Clinical Instructor, Radiation Oncology - Radiation Physics
The feasibility of medical imaging using a medical linear accelerator to generate acoustic waves is investigated. This modality, x-ray acoustic computed tomography (XACT), has the potential to enable deeper tissue penetration in tissue than photoacoustic tomography via laser excitation.Short pulsed (?s-range) 10 MV x-ray beams with dose-rate of approximately 30 Gy?min were generated from a medical linear accelerator. The acoustic signals were collected with an ultrasound transducer (500 KHz central frequency) positioned around an object. The transducer, driven by a computer-controlled step motor to scan around the object, detected the resulting acoustic signals in the imaging plane at each scanning position. A pulse preamplifier, with a bandwidth of 20 KHz-2 MHz at -3 dB, and switchable gains of 40 and 60 dB, received the signals from the transducer and delivered the amplified signals to a secondary amplifier. The secondary amplifier had bandwidth of 20 KHz-30 MHz at -3 dB, and a gain range of 10-60 dB. Signals were recorded and averaged 128 times by an oscilloscope. A sampling rate of 100 MHz was used to record 2500 data points at each view angle. One set of data incorporated 200 positions as the receiver moved 360°. The x-ray generated acoustic image was then reconstructed with the filtered back projection algorithm.The x-ray generated acoustic signals were detected from a lead rod embedded in a chicken breast tissue. The authors found that the acoustic signal was proportional to the x-ray dose deposition, with a correlation of 0.998. The two-dimensional XACT images of the lead rod embedded in chicken breast tissue were found to be in good agreement with the shape of the object.The first x-ray acoustic computed tomography image is presented. The new modality may be useful for a number of applications, such as providing the location of a fiducial, or monitoring x-ray dose distribution during radiation therapy. Although much work is needed to improve the image quality of XACT and to explore its performance in other irradiation energies, the benefits of this modality, as highlighted in this work, encourage further study.
View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4771935
View details for Web of Science ID 000313033200003
View details for PubMedID 23298069
The purpose of this study is to assess fidelity of radiation delivery between high and low dose rates of the flattening filter free (FFF) modes of a new all-digital design medical linear accelerator (Varian TrueBeam™), particularly for plans optimized for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Measurements were made for the two energies of flattening filter free photon beams with a Varian TrueBeam™ linac: 6 MV (6 XFFF) at 400 and 1400 MU/min, and 10 MV (10 XFFF) at 400 and 2400 MU/min. Data acquisition and analysis was performed with both ionization chambers and diode detector system Delta(4), for square radiation fields and for 8 VMAT treatment plans optimized for SBRT treatment of lung tumors. For the square fields, a percent dose difference between high and low dose rate of the order of 0.3-0.4% for both photon energies was seen with the ionization chambers, while the contribution to the difference from ion recombination was found to be negligible. For both the VMAT and square-field deliveries, the Delta(4) showed the same average percent dose difference between the two dose rates of ~0.8% and ~0.6% for 10 MV and 6 MV, respectively, with the lower dose rate values giving the greater measured dose compared to the high dose rate. Thus, the VMAT deliveries introduced negligible dose differences between high and low dose rate. Finally, reproducibility of dose measurements was good for both energies.
View details for DOI 10.4103/0971-6203.103604
View details for PubMedID 23293450
To evaluate the geometric accuracy of beam targeting in external surrogate-based gated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using kilovoltage (kV) x-ray images acquired during dose delivery.Gated VMAT treatments were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam STx Linac for both physical phantoms and patients. Multiple gold fiducial markers were implanted near the target. The reference position was created for each implanted marker, representing its correct position at the gating threshold. The gating signal was generated from the RPM system. During the treatment, kV images were acquired immediately before MV beam-on at every breathing cycle, using the on-board imaging system. All implanted markers were detected and their 3D positions were estimated using in-house developed software. The positioning error of a marker is defined as the distance of the marker from its reference position for each frame of the images. The overall error of the system is defined as the average over all markers. For the phantom study, both sinusoidal motion (1D and 3D) and real human respiratory motion was simulated for the target and surrogate. In the baseline case, the two motions were synchronized for the first treatment fraction. To assess the effects of surrogate-target correlation on the geometric accuracy, a phase shift of 5% and 10% between the two motions was introduced. For the patient study, intrafraction kV images of five stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients were acquired for one or two fractions.For the phantom study, a high geometric accuracy was achieved in the baseline case (average error: 0.8 mm in the superior-inferior or SI direction). However, the treatment delivery is prone to geometric errors if changes in the target-surrogate relation occur during the treatment: the average error was increased to 2.3 and 4.7 mm for the phase shift of 5% and 10%, respectively. Results obtained with real human respiratory curves show a similar trend. For a target with 3D motion, the technique is able to detect geometric errors in the left-right (LR) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. For the patient study, the average intrafraction positioning errors are 0.8, 0.9, and 1.4 mm and 95th percentile errors are 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively.The correlation between external surrogate and internal target motion is crucial to ensure the geometric accuracy of surrogate-based gating. Real-time guidance based on kV x-ray images overcomes the potential issues in surrogate-based gating and can achieve accurate beam targeting in gated VMAT.
View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4704729
View details for Web of Science ID 000303604300039
View details for PubMedID 22559639