. B., Block, W. F., Kijowski, R., Vasanawala, S. S., Kornaat, P. R., Bammer, R., Newbould, R., Bangerter, N. K., Beaulieu, C. F. 2007; 25 (2): 270-278

    Abstract

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with its unique ability to image and characterize soft tissue noninvasively, has emerged as one of the most accurate imaging methods available to diagnose bone and joint pathology. Currently, most evaluation of musculoskeletal pathology is done with two-dimensional acquisition techniques such as fast spin echo (FSE) imaging. The development of three-dimensional fast imaging methods based on balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) shows great promise to improve MRI of the musculoskeletal system. These methods may allow acquisition of fluid sensitive isotropic data that can be reformatted into arbitrary planes for improved detection and visualization of pathology. Sensitivity to fluid and fat suppression are important issues in these techniques to improve delineation of cartilage contours, for detection of marrow edema and derangement of other joint structures.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20819

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244133000006

    View details for PubMedID 17260387

  • Atlas of individual radiographic features in osteoarthritis, revised OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE Altman, R. D., Gold, G. E. 2007; 15: A1-A56

    Abstract

    Develop a radiographic atlas of osteoarthritis (OA) to be used as a template and guide for grading radiographs of osteoarthritic lesions of the hand, hip and knee.The 1995 atlas was reviewed for the images most useful for clinical trials. Replacement images were selected from the Stanford University Radiology Department Picture Archive and Communications System by reviewing consecutive radiographs obtained from patients. Selected images were downloaded without patient identification information. Images were organized by hand, hip and knee. They were reviewed for findings of OA and images grouped into image files by individual findings and degree of change. Both investigators individually selected the most promising images. Final images were selected by consensus. Original electronic images were then cropped and placed in sequence.Individual radiographic features (e.g., osteophytes, joint space narrowing) were recorded for hand (distal interphalangeal joint, proximal interphalangeal joint, trapeziometacarpal joint), hip (acetabular, femoral) and knee (medial compartment, lateral compartment, tibial, femoral); they were also sequenced for normal, 1+, 2+, and 3+ change. Images were made available in print and electronic formats.An updated atlas of radiographic images was produced to assist in grading individual radiographic features of the hand, hip and knee for clinicians and for use in clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2006.11.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245081900001

    View details for PubMedID 17320422

  • Upper limb muscle volumes in adult subjects JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS Holzbaur, K. R., Murray, W. M., Gold, G. E., Delp, S. L. 2007; 40 (4): 742-749

    Abstract

    Muscle force-generating properties are often derived from cadaveric studies of muscle architecture. While the relative sizes of muscles at a single upper limb joint have been established in cadaveric specimens, the relative sizes of muscles across upper limb joints in living subjects remain unclear. We used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the volumes of the 32 upper limb muscles crossing the glenohumeral joint, elbow, forearm, and wrist in 10 young, healthy subjects, ranging from a 20th percentile female to a 97th percentile male, based on height. We measured the volume and volume fraction of these muscles. Muscles crossing the shoulder, elbow, and wrist comprised 52.5, 31.4, and 16.0% of the total muscle volume, respectively. The deltoid had the largest volume fraction (15.2%+/-1%) and the extensor indicis propius had the smallest (0.2%+/-0.05%). We determined that the distribution of muscle volume in the upper limb is highly conserved across these subjects with a three-fold variation in total muscle volumes (1427-4426cm(3)). When we predicted the volume of an individual muscle from the mean volume fraction, on average 85% of the variation among subjects was accounted for (average p=0.0008). This study provides normative data that forms the basis for investigating muscle volumes in other populations, and for scaling computer models to more accurately represent the muscle volume of a specific individual.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245111200005

    View details for PubMedID 17241636

  • Moment-generating capacity of upper limb muscles in healthy adults JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS Holzbaur, K. R., Delp, S. L., Gold, G. E., Murray, W. M. 2007; 40 (11): 2442-2449

    Abstract

    Muscle strength and volume vary greatly among individuals. Maximum isometric joint moment, a standard measurement of strength, has typically been assessed in young, healthy subjects, whereas muscle volumes have generally been measured in cadavers. This has made it difficult to characterize the relationship between isometric strength and muscle size in humans. We measured maximum isometric moments about the shoulder, elbow, and wrist in 10 young, healthy subjects, ranging in size from a 20th percentile female to a 97th percentile male. The volumes of 32 upper limb muscles were determined from magnetic resonance images of these same subjects, and grouped according to their primary function. The maximum moments produced using the shoulder adductors (67.9+/-28.4 Nm) were largest, and were approximately 6.5(+/-1.2) times greater than those produced using the wrist extensors (10.2+/-4.6 Nm), which were smallest. While there were substantial differences in moment-generating capacity among these 10 subjects, moment significantly covaried with muscle volume of the appropriate functional group, explaining between 95% (p<0.0001; shoulder adductors) and 68% (p=0.004; wrist flexors) of the variation in the maximum isometric joint moments among subjects. While other factors, such as muscle moment arms or neural activation and coordination, can contribute to variation in strength among subjects, they either were relatively constant across these subjects compared to large differences in muscle volumes or they covaried with muscle volume. We conclude that differences in strength among healthy young adults are primarily a consequence of variation in muscle volume, as opposed to other factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2006.11.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248990600011

    View details for PubMedID 17250841

  • Fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery SSFP imaging JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Bangerter, N. K., Hargreaves, B. A., Gold, G. E., Stucker, D. T., Nishimura, D. G. 2006; 24 (6): 1426-1431

    Abstract

    To describe and evaluate a fast, fluid-suppressed 2D multislice steady-state free precession (SSFP) neuroimaging sequence.We developed a fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery SSFP sequence for use in neuroimaging. The inversion time (TI) was optimized to yield good cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) suppression while conserving white matter (WM)/lesion contrast across a broad range of flip angles. Multiple SSFP acquisitions were combined using the sum-of-squares (SOS) method to maximize SNR efficiency while minimizing SSFP banding artifacts. We compared our fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) SSFP sequence with FLAIR fast spin-echo (FSE) in both normal subjects and a volunteer with multiple sclerosis. SNR measurements were performed to ascertain the SNR efficiency of each sequence.Our FLAIR SSFP sequence demonstrated excellent CSF suppression and good gray matter (GM)/WM contrast. Coverage of the entire brain (5-mm slices, 24-cm FOV, 256 x 192 matrix) was achieved with FLAIR SSFP in less than half the scan time of a corresponding FLAIR FSE sequence with similar SNR, yielding improvements of more than 50% in SNR efficiency. Axial scans of a volunteer with multiple sclerosis show clearly visible plaques and very good visualization of brain parenchyma.We have demonstrated the feasibility of a very fast fluid-suppressed neuroimaging technique using SSFP.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20743

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242562000031

    View details for PubMedID 17036358

  • Iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) fast spin-echo imaging of the ankle: Initial clinical experience AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Fuller, S., Reeder, S., Shimakawa, A., Yu, H., Johnson, J., Beaulieu, C., Gold, G. E. 2006; 187 (6): 1442-1447

    Abstract

    Reliable, uniform fat suppression is important. Multiple approaches currently exist, many of which suffer from either suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), or the inability to obtain consistent fat suppression around the ankle joint. Our purpose was to test iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and the least-squares estimation (IDEAL) method in combination with fast spin-echo imaging, which is able to achieve reliable high SNR images with uniform fat-water separation.We compared IDEAL fast spin-echo with conventional fat-suppressed fast spin-echo imaging in 33 ankles in 32 patients. Quantitative measurements of SNR and contrast-to-noise ratio efficiency were made, and qualitative diagnostic image quality and fat-suppression scores were determined.We found that the SNR efficiency for both cartilage and fluid was similar for both techniques, and fluid/cartilage contrast-to-noise ratio efficiency was higher with IDEAL fast spin-echo imaging. Fat suppression and diagnostic quality scores using the IDEAL method were superior (p < 0.01) to fat-suppressed fast spin-echo imaging.IDEAL fast spin-echo imaging is a promising technique for MRI of the ankle.

    View details for DOI 10.2214/AJR.05.0930

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242289200010

    View details for PubMedID 17114534

  • Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of muscle function after surgery SKELETAL RADIOLOGY Asakawa, D. S., Blemker, S. S., Gold, G. E., Delp, S. L. 2006; 35 (12): 885-886

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00256-006-0163-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241797800001

    View details for PubMedID 16810541

  • T-1- and T-2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging of the brachial plexus and cervical spine with IDEAL water-fat separation JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Reeder, S. B., Yu, H., Johnson, J. W., Shimakawa, A., Brittain, J. H., Pelc, N. J., Beaulieu, C. F., Gold, G. E. 2006; 24 (4): 825-832

    Abstract

    To compare the iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) method with fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1W) and T2W fast spin-echo (FSE) and short-TI inversion recovery (STIR) imaging of the brachial plexus and cervical spine.Images acquired at 1.5T in five volunteers using fat-saturated T1W and T2W FSE imaging and STIR were compared with T1W and T2W IDEAL-FSE images. Examples of T1W and T2W IDEAL-FSE images acquired in patients are also shown.T1W and T2W IDEAL-FSE demonstrated superior fat suppression (P<0.05) and image quality (P<0.05), compared to T1W and T2W fat-saturated FSE, respectively. SNR performance of T1W-IDEAL-FSE was similar to T1W FSE in the spinal cord (P=0.250) and paraspinous muscles (P=0.78), while T2W IDEAL-FSE had superior SNR in muscle (P=0.02) and CSF (P=0.02), and marginally higher cord SNR (P=0.09). Compared to STIR, T2W IDEAL-FSE demonstrated superior image quality (P<0.05), comparable fat suppression (excellent, P=1.0), and higher SNR performance (P<0.001).IDEAL-FSE is a promising method for T1W and T2W imaging of the brachial plexus and cervical spine.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20721

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240882000013

    View details for PubMedID 16969792

  • Is cartilage thickness different in young subjects with and without patellofemoral pain? OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE Draper, C. E., Besier, T. F., Gold, G. E., Fredericson, M., Fiene, A., Beaupre, G. S., Delp, S. L. 2006; 14 (9): 931-937

    Abstract

    To determine the differences in load-bearing patellofemoral joint cartilage thickness between genders. To determine the differences in load-bearing cartilage thickness between pain-free controls and individuals with patellofemoral pain.The articular cartilage thickness of the patella and anterior femur was estimated from magnetic resonance images in 16 young, pain-free control subjects (eight males, eight females) and 34 young individuals with patellofemoral pain (12 males, 22 females). The average age of all subjects was 28+/-4 years. The cartilage surfaces were divided into regions approximating the location of patellofemoral joint contact during knee flexion. The mean and peak cartilage thicknesses of each region were computed and compared using a repeated-measures Analysis of Variance.On average, males had 22% and 23% thicker cartilage than females in the patella (P < 0.01) and femur (P < 0.05), respectively. Male control subjects had 18% greater peak patellar cartilage thickness than males with patellofemoral pain (P < 0.05); however, we did not detect differences in patellar cartilage thickness between female control subjects and females with patellofemoral pain (P = 0.45). We detected no significant differences in femoral cartilage thickness between the control and pain groups.Thin cartilage at the patella may be one mechanism of patellofemoral pain in male subjects, but is unlikely to be a dominant factor in the development of pain in the female population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2006.03.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239898500012

    View details for PubMedID 16647278

  • Articular cartilage of the knee: Rapid three-dimensional MR imaging at 3.0 T with IDEAL balanced steady-State free precession - Initial experience RADIOLOGY Gold, G. E., Reeder, S. B., Yu, H., Kornaat, P., Shimakawa, A. S., Johnson, J. W., Pelc, N. J., Beaulieu, C. F., Brittain, J. H. 2006; 240 (2): 546-551

    Abstract

    Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study. In this study, iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL) balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP), fat-suppressed bSSFP, and fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences for 3.0-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of articular knee cartilage were prospectively compared in five healthy volunteers. Cartilage and fluid signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), cartilage-fluid contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), SNR efficiency, CNR efficiency, image quality, and fat suppression were compared. Fat-suppressed bSSFP and IDEAL bSSFP had higher SNR efficiency of cartilage (P < .01) than did GRE. IDEAL bSSFP had higher cartilage-fluid CNR efficiency than did fat-suppressed bSSFP or GRE (P < .01). Fat-suppressed bSSFP and IDEAL bSSFP had higher image quality than did GRE (P < .01). GRE and IDEAL bSSFP had significantly better fat-water separation or fat saturation than did fat-suppressed bSSFP (P < .05). IDEAL bSSFP is a promising method for imaging articular knee cartilage.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2402050288

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239242600029

    View details for PubMedID 16801369

  • Advanced magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage ORTHOPEDIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Gold, G. E., Hargreaves, B. A., Stevens, K. J., Beaulieu, C. F. 2006; 37 (3): 331-?

    Abstract

    MRI is one of the most accurate imaging methods available to diagnose disorders of articular cartilage. Conventional two-dimensional and three-dimensional approaches show changes in cartilage morphology. Newer and substantially faster three-dimensional imaging methods show great promise to improve MRI of cartilage. These methods may allow acquisition of fluid-sensitive isotropic data that can be reformatted into arbitrary planes for improved detection and visualization of pathology. Unique MRI contrast mechanisms also allow clinicians to probe cartilage physiology and detect early changes in cartilage macromolecules.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ocl.2006.04.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239903400007

    View details for PubMedID 16846765

  • Designing long-T-2 suppression pulses for ultrashort echo time imaging MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Larson, P. E., Gurney, P. T., Nayak, K., Gold, G. E., Pauly, J. M., Nishimura, D. G. 2006; 56 (1): 94-103

    Abstract

    Ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging has shown promise as a technique for imaging tissues with T2 values of a few milliseconds or less. These tissues, such as tendons, menisci, and cortical bone, are normally invisible in conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques but have signal in UTE imaging. They are difficult to visualize because they are often obscured by tissues with longer T2 values. In this article, new long-T2 suppression RF pulses that improve the contrast of short-T2 species are introduced. These pulses are improvements over previous long-T2 suppression pulses that suffered from poor off-resonance characteristics or T1 sensitivity. Short-T2 tissue contrast can also be improved by suppressing fat in some applications. Dual-band long-T2 suppression pulses that additionally suppress fat are also introduced. Simulations, along with phantom and in vivo experiments using 2D and 3D UTE imaging, demonstrate the feasibility, improved contrast, and improved sensitivity of these new long-T2 suppression pulses. The resulting images show predominantly short-T2 species, while most long-T2 species are suppressed.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.20926

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238823600011

    View details for PubMedID 16724304

  • Prepolarized magnetic resonance imaging around metal orthopedic implants MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Venook, R. D., Matter, N. I., Ramachandran, M., Ungersma, S. E., Gold, G. E., Giori, N. J., Macovski, A., Scott, G. C., Conolly, S. M. 2006; 56 (1): 177-186

    Abstract

    A prepolarized MRI (PMRI) scanner was used to image near metal implants in agar gel phantoms and in in vivo human wrists. Comparison images were made on 1.5- and 0.5-T conventional whole-body systems. The PMRI experiments were performed in a smaller bore system tailored to extremity imaging with a prepolarization magnetic field of 0.4 T and a readout magnetic field of 27-54 mT (1.1-2.2 MHz). Scan parameters were chosen with equal readout gradient strength over a given field of view and matrix size to allow unbiased evaluation of the benefits of lower readout frequency. Results exhibit substantial reduction in metal susceptibility artifacts under PMRI versus conventional scanners. A new artifact quantification technique is also presented, and phantom results confirm that susceptibility artifacts improve as expected with decreasing readout magnetic field using PMRI. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that prepolarized techniques have the potential to provide diagnostic cross-sectional images for postoperative evaluation of patients with metal implants.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.20927

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238823600019

    View details for PubMedID 16724303

  • Linear combination filtering for T-2-selective imaging of the knee MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Vidarsson, L., Gold, G. E., Hargreaves, B., Pauly, J. M. 2006; 55 (5): 1191-1196

    Abstract

    Recently a novel T2 selective imaging method based on linear combination (LC) filtering was developed. By linearly combining images acquired with different echo times LC filtering is able to generate images showing only tissues with a preselected range of T2 relaxation times. In this study the use of LC filtering in knee imaging was investigated. Three LC filters were designed: a short LC filter for imaging the knee meniscus, a medium LC filter for articular cartilage, and a long LC filter for synovial fluid. To verify the filter designs, eight phantoms with different T2 relaxation times were imaged. In addition, in vivo images were acquired from four asymptomatic volunteers and a subject with cartilage damage. T2 maps were also generated using the same source images. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurements were made of the meniscus, cartilage, and fluid regions on the three LC filtered images. The highest SNR was seen in the target tissue on each of the LC filtered images. LC filtering is a new method that can selectively image knee tissues based on their T2.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.20678

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237151600029

    View details for PubMedID 16586458

  • Comparison of quantitative cartilage measurements acquired on two 3.0T MRI systems from different manufacturers JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Kornaat, P. R., Koo, S., Andriacchi, T. P., Bloem, J. L., Gold, G. E. 2006; 23 (5): 770-773

    Abstract

    To investigate the comparability of two osteoarthritis (OA) surrogate endpoints--average cartilage thickness and cartilage volume--acquired from healthy volunteers on two 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems from different manufacturers.Ten knees of five healthy volunteers were scanned on a 3.0T General Electric (GE) and a 3.0T Philips scanner using a fast three-dimensional fat-suppressed spoiled gradient (SPGR) imaging sequence. The acquisition parameters were optimized beforehand and were kept as comparable as possible on both scanners. For quantitative analysis, the average cartilage thickness and volume of the load-bearing regions of the femoral condyles were compared. Data were analyzed using a univariate repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) to examine the effects of position, condyle, and imaging system on the measurements.The average cartilage thickness and volume of the load-bearing regions of the femoral condyles did not differ between the two different 3.0T MRI systems (P > 0.05). There was no significant effect of position or condyle on the average cartilage thickness measurements (P > 0.05; range = 0.41-0.93) or cartilage volume (P > 0.05; range = 0.14-0.87).Two OA surrogate endpoints--average cartilage thickness and cartilage volume--acquired on two 3.0T MRI systems from different manufacturers are comparable.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20561

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237124800023

    View details for PubMedID 16568430

  • Software tools for interactive instruction in radiologic anatomy. Academic radiology Alvarez, A., Gold, G. E., Tobin, B., Desser, T. S. 2006; 13 (4): 512-517

    Abstract

    To promote active learning in an introductory Radiologic Anatomy course through the use of computer-based exercises.DICOM datasets from our hospital PACS system were transferred to a networked cluster of desktop computers in a medical school classroom. Medical students in the Radiologic Anatomy course were divided into four small groups and assigned to work on a clinical case for 45 minutes. The groups used iPACS viewer software, a free DICOM viewer, to view images and annotate anatomic structures. The classroom instructor monitored and displayed each group's work sequentially on the master screen by running SynchronEyes, a software tool for controlling PC desktops remotely.Students were able to execute the assigned tasks using the iPACS software with minimal oversight or instruction. Course instructors displayed each group's work on the main display screen of the classroom as the students presented the rationale for their decisions. The interactive component of the course received high ratings from the students and overall course ratings were higher than in prior years when the course was given solely in lecture format.DICOM viewing software is an excellent tool for enabling students to learn radiologic anatomy from real-life clinical datasets. Interactive exercises performed in groups can be powerful tools for stimulating students to learn radiologic anatomy.

    View details for PubMedID 16554232

  • Software tools for interactive instruction in radiologic anatomy ACADEMIC RADIOLOGY Alvarez, A., Gold, G. E., Tobin, B., Desser, T. S. 2006; 13 (4): 510-515
  • Articular cartilage of the knee: Evaluation with fluctuating equilibrium MR imaging - Initial experience in healthy volunteers RADIOLOGY Gold, G. E., Hargreaves, B. A., Vasanawala, S. S., Webb, J. D., Shimakawa, A. S., Brittain, J. H., Beaulieu, C. F. 2006; 238 (2): 712-718

    Abstract

    Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained for this HIPAA-compliant study, whose purpose was to prospectively compare three magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques-fluctuating equilibrium, three-dimensional (3D) spoiled gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR), and two-dimensional (2D) fast spin echo (SE)-for evaluating articular cartilage in the knee. The study cohort consisted of 10 healthy volunteers (four men, six women; age range, 26-42 years). Cartilage signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), SNR efficiency, cartilage-fluid contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), CNR efficiency, image quality, cartilage visibility, and fat suppression were compared. Cartilage volume was compared for the fluctuating equilibrium and 3D SPGR techniques. Compared with 3D SPGR and 2D fast SE, fluctuating equilibrium yielded the highest cartilage SNR efficiency and cartilage-fluid CNR efficiency (P < .01 for both). Image quality was similar with all sequences. Fluctuating equilibrium imaging yielded higher cartilage visibility than did 2D fast SE imaging (P <. 01) but worse fat suppression than did 3D SPGR and 2D fast SE imaging (P < .04). Cartilage volume measurements with fluctuating equilibrium and 3D SPGR were similar. Fluctuating equilibrium MR imaging is a promising method for evaluating articular cartilage in the knee.

    View details for DOI 10.1148/radiol.2381042183

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234859100040

    View details for PubMedID 16436826

  • In vivo anatomy of the Neer and Hawkins sign positions for shoulder impingement JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Pappas, G. P., Blemker, S. S., Beaulieu, C. F., McAdams, T. R., Whalen, S. T., Gold, G. E. 2006; 15 (1): 40-49

    Abstract

    The Neer and Hawkins impingement signs are commonly used to diagnose subacromial pathology, but the anatomy of these maneuvers has not been well elucidated in vivo. This 3-dimensional open magnetic resonance imaging study characterized shoulder anatomy and rotator cuff impingement in 8 normal volunteers placed in the Neer and Hawkins positions. Subacromial and intraarticular contact of the rotator cuff was graded, and minimum distances were computed between the tendon insertion sites and the glenoid, acromion, and coracoid. Both the Neer and Hawkins maneuvers significantly decreased the distance from the supraspinatus insertion to the acromion and posterior glenoid and from the subscapularis insertion to the anterior glenoid. However, the Hawkins position resulted in significantly greater subacromial space narrowing and subacromial rotator cuff contact than the Neer position. In the Hawkins position, subacromial contact of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus was observed in 7 of 8 and 5 of 8 subjects, respectively. In contrast, rotator cuff contact with the acromion did not occur in any subject in the Neer position. Intraarticular contact of the supraspinatus with the posterosuperior glenoid was observed in all subjects in both positions. Subscapularis contact with the anterior glenoid was also seen in 7 of 8 subjects in the Neer position and in all subjects in the Hawkins position. This extensive intraarticular contact suggests that internal impingement may play a role in the Neer and Hawkins signs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2005.04.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234868300008

    View details for PubMedID 16414467

  • MRI of articular cartilage in OA: novel pulse sequences and compositional/functional markers OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE Gold, G. E., Burstein, D., Dardzinski, B., Lang, P., Boada, F., Mosher, T. 2006; 14: A76-A86

    Abstract

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with its unique ability to image and characterize soft tissue non-invasively, has proven valuable in assessing cartilage in OA. The development of new, fast imaging methods with high contrast show promise to improve the magnetic resonance (MR) evaluation of this disease. In addition to morphologic MRI methods, MRI contrast mechanisms under development may reveal detailed information about the physiology of cartilage. It is anticipated that these and other MRI techniques will play an increasingly important role in assessing the success or failure of therapies for OA. On December 5 and 6, 2002, OMERACT (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials) and OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International) held a workshop in Bethesda, MD aiming at providing a state-of-the-art review of imaging outcome measures for OA of the knee to help guide scientists and pharmaceutical companies in the use of MRI in multi-site studies of OA. Applications of MRI were initially reviewed by a multidisciplinary, international panel of expert scientists and physicians from academia, the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies. The findings of the panel were then presented to a wider group of participants for open discussion. The following report summarizes the results of these discussions with respect to novel MRI pulse sequences for evaluating articular cartilage of the knee in OA and notes any additional advances that have been made since.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2006.03.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238959700011

    View details for PubMedID 16716605

  • A modeling framework to estimate patellofemoral joint cartilage stress in vivo MEDICINE AND SCIENCE IN SPORTS AND EXERCISE Besier, T. F., Gold, G. E., Beaupre, G. S., Delp, S. L. 2005; 37 (11): 1924-1930

    Abstract

    Patellofemoral (PF) pain is common among athletes and may be caused by increased subchondral bone stress as a result of increased stress in the cartilage of the femur or patella. This article presents a modeling pipeline to estimate in vivo cartilage stress in the PF joint.The modeling pipeline uses the finite element method to calculate stresses and strains in the PF joint cartilage. Model inputs include an accurate geometrical representation of the bones and cartilage from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cartilage material properties, and an estimate of muscle forces from an EMG-driven musculoskeletal model. Validation is performed using PF joint contact area and patellar orientation measured from upright, weight-bearing MRI. Preliminary data from an active, pain-free subject illustrate the modeling pipeline to calculate cartilage stress during a static squat.The quasistatic finite element simulation reproduced the orientation of the patella to within 2.1 mm and predicted the PF joint contact area to within 2.3%. Octahedral shear stresses were highest in the central, lateral aspect of the patella cartilage with a peak of 2.5 MPa. The corresponding stresses in the femoral cartilage reached only 2.0 MPa. However, peak hydrostatic pressures were higher within the femoral cartilage (3.5 MPa) than the patellar cartilage (2.3 MPa).The methods presented in this article offer a novel approach to calculate PF joint cartilage stress in vivo. Future efforts will use this modeling pipeline to further our knowledge of PF pain and potential rehabilitation strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1249/01.mss.0000176686.18683.64

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233451000015

    View details for PubMedID 16286863

  • Automatic tuning of flexible interventional RF receiver coils MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Venook, R. D., Hargreaves, B. A., Gold, G. E., Conolly, S. M., Scott, G. C. 2005; 54 (4): 983-993

    Abstract

    Microcontroller-based circuitry was built and tested for automatically tuning flexible RF receiver coils at the touch of a button. This circuitry is robust to 10% changes in probe center frequency, is in line with the scanner, and requires less than 1 s to tune a simple probe. Images were acquired using this circuitry with a varactor-tunable 1-inch flexible probe in a phantom and in an in vitro porcine knee model. The phantom experiments support the use of automatic tuning by demonstrating 30% signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) losses for 5% changes in coil center frequency, in agreement with theoretical calculations. Comparisons between patellofemoral cartilage images obtained using a 3-inch surface coil and the surgically-implanted 1-inch flexible coil reveal a worst-case local SNR advantage of a factor of 4 for the smaller coil. This work confirms that surgically implanted coils can greatly improve resolution in small-field-of-view (FOV) applications, and demonstrates the importance and feasibility of automatically tuning such probes.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.20616

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232348000027

    View details for PubMedID 16155871

  • Iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation (IDEAL): Application with fast spin-echo imaging MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Reeder, S. B., Pineda, A. R., Wen, Z. F., Shimakawa, A., Yu, H. Z., Brittain, J. H., Gold, G. E., Beaulieu, C. H., Pelc, N. J. 2005; 54 (3): 636-644

    Abstract

    Chemical shift based methods are often used to achieve uniform water-fat separation that is insensitive to Bo inhomogeneities. Many spin-echo (SE) or fast SE (FSE) approaches acquire three echoes shifted symmetrically about the SE, creating time-dependent phase shifts caused by water-fat chemical shift. This work demonstrates that symmetrically acquired echoes cause artifacts that degrade image quality. According to theory, the noise performance of any water-fat separation method is dependent on the proportion of water and fat within a voxel, and the position of echoes relative to the SE. To address this problem, we propose a method termed "iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetric and least-squares estimation" (IDEAL). This technique combines asymmetrically acquired echoes with an iterative least-squares decomposition algorithm to maximize noise performance. Theoretical calculations predict that the optimal echo combination occurs when the relative phase of the echoes is separated by 2pi/3, with the middle echo centered at pi/2+pik (k=any integer), i.e., (-pi/6+pik, pi/2+pik, 7pi/6+pik). Only with these echo combinations can noise performance reach the maximum possible and be independent of the proportion of water and fat. Close agreement between theoretical and experimental results obtained from an oil-water phantom was observed, demonstrating that the iterative least-squares decomposition method is an efficient estimator.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.20624

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231494000015

    View details for PubMedID 16092103

  • Considerations in measuring cartilage thickness using MRI: factors influencing reproducibility and accuracy OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE Koo, S., Gold, G. E., Andriacchi, T. P. 2005; 13 (9): 782-789

    Abstract

    The primary goal of this study was to describe and evaluate conditions that could influence the precision and accuracy of measuring in vivo cartilage thickness in the weight bearing regions of the knee from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Three-dimensional (3D) models of the femoral cartilage were created from segmented MR images. The weight bearing regions on femoral cartilage were selected for the portion of the tibiofemoral joint that sustains contact during walking. Six regions of interest (three on each condyle) were located on the femur. Average cartilage thickness was calculated over each region. The sensitivity of the precision of the measurements to observer variability was evaluated using intra- and inter-observer reproducibility tests of cartilage thickness measurements from the MRI-derived 3D models. In addition, the quantitative influence of a rule-based protocol for segmentation was evaluated using the inter-observer reproducibility protocol. Accuracy tests were conducted on porcine knees by comparing 3D models from MR images and laser scans across weight bearing and non-weight bearing regions.The precision was substantially better for the intra-observer tests (Coefficient of variation (CV) = 1-3%) than the inter-observer tests. Adding a rule-based protocol reduced variability in inter-observer tests substantially (CV = 6.6% vs 8.3%). Accuracy tests showed that the central and weight bearing regions on each condyle were more accurate than boundary and non-weight bearing regions. In addition, these results indicate that care should be taken when determining cartilage thickness of weight bearing regions with cartilage degenerations, since the thickness of thinner cartilage can be systematically overestimated in MR images.A rule-based approach can substantially increase inter-observer reproducibility when measuring cartilage thickness from multiple observers. This improvement in inter-observer reproducibility could be an important consideration for longitudinal studies of disease progression. In quantifying cartilage thickness, central and weight bearing regions on each condyle can provide more accurate measurement than boundary and non-weight bearing regions with average accuracy of +/-0.2-0.3 mm. An important finding of this study was that the weight bearing regions, which are usually of the greatest clinical interest, were measured most accurately by sagittal plane imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2005.04.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232252100005

    View details for PubMedID 15961328

  • MRI findings of femoral diaphyseal stress injuries in athletes AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Hwang, B., Fredericson, M., Chung, C. B., Beaulieu, C. F., Gold, G. E. 2005; 185 (1): 166-173

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229951900029

    View details for PubMedID 15972418

  • Controversies in protocol selection in the Imaging of articular cartilage SEMINARS IN MUSCULOSKELETAL RADIOLOGY Gold, G. E., Hargreaves, B. A., Reeder, S. B., Vasanawala, S. S., Beaulieu, C. F. 2005; 9 (2): 161-172

    Abstract

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, with its unique ability to noninvasively image and characterize soft tissue, has shown promise in assessment of cartilage. The development of new, fast imaging methods with high contrast will improve the MR evaluation of cartilage morphology. In addition to morphological MR imaging methods, MR imaging contrast mechanisms under development may reveal detailed information regarding the physiology of cartilage. However, many of these methods remain to be tested in the clinical setting. Protocol selection for cartilage imaging requires understanding of the patient population and the advantages and limitations of these techniques.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230039200008

    View details for PubMedID 16044384

  • Rapid musculoskeletal MRI with phase-sensitive steady-state free precession: Comparison with routine knee MRI AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Vasanawala, S. S., Hargreaves, B. A., Pauly, J. M., Nishimura, D. G., Beaulieu, C. F., Gold, G. E. 2005; 184 (5): 1450-1455

    Abstract

    The aim of this work was to show the potential utility of a novel rapid 3D fat-suppressed MRI method for joint imaging.Phase-sensitive steady-state free precession provides rapid 3D joint imaging with robust fat suppression and excellent cartilage delineation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228875300013

    View details for PubMedID 15855095

  • Driven equilibrium magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage: Initial clinical experience JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Gold, G. E., Fuller, S. E., Hargreaves, B. A., Stevens, K. J., Beaulieu, C. F. 2005; 21 (4): 476-481

    Abstract

    To evaluate three-dimensional driven equilibrium Fourier transform (3D-DEFT) for image quality and detection of articular cartilage lesions in the knee.We imaged 104 consecutive patients with knee pain with 3D-DEFT and proton density (PD-FSE) and T2-weighted (T2-FSE) fast spin echo. Twenty-four went on to arthroscopy. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) efficiency were measured. Subjective image quality, fat suppression, and cartilage thickness visibility were assessed. Cartilage lesions on 3D-DEFT and T2-FSE were compared with findings outlined in operative reports.SNR efficiency was higher for 3D-DEFT and PD-FSE than for T2-FSE (P < 0.02). 3D-DEFT and PD-FSE showed superior cartilage thickness visibility compared with T2-FSE (P < 0.02). T2-FSE showed better fat suppression and fewer image artifacts than 3D-DEFT (P < 0.04). 3D-DEFT had similar sensitivity and similar specificity for cartilage lesions compared with PD-FSE and T2-FSE.3D-DEFT provides excellent synovial fluid-to-cartilage contrast while preserving signal from cartilage, giving this method a high cartilage SNR. 3D-DEFT shows the full cartilage thickness better than T2-FSE. T2-FSE had superior fat saturation and fewer artifacts than 3D-DEFT. Overall, 3D-DEFT requires further technical development, but is a promising method for imaging articular cartilage.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jhmi.20276

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228029900022

    View details for PubMedID 15779031

  • MR imaging of articular cartilage at 1.5T and 3.0T: Comparison of SPGR and SSFP sequences OSTEOARTHRITIS AND CARTILAGE Kornaat, P. R., Reeder, S. B., Koo, S., Brittain, J. H., Yu, H., Andriacchi, T. P., Gold, G. E. 2005; 13 (4): 338-344

    Abstract

    To compare articular cartilage signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and thickness measurements on a 1.5 T and a 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner using three-dimensional spoiled gradient recalled echo (3D-SPGR) and two 3D steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences.Both knees of five volunteers were scanned at 1.5 T and at 3.0 T using a transmit-receive quadrature extremity coil. Each examination consisted of a sagittal 3D-SPGR sequence, a sagittal fat suppressed 3D-SSFP (FS-SSFP) sequence, and a sagittal Dixon 3D-SSFP sequence. For quantitative analysis, we compared cartilage SNR and CNR efficiencies, as well as average cartilage thickness measurements.For 3D-SPGR, cartilage SNR efficiencies at 3.0 T increased compared to those at 1.5 T by a factor of 1.83 (range: 1.40-2.09). In comparison to 3D-SPGR, the SNR efficiency of FS-SSFP increased by a factor of 2.13 (range: 1.81-2.39) and for Dixon SSFP by a factor of 2.39 (range: 1.95-2.99). For 3D-SPGR, CNR efficiencies between cartilage and its surrounding tissue increased compared to those at 1.5 T by a factor of 2.12 (range: 1.75-2.47), for FS-SSFP by a factor 2.11 (range: 1.58-2.80) and for Dixon SSFP by a factor 2.39 (range 2.09-2.83). Average cartilage thicknesses of load bearing regions were not different at both field strengths or between sequences (P>0.05). Mean average cartilage thickness measured in all knees was 2.28 mm.Articular cartilage imaging of the knee on a 3.0 T MR scanner shows increased SNR and CNR efficiencies compared to a 1.5 T scanner, where SSFP-based techniques show the highest increase in SNR and CNR efficiency. There was no difference between average cartilage thickness measurements performed at the 1.5 T and 3.0 T scanners or between the three different sequences.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2004.12.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228216200008

    View details for PubMedID 15780647

  • Patellofemoral joint contact area increases with knee flexion and weight-bearing JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC RESEARCH Besier, T. F., Draper, C. E., Gold, G. E., Beaupre, G. S., Delp, S. L. 2005; 23 (2): 345-350

    Abstract

    Patellofemoral pain is a common and debilitating disorder. Elevated cartilage stress of the patellofemoral joint is hypothesized to play a role in the onset of pain. Estimating cartilage stress requires accurate measurements of contact area. The purpose of this study was to estimate patellofemoral joint contact areas in a group of healthy, pain-free subjects during upright, weight-bearing conditions. Sixteen subjects (8 female, 8 male) were scanned in a GE Signa SP open configuration MRI scanner, which allowed subjects to stand or squat while reclining 25 degrees from vertical with the knee positioned at 0 degrees , 30 degrees , or 60 degrees of flexion. A custom-built backrest enabled subjects to be scanned without motion artifact in both weight-bearing (0.45 body weight per leg) and reduced loading conditions ('unloaded' at 0.15 body weight) at each knee flexion posture. Male subjects displayed mean unloaded patellofemoral joint contact areas of 210, 414, and 520 mm(2) at 0 degrees , 30 degrees and 60 degrees of knee flexion, respectively. Female subjects' unloaded contact areas were similar at full extension (0 degrees ), but significantly smaller at 30 degrees and 60 degrees (p<0.01), with mean values of 269 and 396 mm(2), respectively. When normalized by patellar dimensions (heightxwidth), contact areas were not different between genders. Under weight-bearing conditions, contact areas increased by an average of 24% (p<0.05). This study highlights the differences in patellofemoral joint contact area between gender, knee flexion postures, and physiologic loading conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.orthres.2004.08.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227567100017

    View details for PubMedID 15734247

  • Echo time optimization for linear combination myelin Imaging MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Vidarsson, L., Conolly, S. M., Lim, K. O., Gold, G. E., Pauly, J. M. 2005; 53 (2): 398-407

    Abstract

    A 3-echo linear combination myelin imaging method is presented. The echo times and weights are chosen such that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of myelin-water is maximized, and signals from other white matter components are sufficiently suppressed. Interfering tissue water and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signals are much stronger than myelin due to their longer T2 and abundance. By carefully optimizing the echo times a 50-fold tissue water suppression is achieved along with a 10-fold CSF suppression. For comparison 4, 5, and 32 echo filters are also designed using the same method. The SNR efficiency of these filters is very similar. The 3-echo filter design was validated by phantom scans. In addition, multislice in vivo myelin images were acquired from both a healthy volunteer and a multiple sclerosis patient. Total scan time was 5 min. A uniform T2 filter is also designed to pass all white matter species with uniform gain. The myelin-water fraction of the in vivo 3-echo data set is then measured by dividing the myelin image by the uniformly filtered image. Obtained myelin-water fractions compare well with previous work.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.20360

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226651100018

    View details for PubMedID 15678534

  • Reduction of blurring in view angle tilting MRI MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Butts, K., Pauly, J. M., Gold, G. E. 2005; 53 (2): 418-424

    Abstract

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the presence of metallic objects suffers from slice-selection errors and in-plane distortions. View angle tilting (VAT) corrects for in-plane distortions by adding a gradient on the slice-select axis during readout, but can suffer from image blurring. This work demonstrates that the major source of blurring is a slice profile modulation of the data, and proposes several solutions to prevent such blurring. Multiple high-bandwidth readouts are demonstrated to reduce the blurring while improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over a single high-bandwidth readout.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.20375

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226651100020

    View details for PubMedID 15678535

  • Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0T: Initial clinical experience AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Gold, G. E., Suh, B., Sawyer-Glover, A., Beaulieu, C. 2004; 183 (5): 1479-1486

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224685700050

    View details for PubMedID 15505324

  • Femoral diaphyseal stress fractures: results of a systematic bone scan and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation in 25 runners PHYSICAL THERAPY IN SPORT Fredericson, M., Jang, K. U., Bergman, G., Gold, G. 2004; 5 (4): 188-193
  • Weight-bearing MRI of patellofemoral joint cartilage contact area JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Gold, G. E., Besier, T. F., Draper, C. E., Asakawa, D. S., Delp, S. L., Beaupre, G. S. 2004; 20 (3): 526-530

    Abstract

    To measure contact area of cartilage in the patellofemoral joint during weight bearing using an open MRI scanner.We developed an MR-compatible back support that allows three-dimensional imaging of the patellofemoral cartilage under physiologic weight-bearing conditions with negligible motion artifact in an open MRI scanner. To measure contact areas, we trained observers using a phantom of known area and tested intra- and interobserver variability. We measured in vivo contact areas between the patella and femoral cartilage with the knee in 30 degrees of flexion, loaded and unloaded, in six volunteers.We were able to measure the contact area of the patellofemoral cartilage with small interobserver (CV 7.0%) and intraobserver (CV 3.0%) variation. At 30 degrees of knee flexion, mean contact area increased from 400 mm2 (unloaded) to 522 mm2(loaded to 0.45 times body weight per leg).Using an open magnet and specially designed apparatus, it is possible to image the patellar cartilage during physiologic loading. Knowledge of patellar cartilage contact area is needed to assess patellofemoral stress, which may be increased in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.20146

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223522200024

    View details for PubMedID 15332263

  • Musculoskeletal MRI at 3.0T: Relaxation times and image contrast AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Gold, G. E., Han, E., Stainsby, J., Wright, G., Brittain, J., Beaulieu, C. 2004; 183 (2): 343-351

    Abstract

    The purpose of our study was to measure relaxation times in musculoskeletal tissues at 1.5 and 3.0 T to optimize musculoskeletal MRI methods at 3.0 T.In the knees of five healthy volunteers, we measured the T1 and T2 relaxation times of cartilage, synovial fluid, muscle, marrow, and fat at 1.5 and 3.0 T. The T1 relaxation times were measured using a spiral Look-Locker sequence with eight samples along the T1 recovery curve. The T2 relaxation times were measured using a spiral T2 preparation sequence with six echoes. Accuracy and repeatability of the T1 and T2 measurement sequences were verified in phantoms.T1 relaxation times in cartilage, muscle, synovial fluid, marrow, and subcutaneous fat at 3.0 T were consistently higher than those measured at 1.5 T. Measured T2 relaxation times were reduced at 3.0 T compared with 1.5 T. Relaxation time measurements in vivo were verified using calculated and measured signal-to-noise results. Relaxation times were used to develop a high-resolution protocol for T2-weighted imaging of the knee at 3.0 T.MRI at 3.0 T can improve resolution and speed in musculoskeletal imaging; however, interactions between field strength and relaxation times need to be considered for optimal image contrast and signal-to-noise ratio. Scanning can be performed in shorter times at 3.0 T using single-average acquisitions. Efficient higher-resolution imaging at 3.0 T can be done by increasing the TR to account for increased T1 relaxation times and acquiring thinner slices than at 1.5 T.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222895600028

    View details for PubMedID 15269023

  • Analysis of multiple-acquisition SSFP MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Bangerter, N. K., Hargreaves, B. A., Vasanawala, S. S., Pauly, J. M., Gold, G. E., Nishimura, D. G. 2004; 51 (5): 1038-1047

    Abstract

    Refocused steady-state free precession (SSFP) is limited by its high sensitivity to local field variation, particularly at high field strengths or the long repetition times (TRs) necessary for high resolution. Several methods have been proposed to reduce SSFP banding artifact by combining multiple phase-cycled SSFP acquisitions, each differing in how individual signal magnitudes and phases are combined. These include maximum-intensity SSFP (MI-SSFP) and complex-sum SSFP (CS-SSFP). The reduction in SSFP banding is accompanied by a loss in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency. In this work a general framework for analyzing banding artifact reduction, contrast, and SNR of any multiple-acquisition SSFP combination method is presented. A new sum-of-squares method is proposed, and a comparison is performed between each of the combination schemes. The sum-of-squares SSFP technique (SOS-SSFP) delivers both robust banding artifact reduction and higher SNR efficiency than other multiple-acquisition techniques, while preserving SSFP contrast.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.20052

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221239000022

    View details for PubMedID 15122688

  • Steady-state diffusion-weighted imaging of in vivo knee cartilage MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Miller, K. L., Hargreaves, B. A., Gold, G. E., Pauly, J. M. 2004; 51 (2): 394-398

    Abstract

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has strong potential as a diagnostic for early cartilage damage, with clinical impact for diseases such as osteoarthritis. However, in vivo DWI of cartilage has proven difficult with conventional methods due to the short T2. This work presents a 3D steady-state DWI sequence that is able to image short-T2 species with high SNR. When combined with 2D navigator correction of motion-induced phase artifacts, this method enables high resolution in vivo DWI of cartilage. In vivo knee images in healthy subjects are presented with high SNR (SNR = 110) and submillimeter in-plane resolution (0.5 x 0.7 x 3.0 mm(3)). A method for fitting the diffusion coefficient is presented which produces fits within 10% of literature values. This method should be applicable to other short-T2 tissues, such as muscle, which are difficult to image using traditional DWI methods.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.10696

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188718600023

    View details for PubMedID 14755666

  • Advanced MR imaging of the shoulder: dedicated cartilage techniques. Magnetic resonance imaging clinics of North America Gold, G. E., Reeder, S. B., Beaulieu, C. F. 2004; 12 (1): 143-?

    View details for PubMedID 15066598

  • Multicoil Dixon chemical species separation with an iterative least-squares estimation method MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Reeder, S. B., Wen, Z. F., Yu, H. Z., Pineda, A. R., Gold, G. E., Markl, M., Pelc, N. J. 2004; 51 (1): 35-45

    Abstract

    This work describes a new approach to multipoint Dixon fat-water separation that is amenable to pulse sequences that require short echo time (TE) increments, such as steady-state free precession (SSFP) and fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging. Using an iterative linear least-squares method that decomposes water and fat images from source images acquired at short TE increments, images with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and uniform separation of water and fat are obtained. This algorithm extends to multicoil reconstruction with minimal additional complexity. Examples of single- and multicoil fat-water decompositions are shown from source images acquired at both 1.5T and 3.0T. Examples in the knee, ankle, pelvis, abdomen, and heart are shown, using FSE, SSFP, and spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) pulse sequences. The algorithm was applied to systems with multiple chemical species, and an example of water-fat-silicone separation is shown. An analysis of the noise performance of this method is described, and methods to improve noise performance through multicoil acquisition and field map smoothing are discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188041500007

    View details for PubMedID 14705043

  • Magnetic resonance imaging findings after rectus femoris transfer surgery SKELETAL RADIOLOGY Gold, G. E., Asakawa, D. S., Blemker, S. S., Delp, S. L. 2004; 33 (1): 34-40

    Abstract

    We describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearance of the knee flexor and extensor tendons after bilateral rectus femoris transfer and hamstring lengthening surgery in five patients (10 limbs) with cerebral palsy. Three-dimensional models of the path of the transferred tendon were constructed in all cases. MR images of the transferred and lengthened tendons were examined and compared with images from ten non-surgical subjects. The models showed that the path of the transferred rectus femoris tendon had a marked angular deviation near the transfer site in all cases. MR imaging demonstrated irregular areas of low signal intensity near the transferred rectus femoris and around the hamstrings in all subjects. Eight of the ten post-surgical limbs showed evidence of fluid near or around the transferred or lengthened tendons. This was not observed in the non-surgical subjects. Thus, MR imaging of patients with cerebral palsy after rectus femoris transfer and hamstring-lengthening surgery shows evidence of signal intensity and contour changes, even several years after surgery.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00256-003-0702-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187505400005

    View details for PubMedID 14605768

  • Real-time imaging of skeletal muscle velocity JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Asakawa, D. S., Nayak, K. S., Blemker, S. S., Delp, S. L., Pauly, J. M., Nishimura, D. G., Gold, G. E. 2003; 18 (6): 734-739

    Abstract

    To test the feasibility of using real-time phase contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track velocities (1-20 cm/second) of skeletal muscle motion.To do this we modified a fast real-time spiral PC pulse sequence to accommodate through-plane velocity encoding in the range of -20 to +20 cm/second. We successfully imaged motion of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii muscles during elbow flexion and extension in seven unimpaired adult subjects using real-time PC MRI.The velocity data demonstrate that the biceps brachii and the triceps brachii, antagonistic muscles, move in opposite directions during elbow flexion and extension with velocity values in the muscle tissue ranging from -10 to +10 cm/second.With further development, real-time PC MRI may provide a means to analyze muscle function in individuals with neurologic or movement disorders who cannot actively complete the repeated motions required for dynamic MRI techniques, such as cine PC MRI, that are more commonly used in musculoskeletal biomechanics applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.10422

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186844200013

    View details for PubMedID 14635159

  • Dynamic and functional imaging of the musculoskeletal system. Seminars in musculoskeletal radiology Gold, G. E. 2003; 7 (4): 245-248

    Abstract

    Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the musculoskeletal system is limited to static evaluation of muscle, spine, and joint morphology. However, using the variety of contrast mechanisms available with MRI, it is possible to obtain functional and biomechanical data about the musculoskeletal system. The function of joints and muscles are for motion and weight bearing, so pathology that only occurs during activity can be missed on static MRI examination. Similarly, important information about muscle biomechanics, muscle energetics, and joint function can be obtained with unique MRI contrast such as T(2)-mapping, spectroscopy, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) imaging, and molecular imaging. These new techniques hold the promise for a more complete and useful joint examination.

    View details for PubMedID 14735424

  • Special focus session - What's new in cartilage? RADIOGRAPHICS Gold, G. E., McCauley, T. R., Gray, M. L., Disler, D. G. 2003; 23 (5): 1227-1242

    Abstract

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of articular cartilage is important in evaluation of new surgical and pharmacologic treatments for cartilage damage. Many techniques exist for MR imaging of articular cartilage. Standard techniques for morphologic imaging of cartilage include fast spin-echo and spoiled gradient-echo imaging. These methods provide high-resolution morphologic images of cartilage but are time-consuming in the clinical setting. New methods for faster or higher-resolution morphologic imaging include techniques based on steady-state free precession imaging. These fast techniques will allow detailed evaluation of cartilage in the routine clinical setting. There are also several MR imaging methods that may provide information about the structure and physiology of cartilage. Physiologic imaging may allow detailed evaluation of the glycosaminoglycan matrix or collagen network of articular cartilage and may be the most sensitive method for detection of early changes. With the development of new therapies for osteoarthritis and cartilage injury, MR imaging of articular cartilage is of increasing clinical importance. MR imaging will play an important role in evaluation of the effectiveness of these therapies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185333900014

  • Comparison of new sequences for high-resolution cartilage imaging MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Hargreaves, B. A., Gold, G. E., Beaulieu, C. F., Vasanawala, S. S., Nishimura, D. G., Pauly, J. M. 2003; 49 (4): 700-709

    Abstract

    The high prevalence of osteoarthritis continues to demand improved accuracy in detecting cartilage injury and monitoring its response to different treatments. MRI is the most accurate noninvasive method of diagnosing cartilage lesions. However, MR imaging of cartilage is limited by scan time, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and image contrast. Recently, there has been renewed interest in SNR-efficient imaging sequences for imaging cartilage, including various forms of steady-state free-precession as well as driven-equilibrium imaging. This work compares several of these sequences with existing methods, both theoretically and in normal volunteers. Results show that the new steady-state methods increase SNR-efficiency by as much as 30% and improve cartilage-synovial fluid contrast by a factor of three. Additionally, these methods markedly decrease minimum scan times, while providing 3D coverage without the characteristic blurring seen in fast spin-echo images.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.10424

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182007200013

    View details for PubMedID 12652541

  • Interactive and interventional sports medicine imaging. Topics in magnetic resonance imaging Beaulieu, C. F., Gold, G. E. 2003; 14 (2): 115-130

    Abstract

    The concepts and clinical potential of interactive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in which an examiner manipulates the joint of interest during MRI, and of interventional sports medicine imaging in which radiological guidance is used for targeted therapy of injuries and masses are described. As illustrated by a series of clinical cases, we believe that with further development, interactive MRI will play an important role in the comprehensive evaluation of patients with shoulder pain or dysfunction as well as other joint derangements. Interventional sports medicine takes advantage of the increasingly sophisticated diagnostic value of MRI and the radiologist's ability to use imaging to guide percutaneous therapy. We review our recent experience treating a wide variety of disorders such as cysts, hematomas, and inflammatory disorders, focusing on techniques utilizing ultrasound and MR guidance.

    View details for PubMedID 12777885

  • Rapid MR imaging of articular cartilage with steady-state free precession and multipoint fat-water separation. AJR. American journal of roentgenology Reeder, S. B., Pelc, N. J., Alley, M. T., Gold, G. E. 2003; 180 (2): 357-362

    Abstract

    To obtain high-quality high-resolution images of articular cartilage with reduced imaging time, we combined a novel technique of generalized multipoint fat-water separation with three-dimensional (3D) steady-state free precession (SSFP) imaging.The cartilage of 10 knees in five healthy volunteers was imaged with 3D SSFP imaging and a multipoint fat-water separation method capable of separating fat and water with short TE increments. Fat-saturated 3D spoiled gradient-echo (SPGR) images were obtained for comparison.High-quality images of the knee with excellent fat-water separation were obtained with 3D SSFP imaging. Total imaging time required was 58% less than that required for 3D SPGR imaging with a comparable cartilage signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution. Unlike 3D SPGR images, 3D SSFP images exhibited bright synovial fluid, providing a potential arthrographic effect.High-quality high-resolution images of articular cartilage with improved fat-water separation, bright synovial fluid, and markedly reduced acquisition times can be obtained with 3D SSFP imaging combined with a fat-water separation technique.

    View details for PubMedID 12540434

  • Protocols in sports magnetic resonance imaging. Topics in magnetic resonance imaging Gold, G. E., Hargreaves, B. A., Beaulieu, C. F. 2003; 14 (1): 3-23

    Abstract

    Magnetic resonance imaging, with its multiplanar imaging capability and superior soft-tissue contrast, has become the preferred method for imaging sports-related injuries. Advances in gradient technology, receiver coils, and imaging software have allowed the imaging of the injured athlete to take place quickly and at high resolution. Understanding the tissues being imaged, the underlying anatomy, and the capabilities of today's scanners is crucial to the design of intelligent and efficient protocols.

    View details for PubMedID 12606866

  • MR imaging of knee cartilage with FEMR SKELETAL RADIOLOGY Vasnawala, S. S., Pauly, J. M., Nishimura, D. G., Gold, G. E. 2002; 31 (10): 574-580

    Abstract

    Fluctuating equilibrium magnetic resonance (FEMR) is a rapid three-dimensional (3D) imaging sequence with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). FEMR may be useful for detecting cartilage defects in the knee. At 1.5 T, FEMR uses a TR with odd multiples of 2.2 ms for fat/water separation. With a TR of 6.6 ms, high-resolution 3D imaging of cartilage is possible.The knees of 10 volunteers and two patients were imaged on a GE Signa 1.5 T scanner using an extremity coil. Scans were preceded by a shimming sequence optimizing linear terms. Subjects were imaged with FEMR, proton-density fast spin-echo (PD-FSE), T2-weighted fast spin-echo (T2-FSE), and 3D fat-suppressed spoiled-gradient-recalled echo (3D-SPGR).SNR and contrast-to-noise efficiency measurements for cartilage using FEMR were superior to those using PD-FSE, T2-FSE, and 3D-FS-SPGR. FSE images showed bright synovial fluid with limited cartilage detail. 3D-SPGR had comparable resolution to FEMR but suboptimal cartilage/fluid contrast and longer scan times (8 min versus 2 min). Cartilage surface detail, outlined by bright synovial fluid, was best seen on the FEMR images.FEMR obtains high-resolution 3D images of the entire knee in 2 min with excellent cartilage/fluid contrast. FEMR is sensitive to field inhomogeneity and requires shimming. Surface defects are outlined by bright synovial fluid, and cartilage has higher signal-to-noise efficiency compared with PD-FSE, T2-FSE, and 3D-SPGR techniques.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00256-002-0562-4

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178773000003

    View details for PubMedID 12324826

  • In vivo motion of the rectus femoris muscle after tendon transfer surgery JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS Asakawa, D. S., Blemker, S. S., Gold, G. E., Delp, S. L. 2002; 35 (8): 1029-1037

    Abstract

    Rectus femoris transfer surgery is performed to convert the rectus femoris muscle from a knee extensor to a knee flexor. In this surgery, the distal tendon of the rectus femoris is detached from the patella and reattached to one of the knee flexor tendons. The outcomes of this procedure are variable, and it is not known if the surgery successfully converts the muscle to a knee flexor. We measured the motion of muscle tissue within the rectus femoris and vastus intermedius during knee extension in 10 unimpaired control subjects (10 limbs) and 6 subjects (10 limbs) after rectus femoris transfer using cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Displacements of the vastus intermedius during knee extension were similar between control and tendon transfer subjects. In the control subjects, the rectus femoris muscle consistently moved in the direction of the knee extensors and displaced more than the vastus intermedius. The rectus femoris also moved in the direction of the knee extensors in the tendon transfer subjects; however, the transferred rectus femoris displaced less than the vastus intermedius. These results suggest that the rectus femoris is not converted to a knee flexor after its distal tendon is transferred to the posterior side of the knee, but its capacity for knee extension is diminished by the surgery.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177318000003

    View details for PubMedID 12126662

  • Short echo time MR spectroscopic imaging of the lung parenchyma JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Gold, G. E., Pauly, J. M., Leung, A. N., Block, W. F., Meyer, C. H., Sze, R., Macovski, A., Stark, P. 2002; 15 (6): 679-684

    Abstract

    To perform short echo time MR spectroscopic imaging of the lung parenchyma on normal volunteers.A short echo time projection-reconstruction spectroscopic imaging sequence was implemented on a commercial 1.5T whole body MRI scanner. Images and spectra of the lung parenchyma were obtained from five normal volunteers. Breath-held spectroscopic imaging was also performed.Spectroscopic imaging of short-T2* species allows visualization of different anatomic structures based upon their frequency shifts. A characteristic peak from the parenchyma was seen at three ppm from water frequency.Short echo time MR spectroscopic imaging of the lung parenchyma was demonstrated in normal volunteers. This method may improve proton imaging of the lungs and add specificity to the diagnosis of pulmonary disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jmri.10113

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175918300008

    View details for PubMedID 12112518

  • Future of MR imaging of articular cartilage. Seminars in musculoskeletal radiology Gold, G. E., Beaulieu, C. F. 2001; 5 (4): 313-327

    Abstract

    Osteoarthritis, based on either cartilage injury or degeneration, is a leading cause of disability in the United States. Over the last several decades, much progress has been made in understanding cartilage injury and repair. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, with its unique ability to noninvasively image and characterize soft tissue, has shown promise in assessment of cartilage integrity. In addition to standard MR imaging methods, MR imaging contrast mechanisms under development may reveal detailed information regarding the physiology and morphology of cartilage. MR imaging will play a crucial role in assessing the success or failure of therapies addressing cartilage injury and degeneration.

    View details for PubMedID 11745048

  • Magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Recht, M., Bobic, V., Burstein, D., Disler, D., Gold, G., Gray, M., Kramer, J., Lang, P., McCauley, T., Winalski, C. 2001: S379-S396

    Abstract

    Magnetic resonance imaging is the optimal modality for assessing articular cartilage because of superior soft tissue contrast, direct visualization of articular cartilage, and multiplanar capability. Despite these advantages, there has been disagreement as to the efficacy of magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage. The reason for this controversy is multifactorial but in part is attributable to the lack of the use of optimized pulse sequences for articular cartilage. The current authors will review the current state of the art of magnetic resonance imaging of articular cartilage and cartilage repair procedures, discuss future new directions in imaging strategies and methods being developed to measure cartilage thickness and volume measurements, and propose a magnetic resonance imaging protocol to evaluate cartilage that is achievable on most magnetic resonance scanners, vendor independent, practical (time and cost efficient), and accepted and used by a majority of musculoskeletal radiologists.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171624500035

    View details for PubMedID 11603721

  • Dynamic MR imaging and stress testing in glenohumeral instability: Comparison with normal shoulders and clinical/surgical findings JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Hodge, D. K., Beaulieu, C. F., Thabit, G. H., Gold, G. E., Bergman, A. G., Butts, R. K., Dillingham, M. F., Herfkens, R. J. 2001; 13 (5): 748-756

    Abstract

    Our objectives were to test the hypotheses that: 1) during shoulder motion, glenohumeral alignment differs between asymptomatic shoulders and those with symptomatic instability; 2) during magnetic resonance (MR)-monitored physical exam or stress testing, glenohumeral alignment differs between asymptomatic shoulders and those with instability; and 3) glenohumeral translation during MR stress testing correlates with findings of shoulder instability by clinical exam and exam under anesthesia (EUA). Using an open-configuration 0.5 T MR imaging (MRI) system, we studied symptomatic shoulders in 11 subjects and compared them to their contralateral asymptomatic shoulders. Each shoulder was studied during abduction/adduction and internal/external rotation to determine the humeral head position on the glenoid. An examiner also performed the MR stress test on each shoulder by applying manual force on the humeral head during imaging. All shoulders were assigned an instability grade from the MR stress test, and this grade was correlated with: 1) clinical exam grade assigned during preoperative assessment by an orthopedic surgeon and 2) intraoperative instability grade by EUA immediately preceding arthroscopy. With dynamic abduction and internal/external rotation, the humeral head remained centered on the glenoid in 9 of 11 shoulders, but in two subjects there were dramatic demonstrations of subluxation. With stress testing, a trend toward more joint laxity was demonstrated in symptomatic than in asymptomatic joints (P = 0.11). MR grading of instability correlated directly with clinical grading in six cases and underestimated the degree of instability relative to clinical exam in the other cases. MR instability grading systematically underestimated instability compared with EUA in 7 of the 10 cases that underwent surgical repair. We concluded that dynamic MR evaluation of glenohumeral alignment did not demonstrate abnormalities in symptomatic shoulders in 8 of 10 patients, whereas 2 patients showed dramatic findings of subluxation. Manual stress testing during dynamic MR examination showed a strong correlation with clinical instability grading. Dynamic shoulder MR examination during stress testing could, with further validation, become a useful adjunct to shoulder instability evaluations. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2001;13:748-756.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171296300012

    View details for PubMedID 11329197

  • Dynamic evaluation of shoulder instability using open MR imaging CARS 2000: COMPUTER ASSISTED RADIOLOGY AND SURGERY Beaulieu, C. F., Dillingham, M. F., Hodge, D. K., Butts, K., Gold, G. E., Thabit, G. H., Ladd, A. L., Bergman, A. G. 2000; 1214: 309-314
  • High-resolution three-dimensional in vivo imaging of atherosclerotic plaque MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Luk-Pat, G. T., Gold, G. E., Olcott, E. W., Hu, B. S., Nishimura, D. G. 1999; 42 (4): 762-771

    Abstract

    The internal structure of atherosclerotic-plaque lesions may be a useful predictor of which lesions will rupture and cause sudden events such as heart attack or stroke. With lipid and flow suppression, we obtained high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) images of atherosclerotic plaque in vivo that show the cap thickness and core size of the lesions. 3D GRASE was used because it provides flexible T(2) contrast and good resistance to off-resonance artifacts. While 2D RARE has similar properties, its resolution in the slice-select direction, which is important because of the irregular geometry of atherosclerotic lesions, is limited by achievable slice-excitation profiles. Also, 2D imaging generally achieves lower SNR than 3D imaging because, for SNR purposes, 3D image data is averaged over all the slices of a corresponding multislice 2D dataset. Although 3D RARE has many of the advantages of 3D GRASE, it requires a longer scan time because it uses more refocusing pulses to acquire the same amount of data. Finally, cardiac gating is an important part of our imaging sequence, but can make the imaging time quite long. To obtain reasonable scan times, a 2D excitation pulse was used to restrict the field of view. Magn Reson Med 42:762-771, 1999.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000082944400019

    View details for PubMedID 10502766

  • Ultra-short echo-time 2D time-of-flight MR angiography using a half-pulse excitation MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Nielsen, H. T., Gold, G. E., Olcott, E. W., Pauly, J. M., Nishimura, D. G. 1999; 41 (3): 591-599

    Abstract

    Flow-related artifacts remain a significant concern for magnetic resonance (MR) angiography because their appearance in angiograms adversely impacts accuracy in evaluation of arterial stenoses. In this paper, a half-pulse excitation scheme for improved two-dimensional time-of-flight (2D TOF) angiography is described. The proposed method eliminates the need for gradient moment nulling (of all orders), providing significant reductions in spin dephasing and consequent artifactual signal loss. Furthermore, because the post-excitation refocusing and flow compensation gradients are obviated, the achievable echo time is dramatically shortened. The half-pulse excitation is employed in conjunction with a fast radial-line acquisition, allowing ultra-short echo times on the order of 250-300 microsec. Radial-line acquisition methods also provide additional benefits for flow imaging: effective mitigation of pulsatile flow artifacts, full k-space coverage, and decreased scan times. The half-pulse excitation/radial-line sequence demonstrated improved performance in initial clinical evaluations of the carotid bifurcation when compared with a conventional 2D TOF sequence.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079317800023

    View details for PubMedID 10204884

  • Magnetic resonance imaging of knee cartilage repair. Topics in magnetic resonance imaging Gold, G. E., Bergman, A. G., Pauly, J. M., Lang, P., Butts, R. K., Beaulieu, C. F., Hargreaves, B., Frank, L., Boutin, R. D., Macovski, A., Resnick, D. 1998; 9 (6): 377-392

    Abstract

    Cartilage injury resulting in osteoarthritis is a frequent cause of disability in young people. Osteoarthritis, based on either cartilage injury or degeneration, is a leading cause of disability in the United States. Over the last several decades, much progress has been made in understanding cartilage injury and repair. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, with its unique ability to noninvasively image and characterize soft tissue, has shown promise in assessment of cartilage integrity. In addition to standard MR imaging methods, MR imaging contrast mechanisms under development may reveal detailed information regarding the physiology and morphology of cartilage. MR imaging will play a crucial role in assessing the success or failure of therapies for cartilage injury and degeneration.

    View details for PubMedID 9894740

  • MR imaging of articular cartilage of the knee: New methods using ultrashort TEs AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Gold, G. E., Thedens, D., Pauly, J. M., Fechner, K. P., Bergman, G., Beaulieu, C. F., Macovski, A. 1998; 170 (5): 1223-1226

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073257300016

    View details for PubMedID 9574589

  • Three-dimensional flow-independent peripheral angiography MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Brittain, J. H., Olcott, E. W., Szuba, A., Gold, G. E., Wright, G. A., Irarrazaval, P., Nishimura, D. G. 1997; 38 (3): 343-354

    Abstract

    A magnetization-prepared sequence, T2-Prep-IR, exploits T1, T2, and chemical shift differences to suppress background tissues relative to arterial blood. The resulting flow-independent angiograms depict vessels with any orientation and flow velocity. No extrinsic contrast agent is required. Muscle is the dominant source of background signal in normal volunteers. However, long-T2 deep venous blood and nonvascular fluids such as edema also contribute background signal in some patients. Three sets of imaging parameters are described to address patient-specific contrast requirements. A rapid, spiral-based, three-dimensional readout is utilized to generate high-resolution angiograms of the lower extremities. Comparisons with x-ray angiography and two-dimensional time-of-flight angiography indicate that this flow-independent technique has unique capabilities to accurately depict stenoses and to visualize slow flow and in-plane vessels.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XW16200001

    View details for PubMedID 9339435

  • MR SPECTROSCOPIC IMAGING OF COLLAGEN - TENDONS AND KNEE MENISCI MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Gold, G. E., Pauly, J. M., Macovski, A., Herfkens, R. J. 1995; 34 (5): 647-654

    Abstract

    Water molecules associated with collagen have short transverse (T2) relaxation times. Projection-reconstruction techniques are able to achieve an echo time (TE) much shorter than conventional techniques, allowing imaging of tissues with T2 < 5 ms. Using these techniques, a conventional 1.5-T MRI human imaging system can directly image collagen-associated water from knee menisci and tendons in normal volunteers and patients. Long-T2 suppression improves the contrast between these structures and the surrounding tissue with long-T2 relaxation times. Spectroscopic imaging provides improved lipid/water registration and information about chemical composition and relaxation times. Direct imaging of tendons and menisci may provide more information about these structures and provide a new way to assess both injury and repair.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995TD42800001

    View details for PubMedID 8544684

  • CHARACTERIZATION OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS WITH A 1.5-T IMAGING-SYSTEM JMRI-JOURNAL OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING Gold, G. E., Pauly, J. M., Glover, G. H., Moretto, J. C., Macovski, A., Herfkens, R. J. 1993; 3 (2): 399-407

    Abstract

    It is shown that a conventional 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging system can help characterize some of the key components of atherosclerotic plaque ex vivo. Fresh human aorta with atheromata was suspended in solutions of agarose and manganese chloride and heated to body temperature. The specimens were imaged with modified Dixon and projection-reconstruction imaging sequences. The specimens were then examined histologically to obtain direct correlation between images, spectra, and histologic characteristics. The results show that vessel wall and plaque components can be identified by means of their MR characteristics and correlated with their histologic appearance. The authors were able to identify normal vessel wall components, such as adventitial lipids and smooth muscle. They were also able to identify and localize plaque components such as fibrous tissue, calcification, lipids, and possible areas of hemorrhage and hemosiderin deposition.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KQ88100013

    View details for PubMedID 8448403

  • GUARANTEEING REAL-TIME RESPONSE WITH LIMITED RESOURCES ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN MEDICINE Ash, D., Gold, G., Seiver, A., HAYESROTH, B. 1993; 5 (1): 49-66

    Abstract

    Unanticipated problems detected by patient-monitoring systems may sometimes require real-time response in order to provide high-quality care and avoid catastrophic outcomes. In this paper, we present an approach for guaranteeing a response to such events by a monitoring agent even in situations where we have limited problem-solving resources. We show that an action-based hierarchy can accomplish this goal. We also analyze the performance of this hierarchy under varying resource availability and discuss decision-theoretic approaches to enable us to best structure such a hierarchy. We also describe an implementation of these ideas, called ReAct, in the BB1 architecture. All the ideas are illustrated with examples from the surgical intensive care unit (SICU).

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KM93300004

    View details for PubMedID 8358486

Conference Proceedings


  • MRI and non-cartilaginous structures in knee osteoarthritis Conaghan, P. G., Felson, D., Gold, G., Lohmander, S., TOTTERMAN, S., Altman, R. W B SAUNDERS CO LTD. 2006: A87-A94

    Abstract

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a sensitive tool for examining all the structures involved in the osteoarthritis (OA) process. While much of the MRI literature previously focussed on cartilage, there is increasing research on whole-organ evaluation and including features such as synovitis, bone marrow edema, and meniscal and ligamentous pathology. The aim of this session at the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT)-Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) Workshop for Consensus in Osteoarthritis Imaging was to describe the current MRI methods for identifying and quantifying non-cartilaginous structures and review their associations with both OA symptoms and structural progression. Although there is much experience in measuring synovitis (derived from the rheumatoid arthritis literature), only one study has reported an association of MRI-detected synovitis and effusions with OA pain. Bone marrow edema lesions, which may represent areas of trabecular remodelling, have been associated with pain and compartment-specific structural deterioration. MRI studies have confirmed the frequency and importance of meniscal damage in progressive cartilage loss, but not related such damage to symptoms. Osteophytes have been associated with cartilage loss and malalignment to the side of the osteophyte. Ligament damage, including anterior cruciate ligament tears, has been found more commonly than expected in painful OA knees. Improvements in quantitative and semi-quantitative assessments of non-cartilage features will greatly assist understanding of the OA process and its response to therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2006.02.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238959700012

    View details for PubMedID 16713722

  • MRI protocols for whole-organ assessment of the knee in osteoarthritis Peterfy, C. G., Gold, G., Eckstein, F., Cicuttini, F., Dardzinski, B., Stevens, R. W B SAUNDERS CO LTD. 2006: A95-A111

    Abstract

    One of the critical challenges in developing structure-modifying therapies for arthritis, especially osteoarthritis (OA), is measuring changes in progression of joint destruction. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers considerable promise in this regard. Not only can MRI quantify articular cartilage volume and morphology with high precision and accuracy, but it can also examine several other important articular components, and thus offer a unique opportunity to evaluate the knee and other joints as whole organs. On December 5 and 6, 2002, OMERACT (Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials) and OARSI (Osteoarthritis Research Society International), with support from various pharmaceutical companies listed at the beginning of this supplement, held a Workshop for Consensus on Osteoarthritis Imaging in Bethesda, MD. The aim of the Workshop was to provide a state-of-the-art review of imaging outcome measures for OA of the knee to help guide scientists and pharmaceutical companies who want to use MRI in multi-site studies of OA. Applications of MRI were initially reviewed by a multidisciplinary, international panel of expert scientists and physicians from academia, the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies. The findings of the panel were then presented to a wider group of participants for open discussion. The following report summarizes the results of these discussions with respect to MRI acquisition techniques for whole-organ assessment of the knee in OA. The discussion reviews the selection and qualification of imaging sites for clinical trials, designing imaging protocols for whole-organ assessment of OA, and key considerations in image quality (IQ) control and data management.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joca.2006.02.029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238959700013

    View details for PubMedID 16750915

  • Multi-point "Dixon" fat-water separation and steady-state free precession Reeder, S. B., Wen, Z., Gold, G. E., Alley, M. T., Markl, M., Pelc, N. J. RADIOLOGICAL SOC NORTH AMERICA. 2002: 313-313
  • Plantar fasciitis and fascial rupture: MR imaging findings in 26 patients supplemented with anatomic data in cadavers Theodorou, D. J., Theodorou, S. J., Kakitsubata, Y., Lektrakul, N., Gold, G. E., Roger, B., Resnick, D. RADIOLOGICAL SOC NORTH AMERICA. 2000: S181-S197

    Abstract

    Understanding of the normal anatomy of the plantar aponeurosis (PA) and familiarity with pathologic conditions are required for an accurate evaluation of the patient with subcalcaneal heel pain. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the assessment of the PA with close anatomic correlation. Herein, we describe the MR imaging features of plantar fasciitis and fascial rupture in 26 patients. High-spatial-resolution MR imaging was performed in four cadaveric feet, and a prescribed imaging plane was used for depiction of the peroneal component of the PA. MR imaging delineated the anatomy of the PA and perifascial soft tissues. The peroneal component was best visualized in prescribed sagittal oblique images. Perifascial edema was the most common finding of plantar fasciitis, and it was remarkable in those cases with acute fascial rupture. MR imaging reliably delineated the anatomy of the PA and may allow precise localization and definition of the extent of involvement in disease processes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171512400013

    View details for PubMedID 11046170

  • Motion correction and lipid suppression for H-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy Star-Lack, J. M., Adalsteinsson, E., Gold, G. E., Ikeda, D. M., Spielman, D. M. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 2000: 325-330

    Abstract

    Spectral/spatial spin-echo pulses with asymmetric excitation profiles were incorporated into a PRESS-based localization sequence to provide lipid suppression while retaining a sufficient amount of water to allow for correction of motion-induced shot-to-shot phase variations. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy data were acquired at 1.5 Tesla from a motion phantom and in vivo from the human liver, kidney, and breast. The results demonstrated that lipids in the chemical shift stopband were completely suppressed and that full metabolite signal intensity was maintained after implementation of a regularization algorithm based on phasing the residual water signal. Liver and kidney spectra contained a large resonance at 3.2 ppm that was ascribed to trimethylammonium moieties (betaine plus choline) and a weaker signal at 3.7 ppm that may result from glycogen. A breast spectrum from a histologically proven invasive ductal carcinoma displayed a highly elevated choline signal (3.2 ppm) relative to that from a normal volunteer.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085559100001

    View details for PubMedID 10725872

  • MR imaging of articular cartilage using driven equilibrium Hargreaves, B. A., Gold, G. E., Lang, P. K., Conolly, S. M., Pauly, J. M., Bergman, G., Vandevenne, J., Nishimura, D. G. JOHN WILEY & SONS INC. 1999: 695-703

    Abstract

    The high incidence of osteoarthritis and the recent advent of several new surgical and non-surgical treatment approaches have motivated the development of quantitative techniques to assess cartilage loss. Although magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the most accurate non-invasive diagnostic modality for evaluating articular cartilage, improvements in spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) would be valuable. Cartilage presents an imaging challenge due to its short T(2) relaxation time and its low water content compared with surrounding materials. Current methods sacrifice cartilage signal brightness for contrast between cartilage and surrounding tissue such as bone, bone marrow, and joint fluid. A new technique for imaging articular cartilage uses driven equilibrium Fourier transform (DEFT), a method of enhancing signal strength without waiting for full T(1) recovery. Compared with other methods, DEFT imaging provides a good combination of bright cartilage and high contrast between cartilage and surrounding tissue. Both theoretical predictions and images show that DEFT is a valuable method for imaging articular cartilage when compared with spoiled gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state (SPGR) or fast spin echo (FSE). The cartilage SNR for DEFT is as high as that of either FSE or SPGR, while the cartilage-synovial fluid CNR of DEFT is as much as four times greater than that of FSE or SPGR. Implemented as a three-dimensional sequence, DEFT can achieve coverage comparable to that of other sequences in a similar scan time. Magn Reson Med 42:695-703, 1999.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000082944400011

    View details for PubMedID 10502758

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