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  • Tensor framelet based iterative image reconstruction algorithm for low-dose multislice helical CT. PloS one Nam, H., Guo, M., Yu, H., Lee, K., Li, R., Han, B., Xing, L., Lee, R., Gao, H. 2019; 14 (1): e0210410

    Abstract

    In this study, we investigate the feasibility of improving the imaging quality for low-dose multislice helical computed tomography (CT) via iterative reconstruction with tensor framelet (TF) regularization. TF based algorithm is a high-order generalization of isotropic total variation regularization. It is implemented on a GPU platform for a fast parallel algorithm of X-ray forward band backward projections, with the flying focal spot into account. The solution algorithm for image reconstruction is based on the alternating direction method of multipliers or the so-called split Bregman method. The proposed method is validated using the experimental data from a Siemens SOMATOM Definition 64-slice helical CT scanner, in comparison with FDK, the Katsevich and the total variation (TV) algorithm. To test the algorithm performance with low-dose data, ACR and Rando phantoms were scanned with different dosages and the data was equally undersampled with various factors. The proposed method is robust for the low-dose data with 25% undersampling factor. Quantitative metrics have demonstrated that the proposed algorithm achieves superior results over other existing methods.

    View details for PubMedID 30633760

  • Feasibility of Image Registration for Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Radiotherapy Based on Similarity Measurement by a Convolutional Neural Network. Technology in cancer research & treatment Zhu, N., Najafi, M., Han, B., Hancock, S., Hristov, D. 2019; 18: 1533033818821964

    Abstract

    PURPOSE:: Registration of 3-dimensional ultrasound images poses a challenge for ultrasound-guided radiation therapy of the prostate since ultrasound image content changes significantly with anatomic motion and ultrasound probe position. The purpose of this work is to investigate the feasibility of using a pretrained deep convolutional neural network for similarity measurement in image registration of 3-dimensional transperineal ultrasound prostate images.METHODS:: We propose convolutional neural network-based registration that maximizes a similarity score between 2 identical in size 3-dimensional regions of interest: one encompassing the prostate within a simulation (reference) 3-dimensional ultrasound image and another that sweeps different spatial locations around the expected prostate position within a pretreatment 3-dimensional ultrasound image. The similarity score is calculated by (1) extracting pairs of corresponding 2-dimensional slices (patches) from the regions of interest, (2) providing these pairs as an input to a pretrained convolutional neural network which assigns a similarity score to each pair, and (3) calculating an overall similarity by summing all pairwise scores. The convolutional neural network method was evaluated against ground truth registrations determined by matching implanted fiducial markers visualized in a pretreatment orthogonal pair of x-ray images. The convolutional neural network method was further compared to manual registration and a standard commonly used intensity-based automatic registration approach based on advanced normalized correlation.RESULTS:: For 83 image pairs from 5 patients, convolutional neural network registration errors were smaller than 5 mm in 81% of the cases. In comparison, manual registration errors were smaller than 5 mm in 61% of the cases and advanced normalized correlation registration errors were smaller than 5 mm only in 25% of the cases.CONCLUSION:: Convolutional neural network evaluation against manual registration and an advanced normalized correlation -based registration demonstrated better accuracy and reliability of the convolutional neural network. This suggests that with training on a large data set of transperineal ultrasound prostate images, the convolutional neural network method has potential for robust ultrasound-to-ultrasound registration.

    View details for PubMedID 30803364

  • Prostate Cancer Classification with Multi-parametric MRI Transfer Learning Model. Medical physics Yuan, Y., Qin, W., Buyyounouski, M., Ibragimov, B., Hancock, S., Han, B., Xing, L. 2018

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Prostate cancer classification has significantly impact on the prognosis and treatment planning of patients. Currently, the classifying is based on the Gleason score analysis of biopsied tissues, which is neither accurate nor risk-free. This study aims to learn discriminative features for prostate images and assist physicians to classify prostate cancer automatically.METHODS: We develop a novel multi-parametric magnetic resonance transfer learning (MPTL) method to automatically stage prostate cancer. We first establish a deep convolutional neural network with three branch architectures, which transfer pre-trained model to compute features from multi-parametric MRI images (mp-MRI) : T2w transaxial, T2w sagittal and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The learned features are concatenated to represent information of mp-MRI sequences. A new image similarity constraint is then proposed to enable the distribution of the features within the same category in a narrow angle region. With the joint constraints of softmax loss and image similarity loss in the fine-tuning process, the MPTL can provide descriptive features with intraclass compactness and interclass separability.RESULTS: Two cohorts: 132 cases from our institutional review board approved patient database and 112 cases from the PROSTATEx-2 Challenge are utilized to evaluate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed MPTL model. Our model achieved high accuracy of prostate cancer classification (accuracy of 86.92%). Moreover, the comparison results demonstrate that our method outperforms both hand-crafted feature based methods and existing deep learning models in prostate cancer classification with higher accuracy.CONCLUSION: The experiment results showed that the proposed method can learn discriminative features for prostate images and classify the cancer accurately. Our MPTL model could be further applied in the clinical practice to provide valuable information for cancer treatment and precision medicine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for PubMedID 30597561

  • Evaluation of transperineal ultrasound imaging as a potential solution for target tracking during hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiation oncology (London, England) Han, B., Najafi, M., Cooper, D. T., Lachaine, M., von Eyben, R., Hancock, S., Hristov, D. 2018; 13 (1): 151

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: Emerging hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy regimens require solutions for accurate target tracking during beam delivery. The goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of the Clarity ultrasound monitoring system for prostate motion tracking.METHODS: Five prostate patients underwent continuous perineum ultrasound imaging during their daily treatments. Initial absolute 3D positions of fiducials implanted in the prostate were estimated from the KV images. Fiducial positions in MV images acquired during beam delivery were compared with predicted positions based on Clarity 3D tracking. The uncertainty in the comparison results was evaluated in a phantom validation study.RESULTS: Continuous real-time ultrasound motion tracking was recorded in 5 patients and 167 fractions for overall of 39.7h. Phantom validation of the proposed procedure demonstrated that predicted and observed fiducial positions agree within 1.1mm. In patients agreement between predicted and actual fiducial positions varied between 1.3mm and 3.3mm. On average ultrasound tracking reduced the maximum localization error in patients by 20% on average. With the motion corrected, the duration prostate beyond 1mm from its initial treatment position can be reduced from 37 to 22% of the total treatment time.CONCLUSION: Real-time ultrasound tracking reduces uncertainty in prostate position due to intra-fractional motion.TRIAL REGISTRATION: IRB Protocol #27372 . Date of registration of trial: 12/17/2013.

    View details for PubMedID 30126434

  • A unified material decomposition framework for quantitative dual- and triple-energy CT imaging. Medical physics Zhao, W., Vernekohl, D., Han, F., Han, B., Peng, H., Yang, Y., Xing, L., Min, J. K. 2018

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: Many clinical applications depend critically on the accurate differentiation and classification of different types of materials in patient anatomy. This work introduces a unified framework for accurate nonlinear material decomposition and applies it, for the first time, in the concept of triple-energy CT (TECT) for enhanced material differentiation and classification as well as dual-energy CT (DECT).METHODS: We express polychromatic projection into a linear combination of line integrals of material-selective images. The material decomposition is then turned into a problem of minimizing the least-squares difference between measured and estimated CT projections. The optimization problem is solved iteratively by updating the line integrals. The proposed technique is evaluated by using several numerical phantom measurements under different scanning protocols. The triple-energy data acquisition is implemented at the scales of micro-CT and clinical CT imaging with commercial "TwinBeam" dual-source DECT configuration and a fast kV switching DECT configuration. Material decomposition and quantitative comparison with a photon counting detector and with the presence of a bow-tie filter are also performed.RESULTS: The proposed method provides quantitative material- and energy-selective images examining realistic configurations for both DECT and TECT measurements. Compared to the polychromatic kV CT images, virtual monochromatic images show superior image quality. For the mouse phantom, quantitative measurements show that the differences between gadodiamide and iodine concentrations obtained using TECT and idealized photon counting CT (PCCT) are smaller than 8 and 1mg/mL, respectively. TECT outperforms DECT for multicontrast CT imaging and is robust with respect to spectrum estimation. For the thorax phantom, the differences between the concentrations of the contrast map and the corresponding true reference values are smaller than 7mg/mL for all of the realistic configurations.CONCLUSIONS: A unified framework for both DECT and TECT imaging has been established for the accurate extraction of material compositions using currently available commercial DECT configurations. The novel technique is promising to provide an urgently needed solution for several CT-based diagnostic and therapy applications, especially for the diagnosis of cardiovascular and abdominal diseases where multicontrast imaging is involved.

    View details for PubMedID 29679500

  • Pixel response-based EPID dosimetry for patient specific QA JOURNAL OF APPLIED CLINICAL MEDICAL PHYSICS Han, B., Ding, A., Lu, M., Xing, L. 2017; 18 (1): 9-17

    View details for DOI 10.1002/acm2.12007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393176200002

  • A depth-sensing technique on 3D-printed compensator for total body irradiation patient measurement and treatment planning. Medical physics Lee, M., Han, B., Jenkins, C., Xing, L., Suh, T. 2016; 43 (11): 6137-?

    Abstract

    The purpose of total body irradiation (TBI) techniques is to deliver a uniform radiation dose to the entire volume of a patient's body. Due to variations in the thickness of the patient, it is difficult to produce such a uniform dose distribution throughout the body. In many techniques, a compensator is used to adjust the dose delivered to various sections of the patient. The current study aims to develop and validate an innovative method of using depth-sensing cameras and 3D printing techniques for TBI treatment planning and compensator fabrication.A tablet with an integrated depth-sensing camera and motion tracking sensors was used to scan a RANDO™ phantom positioned in a TBI treatment booth to detect and store the 3D surface in a point cloud format. The accuracy of the detected surface was evaluated by comparing extracted body thickness measurements with corresponding measurements from computed tomography (CT) scan images. The thickness, source to surface distance, and off-axis distance of the phantom at different body section were measured for TBI treatment planning. A detailed compensator design was calculated to achieve a uniform dose distribution throughout the phantom. The compensator was fabricated using a 3D printer, silicone molding, and a mixture of wax and tungsten powder. In vivo dosimetry measurements were performed using optically stimulated luminescent detectors.The scan of the phantom took approximately 30 s. The mean error for thickness measurements at each section of phantom relative to CT was 0.48 ± 0.27 cm. The average fabrication error for the 3D-printed compensator was 0.16 ± 0.15 mm. In vivo measurements for an end-to-end test showed that overall dose differences were within 5%.A technique for planning and fabricating a compensator for TBI treatment using a depth camera equipped tablet and a 3D printer was demonstrated to be sufficiently accurate to be considered for further investigation.

    View details for PubMedID 27806603

  • Development of an accurate EPID-based output measurement and dosimetric verification tool for electron beam therapy. Medical physics Ding, A., Xing, L., Han, B. 2015; 42 (7): 4190-?

    Abstract

    To develop an efficient and robust tool for output measurement and absolute dose verification of electron beam therapy by using a high spatial-resolution and high frame-rate amorphous silicon flat panel electronic portal imaging device (EPID).The dosimetric characteristics of the EPID, including saturation, linearity, and ghosting effect, were first investigated on a Varian Clinac 21EX accelerator. The response kernels of the individual pixels of the EPID to all available electron energies (6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV) were calculated by using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, which formed the basis to deconvolve an EPID raw images to the incident electron fluence map. The two-dimensional (2D) dose distribution at reference depths in water was obtained by using the constructed fluence map with a MC simulated pencil beam kernel with consideration of the geometric and structural information of the EPID. Output factor measurements were carried out with the EPID at a nominal source-surface distance of 100 cm for 2 × 2, 3 × 3, 6 × 6, 10 × 10, and 15 × 15 cm(2) fields for all available electron energies, and the results were compared with that measured in a solid water phantom using film and a Farmer-type ion chamber. The dose distributions at a reference depth specific to each energy and the flatness and symmetry of the 10 × 10 cm(2) electron beam were also measured using EPID, and the results were compared with ion chamber array and water scan measurements. Finally, three patient cases with various field sizes and irregular cutout shapes were also investigated.EPID-measured dose changed linearly with the monitor units and showed little ghosting effect for dose rate up to 600 MU/min. The flatness and symmetry measured with the EPID were found to be consistent with ion chamber array and water scan measurements. The EPID-measured output factors for standard square fields of 2 × 2, 3 × 3, 6 × 6, 10 × 10, 15 × 15 cm(2) agreed with film and ion chamber measurements. The average discrepancy between EPID and ion chamber/film measurements was 0.81% ± 0.60% (SD) and 1.34% ± 0.75%, respectively. For the three clinical cases, the difference in output between the EPID- and ion chamber array measured values was found to be 1.13% ± 0.11%, 0.54% ± 0.10%, and 0.74% ± 0.11%, respectively. Furthermore, the γ-index analysis showed an excellent agreement between the EPID- and ion chamber array measured dose distributions: 100% of the pixels passed the criteria of 3%/3 mm. When the γ-index was set to be 2%/2 mm, the pass rate was found to be 99.0% ± 0.07%, 98.2% ± 0.14%, and 100% for the three cases.The EPID dosimetry system developed in this work provides an accurate and reliable tool for routine output measurement and dosimetric verification of electron beam therapy. Coupled with its portability and ease of use, the proposed system promises to replace the current film-based approach for fast and reliable assessment of small and irregular electron field dosimetry.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4922400

    View details for PubMedID 26133618

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4474956

  • Clinical implementation of intrafraction cone beam computed tomography imaging during lung tumor stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Li, R., Han, B., Meng, B., Maxim, P. G., Xing, L., Koong, A. C., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W. 2013; 87 (5): 917-923

    Abstract

    To develop and clinically evaluate a volumetric imaging technique for assessing intrafraction geometric and dosimetric accuracy of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR).Twenty patients received SABR for lung tumors using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). At the beginning of each fraction, pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to align the soft-tissue tumor position with that in the planning CT. Concurrent with dose delivery, we acquired fluoroscopic radiograph projections during VMAT using the Varian on-board imaging system. Those kilovolt projections acquired during millivolt beam-on were automatically extracted, and intrafraction CBCT images were reconstructed using the filtered backprojection technique. We determined the time-averaged target shift during VMAT by calculating the center of mass of the tumor target in the intrafraction CBCT relative to the planning CT. To estimate the dosimetric impact of the target shift during treatment, we recalculated the dose to the GTV after shifting the entire patient anatomy according to the time-averaged target shift determined earlier.The mean target shift from intrafraction CBCT to planning CT was 1.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm; the 95th percentile shift was 5.2, 3.1, 3.6 mm; and the maximum shift was 5.7, 3.6, and 4.9 mm along the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions. Thus, the time-averaged intrafraction gross tumor volume (GTV) position was always within the planning target volume. We observed some degree of target blurring in the intrafraction CBCT, indicating imperfect breath-hold reproducibility or residual motion of the GTV during treatment. By our estimated dose recalculation, the GTV was consistently covered by the prescription dose (PD), that is, V100% above 0.97 for all patients, and minimum dose to GTV >100% PD for 18 patients and >95% PD for all patients.Intrafraction CBCT during VMAT can provide geometric and dosimetric verification of SABR valuable for quality assurance and potentially for treatment adaptation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.08.015

    View details for PubMedID 24113060

  • Clinical implementation of intrafraction cone beam computed tomography imaging during lung tumor stereotactic ablative radiation therapy. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Li, R., Han, B., Meng, B., Maxim, P. G., Xing, L., Koong, A. C., Diehn, M., Loo, B. W. 2013; 87 (5): 917-923

    Abstract

    To develop and clinically evaluate a volumetric imaging technique for assessing intrafraction geometric and dosimetric accuracy of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR).Twenty patients received SABR for lung tumors using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). At the beginning of each fraction, pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to align the soft-tissue tumor position with that in the planning CT. Concurrent with dose delivery, we acquired fluoroscopic radiograph projections during VMAT using the Varian on-board imaging system. Those kilovolt projections acquired during millivolt beam-on were automatically extracted, and intrafraction CBCT images were reconstructed using the filtered backprojection technique. We determined the time-averaged target shift during VMAT by calculating the center of mass of the tumor target in the intrafraction CBCT relative to the planning CT. To estimate the dosimetric impact of the target shift during treatment, we recalculated the dose to the GTV after shifting the entire patient anatomy according to the time-averaged target shift determined earlier.The mean target shift from intrafraction CBCT to planning CT was 1.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm; the 95th percentile shift was 5.2, 3.1, 3.6 mm; and the maximum shift was 5.7, 3.6, and 4.9 mm along the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions. Thus, the time-averaged intrafraction gross tumor volume (GTV) position was always within the planning target volume. We observed some degree of target blurring in the intrafraction CBCT, indicating imperfect breath-hold reproducibility or residual motion of the GTV during treatment. By our estimated dose recalculation, the GTV was consistently covered by the prescription dose (PD), that is, V100% above 0.97 for all patients, and minimum dose to GTV >100% PD for 18 patients and >95% PD for all patients.Intrafraction CBCT during VMAT can provide geometric and dosimetric verification of SABR valuable for quality assurance and potentially for treatment adaptation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.08.015

    View details for PubMedID 24113060

  • Cone beam CT imaging with limited angle of projections and prior knowledge for volumetric verification of non-coplanar beam radiation therapy: a proof of concept study. Physics in medicine and biology Meng, B., Xing, L., Han, B., Koong, A., Chang, D., Cheng, J., Li, R. 2013; 58 (21): 7777-7789

    Abstract

    Non-coplanar beams are important for treatment of both cranial and noncranial tumors. Treatment verification of such beams with couch rotation/kicks, however, is challenging, particularly for the application of cone beam CT (CBCT). In this situation, only limited and unconventional imaging angles are feasible to avoid collision between the gantry, couch, patient, and on-board imaging system. The purpose of this work is to develop a CBCT verification strategy for patients undergoing non-coplanar radiation therapy. We propose an image reconstruction scheme that integrates a prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) technique with image registration. Planning CT or CBCT acquired at the neutral position is rotated and translated according to the nominal couch rotation/translation to serve as the initial prior image. Here, the nominal couch movement is chosen to have a rotational error of 5° and translational error of 8 mm from the ground truth in one or more axes or directions. The proposed reconstruction scheme alternates between two major steps. First, an image is reconstructed using the PICCS technique implemented with total-variation minimization and simultaneous algebraic reconstruction. Second, the rotational/translational setup errors are corrected and the prior image is updated by applying rigid image registration between the reconstructed image and the previous prior image. The PICCS algorithm and rigid image registration are alternated iteratively until the registration results fall below a predetermined threshold. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is evaluated with an anthropomorphic digital phantom and physical head phantom. The proposed algorithm provides useful volumetric images for patient setup using projections with an angular range as small as 60°. It reduced the translational setup errors from 8 mm to generally <1 mm and the rotational setup errors from 5° to <1°. Compared with the PICCS algorithm alone, the integration of rigid registration significantly improved the reconstructed image quality, with a reduction of mostly 2-3 folds (up to 100) in root mean square image error. The proposed algorithm provides a remedy for solving the problem of non-coplanar CBCT reconstruction from limited angle of projections by combining the PICCS technique and rigid image registration in an iterative framework. In this proof of concept study, non-coplanar beams with couch rotations of 45° can be effectively verified with the CBCT technique.

    View details for DOI 10.1088/0031-9155/58/21/7777

    View details for PubMedID 24140954

  • X-ray acoustic computed tomography with pulsed x-ray beam from a medical linear accelerator MEDICAL PHYSICS Xiang, L., Han, B., Carpenter, C., Pratx, G., Kuang, Y., Xing, L. 2013; 40 (1)

    Abstract

    The feasibility of medical imaging using a medical linear accelerator to generate acoustic waves is investigated. This modality, x-ray acoustic computed tomography (XACT), has the potential to enable deeper tissue penetration in tissue than photoacoustic tomography via laser excitation.Short pulsed (μs-range) 10 MV x-ray beams with dose-rate of approximately 30 Gy∕min were generated from a medical linear accelerator. The acoustic signals were collected with an ultrasound transducer (500 KHz central frequency) positioned around an object. The transducer, driven by a computer-controlled step motor to scan around the object, detected the resulting acoustic signals in the imaging plane at each scanning position. A pulse preamplifier, with a bandwidth of 20 KHz-2 MHz at -3 dB, and switchable gains of 40 and 60 dB, received the signals from the transducer and delivered the amplified signals to a secondary amplifier. The secondary amplifier had bandwidth of 20 KHz-30 MHz at -3 dB, and a gain range of 10-60 dB. Signals were recorded and averaged 128 times by an oscilloscope. A sampling rate of 100 MHz was used to record 2500 data points at each view angle. One set of data incorporated 200 positions as the receiver moved 360°. The x-ray generated acoustic image was then reconstructed with the filtered back projection algorithm.The x-ray generated acoustic signals were detected from a lead rod embedded in a chicken breast tissue. The authors found that the acoustic signal was proportional to the x-ray dose deposition, with a correlation of 0.998. The two-dimensional XACT images of the lead rod embedded in chicken breast tissue were found to be in good agreement with the shape of the object.The first x-ray acoustic computed tomography image is presented. The new modality may be useful for a number of applications, such as providing the location of a fiducial, or monitoring x-ray dose distribution during radiation therapy. Although much work is needed to improve the image quality of XACT and to explore its performance in other irradiation energies, the benefits of this modality, as highlighted in this work, encourage further study.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4771935

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313033200003

    View details for PubMedID 23298069

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3537718

  • Fidelity of dose delivery at high dose rate of volumetric modulated arc therapy in a truebeam linac with flattening filter free beams. Journal of medical physics / Association of Medical Physicists of India Kalantzis, G., Qian, J., Han, B., Luxton, G. 2012; 37 (4): 193-199

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to assess fidelity of radiation delivery between high and low dose rates of the flattening filter free (FFF) modes of a new all-digital design medical linear accelerator (Varian TrueBeam™), particularly for plans optimized for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Measurements were made for the two energies of flattening filter free photon beams with a Varian TrueBeam™ linac: 6 MV (6 XFFF) at 400 and 1400 MU/min, and 10 MV (10 XFFF) at 400 and 2400 MU/min. Data acquisition and analysis was performed with both ionization chambers and diode detector system Delta(4), for square radiation fields and for 8 VMAT treatment plans optimized for SBRT treatment of lung tumors. For the square fields, a percent dose difference between high and low dose rate of the order of 0.3-0.4% for both photon energies was seen with the ionization chambers, while the contribution to the difference from ion recombination was found to be negligible. For both the VMAT and square-field deliveries, the Delta(4) showed the same average percent dose difference between the two dose rates of ~0.8% and ~0.6% for 10 MV and 6 MV, respectively, with the lower dose rate values giving the greater measured dose compared to the high dose rate. Thus, the VMAT deliveries introduced negligible dose differences between high and low dose rate. Finally, reproducibility of dose measurements was good for both energies.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/0971-6203.103604

    View details for PubMedID 23293450

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3532747

  • Evaluation of the geometric accuracy of surrogate-based gated VMAT using intrafraction kilovoltage x-ray images MEDICAL PHYSICS Li, R., Mok, E., Han, B., Koong, A., Xing, L. 2012; 39 (5): 2686-2693

    Abstract

    To evaluate the geometric accuracy of beam targeting in external surrogate-based gated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using kilovoltage (kV) x-ray images acquired during dose delivery.Gated VMAT treatments were delivered using a Varian TrueBeam STx Linac for both physical phantoms and patients. Multiple gold fiducial markers were implanted near the target. The reference position was created for each implanted marker, representing its correct position at the gating threshold. The gating signal was generated from the RPM system. During the treatment, kV images were acquired immediately before MV beam-on at every breathing cycle, using the on-board imaging system. All implanted markers were detected and their 3D positions were estimated using in-house developed software. The positioning error of a marker is defined as the distance of the marker from its reference position for each frame of the images. The overall error of the system is defined as the average over all markers. For the phantom study, both sinusoidal motion (1D and 3D) and real human respiratory motion was simulated for the target and surrogate. In the baseline case, the two motions were synchronized for the first treatment fraction. To assess the effects of surrogate-target correlation on the geometric accuracy, a phase shift of 5% and 10% between the two motions was introduced. For the patient study, intrafraction kV images of five stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients were acquired for one or two fractions.For the phantom study, a high geometric accuracy was achieved in the baseline case (average error: 0.8 mm in the superior-inferior or SI direction). However, the treatment delivery is prone to geometric errors if changes in the target-surrogate relation occur during the treatment: the average error was increased to 2.3 and 4.7 mm for the phase shift of 5% and 10%, respectively. Results obtained with real human respiratory curves show a similar trend. For a target with 3D motion, the technique is able to detect geometric errors in the left-right (LR) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. For the patient study, the average intrafraction positioning errors are 0.8, 0.9, and 1.4 mm and 95th percentile errors are 1.7, 2.1, and 2.7 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively.The correlation between external surrogate and internal target motion is crucial to ensure the geometric accuracy of surrogate-based gating. Real-time guidance based on kV x-ray images overcomes the potential issues in surrogate-based gating and can achieve accurate beam targeting in gated VMAT.

    View details for DOI 10.1118/1.4704729

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303604300039

    View details for PubMedID 22559639

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3344884