Risk Estimates for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease
AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY
2017; 119 (1): 112-118
Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of acute kidney injury in adults undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease.
Cardiology in the young
The adult with congenital heart disease (CHD) is at risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We performed a cross-sectional study to describe established ASCVD risk factors and estimate 10-year and lifetime risk of ASCVD in adults over age 18 with CHD of moderate or great complexity using 3 validated risk assessment tools-the Framingham Study Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment, the Reynolds Risk Score, and the ASCVD Risk Estimator. We obtained extensive clinical and survey data on 178 enrolled patients, with average age 37.1 ± 12.6 years, 51% men. At least 1 modifiable ASCVD risk factor was present in 70%; the 2 most common were overweight/obesity (53%) and systemic hypertension (24%). Laboratory data were available in 103 of the 178 patients. Abnormal levels of glycated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and high-density lipoprotein were each found in around 30% of patients. The 10-year ASCVD predicted risk using all 3 tools was relatively low (i.e., at least 90% of patients <10% risk), yet the median estimated lifetime risk was 36%. In conclusion, ASCVD risk factors are prevalent in adults with CHD. The risk estimation tools suggest that this population is particularly vulnerable to ASCVD with aging and should undergo guideline-based screening and management of modifiable risk factors.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjcard.2016.09.023
View details for Web of Science ID 000391246900018
View details for PubMedID 28247847
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5334785
Quality of Life of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease in 15 Countries Evaluating Country-Specific Characteristics
JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY
2016; 67 (19): 2237-2245
Acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery is a frequent and serious complication among children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and adults with acquired heart disease; however, the significance of kidney injury in adults after congenital heart surgery is unknown. The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of acute kidney injury after surgery for adult CHD. Secondary objectives included determination of risk factors and associations with clinical outcomes.This single-centre, retrospective cohort study was performed in a quaternary cardiovascular ICU in a paediatric hospital including all consecutive patients ⩾18 years between 2010 and 2013.Data from 118 patients with a median age of 29 years undergoing cardiac surgery were analysed. Using Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome creatinine criteria, 36% of patients developed kidney injury, with 5% being moderate to severe (stage 2/3). Among higher-complexity surgeries, incidence was 59%. Age ⩾35 years, preoperative left ventricular dysfunction, preoperative arrhythmia, longer bypass time, higher Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 category, and perioperative vancomycin use were significant risk factors for kidney injury development. In multivariable analysis, age ⩾35 years and vancomycin use were significant predictors. Those with kidney injury were more likely to have prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation and cardiovascular ICU stay in the univariable regression analysis.We demonstrated that acute kidney injury is a frequent complication in adults after surgery for CHD and is associated with poor outcomes. Risk factors for development were identified but largely not modifiable. Further investigation within this cohort is necessary to better understand the problem of kidney injury.
View details for PubMedID 27869053
Measuring quality of life (QOL) is fundamental to understanding the impact of disease and treatment on patients' lives.This study aimed to explore QOL in an international sample of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD), the association between patient characteristics and QOL, and international variation in QOL and its relationship to country-specific characteristics.We enrolled 4,028 adults with CHD from 15 countries. QOL was assessed using a linear analog scale (LAS) (0 to 100) and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) (5 to 35). Patient characteristics included sex, age, marital status, educational level, employment status, CHD complexity, and patient-reported New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class. Country-specific characteristics included general happiness and 6 cultural dimensions. Linear mixed models were applied.Median QOL was 80 on the LAS and 27 on the SWLS. Older age, lack of employment, no marriage history, and worse NYHA functional class were associated with lower QOL (p < 0.001). Patients from Australia had the highest QOL (LAS: 82) and patients from Japan the lowest (LAS: 72). Happiness scores and cultural dimensions were not associated with variation in QOL after adjustment for patient characteristics and explained only an additional 0.1% of the variance above and beyond patient characteristics (p = 0.56).This large-scale, international study found that overall QOL in adults with CHD was generally good. Variation in QOL was related to patient characteristics but not country-specific characteristics. Hence, patients at risk for poorer QOL can be identified using uniform criteria. General principles for designing interventions to improve QOL can be developed.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.03.477
View details for Web of Science ID 000375406600007
View details for PubMedID 27173035