Partial thromboplastin time is more predictive of bleeding than anti-Xa levels in heparinized pediatric patients after cardiac surgery.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
2018; 156 (1): 332–40.e1
An anticoagulation protocol for use after congenital cardiac surgery.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
2018; 156 (1): 343–52.e4
Anticoagulation with unfractionated heparin (UFH) after pediatric cardiac surgery can be monitored using either activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or anti-factor Xa activity (anti-Xa). However, correlation of bleeding with either of these laboratory values has not been established. We sought to determine the correlation between bleeding events and aPTT and anti-Xa in patients who undergo anticoagulation after congenital heart surgery.We prospectively studied pediatric patients treated with UFH after cardiac surgery over an 11-month period. Bleeding events were prospectively assessed and adjudicated. The highest aPTT and corresponding anti-Xa for the 24 hours before bleeding events were collected to assess for association with bleeding. Statistical analysis was performed using generalized additive logistic regression.A total of 202 patients received UFH over 1488 patient-days. The median age at surgery was 0.4 years (interquartile range, 0.1-2.2). A total of 45 major or clinically relevant bleeding events were observed. The correlation between aPTT and anti-Xa was of moderate strength (R = 0.58; P < .001). The odds of bleeding increased significantly when aPTT exceeded 150 (odds ratio, 1.71 per 10-second increase in aPTT, 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.42; P = .003). Anti-Xa was not associated with bleeding (odds ratio, 1.11 per 0.1 IU/mL increase, 95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.29; P = .34).In heparinized pediatric patients after cardiac surgery, increased risk of bleeding is more closely associated with elevated aPTT levels than elevated anti-Xa levels. In addition to anti-Xa, monitoring of aPTT levels should be considered during titration of UFH in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2018.02.101
View details for PubMedID 29709361
Mesalamine-induced myopericarditis in a paediatric patient with Crohn's disease.
Cardiology in the young
2015; 25 (4): 783–86
Patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease are at high risk for bleeding as well as thrombosis in the postoperative period. The objective of the study was to describe the design and effects of implementing a standardized unfractionated heparin anticoagulation protocol for children after congenital heart surgery.We created a tiered guideline for the postoperative management of bleeding and thrombosis. In patients treated with unfractionated heparin, anti-factor Xa activity level as well as activated partial thromboplastin time were used for dose titration. Clinical outcomes, including bleeding and thrombosis events, were prospectively collected for 5 months before and after protocol implementation and adjudicated as either minor, clinically relevant nonmajor, or major.Among 792 surgical patients followed during the study period, a total of 203 patients (87 preimplementation, 116 postimplementation) were treated with therapeutic unfractionated heparin over a total of 1481 patient days. Of these, 28% were neonates and 35% were infants (29 days to 1 year), with a trend toward fewer neonates and lower Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery (RACHS) scores after protocol implementation. Among 1321 time-matched pairs, activated partial thromboplastin time and antifactor Xa activity levels were poorly correlated (r2 = 0.33). Clinically relevant bleeding events, which required increased medical care, including blood transfusion, decreased after protocol implementation (4.14 vs 1.62 bleeding events per 100 patient-days; risk ratio, 0.39 [0.20-0.75]; P = .005), even after correcting for differences in age and RACHS scores (P = .006). This finding was primarily found after RACHS category 1 to 3 procedures (risk ratio, 0.27 [0.10-0.73]; P = .0099) and in noninfants (risk ratio, 0.25 [0.09-0.65]; P = .005). There were no significant differences in the incidences of major bleeding (P = .88) or any thrombosis (P = .55).The use of a standardized anticoagulation protocol is feasible and might reduce the incidence of bleeding and thrombosis events in postcardiotomy patients.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2018.02.106
View details for PubMedID 29706371
Mesalamine-containing products are considered first-line treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. Myocarditis is recognised as a very rare possible side effect of these medications, but has not often been described in the paediatric population. We present a case of an adolescent with Crohn's disease who presented with myopericarditis after recent initiation of Pentasa. Once identified as the causative agent, the drug was discontinued, with subsequent normalisation of troponin and improvement of function. This case identifies the importance of prompt evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of paediatric patients receiving mesalamine-containing medications that present with significant cardiovascular symptoms.
View details for DOI 10.1017/S1047951114001048
View details for PubMedID 24915235