Clinical and Electrophysiologic Characteristics of Antidromic Tachycardia in Children with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome
PACE-PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY
2012; 35 (4): 480-488
Are wide complex tachycardia algorithms applicable in children and patients with congenital heart disease?
JOURNAL OF ELECTROCARDIOLOGY
2010; 43 (6): 694-700
Antidromic reciprocating tachycardia (ART) is a rare form of wide complex tachycardia in children with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW). The incidence and electrophysiologic characteristics of ART in children with WPW have not been well described.A multicenter retrospective analysis of all patients with WPW undergoing electrophysiology (EP) study from 1990 to 2009 was performed. Patients with clinical or inducible ART were included.A total of 1,147 patients with WPW underwent EP study and 30 patients had ART (2.6%) and were the subject of this analysis. The mean age was 16±3 years, weight was 65±16 kg, and tachycardia cycle length was 305±55 ms. There were two patients (7%) with congenital heart disease (both with Ebstein's anomaly). Four patients (13%) had more than one accessory pathway (AP). The location of the AP was left sided in 53% of patients and right sided in 47%, with septal location and left lateral pathways most commonly involved. AP conduction was found to be high risk in 17 patients (57%). Ablation was not attempted in two patients (7%) due to proximity to the HIS and risk of heart block. Ablation was acutely successful in 93% of the patients in whom it was attempted.ART is a rare finding in children undergoing EP study. Over half of the patients with ART were found to be high risk and multiple AP were uncommon. Unlike the adult population, ART occurred commonly with septal APs.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2011.03317.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000302540300024
View details for PubMedID 22324823
Cryoablation with an 8-mm Tip Catheter for Pediatric Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia Is Safe and Efficacious with a Low Incidence of Recurrence
PACE-PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY
2010; 33 (6): 681-686
Several algorithms have been developed to help determine the etiology of wide complex tachycardias (WCTs) in adults. Sensitivity and specificity for differentiating supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) with aberration from ventricular tachycardia (VT) in adults have been demonstrated to be as high as 98% and 97%. These algorithms have not been tested in the pediatric population. We hypothesize that these algorithms have lower diagnostic accuracy in children and patients with congenital heart disease.A retrospective review of the pediatric electrophysiology database at Stanford from 2001 to 2008 was performed. All children with WCT, a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) available for review, and an electrophysiology study confirming the etiology of the rhythm were included. Patients with a paced rhythm were excluded. The ECGs were analyzed by 2 electrophysiologists blinded to the diagnosis according to the algorithms described in Brugada et al,(2) and Vereckei et al.(5) Additional ECG findings were recorded by each electrophysiologist.A total of 65 WCT ECGs in 58 patients were identified. Supraventricular tachycardia was noted in 62% (40/65) and VT in 38% (25/65) of the ECGs. The mean age was 13.5 years (SD ± 5.1), the mean weight was 51.8 kg (SD ± 22.4), and 48% (31/65) were male. The mean tachycardia cycle length was 340 milliseconds (SD ± 95). Congenital heart disease (CHD) was present in 37% (24/65) of patients (7 tetralogy of Fallot, 6 Ebstein's, 4 double-outlet right ventricle, 3 complex CHD, 2 d-transposition of great arteries, 1 status-post orthotopic heart transplantation, 1 ventricular septal defect). The Brugada algorithm correctly predicted the diagnosis 69% (45/65) of the time, the Vereckei algorithm correctly predicted the diagnosis 66% (43/65) of the time, and the blinded reviewer correctly predicted the diagnosis 78% (51/65) of the time. There was no difference in the efficacy of the algorithms in patients with CHD vs those with structurally normal hearts. The findings of left superior axis deviation (P < .01) and a notch in the QRS downstroke of V(1) or V(2) (P < .01) were more common in VT than SVT, whereas a positive QRS deflection in V(1) (P = .03) was more commonly present in SVT than VT.The Brugada and Vereckei algorithms have lower diagnostic accuracy in the pediatric population and in patients with congenital heart disease than in the adult population. Left superior axis deviation and a notch in the QRS downstroke were more commonly associated with VT, whereas a positive QRS deflection in V(1) was more commonly associated with SVT in this population.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2010.02.008
View details for Web of Science ID 000284514700039
View details for PubMedID 20382398
An epicardial pacing safety net: an alternative technique for pacing in the young
CARDIOLOGY IN THE YOUNG
2009; 19 (3): 228-232
Cryoablation with 4- and 6-mm tip ablation catheters has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in the treatment of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) in pediatric patients, albeit with a higher rate of clinical recurrence. Limited information is available regarding efficacy, mid-term outcomes, and complications related to the use of the 8-mm Freezor Max Cryoablation catheter (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) in pediatric patients.We performed a retrospective review of all pediatric patients with normal cardiac anatomy who underwent an ablation procedure for treatment of AVNRT using the 8-mm tip Cryoablation catheter at three large pediatric academic arrhythmia centers.Cryoablation with an 8-mm tip catheter was performed in 77 patients for treatment of AVNRT (female n = 40 [52%], age 14.8 +/- 2.2 years, weight 62.0 +/- 13.9 kg). Initial procedural success was achieved in 69 patients (69/76, 91%). Transient second- or third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block was noted in five patients (6.5%). There was no permanent AV block. Of the patients successfully ablated with Cryotherapy, there were two recurrences (2/70, 2.8%) over a follow-up of 11.6 +/- 3.3 months.Cryoablation with an 8-mm tip ablation catheter is both safe and effective with a low risk of recurrence for the treatment of AVNRT in pediatric patients.
View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2010.02706.x
View details for Web of Science ID 000278818200006
View details for PubMedID 20230479
Epicardial pacing is the standard approach for permanent pacing in small children and patients with functionally univentricular physiology. The longevity of epicardial leads, however, is compromised by increased occurrences of exit block and lead fractures. We report our experience with a technique of placing a second ventricular lead, and attaching it to the atrial port of a dual chamber pacemaker to prevent the need for early re-operation in the event of failure of the primary epicardial lead. A retrospective review showed that, over the period from 2001 through 2007, epicardial ventricular pacemakers had been placed in 88 patients. In 6 of these, we had placed 2 ventricular leads, their median weight being 8.0 kilograms, with a range from 4.2 to 31.8 kilograms. Fracture of a lead occurred in 1 of the patients (17%) 8 months after placement, requiring reprogramming to pace from the atrial port. This possibility avoided the need for repeated emergent surgery. At a median follow-up of 1.5 years, with a range from 0.3 to 4.4 years, there have been no complications. During the same time period, overall failure of epicardial leads at our institution was 13%. Placement of a second ventricular epicardial pacing lead, attached to the atrial port of a dual chamber pacemaker, therefore, may provide a safe and effective means of ventricular pacing in the setting of epicardial lead failure, and may obviate the need for repeat, potentially urgent, pacemaker surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1017/S1047951109003710
View details for Web of Science ID 000266792000003
View details for PubMedID 19272204