Bio

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Director Research Institute, Palo Alto medical Foundation (1987 - 2003)
  • Chief Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University (2003 - 2008)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


The liver is the central organ in the metabolism of cholesterol and other fats. Previously my basci research laboratory studied the hepatic maetaoblism of these substances in animal and cellular models. Currently my major focus is on clinical care of patients with liver disease and I am engaged in studies of the role of NAFLD (non-alcoholic liver disease) in patients with hepatits C and in post liver transplant patients.

Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • Prospective study of risk factors for hepatitis C virus acquisition by Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian American patients JOURNAL OF VIRAL HEPATITIS Ho, E. Y., Ha, N. B., Ahmed, A., Ayoub, W., Daugherty, T., Garcia, G., Cooper, A., Keeffe, E. B., Nguyen, M. H. 2012; 19 (2): E105-E111

    Abstract

    Commonly known risk factors for infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) include blood transfusion, injection drug use, intranasal cocaine use, and body tattoos. We hypothesized that Asian Americans infected with HCV may not identify with these established risk factors present in Caucasians and Hispanics, and our aim was to conduct a survey of risk factors in HCV-infected patients in these ethnic groups. In this prospective study, 494 patients infected with HCV completed a detailed risk assessment questionnaire at a liver centre in Northern California from 2001 to 2008. Among subjects participating in this study, 55% identified themselves as Caucasian, 20% as Hispanic, and 25% as Asian. Asian Americans were older, less likely to smoke or consume alcohol, and have a family history of cancer compared with Caucasians and Hispanics. The laboratory profiles were similar, and genotype 1 was the most common infection in all groups (74-75%). The great majority of Caucasians (94%) and Hispanics (86%) identified with commonly known risk factors, which was in contrast to 67% of Asians (P < 0.0001). The most common risk factors in Asians were blood transfusions (50%) and acupuncture (50%). Furthermore, 74% of Caucasians and 66% of Hispanics identified more than one major risk factor, while only 20% of Asians reported having more than one risk factor (P < 0.0001). Survey for established risk factors for acquisition of HCV may be more appropriate for risk assessment of Caucasians and Hispanics, but not for Asian Americans. These findings may guide the development of HCV screening in our increasingly diverse population.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2011.01513.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299097400014

    View details for PubMedID 22239506

  • Transarterial Chemoinfusion for Hepatocellular Carcinoma as Downstaging Therapy and a Bridge toward Liver Transplantation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION De Luna, W., Sze, D. Y., Ahmed, A., Ha, B. Y., Ayoub, W., Keeffe, E. B., Cooper, A., Esquivel, C., Nguyen, M. H. 2009; 9 (5): 1158-1168

    Abstract

    Favorable outcomes after liver transplantation (LT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are well described for patients who fall within defined tumor criteria. The effectiveness of tumor therapies to maintain tumor characteristics within these criteria or to downstage more advanced tumors to fall within these criteria is not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the response to transcatheter arterial chemoinfusion (TACI) in HCC patients awaiting LT and its efficacy for downstaging or bridging to transplantation. We performed a retrospective study of 248 consecutive TACI cases in 122 HCC patients at a single U.S. medical center. Patients were divided into two groups: those who met the Milan criteria on initial HCC diagnosis (n = 95) and those with more advanced disease (n = 27). With TACI treatment, 87% of the Milan criteria group remained within the Milan criteria and 63% of patients with more advanced disease were successfully downstaged to fall within the Milan criteria. In conclusion, TACI appears to be an effective treatment as a bridge to LT for nearly 90% patients presenting within the Milan criteria and an effective downstaging modality for over half of those whose tumor burden was initially beyond the Milan criteria.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02576.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265222200023

    View details for PubMedID 19344435

  • LDL and cAMP cooperate to regulate the functional expression of the LRP in rat ovarian granulosa cells JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Azhar, S., Medicherla, S., Shen, W., Fujioka, Y., Fong, L. G., Reaven, E., Cooper, A. D. 2006; 47 (11): 2538-2550

    Abstract

    Rat ovarian granulosa rely heavily on lipoprotein-derived cholesterol for steroidogenesis, which is principally supplied by the LDL receptor- and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI)-mediated pathways. In this study, we characterized the hormonal and cholesterol regulation of another member of the LDL receptor superfamily, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP), and its role in granulosa cell steroidogenesis. Coincubation of cultured granulosa cells with LDL and N6,O2'-dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (Bt2cAMP) greatly increased the mRNA/protein levels of LRP. Bt2cAMP and Bt2cAMP plus human hLDL also enhanced SR-BI mRNA levels. However, there was no change in the expression of receptor-associated protein, a chaperone for LRP, or another lipoprotein receptor, LRP8/apoER2, in response to Bt2cAMP plus hLDL, whereas the mRNA expression of LDL receptor was reduced significantly. The induced LRP was fully functional, mediating increased uptake of its ligand, alpha2-macroglobulin. The level of binding of another LRP ligand, chylomicron remnants, did not increase, although the extent of remnant degradation that could be attributed to the LRP doubled in cells with increased levels of LRP. The addition of lipoprotein-type LRP ligands such as chylomicron remnants and VLDL to the incubation medium significantly increased the progestin production under both basal and stimulated conditions. In summary, our studies demonstrate a role for LRP in lipoprotein-supported ovarian granulosa cell steroidogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1194/jlr.M600349-JLR200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241667300019

    View details for PubMedID 16929031

  • Effectiveness of a screening program for hepatitis C DIGESTIVE DISEASES AND SCIENCES Cheung, R. C., Cunningham, B. A., Cooper, A. D. 2006; 51 (5): 976-981

    Abstract

    We sought to determine the outcomes of a screening program for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Of 536 veterans initially screened between July 2000 and June 2001 for risk factors and then tested positive for antibody for HCV, only 260 (48.5%) kept their initial appointments for further evaluation; 51 were not viremic and only 19 (9.1%) were treatment eligible. Of the 276 who did not keep their initial appointments, 92 were subsequently evaluated over the next 2 years and 23 (25%) were treatment eligible, along with another 15 from the first group. Thus, with appropriate intervention and long-term follow-up, there were 57 treatment candidates. In conclusion, most veterans who tested positive either failed to keep their appointment or were ineligible for treatment when first evaluated. Over the following 2 years, some were lost to follow-up, many continued to have contraindication(s) to antiviral therapy, and relatively few were treatment candidates.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10620-006-9100-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238847600027

    View details for PubMedID 16642419

  • An apolipoprotein(a) peptide delays chylomicron remnant clearance and increases plasma remnant lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in vivo ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY Devlin, C. M., Lee, S. J., Kuriakose, G., Spencer, C., BECKER, L., Grosskopf, I., Ko, C., Huang, L. S., Koschinsky, M. L., Cooper, A. D., Tabas, I. 2005; 25 (8): 1704-1710

    Abstract

    Humans with high expression of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] and high plasma levels of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are at increased risk for atherosclerosis, but the mechanism is not known. We have previously shown that the KIV(5-8) domain of apo(a) has unique cell-surface binding properties, and naturally occurring fragments of apo(a) encompassing this domain are thought to be atherogenic in humans. To investigate the effect of KIV(5-8) on lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis in vivo, we created several independent lines of liver-targeted KIV(5-8) transgenic mice.The transgenic mice have plasma apo(a) peptide concentrations that are similar to Lp(a) concentrations in humans at risk for coronary artery disease. Remarkably, the transgenic mice had a 2- to 4-fold increase in cholesterol-rich remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) when fed a cholesterol-rich diet, and a 5- to 20-fold increase in atherosclerosis lesion area in the aortic root. Using an in vivo clearance study, we found only slight differences in the triglyceride and apolipoprotein B secretion rates between the 2 groups of mice, suggesting an RLP clearance defect. Using an isolated perfused mouse liver system, we showed that transgenic livers had a slower rate of RLP removal, which was retarded further when KIV(5-8), full-length apo(a), or Lp(a) were added to the perfusate. An apo(a) peptide that does not interact with cells, K(IV2)3, did not retard RLP removal, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) had a much smaller effect than Lp(a).We propose that high levels of apo(a)/Lp(a), perhaps acting via a specific cell-surface binding domain, inhibit hepatic clearance of remnants, leading to high plasma levels of RLPs and markedly enhanced atherosclerosis. We speculate that the KIV(5-8) region of apo(a) competes with one or more receptors for remnant clearance in the liver and that this process may represent one mechanism accounting for increased atherosclerosis in humans with high secretion levels of apo(a).

    View details for DOI 10.1161/01.ATV.0000170819.57945.03

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230848400030

    View details for PubMedID 15905467

  • Removal of chylomicron remnants in transgenic mice overexpressing normal and membrane-anchored hepatic lipase JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Lee, S. J., Kadambi, S., Yu, K. C., David, C., Azhar, S., Cooper, A. D., Choi, S. Y. 2005; 46 (1): 27-35

    Abstract

    The LDL receptor and the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) mediate the removal of chylomicron remnants. The LRP pathway involves sequestration of particles in the space of Disse. It has been proposed that either alone or in combination with other factors, such as apolipoprotein E and proteoglycans, hepatic lipase (HL) may contribute to the sequestration of chylomicron remnants. To test this hypothesis, we generated two lines of transgenic mice producing rat HL as a native or as a membrane-anchored form. These animals express HL at levels similar to normal rat. Chylomicron remnants were perfused in a single nonrecirculating pass into the livers of the rat HL transgenic, HL-deficient, and wild-type (WT) mice for 20 min, and the rate of chylomicron remnant removal was measured. Chylomicron remnants were removed at a rate of approximately 50% per pass in WT mice. It was slightly increased in both transgenic mice and reduced in HL-deficient mice compared with the WT mice. Confocal microscopy of liver sections showed that a modest amount of HL colocalized with chylomicron remnant clusters in the transgenic mice, suggesting that HL is a component of the LRP-proteoglycan clusters. These data suggest that HL helps to direct cholesterol to the tissues in which it is localized by a nonenzymatic mechanism.

    View details for DOI 10.1194/jlr.M400184-JLR200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226224500004

    View details for PubMedID 15520453

  • Endothelial lipase modulates susceptibility to atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Ishida, T., Choi, S. S., Kundu, R. K., Spin, J., Yamashita, T., Hirata, K., Kojima, Y., Yokoyama, M., Cooper, A. D., Quertermous, T. 2004; 279 (43): 45085-45092

    Abstract

    Endothelial lipase (EL) expression correlates inversely with circulating high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in genetic mouse models, and human genetic variation in this locus has been linked to differences in HDL cholesterol levels. These data suggest a role for EL in the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease. To investigate this possibility, LIPG-null alleles were bred onto the apoE knockout background, and the homozygous double knockout animals were characterized. Both apoE knockout and double knockout mice had low HDL cholesterol levels when compared with wild-type mice, but the HDL cholesterol levels of the double knockout mice were higher than those of apoE knockout mice. Atherogenic very low density lipoprotein and intermediate density lipoprotein/low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of the double knockout mice were also greater than those of the apoE knockout animals. Despite this lipid profile, there was a significant approximately 70% decrease in atherosclerotic disease area in double knockout mice on a regular diet. Immunohistochemistry and protein blot studies revealed increased EL expression in the atherosclerotic aortas of the apoE knockout animals. An observed decrease in macrophage content in vessels lacking EL correlated with ex vivo vascular monocyte adhesion assays, suggesting that this protein can modulate monocyte adhesion and infiltration into diseased tissues. These data suggest that EL may have indirect atherogenic actions in vivo through its effect on circulating HDL cholesterol and direct atherogenic actions through vascular wall processes such as monocyte recruitment and cholesterol uptake.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M406360200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224505600101

    View details for PubMedID 15304490

  • Endothelial lipase is synthesized by hepatic and aorta endothelial cells and its expression is altered in apoE-deficient mice JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Yu, K. C., David, C., Kadambi, S., Stahl, A., Hirati, K. I., Ishida, T., Quertermous, T., Cooper, A. D., Choi, S. Y. 2004; 45 (9): 1614-1623

    Abstract

    Both LPL and HL are synthesized in parenchymal cells, are secreted, and bind to endothelial cells. To learn where endothelial lipase (EL) is synthesized in adult animals, the localization of EL in mouse and rat liver was studied by immunohistochemical analysis. Furthermore, to test whether EL could play a role in atherogenesis, the expression of EL in the aorta and liver of apolipoprotein E knockout (EKO) mice was determined. EL in both mouse and rat liver was colocalized with vascular endothelial cells but not with hepatocytes. In contrast, HL was present in both hepatocytes and endothelial cells. By in situ hybridization, EL mRNA was present only in endothelial cells in liver sections. EL was also present at low levels in aorta of normal mice. We fed EKO mice and wild-type mice a variety of diets and determined EL expression in liver and aorta. EKO mice showed significant expression of EL in aorta. EL expression was lower in the liver of EKO mice than in normal mice. Cholesterol feeding decreased EL in liver of both types of mice. In the aorta, EL was higher in EKO than in wild-type mice, and cholesterol feeding had no effect. Together, these data suggest that EL may be upregulated at the site of atherosclerotic lesions and thus could supply lipids to the area.

    View details for DOI 10.1194/jlr.M400069-JLR200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223923500004

    View details for PubMedID 15175355

  • Endothelial lipase is a major determinant of HDL level JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Ishida, T., Choi, S., Kundu, R. K., Hirata, K., Rubin, E. M., Cooper, A. D., Quertermous, T. 2003; 111 (3): 347-355

    Abstract

    A new member of the lipase gene family, initially termed endothelial lipase (gene nomenclature, LIPG; protein, EL), is expressed in a variety of different tissues, suggesting a general role in lipid metabolism. To assess the hypothesis that EL plays a physiological role in lipoprotein metabolism in vivo, we have used gene targeting of the native murine locus and transgenic introduction of the human LIPG locus in mice to modulate the level of EL expression. Evaluation of these alleles in a C57Bl/6 background revealed an inverse relationship between HDL cholesterol level and EL expression. Fasting plasma HDL cholesterol was increased by 57% in LIPG(-/-) mice and 25% in LIPG(+/-) mice and was decreased by 19% in LIPG transgenic mice as compared with syngeneic controls. Detailed analysis of lipoprotein particle composition indicated that this increase was due primarily to an increased number of HDL particles. Phospholipase assays indicated that EL is a primary contributor to phospholipase activity in mouse. These data indicate that expression levels of this novel lipase have a significant effect on lipoprotein metabolism.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI200316306

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180811400012

    View details for PubMedID 12569160

  • Mice expressing the human CYP7A1 gene in the mouse CYP7A1 knock-out background lack induction of CYP7A1 expression by cholesterol feeding and have increased hypercholesterolemia when fed a high fat diet JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Chen, J. Y., Levy-Wilson, B., Goodart, S., Cooper, A. D. 2002; 277 (45): 42588-42595

    Abstract

    Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the pathway responsible for the formation of the majority of bile acids. Transcription of the gene is regulated by the size of the bile acid pool and dietary and hormonal factors. The farnesoid X receptor and the liver X receptor (LXR) are responsible for regulation by bile acids and cholesterol, respectively. To study the effects of dietary cholesterol and fat upon expression of the human CYP7A1 gene, mice were generated by crossing transgenic mice carrying the human CYP7A1 gene with mice that were homozygous knock-outs (CYP7A1(-/-)). The mice (mCYP7A1(-/-)/hCYP7A1) expressed the human gene at much higher levels than did the transgenics bred in the wild-type background. A diet containing 1% cholic acid reduced the expression of the human gene in mCYP7A1(-/-)/hCYP7A1 mice to undetectable levels. Cholestyramine (5%) increased the level of expression of the human gene and the mouse gene. Thus, farnesoid X receptor-mediated regulation was preserved. A diet containing 2% cholesterol increased expression of the mouse gene in wild-type mice, but it did not affect expression of the human gene in mCYP7A1(-/-)/hCYP7A1 mice. None of the diets altered the serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels in these mice; 1% cholic acid caused a redistribution of cholesterol from the high density lipoprotein to the low density lipoprotein density in the humanized mice but not in wild-type mice. A diet containing 30% saturated fat and 2% cholesterol caused a decrease in CYP7A1 levels in mCYP7A1(-/-)/hCYP7A1 mice. The serum cholesterol levels rose in all mice fed this diet. The increase was greater in the mCYP7A1(-/-)/hCYP7A1 mice. Together, these data suggest that the lack of an LXR element in the region from -56 to -49 of the human CYP7A1 promoter may account for some of the differences in response to diets between humans and rodents.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M205117200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179081200022

    View details for PubMedID 12202481

  • Endothelial lipase: a new lipase on the block JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Choi, S. Y., Hirata, K., Ishida, T., Quertermous, T., Cooper, A. D. 2002; 43 (11): 1763-1769

    Abstract

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a newly described member of the triglyceride lipase gene family. It has a considerable molecular homology with lipoprotein lipase (LPL) (44%) and hepatic lipase (HL) (41%). Unlike LPL and HL, this enzyme is synthesized by endothelial cells and functions at the site where it is synthesized. Furthermore, its tissue distribution is different from that of LPL and HL. As a lipase, EL has primarily phospholipase A1 activity. Animals that overexpress EL showed reduced HDL cholesterol levels. Conversely, animals that are deficient in EL showed a marked elevation in HDL cholesterol levels, suggesting that it plays a physiologic role in HDL metabolism. Unlike LPL and HL, EL is located in the vascular endothelial cells and its expression is highly regulated by cytokines and physical forces, suggesting that it may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis. However, there is only a limited amount of information available about this enzyme. Some of our unpublished data in addition to previously published data support the possibility that the enzyme plays a role in the formation of atherosclerotic lesion.

    View details for DOI 10.1197/jlr.R200011-JLR200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179294500001

    View details for PubMedID 12401876

  • LDL receptor-related protein mediates cell-surface clustering and hepatic sequestration of chylomicron remnants in LDLR-deficient mice JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Yu, K. C., Chen, W., Cooper, A. D. 2001; 107 (11): 1387-1394

    Abstract

    It has been proposed that in the liver, chylomicron remnants (lipoproteins carrying dietary lipid) may be sequestered before being internalized by hepatocytes. To study this, chylomicron remnants labeled with a fluorescent dye were perfused into isolated livers of LDL receptor-deficient (LDLR-deficient) mice (Ldlr(-/-)) and examined by confocal microscopy. In contrast to livers from normal mice, there was clustering of the chylomicron remnants on the cell surface in the space of DISSE: These remnant clusters colocalized with clusters of LDLR-related protein (LRP) and could be eliminated by low concentrations of receptor-associated protein, an inhibitor of LRP. When competed with ligands of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), the remnant clusters still appeared but were fewer in number, although syndecans (membrane HSPGs) colocalized with the remnant clusters. This suggests that the clustering of remnants is not dependent on syndecans but that the syndecans may modify the binding of remnants. These results establish that sequestration is a novel process, the clustering of remnants in the space of DISSE: The clustering involves remnants binding to the LRP, and this may be stabilized by binding with syndecans, eventually followed by endocytosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169160700009

    View details for PubMedID 11390420

  • Postprandial lipoproteins and atherosclerosis FRONTIERS IN BIOSCIENCE Yu, K. C., Cooper, A. D. 2001; 6: D332-D354

    Abstract

    During the postprandial state, dietary lipid is transported from the intestine to peripheral tissues by plasma lipoproteins called chylomicrons. In the capillary beds of peripheral tissues, chylomicron triglycerides are lipolyzed by the enzyme, lipoprotein lipase, allowing the delivery of free fatty acids to the cells. As a result, this produces a new particle of smaller size and enriched with cholesteryl ester referred to as chylomicron remnants. These particles are rapidly removed from the blood primarily by the liver. The liver has a complex chylomicron remnant removal system which is comprised of a combination of different mechanisms that include the low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and the LDLR-related-protein (LRP). Furthermore, it has been suggested that there is a sequestration component whereby chylomicron remnants bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) and/or hepatic lipase; this is then followed by transport to one or both of the above receptors for hepatic uptake. Over the years, a major concern has arisen about the association of chylomicron remnants and coronary heart disease (CHD) in man. Slow removal of chylomicron remnants, as reflected by a prolonged postprandial state, is now commonly observed in patients with CHD and those that have abnormal lipid disorders such as hypertriglyceridemia, familial hypercholesterolemia, familial combined hyperlipidemia and non-insulin-dependent-diabetes-mellitus. The present review will focus on (a) the details of the metabolic pathway (exogenous pathway) that describes the two-step processing of postprandial lipoproteins, (b) the role of the liver, the receptors, and the importance of efficient removal of chylomicron remnants from the blood circulation, and (c) the potential atherogenic effects of chylomicron remnants on the arterial wall.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167361500003

    View details for PubMedID 11229885

  • Rapid initial removal of chylomicron remnants by the mouse liver does not require hepatically localized apolipoprotein E JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Yu, K. C., Jiang, Y., Chen, W., Cooper, A. D. 2000; 41 (11): 1715-1727

    Abstract

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a ligand for the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP). The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of hepatically localized apoE in the rapid initial removal of chylomicron remnants by using the isolated perfused liver. Radiolabeled chylomicron remnants were perfused in a single nonrecirculating pass into the livers of C57BL/6J (wild-type) mice, apoE-knockout mice, and apoE/LDLR-knockout mice for a period of 20 min. Aliquots of the perfusate leaving the liver were collected at regular intervals and the rate of removal of radioactivity was determined. At a trace concentration of chylomicron remnants (0.05 microgram of protein per ml), wild-type mouse livers removed at a steady state of 50-55% of total chylomicron remnants perfused per pass; livers from apoE-knockout mice had the same capacity as wild-type mouse livers. When the concentration of remnants was increased to 12 microgram of protein per ml, a level at which it has been shown that LDL receptor and LRP are near saturation, the capacity of the wild-type mouse livers to remove chylomicron remnants was decreased to 10-25% per pass, confirming that the removal mechanisms were nearing saturation. However, instead of finding a greater reduction in the removal rates or impairment in chylomicron remnant removal, livers from apoE-knockout mice were just as efficient as those from wild-type mice in removing remnants. Livers of mice that lacked both apoE and the LDLR also had a similar rate of removal at relatively low remnant concentrations (0.05-0.5 microgram/ml), but had reduced capacity in removing remnants at a relatively high concentration (4-12 microgram/ml) of chylomicron remnants ( approximately 20% per pass). The rate of removal at these concentrations, however, was similar to that attributed to the LRP in previous studies. Chylomicron remnants, whose apolipoproteins were disrupted by trypsinization, were removed at a normal rate by wild-type mouse livers but there was almost no removal by apoE-knockout mouse livers. At higher concentrations, however, the removal of apolipoprotein-disrupted chylomicron remnants was decreased. Our present findings do not support the hypothesis that hepatically localized apoE is a critical factor in the rapid initial removal of chylomicron remnants by either of the major pathways but do suggest that hepatically localized apoE can be added to lipoproteins to accelerate their uptake, although this process may have a limited capacity to compensate for apoE deficiency on lipoproteins.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000165222800002

    View details for PubMedID 11060341

  • The nuclear matrix protein CDP represses hepatic transcription of the human cholesterol-7 alpha hydroxylase gene JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Antes, T. J., Chen, J., Cooper, A. D., Levy-Wilson, B. 2000; 275 (34): 26649-26660

    Abstract

    To date, the molecular mechanisms that govern hepatic-specific transcription of the human cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene are poorly understood. We recently reported that the region extending from -1888 to +46, which includes the promoter, is not capable of conferring expression to human CYP7A1 promoter lacZ transgenes in the livers of mice, but that expression is observed with transgenes containing the entire structural gene. To locate liver-specific elements in other segments of the human gene, DNase I hypersensitivity studies were performed with transcriptionally active, liver-derived HepG2 cells and with transcriptionally inactive HeLa cells. Three DNase I hypersensitivity sites were detected within the first intron of the human CYP7A1 gene, but only in HepG2 cells. Transient transfection experiments with HepG2 cells revealed a transcriptional repressor within intron 1. Five binding sites for the CAAT displacement protein (CDP) were detected within intron 1. Since CDP is a nuclear matrix protein, two methods were employed to localize nuclear matrix attachment sites within intron 1 of the human CYP7A1 gene. A matrix attachment site was found throughout the entirety of intron 1. Gel retardation experiments and cell transfection studies provided evidence for the repression mechanism. Repression is achieved by displacement by CDP of two hepatic activators, namely HNF-1alpha and C/EBPalpha, that bind to three different sites within intron 1. Additionally, CDP represses transactivation mediated by these two activators.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088999700104

    View details for PubMedID 10869351

  • Expression of the human cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene in transgenic mice BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS Goodart, S. A., Huynh, C., Chen, W., Cooper, A. D., Levy-Wilson, B. 1999; 266 (2): 454-459

    Abstract

    We have generated transgenic mice expressing human CYP7A1 transgenes. Only 1.5 kilobases (kb) of 5' upstream sequence and 6.5 kb of 3' sequence were sufficient for hepatic transcription of the transgenes. However, the 5' end segment alone was not sufficient to direct liver expression, suggesting that additional hepatic regulatory elements reside in the 3' extension or within introns. The level of expression of these transgenes was low in comparison to the levels of the endogenous mouse CYP7A1 mRNA. To generate mice expressing higher levels of CYP7A1 mRNA, we injected a large human genomic PAC clone, extending up to -105 kb 5' of the structural gene and about 50 kb 3' of the gene. These transgenic mice expressed CYP7A1 mRNA at higher levels, suggesting that additional hepatic regulatory elements are found either 5' of -1520 or beyond 6.5 kb 3' of the gene.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084583100030

    View details for PubMedID 10600524

  • Evaluation of the components of the chylomicron remnant removal mechanism by use of the isolated perfused mouse liver JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Yu, K. C., Jiang, Y., Chen, W., Cooper, A. D. 1999; 40 (10): 1899-1910

    Abstract

    The isolated perfused mouse liver was utilized to evaluate the relative contribution of various molecules believed to participate in the removal of chylomicron remnants by the liver. Sixty percent of asialofetuin was removed from the perfusate per pass; bovine serum albumin was not removed. Normal mouse livers removed chylomicron remnants more efficiently (40-50%/pass) than nascent chylomicrons (10-20%/pass). The fractional removal rate of remnants decreased as their concentration in the perfusate increased demonstrating saturability. Remnant removal by livers of low density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLRD) mice paralleled that of normal mice at low remnant concentrations (0.05, 0.2 microg protein/ml); as concentration increased (4-16 microg protein/ml), removal by LDLRD livers was reduced. About 50% of the capacity to remove remnants was due to the LDL receptor. The role of the LDLR-related protein (LRP) was estimated using the receptor-associated protein (RAP). Four microg/ml of RAP inhibited only LRP; it reduced the removal of remnants by 30-40% in normal livers. When RAP was included in the perfusate of LDLRD livers, remnant removal persisted but was diminished, particularly late in the perfusion; the capacity was approximately 30% of controls. The present study has established that there is more than one mechanism operating for the removal of chylomicron remnants by the liver, provides estimates of the concentration of each to the removal of remnants, and indicates a method for further studies. It is concluded that in normal livers, the LDL receptor has the greatest capacity for removing chylomicron remnants. The LRP contributes to the process as well and a third component, perhaps "sequestration," accounts for up to 30% of the capacity for the initial removal of chylomicron remnants.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000083031900018

    View details for PubMedID 10508210

  • Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 binds to and transactivates the human but not the rat CYP7A1 promoter BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOPHYSICAL RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS Chen, J., Cooper, A. D., Levy-Wilson, B. 1999; 260 (3): 829-834

    Abstract

    Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), a liver-specific enzyme, catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the degradation pathway of cholesterol to bile acids, and thus plays a key role in cholesterol homeostasis. To elucidate the mechanisms that control hepatic expression of the human CYP7A1 gene, we are studying the promoter region. Initially, we observed that up to 40% of the overall transcriptional activity of the promoter in HepG2 cells was associated with DNA sequences from -65 to -1 of the human gene. Within this region, a binding site for the liver-enriched transcription factor HNF-1 (-56 to -49) has been identified. Binding of HNF-1 to this site leads to transcriptional activation of the human promoter. The corresponding segment from the rat CYP7A1 gene does not bind HNF-1; instead, it is bound by the orphan receptors ARP-1 (COUP-TFII) and LXRalpha, that are implicated in dietary regulation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081503700042

    View details for PubMedID 10403849

  • Cloning of a unique lipase from endothelial cells extends the lipase gene family JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Hirata, K., Dichek, H. L., Cioffi, J. A., Choi, S. Y., Leeper, N. J., Quintana, L., Kronmal, G. S., Cooper, A. D., Quertermous, T. 1999; 274 (20): 14170-14175

    Abstract

    A new lipoprotein lipase-like gene has been cloned from endothelial cells through a subtraction methodology aimed at characterizing genes that are expressed with in vitro differentiation of this cell type. The conceptual endothelial cell-derived lipase protein contains 500 amino acids, including an 18-amino acid hydrophobic signal sequence, and is 44% identical to lipoprotein lipase and 41% identical to hepatic lipase. Comparison of primary sequence to that of lipoprotein and hepatic lipase reveals conservation of the serine, aspartic acid, and histidine catalytic residues as well as the 10 cysteine residues involved in disulfide bond formation. Expression was identified in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, human coronary artery endothelial cells, and murine endothelial-like yolk sac cells by Northern blot. In addition, Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis revealed expression of the endothelial-derived lipase in placenta, liver, lung, ovary, thyroid gland, and testis. A c-Myc-tagged protein secreted from transfected COS7 cells had phospholipase A1 activity but no triglyceride lipase activity. Its tissue-restricted pattern of expression and its ability to be expressed by endothelial cells, suggests that endothelial cell-derived lipase may have unique functions in lipoprotein metabolism and in vascular disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080322200064

    View details for PubMedID 10318835

  • Role of the enterohepatic circulation of bile salts in lipoprotein metabolism GASTROENTEROLOGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Cooper, A. D. 1999; 28 (1): 211-?

    Abstract

    The enterohepatic circulation of bile salts and cholesterol plays a central role in maintaining whole body cholesterol homeostasis. Hepatic lipoprotein metabolism is reviewed and the role of disturbances in bile salt metabolism in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemias is discussed. Further, the manipulation of bile salt metabolism to treat dyslipidemia is reviewed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079639700012

    View details for PubMedID 10198786

  • Multiple processes are involved in the uptake of chylomicron remnants by mouse peritoneal macrophages JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Fujioka, Y., Cooper, A. D., Fong, L. G. 1998; 39 (12): 2339-2349

    Abstract

    The processes responsible for the uptake of chylomicron remnants by macrophages were investigated using freshly isolated cells from low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor and apolipoprotein E knockout mice. In peritoneal macrophages from normal mice, the metabolism of chylomicron remnants was inhibited 40% by anti-LDL receptor antibody and 60% by a high concentration of receptor-associated protein (RAP). Together they reduced the amount processed by 70%. Digestion of cell proteoglycans decreased remnant degradation by 20% while the addition of acetyl-LDL had no effect. When LDL receptors were absent, the absolute rates of metabolism were less than that of normal cells and were not inhibited by the anti-LDL receptor antibody; the rates, however, were reduced to less than half by RAP. These suggest that the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) or another LDL receptor family member(s) contributes to chylomicron remnant uptake and becomes the major mechanism of uptake when LDL receptors are absent. In contrast, the VLDL receptor was not involved as its absence did not affect chylomicron remnant metabolism. Similarly, the absence of apoE production did not affect the amount of remnant uptake; however, the proportion that was sensitive to RAP was eliminated. The level of LRP expression was not altered in these cells whereas there was a decrease in LDL receptors. This suggests that the apoE content of chylomicron remnants is sufficient for its recognition by LDL receptors but additional apoE is required for its uptake by the LRP and that there is an up-regulation of a non-LDL receptor family mechanism in apoE deficiency. Together these studies suggest that even in the absence of LDL receptors or apoE secretion, chylomicron remnants could contribute to lipid accumulation in the artery wall during atherogenesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077496700004

    View details for PubMedID 9831622

  • Accelerated lipoprotein uptake by transplantable hepatomas that express hepatic lipase JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Donner, C., Choi, S. S., Komaromy, M., Cooper, A. D. 1998; 39 (9): 1805-1815

    Abstract

    To test the hypothesis that hepatic lipase plays a key role in lipoprotein removal in vivo, a novel system was used. Hepatoma cells (HTC 7288c) were transfected with a cDNA encoding hepatic lipase in culture and grown as solid tumors in vivo. In culture, transfected cells degraded chylomicron remnants and low density lipoprotein (LDL) somewhat more efficiently than untransfected cells. Tumors from the transplanted cells produced hepatic lipase localized to the surface of tumors from transfected cells but not tumors from non-transfected cells, grown in the same rat. The tumors from transfected cells removed, per gm of tissue, 34% (P < 0.001) more 125I-labeled LDL than tumors from non-transfected cells in the same animal. The uptake of chylomicron remnants (by tumors from transfected cells) was also modestly enhanced (15 +/- 6%, P < 0.005). There were no differences in the uptake of 125I-labeled albumin or 125I-labeled asialoglycoprotein. Compared to the liver, the untransfected tumors took up 12%, and the transfected tumors took up about 18% as much LDL per gram of tissue. The uptake of chylomicron remnants compared to liver was far lower. Both types of tumors had about twice as much LDL receptor related protein as the liver. Wild-type tumors had the highest level of LDL receptor, twice hepatic lipase-secreting tumors, and six times that of the liver. Using the novel approach of transfecting transplantable tumor cells with hepatic lipase, the ability of hepatic lipase to facilitate the removal of apoB-containing lipoproteins was demonstrated. The liver still removes low density lipoprotein and especially chylomicron remnants more rapidly than the tumors, suggesting factors in addition to hepatic lipase and LDL receptor level play a major role in hepatic lipoprotein removal.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075646900010

    View details for PubMedID 9741693

  • Interaction between ApoB and hepatic lipase mediates the uptake of ApoB-containing lipoproteins JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Choi, S. Y., Goldberg, I. J., Curtiss, L. K., Cooper, A. D. 1998; 273 (32): 20456-20462

    Abstract

    Hepatic lipase (HL) on the surface of hepatocytes and endothelial cells lining hepatic sinusoids, the adrenal glands, and the ovary hydrolyzes triglycerides and phospholipids of circulating lipoproteins. Its expression significantly enhances low density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake via the LDL receptor pathway. A specific interaction between LPL, a homologous molecule to HL, and apoB has been described (Choi, S. Y., Sivaram, P., Walker, D. E., Curtiss, L. K., Gretch, D. G., Sturley, S. L., Attie, A. D., Deckelbaum, R. J., and Goldberg, I. J. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 8081-8086). The present studies tested the hypothesis that HL enhances the uptake of lipoproteins by a specific interaction of HL with apoB. On a ligand blot, HL bound to apoB26, 48, and 100 but not to apoE or apoAI. HL binding to LDL in a plate assay with LDL-coated plates was significantly greater than to bovine serum albumin-coated plates. Neither heat denatured HL nor bacterial fusion protein of HL bound to LDL in the plate assays. 125I-LDL bound to HL-saturated heparin-agarose gel with a Kd of 52 nM, and somewhat surprisingly, this binding was not inhibited by excess LPL. In cell culture experiments HL enhanced the uptake of 125I-LDL at both 4 and 37 degreesC. The enhanced binding and uptake of LDL was significantly inhibited by monoclonal anti-apoB antibodies. In contrast to LPL, both amino- and carboxyl-terminal antibodies blocked the apoB interaction with HL to the same extent. Thus, we conclude that there is a unique interaction between HL and apoB that facilitates the uptake of apoB-containing lipoproteins by cells where HL is present.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000075305400077

    View details for PubMedID 9685400

  • Bile salt biosynthesis: An alternate synthetic pathway joins the mainstream GASTROENTEROLOGY Cooper, A. D. 1997; 113 (6): 2005-2008

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YH82900028

    View details for PubMedID 9394743

  • Hepatic uptake of chylomicron remnants JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Cooper, A. D. 1997; 38 (11): 2173-2192

    Abstract

    Chylomicrons are formed in the intestine and transport dietary triglyceride to peripheral tissues and cholesterol to the liver. The enzyme lipoprotein lipase, with apolipoprotein (apo)C-II as a co-factor, hydrolyzes chylomicron triglyceride allowing the delivery of free fatty acids to muscle and adipose tissue. As a result, a new particle called a chylomicron remnant is formed. This particle is enriched in cholesteryl ester and fat-soluble vitamins and contains apoB-48 and apoE. It is rapidly removed from the circulation by the liver. ApoE is the moiety required for rapid hepatic removal. Its activity is inhibited by C apolipoproteins, especially apoC-I. Hepatic removal appears to be accomplished by several overlapping mechanisms. The particle must first achieve a size that allows it to be "sieved" through the endothelial fenestre allowing entrance into the space of Disse. Here, it may 1) be removed directly by LDL receptors; 2) acquire additional apoE that is secreted free into the space, and then be removed directly by the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP); or 3) it may be sequestered in the space. Sequestration occurs by binding of apoE to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and/or binding of apoB to hepatic lipase. Sequestered particles may be further metabolized allowing apoE, and lysophospholipid enrichment, followed by transfer to one of the above receptors for hepatic uptake. The above formulation is based upon animal studies. In humans, delayed removal of chylomicron remnants has been documented in diabetes, renal failure, and familial combined hyperlipemia and is the abnormality resulting in type III hyperlipidemia. Case control studies have identified delayed remnant removal as an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Thus, understanding the further details of the processes, and how it can be regulated in humans, is an important challenge for the future.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YF49800001

    View details for PubMedID 9392416

  • Palo Alto Medical Foundation, Research Institute MOLECULAR MEDICINE Krupp, M. A., Cooper, A. D. 1997; 3 (10): 633-635

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997YE74700001

    View details for PubMedID 9392000

  • Reducing saturated fat intake is associated with increased levels of LDL receptors on mononuclear cells in healthy men and women JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Mustad, V. A., Etherton, T. D., Cooper, A. D., Mastro, A. M., Pearson, T. A., Jonnalagadda, S. S., KRISETHERTON, P. M. 1997; 38 (3): 459-468

    Abstract

    Studies with animal models suggest that saturated fatty acids raise low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels by reducing LDL receptor-mediated clearance. To examine this directly in humans, we studied the effects of lowering dietary saturated fat on LDL-receptor abundance in peripheral mononuclear cells which reflects hepatic LDL-receptor status. Healthy males and females (n = 25) participating in the DELTA (Dietary Effects on Lipoproteins and Thrombogenic Activity) Study consumed three experimental diets in a randomized cross-over design. Diets provided 34% fat, 15% saturated fatty acids (Average American Diet); 29% fat, 9% saturated fatty acids (Step-One Diet); and 25% fat, 6% saturated fatty acids (Low SAT Diet). Peripheral mononuclear cells were isolated from blood samples collected after 6 and 8 wk. An ELISA was used to quantify LDL-receptor protein in total cell membranes. LDL-receptor abundance increased by 10.5% after the Low SAT Diet (P < 0.05). This was associated with an 11.8% decrease in serum LDL-cholesterol (P < 0.05). A linear inverse relationship was observed between the percentage change in LDL-cholesterol and the percentage change in LDL-receptor abundance (r = -0.59; P < 0.01). In addition, LDL-receptor abundance also was correlated inversely (P < 0.001) with serum levels of LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.747) and apoB (r = -0.593). In summary, reducing dietary saturated fat is associated with an increase in LDL-receptor abundance of magnitude similar to the decrease in serum LDL-cholesterol. Thus, an important mechanism by which reductions in dietary saturated fatty acids decrease LDL-cholesterol in humans is through an increase in LDL-receptor number.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WT52500005

    View details for PubMedID 9101427

  • Characterization of hepatic-specific regulatory elements in the promoter region of the human cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Cooper, A. D., Chen, J., BotelhoYetkinler, M. J., Cao, Y. C., Taniguchi, T., LEVYWILSON, B. 1997; 272 (6): 3444-3452

    Abstract

    Cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in the degradation of cholesterol to bile salts and plays a central role in regulating cholesterol homeostasis. The mechanisms involved in the transcriptional control of the human gene are largely unknown. HepG2 cells represent an appropriate model system for the study of the regulation of the gene. To identify liver-specific DNA sequences in the promoter of the human CYP7 gene, we first examined the DNase I hypersensitivity in the 5'-region of the gene. An area of hypersensitivity was observed in the region from -50 to -200 of the human gene in nuclei from transcriptionally active HepG2 cells, but was absent in transcriptionally inactive HeLa cell nuclei or in free DNA. Various 5'-promoter deletion constructs were made and transfected into HepG2 cells. About 300 base pairs of upstream sequence are required for high level promoter activity of the human CYP7 gene in HepG2 cells. DNase I footprinting of the hypersensitive region revealed nine protected sequences. Gel retardation experiments demonstrated binding of HNF-3 to the segment from -80 to -70 and of hepatocyte nuclear factor HNF-4 (and ARP-1) to the segment from -148 to -127 of the human CYP7 promoter. Deletion of either of these sites depressed promoter activity in HepG2 cells. A third region from -313 to -285 is bound by members of the HNF-3 family and acts as an enhancer. Additionally, the segment from -197 to -173 binds a negative regulatory protein that is present in Chinese hamster ovary cell extracts and in HepG2 cell extracts. These experiments define the key control elements responsible for basal transcription of the human CYP7 gene in HepG2 cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997WG19200049

    View details for PubMedID 9013589

  • Dietary linoleic acid increases and palmitic acid decreases hepatic LDL receptor protein and mRNA abundance in young pigs JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Mustad, V. A., Ellsworth, J. L., Cooper, A. D., KRISETHERTON, P. M., Etherton, T. D. 1996; 37 (11): 2310-2323

    Abstract

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary fatty acids on hepatic LDL receptor (LDLr) protein abundance and mRNA levels. Sixty pigs were randomized into 10 groups and fed corn-soybean meal diets containing three cholesterol levels (0.25%, 0.5%, and 1.0%, w/w) with no added fat, or fats rich (30% of calories) in palmitic acid or linoleic acid. A control group was fed the base diet with no added fat. After 30 days, plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels increased as the dietary cholesterol increased (P < 0.05); however, there was no significant effect of either fatty acid. Dietary fatty acids, however, had distinctly different effects on hepatic LDLr protein (analyzed by ELISA) and mRNA (analyzed by Northern blot) abundance. When pigs consumed diets containing 0.25% cholesterol, linoleic acid increased hepatic LDLr protein 40% whereas palmitic acid reduced it 40% (P < 0.05). These changes in LDLr protein abundance were accompanied by parallel changes in hepatic LDLr mRNA; linoleic acid increased LDLr mRNA 2-fold (P < 0.01), whereas palmitic acid decreased it 60% (P < 0.01). The differential effects of fatty acids on LDLr expression were only observed at 0.25% cholesterol, suggesting that higher intakes of cholesterol have a dominant and repressive effect on regulation of LDLr expression. Cholesterol intake increased hepatic total cholesterol levels (P < 0.01) while dietary fatty acids had no effect on hepatic sterols. In summary, our results indicate that dietary linoleic acid and palmitic acid have markedly different effects on hepatic LDLr protein abundance that are mediated by differential effects on LDLr mRNA and protein levels. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which fatty acids regulate LDLr mRNA and protein levels.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996WU26000006

    View details for PubMedID 8978483

  • Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing a cell surface-anchored form of hepatic lipase - Characterization of low density lipoprotein and chylomicron remnant uptake and selective uptake of high density lipoprotein-cholesteryl ester JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Komaromy, M., Azhar, S., Cooper, A. D. 1996; 271 (28): 16906-16914

    Abstract

    The enzyme hepatic lipase may play several roles in lipoprotein metabolism. Recent investigation has suggested a role for the enzyme in lipoprotein and/or lipoprotein lipid uptake. To study this, a simple isolated system that mimics the in vivo system would be desirable. The enzyme is secreted by the hepatic parenchymal cell but exists, and presumably exerts its effects, while bound to capillary endothelial cells in the liver, adrenal gland, and the ovary. We constructed a cDNA that encodes the expression of a chimeric protein composed of rat hepatic lipase and the signal sequence for the addition of the glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor from human decay-accelerating factor. When transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells this gave rise to a cell population that had immunoreactive hepatic lipase on the cell surface. Cloning of the transfected cells produced several cell lines that expressed the chimeric protein bound to the cell surface by a GPI anchor. This was documented by demonstrating incorporation of [3H]ethanolamine into anti-hepatic lipase immunoprecipitable material; in addition, hepatic lipase was released from the cells by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C but not by heparin. Phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C treatment of cells expressing the anchored lipase released material that comigrated with hepatic lipase on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and was immunoreactive with antibody to the cross-reacting determinant of GPI anchors. Cell lysates containing the anchored protein contained salt-resistant lipase activity, a known feature of the secreted hepatic lipase; thus it appears that these cells have a surface-anchored hepatic lipase molecule. Although it was not possible to demonstrate lipolysis by the enzyme while it was on the cell surface for technical reasons, the protein produced by these cells was active when studied in cell membranes. The ability of the cells to take up lipoproteins was studied. The cells demonstrated an increased affinity for low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mediated uptake of LDL. They did not, however, demonstrate any enhanced binding or removal of chylomicron remnants. With respect to LDL and remnants, the cells expressing anchored lipase behaved similarly to CHO cell that expressed secreted hepatic lipase. The cells expressing anchored hepatic lipase had a marked increase in the uptake of high density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesteryl ester when compared to that seen with CHO cells secreting hepatic lipase. This increase occurred primarily via the selective pathway, and was not reduced by addition of anti-LDL receptor or anti-hepatic lipase antibodies or the receptor-associated protein. Together the results suggest that hepatic lipase, when bound to the cell surface by a GPI anchor, plays a role in enhancing lipoprotein uptake. For LDL this may involve the provision of a second foot for particle binding, thus enhancing affinity for the LDL receptor. For chylomicron remnants an additional molecule or molecules are necessary to mediate this effect. For HDL, the enzyme facilitates uptake of cholesteryl ester primarily by the selective pathway.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UX12600073

    View details for PubMedID 8663289

  • Activation of LDL receptor gene expression in HepG2 cells by hepatocyte growth factor JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Pak, Y. K., KANUCK, M. P., Berrios, D., Briggs, M. R., Cooper, A. D., Ellsworth, J. L. 1996; 37 (5): 985-998

    Abstract

    The effect of recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene expression was studied in the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. HepG2 cells were incubated with serum-free media in the presence and absence of HGF for various times and 125I-labeled LDL specific binding at 4 degrees C, uptake at 37 degrees C, and the levels of LDL receptor mRNA were measured. Incubation with HGF produced time- and concentration-dependent increases in 125I-labeled LDL binding (2-fold), uptake (2.5-fold), and LDL receptor mRNA (6-fold). HGF increased the rate of LDL receptor gene transcription 4- to 5-fold relative to that of several "house-keeping" genes as measured by nuclear run-on transcription. The half-life of LDL receptor mRNA, measured with actinomycin D, was not increased in HGF-treated cells. The stimulation of LDL receptor expression occurred independently of changes in cellular cholesterol or DNA biosynthesis or total cell protein. HepG2 cells were transiently transfected with plasmids bearing either three copies of repeats 2 and 3 (pLDLR(23)3LUC) or one copy of the LDL receptor promoter from -556 to +53 (pLDLR600LUC) linked to firefly luciferase. Incubation of pLDLR(23)3LUC, or pLDLR600LUC-transfected cells with HGF for 4 or 24 h at 37 degrees C produced a concentration-dependent increase in luciferase activity. A maximal stimulation of 3 to 6-fold was achieved for each construct at an HGF concentration of 100 ng/ml. In contrast, HGF had little or no effect on reporter activity in HepG2 cells transfected with a luciferase reporter plasmid bearing the HMG-CoA reductase promoter extending from -325 to +22. Thus, when compared to the native LDL receptor promoter, multiple copies of repeats 2 and 3 of the LDL receptor promoter can fully support activation of the luciferase reporter gene by HGF, demonstrating that the effect of HGF is mediated through the SRE-1. The lack of HGF effects mediated through the HMG-CoA reductase sterol regulatory element suggests, however, that sterol depletion may not be responsible for the induction of the LDL receptor promoter by growth factors. The signalling pathways or effectors responsible for activation of the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase genes thus differ in their response to HGF. These data suggest that the level of SREBP's reaching the nucleus may be determined by as yet unidentified second messengers as well as by sterols.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UP05800007

    View details for PubMedID 8725151

  • A scavenger that really scavenges is better in the liver than in the artery HEPATOLOGY Cooper, A. D. 1996; 23 (4): 929-930

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UF09600038

    View details for PubMedID 8666351

  • Relative roles of the LDL receptor, the LDL receptor-like protein, and hepatic lipase in chylomicron remnant removal by the liver JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH DEFARIA, E., Fong, L. G., Komaromy, M., Cooper, A. D. 1996; 37 (1): 197-209

    Abstract

    Studies were carried out in mice utilizing inhibitors of several cell surface molecules to evaluate their relative roles in chylomicron remnant removal. Anti-LDL receptor antibody inhibited approximately 45% of rapid remnant removal from plasma, prolonged their half life (63 s to 115 s) and reduced hepatic uptake by 45%. Receptor-associated protein (RAP) (1 mg/mouse), a high affinity inhibitor of the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP) and a low affinity inhibitor of the LDL receptor decreased remnant removal approximately 55%, prolonged the half life from 63 s to 230 s, and reduced hepatic uptake by 70%. RAP, but not anti-LDL receptor antibody, inhibited splenic uptake. With both injected together, an incremental effect was seen; plasma removal decreased 60%, T1/2 increased to 290 s, and hepatic uptake decreased by 80%. Thus, it is likely that virtually all of the very rapid removal of remnants from the plasma by the liver requires the presence of at least one of these members of the LDL receptor family. Anti-hepatic lipase antibody caused a small but significant delay in remnant removal from plasma and a larger decrease in hepatic uptake (22.5%). It doubled adrenal uptake. The anti-hepatic lipase antibody was not additive with either the anti-LDL receptor antibody or RAP. Anti-rat hepatic lipase antibody did not inhibit lipolysis by mouse hepatic lipase, suggesting that lipolysis is not the way hepatic lipase enhances remnant uptake. Hepatic lipase bound to remnants to a greater degree than it bound to other lipoproteins. Together these data suggest that hepatic lipase may serve as a binding site for chylomicron remnants, thereby enhancing their affinity for the liver surface, and thus removal by the proteins of the LDL receptor family. Other molecules may also play a role in removal from the circulation under conditions where the LDL receptor family receptors are absent or occupied.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UB11100019

    View details for PubMedID 8820115

  • LOCATION AND REGULATION OF LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTORS IN INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-GASTROINTESTINAL AND LIVER PHYSIOLOGY Fong, L. G., FUJISHIMA, S. E., KOMAROMY, M. C., Pak, Y. K., Ellsworth, J. L., Cooper, A. D. 1995; 269 (1): G60-G72

    Abstract

    The expression, distribution, and some aspects of the regulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in rat intestinal epithelial cells were examined. Cells prepared by a perfusion technique provided a pure preparation of epithelial cells and could be manipulated to produce crypt-villus units or villi alone. On a total protein basis, the abundance of LDL receptors in villus cell membranes was half that in hepatic membranes. The level of receptors in both tissues was reduced by feeding an atherogenic diet but was increased only in the liver by ethinyl estradiol-induced hypocholesterolemia. The level of LDL receptor mRNA in intestinal epithelial cells was somewhat lower than in liver. Regulation of LDL receptor mRNA was similar to that of protein. Judged by the ratio of mRNA in villus cells to the villus-crypt unit and nuclear run-on assay for LDL receptor gene transcription, we conclude that LDL receptor mRNA is produced in the villus cells. The effect of fat feeding was regulated at the level of transcription. Expression in villus cells in ileum was severalfold higher than in jejunum and higher than in the liver. Together the results suggest serum cholesterol level is not the prime determinant of LDL receptor level in intestine, but LDL degradation in this organ may be regulated by factors in the lumen.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995RK17200008

    View details for PubMedID 7631802

  • DEVELOPMENT OF MULTI-RESIDUE METHODOLOGY FOR THE HPLC DETERMINATION OF VETERINARY DRUGS IN ANIMAL-TISSUES FOOD ADDITIVES AND CONTAMINANTS Cooper, A. D., Creaser, C. S., Farrington, W. H., Tarbin, J. A., Shearer, G. 1995; 12 (2): 167-176

    Abstract

    The application of solid-phase extraction and HPLC with UV-diode array detection to the multi-residue determination of veterinary drugs is described. A two-stage SPE clean-up was employed, using C18 and silica cartridges. HPLC analysis was carried out on a base-deactivated C8 column using gradient elution systems at two pH values. The procedure establishes the basis of a method for routine screening of pig kidney samples for some sulphonamides, benzimidazoles, nitroimidazoles and nitrofurans at concentrations at or below the UK Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). Limits of detection of 2-18 micrograms/kg could be achieved for these analytes at recoveries of 40-70%. UV spectra measured on-line were used for confirmation of peak identities at these concentrations. The possibility of extension of this procedure to a wider range of analyses is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1995QP75300003

    View details for PubMedID 7781813

  • Hepatic lipoprotein metabolism: recent molecular insights. Progress in liver diseases Cooper, A. D. 1995; 13: 173-200

    View details for PubMedID 9224502

  • ENHANCED EXPRESSION OF GRANULOSA-CELL LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR ACTIVITY IN RESPONSE TO IN-VITRO CULTURE CONDITIONS JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY Reaven, E., Tsai, L., SPICHER, M., Shilo, L., Philip, M., Cooper, A. D., Azhar, S. 1994; 161 (3): 449-462

    Abstract

    Previous studies have shown that the B/E (low density lipoprotein [LDL]) receptor pathway plays a minor role in cholesterol uptake in the intact rat ovary, but when granulosa cells are isolated and maintained in culture, the cells develop a fully functional B/E receptor system. In the current study we examined the development of the B/E receptor over time (96 h) in culture and compared its physiological function, expression of mRNA and protein levels, and morphological events to the upregulation induced in 24 h by hormone (human chorionic gonadotropin [hCG] or Bt2cAMP). With both protocols, increased progestin production occurs and is associated with elevated binding, uptake, and degradation of LDL in the medium although the impact of Bt2cAMP stimulation on all these measurements is several times that observed with time alone. Only the hormone-stimulated LDL receptor response was associated with an increase in receptor protein (Western blot) or mRNA levels (RNase protection assay). We conclude that unstimulated granulosa cells show posttranslational increases in B/E receptor activity with time in culture, but transcriptional changes in B/E receptor follow stimulation with trophic hormone or its second messenger, cAMP.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994QF85500007

    View details for PubMedID 7962127

  • CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATION OF BILE-SALT SYNTHESIS AND SECRETION BY HUMAN HEPATOMA HEPG2 CELLS HEPATOLOGY Cooper, A. D., Craig, W. Y., Taniguchi, T., Everson, G. T. 1994; 20 (6): 1522-1531

    Abstract

    Bile salt uptake, synthesis and secretion by the human hepatoma-derived cell line HepG2 were studied. The cells transported and secreted bile salts largely by means of passive mechanisms. The cells synthesized and secreted the normal human primary bile salts. The ratio of cholate to chenodeoxycholate was 1.5:1. The degree of conjugation, about 35%, was lower than normal, and the glycine-to-taurine ratio was abnormal (4.5:1). This was not due to amino acid deficiency in the medium. Contrary to the report of others, little 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-26-oic acid was secreted. This was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total rate of synthesis was about 33% that of normal liver. The specific activity of bile salts synthesized from [3H]mevalonate was about 20 times higher than that of the cellular cholesterol derived from the same precursor. The regulation of bile salt synthesis by two compounds that could alter the precursor pool of cholesterol was studied. After a 24-hr incubation in serum-free medium, the compound 25(OH)cholesterol inhibited the rate of bile salt synthesis compared with control values, possibly by depleting the intracellular free cholesterol pool. Surprisingly, however, progesterone, which inhibits cholesterol esterification and should have expanded this pool, also inhibited bile salt synthesis under those conditions. The effect of these compounds on the level of mRNA for cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase was also determined by Northern-blot analysis. The cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA was 3.7 kb, similar to that in the rat. The incubation of cells in 25(OH)cholesterol or progesterone, as above, resulted in a decreased level of mRNA. The reduction was proportional to the reduction in bile salt synthesis, suggesting that these compounds act at a pretranslational level. Taken together, these results suggest that our particular subclone of HepG2 cells will be useful for studies of the regulation of bile salt synthesis, but not of transport, by human liver-derived tissue.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PV63400022

    View details for PubMedID 7982652

  • LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTORS IN RAT ADIPOSE-CELLS - SUBCELLULAR-LOCALIZATION AND REGULATION BY INSULIN JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Kraemer, F. B., SATHER, S. A., Park, B., Sztalryd, C., Natu, V., May, K., Nishimura, H., Simpson, I., Cooper, A. D., Cushman, S. W. 1994; 35 (10): 1760-1772

    Abstract

    The distribution of LDL receptors within subcellular compartments of isolated rat adipose cells and the effects of insulin on their expression have been assessed. By immunoblotting with specific anti-rat LDL receptor antibodies, LDL receptors were 2.3- and 4.5-fold enriched in endoplasmic reticulum-rich high-density microsomes (HDM) and Golgi complex-rich low-density microsomes (LDM), respectively, compared to plasma membranes (PM). This distribution was similar in cultured cells in which total receptors were increased 2.5-fold compared to freshly isolated cells. After correction for enzyme recoveries, LDL receptors were distributed approximately 4% in HDM, approximately 73% in LDM, and approximately 23% in PM. Insulin decreased total LDL receptors in adipose cells approximately 44%, with a 48% and 49% decrease in HDM and LDM, respectively, without any changes in PM. In contrast, insulin caused an increase of glucose transporters in PM while also decreasing glucose transporters in LDM. When adipose cells were depleted of potassium to inhibit receptor-mediated endocytosis, insulin again caused a decrease of LDL receptors in LDM but now increased LDL receptors in PM. Insulin increased the rate of LDL receptor synthesis approximately 24%, but decreased their half life approximately 40%. Thus, in isolated adipose cells the majority of LDL receptors appear to be located in an intracellular compartment that co-sediments with the Golgi complex rather than located in the PM. The LDL receptors localized in intracellular compartments seem to be functionally regulated as insulin acutely diminishes the number of receptors by apparently accelerating their rate of degradation through, as yet, incompletely determined mechanisms.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PM25300004

    View details for PubMedID 7852853

  • ACCELERATION OF UPTAKE OF LDL BUT NOT CHYLOMICRONS OR CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS BY CELLS THAT SECRETE APOE AND HEPATIC LIPASE JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Choi, S. S., KOMAROMY, M. C., Chen, J., Fong, L. G., Cooper, A. D. 1994; 35 (5): 848-859

    Abstract

    ApoE is a ligand for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor as well as for the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP). The enzyme hepatic lipase (HL) may also affect the uptake of lipoproteins by modifying their composition. We have tested the hypothesis that hepatic lipase and apoE can function as co-factors to alter the rate of lipoprotein uptake. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transfected with cDNAs for rat hepatic lipase, human apoE or both HL and apoE. The secreted recombinant proteins were thoroughly characterized and had properties identical to the native proteins. Hepatic lipase and apoE were secreted at 0.17 and 1.25 micrograms/mg cell protein per hour, rates comparable to those in normal liver. 125I-labeled LDL, chylomicron remnants, or chylomicrons were added to media at concentrations near their Kd. In cells that secreted either apoE or hepatic lipase, or both apoE and hepatic lipase, LDL binding was significantly greater than with control cells (2.2-, 2-, 2-fold greater, respectively). Similar enhancement of LDL degradation was observed. In the presence of anti-LDL receptor antibodies, these values were reduced to control levels; thus, the enhanced uptake was mediated by the LDL receptor and not the LRP. The amount of LDL receptor protein, as judged by Western blotting, was similar in the various cell types. Incubation of control CHO cells with media from secreting transfected cells also increased the uptake of 125I-labeled LDL. Kinetic studies indicated that, in apoE-secreting cells, increased LDL binding is associated with a lower Kd and an unchanged Vmax as compared to the control cells; furthermore, when LDL were reisolated by column chromatography (but not by ultracentrifugation) from the incubations where apoE was being secreted, apoE was identified adherent to the LDL particles. Together, these results suggest that the effect is due to alteration of the lipoprotein and not the cell. In contrast, the uptake of 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants, and 125I-labeled chylomicrons was not greater in the transfected cells. Thus, in the amounts secreted by these cells, hepatic lipase and apoE do not convert chylomicrons to chylomicron remnants or alter the uptake of chylomicron remnants by either the LDL receptor or the LRP. The enhancement of LDL removal in cells that secrete hepatic lipase or apoE may help determine the amount of LDL removed by a particular tissue.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NL01700011

    View details for PubMedID 8071607

  • REGULATION OF CHOLESTEROL-7 ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE GENE-EXPRESSION IN HEP-G2 CELLS - EFFECT OF SERUM, BILE-SALTS, AND COORDINATE AND NONCOORDINATE REGULATION WITH OTHER STEROL-RESPONSIVE GENES JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Taniguchi, T., Chen, J., Cooper, A. D. 1994; 269 (13): 10071-10078

    Abstract

    Regulation of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA level in Hep-G2 cells was studied and compared with that of two other sterol-responsive genes, those for the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. In culture medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (complete medium) for up to 24 h, the mRNA for cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase gradually increased to 2-fold of the time 0 control. Culture of Hep-G2 cells in serum-free medium for 24 h resulted in stimulation of mRNA levels for LDL receptor (5-fold) and HMG-CoA reductase (6-fold). Surprisingly, the mRNA level for cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase also increased 5-fold at 8 h and 4-fold at 24 h compared with the time 0 control. The addition of beta-migrating very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) (40 micrograms/ml) and 25-hydroxycholesterol (5 micrograms/ml) prevented the increase in mRNA level for the LDL receptor, and HMG-CoA reductase and the levels were 10-26% of the control at 8 h. The effect with beta-VLDL was sustained for 24 h. With 25-hydroxycholesterol, both LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase mRNA returned to base line by 24 h. In contrast, beta-VLDL increased cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA level above the serum-free control within 8 h (+32%), and this was sustained for 24 h (+47%). There was a slight induction of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA levels by 25-hydroxycholesterol at 8 h (+18%); but by 24 h, its level was below that of the control (-47%). There was no induction of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA levels by beta-VLDL or 25-hydroxycholesterol when the cells were grown in complete medium. As determined by nuclear run-on assay, the increase in the transcriptional rate of the cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene in cells grown in serum-free medium (3.9-fold of the rate in complete medium) and incubated with beta-VLDL (+68% above serum-free control) at 8 h, was comparable with the increase in mRNA levels (3.5-fold and +32%, respectively). When bile salts were added to serum-free medium and cells cultured for up to 24 h, chenodeoxycholate and glycochenodeoxycholate caused a marked suppression of the level of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA, while cholate and its conjugates did not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NE05300101

    View details for PubMedID 8144506

  • Pain assessment in accident and emergency. Accident and emergency nursing Cooper, A. D. 1994; 2 (2): 103-107

    Abstract

    Every day patients arrive at Accident and Emergency (A & E) departments in pain due to a multitude of causes. As nurses working in this area, we routinely assess patients both objectively and subjectively, and this includes the intensity and descriptions of their pain and their responses to it. Anxiety and pain are closely linked and it has been shown that the use of pain assessment tools can promote nurse-patient communication, thus reducing anxiety levels, improving pain control and assisting in nursing care. This article explores the use of objective assessment of pain within the A & E setting and discusses the issues surrounding pain assessment as a whole.

    View details for PubMedID 7953831

  • EARLY INDUCTION OF LDL RECEPTOR GENE DURING RAT-LIVER REGENERATION JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY Bocchetta, M., Bruscalupi, G., Castellano, F., Trentalance, A., Komaromy, M., Fong, L. G., Cooper, A. D. 1993; 156 (3): 601-609

    Abstract

    After partial hepatectomy in the rat, there is substantial lipid accumulation in the liver. No information is available on the possible role of receptor-mediated endocytosis in this process. Since the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor is stimulated as a part of an early growth response in cell culture (Ellsworth et al.: Biochem. J. 279:175-187, 1991), the metabolism of this receptor during liver regeneration was studied. The mRNA and membrane protein level of the receptor were measured in the liver and in the adrenal glands at different times after partial hepatectomy, corresponding to different phases of the cell cycle. A discontinuous pattern of receptor expression is detectable in the regenerating liver; a large increase of mRNA and membrane protein occurs at an early time (2-4 h), suggesting that there is induction of LDL receptor gene transcription shortly after partial hepatectomy. This response seems specific for the liver following injury since the adrenal receptor does not show a different pattern in partially hepatectomized rats and sham-operated controls. After returning to control levels, the LDL receptor again increases slightly above control at 24 h, a time when cell replication begins.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LU99400019

    View details for PubMedID 8395534

  • A COMPARISON OF THE ROLES OF THE LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN (LDL) RECEPTOR AND THE LDL RECEPTOR-RELATED PROTEIN-ALPHA-2-MACROGLOBULIN RECEPTOR IN CHYLOMICRON REMNANT REMOVAL IN THE MOUSE IN-VIVO JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Choi, S. Y., Cooper, A. D. 1993; 268 (21): 15804-15811

    Abstract

    Two cell surface molecules, the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and the LDL receptor-related protein (LRP)/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor, have been found to have a role in the removal of apoE-rich lipoproteins. To further study this process and to assess the relative contributions of these proteins to the removal of chylomicron remnants, we used an anti-LDL receptor antibody, activated alpha 2-macroglobulin and the 39-kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP) as inhibitors of chylomicron remnant removal in intact mice. The advantage of this study is that we were able to use the same litters of animals and batches of lipoprotein for the experiment. In cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells, the anti-LDL receptor antibody inhibited remnant uptake and degradation about 80% as well as did unlabeled remnants. It did not affect activated alpha 2-macroglobulin uptake or degradation. Activated alpha 2-macroglobulin did not inhibit remnant uptake in normal cells but is reported to block uptake in cells that lack LDL receptors. Chylomicron remnants blocked activated alpha 2-macroglobulin uptake as effectively as unlabeled activated alpha 2-macroglobulin. This confirmed that the two ligands are cross-competitors but suggests that the LDL receptor is the primary mediator of remnant uptake in cultured cells that express the LDL receptor. In vivo, pretreatment with the anti-LDL receptor antibody decreased remnant uptake 5 min after injection by one-third. The antibody did not affect the removal of activated alpha 2-macroglobulin. Activated alpha 2-macroglobulin had a small, but reproducible effect on remnant removal, decreasing it by about 7% at 5 min. Injection of chylomicron remnants affected activated alpha 2-macroglobulin removal slightly. A similar pattern, but somewhat greater effect was seen on the hepatic uptake of the ligands. Anti-LDL receptor antibody reduced chylomicron remnant uptake by about half, and activated alpha 2-macroglobulin reduced it by about 15%. Studies with RAP provided results generally similar to those with activated alpha 2-macroglobulin, although RAP appears to bind to a site not recognized by either remnants or activated alpha 2-macroglobulin in addition to sharing a site with these ligands. Together, these results add support for the hypothesis that, although both receptors can play a role in chylomicron remnant removal, in the normal mouse in vivo the LDL receptor plays a substantially greater role, making the role of the LRP difficult to appreciate. The same is true in cells that express LDL receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LN30500071

    View details for PubMedID 7687998

  • HEPATIC-CLEARANCE OF PLASMA CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS SEMINARS IN LIVER DISEASE Cooper, A. D. 1992; 12 (4): 386-396

    Abstract

    Dietary lipid, following incorporation into chylomicrons, is rapidly removed from the blood by a two-stage process. Most of the triglyceride is taken up by extrahepatic tissue, particularly muscle and adipose tissue. The residual triglyceride and virtually all of the cholesterol ester is removed by the liver through the clearance of a particle called a chylomicron remnant. The remarkable rapidity and specificity of uptake of this particle seems to be due to its acquisition of apoE in the plasma. Uptake is mediated in part by the LDL receptor, the LRP (alpha a-macroglobulin receptor), and perhaps by a sieving mechanism that leads to trapping, but not endocytosis. Uptake is modulated by the type of apoE inherited, the amount of apoC present on the particle, and, perhaps, the phospholipid and fatty acyl chain composition of the particle. The process may be slowed in diabetes and hypothyroidism. The metabolic effects of the particle can be variable, depending on the composition of the diet, and this can affect whole body cholesterol metabolism significantly. Furthermore, even moderately prolonged residence of these particles in the circulation could contribute in a significant way to atherogenesis. Thus, the remnant particle and its uptake by the liver may be important links in determining the dietary contribution to the rate of atherosclerosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992KD87400006

    View details for PubMedID 1334575

  • EFFECT OF CUTANEOUS PERMEABILITY BARRIER DISRUPTION ON HMG-COA REDUCTASE, LDL RECEPTOR, AND APOLIPOPROTEIN-E MESSENGER-RNA LEVELS IN THE EPIDERMIS OF HAIRLESS MICE JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Jackson, S. M., Wood, L. C., Lauer, S., Taylor, J. M., Cooper, A. D., ELIAS, P. M., Feingold, K. R. 1992; 33 (9): 1307-1314

    Abstract

    Disruption of the permeability barrier results in an increase in cholesterol synthesis in the epidermis. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis impairs the repair and maintenance of barrier function. The increase in epidermal cholesterol synthesis after barrier disruption is due to an increase in the activity of epidermal HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA) reductase. To determine the mechanism for this increase in enzyme activity, in the present study we have shown by Western blot analysis that there is a 1.5-fold increase in the mass of HMG-CoA reductase after acute disruption of the barrier with acetone. In a chronic model of barrier disruption, essential fatty acid deficiency, there is a 3-fold increase in the mass of HMG-CoA reductase. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that after acute barrier disruption with acetone or tape-stripping, epidermal HMG-CoA reductase mRNA levels are increased. In essential fatty acid deficiency, epidermal HMG-CoA reductase mRNA levels are increased 3-fold. Thus, both acute and chronic barrier disruption result in increases in epidermal HMG-CoA reductase mRNA levels which could account for the increase in HMG-CoA reductase mass and activity. Additionally, both acute and chronic barrier disruption increase the number of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors and LDL receptor mRNA levels in the epidermis. Moreover, epidermal apolipoprotein E mRNA levels are increased by both acute and chronic perturbations in the barrier. Increases in these proteins in response to barrier disruption may allow for increased lipid synthesis and transport between cells and facilitate barrier repair.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992JL39500006

    View details for PubMedID 1402399

  • INHIBITION OF DEBRISOQUIN CLEARANCE IN PERFUSED RAT LIVERS AND INHIBITION OF DEXTROMETHORPHAN METABOLISM IN HUMAN LIVER-MICROSOMES BY 4-HYDROXYDEBRISOQUIN OR OTHER METABOLITES OF DEBRISOQUIN DRUG METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION Jaruratanasirikul, S., Cooper, A. D., Blaschke, T. F. 1992; 20 (3): 379-382

    Abstract

    Debrisoquin undergoes oxidative metabolism to 4-hydroxydebrisoquin, catalyzed by cytochrome CYP2D1 in rats and CYP2D6 in humans. Cytochrome CYP2D6 also plays a major role in dextromethorphan O-demethylation. In preliminary studies in perfused Lewis rat livers, we observed a difference in repeat clearance experiments using debrisoquin, but not dextromethorphan. To determine whether this change in clearance with time was due to the accumulation of 4-hydroxydebrisoquin, we sequentially used a recirculating and nonrecirculating perfusion system in the same liver perfusion experiment. We also studied the kinetics of dextromethorphan O-demethylation in microsomes prepared from human and rat livers in the presence and absence of 4-hydroxydebrisoquin. Results from the perfused rat liver experiments showed a drop in clearance from 3.27 +/- 0.57 ml/min (clearance 1) to 1.61 +/- 0.27 ml/min (clearance 2) (p less than 0.05 vs. clearance 1) during recirculation, but clearance returned to 3.21 +/- 0.46 ml/min (clearance 3, no significance vs. clearance 1) after a 30-min period of liver perfusion using a nonrecirculating system. There was significant accumulation of 4-hydroxydebrisoquin in the liver perfusate during recirculation, and concentrations fell when the nonrecirculating system was used. In microsomal studies, 4-hydroxydebrisoquin competitively inhibited dextromethorphan metabolism in human microsomes was 600 microM. These data suggest that: (a) 4-hydroxydebrisoquin and/or other metabolites of debrisoquin have an inhibitory effect on CYP2D1 and CYP2D6; (b) the active site of human CYP2D6 has different substrate specificity than the rat isozyme (CYP2D1) and/or that the pathways of metabolism of dextromethorphan are different in the Lewis rat and not primarily dependent on the activity of CYP2D1.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1992HV76000007

    View details for PubMedID 1355711

  • INHIBITION OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED INTERLEUKIN-1-BETA MESSENGER-RNA EXPRESSION IN MOUSE MACROPHAGES BY OXIDIZED LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Fong, L. G., Fong, T. A., Cooper, A. D. 1991; 32 (12): 1899-1910

    Abstract

    Recent studies have demonstrated the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for several cytokines within atherosclerotic arteries. Since cytokines have been shown to modulate functions of cultured arterial wall cells in a manner that could influence atherogenesis, this suggests that factors that modulate cytokine production would influence the atherosclerotic process. To examine whether lipoproteins can modulate cytokine production, the effect of lipoproteins on mouse macrophage interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) mRNA expression was examined by dot blot and Northern blot analyses. Low density lipoprotein (LDL), acetylated-LDL, or malondialdehyde-LDL did not induce IL-1 beta mRNA expression or affect the expression in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Similarly, copper ion-oxidized LDL did not stimulate the production of IL-1 beta mRNA. However, oxidized LDL inhibited the LPS-induced expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner with a maximum inhibition (greater than 90%) observed after a 2.5 h preincubation with 25 micrograms protein/ml. These conditions did not affect protein synthesis or phagocytosis and the inhibition was partially reversible after 24 h, which together suggest that the inhibition was not due to cell death. An inhibition of IL-1 alpha and IL-6 mRNA expression was also observed while there was no change in gamma-actin mRNA levels. The level of inhibition of IL-1 beta mRNA was dependent upon the extent of LDL oxidation, but did not correlate with recognition by the scavenger receptor. A non-receptor pathway was supported by two lines of evidence: 1) the inhibition could be reproduced with a lipid extract, and 2) oxidized LDL also inhibited scavenger receptor negative THP-1 cell IL-1 beta mRNA expression. Finally, oxidized LDL had no effect on the turnover of IL-1 beta mRNA, suggesting that the decreased accumulation of IL-1 beta mRNA is due to a decrease in gene transcription. Together these studies suggest that as macrophages become foam cells their immune responsiveness is attenuated.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GY56300003

    View details for PubMedID 1816321

  • EVIDENCE FOR STEROL-INDEPENDENT REGULATION OF LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR ACTIVITY IN HEP-G2 CELLS BIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL Ellsworth, J. L., Chandrasekaran, C., Cooper, A. D. 1991; 279: 175-187

    Abstract

    The relationship between the serum factor(s)-mediated induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity and changes in cellular cholesterol metabolism was examined in the human hepatoma cell line Hep-G2. Relative to incubation with serum-free media [Eagle's minimal essential medium (MEM) control], short-term (less than 8 h) incubation with medium containing 15% of either calf serum (MEM + serum) or the d greater than 1.25 fraction of calf serum (MEM + d greater than 1.25) produced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in the uptake of 125I-LDL. Immunoblotting with anti-(LDL receptor) antibodies demonstrated that this was correlated with a 2-fold increase in the amount of the mature 136,000 Da LDL receptor protein in detergent-solubilized Hep-G2 cell membranes. Incubation with MEM + serum, but not MEM + d greater than 1.25, increased the efflux of radiolabelled cholesterol from Hep-G2 cells. However, the induction of 125I-LDL uptake by MEM + d greater than 1.25 (2.3-fold) and MEM + serum (2.2-fold) was virtually identical. Addition of the d less than 1.063 lipoproteins of calf serum to MEM + d greater than 1.25 at their original or three times their serum concentration decreased the induction of 125I-LDL uptake by MEM + d greater than 1.25 by only 20-30%. Together, these results suggest that the stimulation of 125I-LDL uptake was not due to the presence of high-density lipoprotein, the absence of LDL or the stimulation of cholesterol efflux. MEM + serum stimulated 125I-LDL uptake in cells cholesterol-loaded by incubation with rat very-low-density lipoprotein with beta electrophoretic mobility (beta-VLDL). Compared to incubation with the MEM control, either MEM + serum or MEM + d greater than 1.25 produced time-dependent increases in the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase which also occurred in cholesterol-loaded cells. However, cholesterol biosynthesis, whether measured from 3H2O, [14C]acetate or [3H]mevalonic acid, was not increased. Incubation with MEM + serum or MEM + d greater than 1.25 did not affect [3H]oleate incorporation into cellular cholesteryl esters, hydrolysis of intracellular [3H]cholesteryl esters or the cellular mass of unesterified or esterified cholesterol. Incubation with MEM + serum or MEM + d greater than 1.25 produced a transient increase in the level of LDL receptor mRNA, reaching a maximum of 5-10-fold by 2 h and decreasing to near baseline levels by 4 h. Actinomycin D blocked the serum-factor-mediated induction of LDL receptor mRNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GJ36900026

    View details for PubMedID 1930137

  • USE OF AN ANTI-LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR ANTIBODY TO QUANTIFY THE ROLE OF THE LDL RECEPTOR IN THE REMOVAL OF CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS IN THE MOUSE INVIVO JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Choi, S. S., Fong, L. G., KIRVEN, M. J., Cooper, A. D. 1991; 88 (4): 1173-1181

    Abstract

    Lipoproteins are removed from the plasma by LDL receptor-dependent and -independent pathways. The relative contribution of these has been established for LDL by using modified lipoproteins, but this has not been possible for apoE-rich lipoproteins, such as chylomicron remnants. To do this, we used a monospecific antibody to the rat LDL receptor. The antibody was injected intravenously into mice followed by 125I-lipoproteins. Blood samples were obtained sequentially and radioactivity measured to determine the plasma clearance of the lipoproteins. The animals were then sacrificed and the tissues removed, dried, and the radioactivity measured to determine tissue uptake. An albumin space was also measured to correct for blood trapping. With 125I-human LDL, approximately 50% of the injected dose was cleared in 180 min. This was reduced to 30% by the antibody and this was identical to the disappearance of reductively methylated LDL. This is a lower estimate of LDL-mediated uptake (40%) than in other species. LDL uptake per gram tissue was similar for the liver and the adrenal gland and was approximately 50% LDL receptor-dependent in both tissues. With 125I-chylomicron remnants, clearance was much more rapid with approximately 50% cleared in 5 min. By agarose gel electrophoresis, radioactivity was not transferred from chylomicron remnants to other lipoprotein classes. Chylomicron remnants with label on only apoB or in 3H-cholesterol esters showed a similar pattern. Combining the estimates of the three labeling procedures, approximately 35% of the 30 s and 25% of the 5 min chylomicron remnant disappearance was LDL receptor dependent. The liver, per gram tissue, took up five times as much radioactivity as the adrenal gland. At 5 min, at least 50% of this was LDL receptor-dependent in liver and 65% in adrenal gland. We conclude that the LDL receptor plays a major, and somewhat similar quantitative role in the clearance of both LDL and chylomicron remnants in the mouse. However, at least in the mouse, non-LDL receptor-mediated lipoprotein clearance is quantitatively important and is also very rapid for chylomicron remnants. Thus, for chylomicron remnants, it can easily compensate for LDL receptors if they are blocked or absent. Further, the tissue distribution of lipoprotein uptake may be directed by factors other than LDL receptor density.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GJ50800016

    View details for PubMedID 1918372

  • METABOLIC BASIS OF CHOLESTEROL GALLSTONE DISEASE GASTROENTEROLOGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Cooper, A. D. 1991; 20 (1): 21-46

    Abstract

    Our understanding of the fundamental processes that control cholesterol and bile salt homeostasis is expanding rapidly; however, there are still large gaps in our knowledge, particularly regarding the mechanism of bile formation and the control of biliary lipid secretion. Defects in bile salt secretion, differences in the relative proportion of various bile salts, and an increased rate of cholesterol secretion have all been found to lead to the formation of lithogenic bile. As our understanding of these processes increases, better strategies for the prevention and treatment of gallstones will emerge.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991FB57200002

    View details for PubMedID 2022424

  • ELISA MEASUREMENT OF LDL RECEPTORS JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH May, K., Kraemer, F. B., Chen, J., Cooper, A. D. 1990; 31 (9): 1683-1691

    Abstract

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for measurement of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors. A monospecific polyclonal antibody to LDL receptor purified from rat liver that reacted with rat, mouse, canine, and human LDL receptor was used. With this assay, LDL receptors could be measured on 2-4 x 10(5) adherent cells and 1.0 x 10(5) cells in suspension, although results were more variable with cell suspensions. Membranes from a variety of receptor-rich and receptor-poor tissues could be assayed directly after adherence of the membranes to the ELISA plate by an overnight incubation. In some instances, the quality of the assay was improved by first solubilizing the membranes. The sensitivity of the assay is such that between 0.15 and 2 micrograms of membrane protein is required. This could be obtained from leukocytes in a modest (20-30 ml) quantity of human blood. The assay was used to demonstrate the rapid down-regulation of LDL receptors in human mononuclear leukocytes in response to a cholesterol-containing meal. Overall, the results support the use of ELISA technology to measure LDL receptors, particularly for physiologic studies.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EB10500016

    View details for PubMedID 2246618

  • DIFFERENCES IN THE PROCESSING OF CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS AND BETA-VLDL BY MACROPHAGES JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Ellsworth, J. L., Fong, L. G., Kraemer, F. B., Cooper, A. D. 1990; 31 (8): 1399-1411

    Abstract

    To gain a detailed understanding of those factors that govern the processing of dietary-derived lipoprotein remnants by macrophages we examined the uptake and degradation of rat triacylglycerol-rich chylomicron remnants and rat cholesterol-rich beta-very low density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) by J774 cells and primary cultures of mouse peritoneal macrophages. The level of cell associated 125I-labeled beta-VLDL and 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants reached a similar equilibrium level within 2 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. However, the degradation of 125I-labeled beta-VLDL was two to three times greater than the degradation of 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants at each time point examined, with rates of degradation of 161.0 +/- 36.0 and 60.1 +/- 6.6 ng degraded/h per mg cell protein, respectively. At similar extracellular concentrations of protein or cholesterol, the relative rate of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis from [3H]cholesteryl oleate/cholesteryl [14C]oleate-labeled chylomicron remnants was one-third to one-half that of similarly labeled beta-VLDL. The reduction in the relative rate of chylomicron remnant degradation by macrophages occurred in the absence of chylomicron remnant-induced alterations in low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor recycling or in retroendocytosis of either 125I-labeled lipoprotein. The rate of internalization of 125I-labeled beta-VLDL by J774 cells was greater than that of 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants, with initial rates of internalization of 0.21 ng/min per mg cell protein for 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants and 0.39 ng/min per mg cell protein for 125I-labeled beta-VLDL. The degradation of 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants and 125I-labeled beta-VLDL was dependent on lysosomal enzyme activity: preincubation of macrophages with the lysosomotropic agent monensin reduced the degradation of both lipoproteins by greater than 90%. However, the pH-dependent rate of degradation of 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants by lysosomal enzymes isolated from J774 cells was 50% that of 125I-labeled beta-VLDL. The difference in degradation rates was dependent on the ratio of lipoprotein to lysosomal protein used and was greatest at ratios greater than 50. The degradation of 125I-labeled beta-VLDL by isolated lysosomes was reduced 30-40% by preincubation of beta-VLDL with 25-50 micrograms oleic acid/ml, suggesting that released free fatty acids could cause the slower degradation of chylomicron remnants. Thus, differences in the rate of uptake and degradation of remnant lipoproteins of different compositions by macrophages are determined by at least two factors: 1) differences in the rates of lipoprotein internalization and 2) differences in the rate of lysosomal degradation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DW71300007

    View details for PubMedID 2280181

  • INHIBITION OF MOUSE MACROPHAGE DEGRADATION OF ACETYL LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN BY INTERFERON-GAMMA JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Fong, L. G., Fong, T. A., Cooper, A. D. 1990; 265 (20): 11751-11760

    Abstract

    In vitro, metabolism of modified forms of low density lipoprotein (LDL) by macrophages via the acetyl-LDL receptor pathway promotes the massive cellular accumulation of lipid. It has been postulated that in vivo this contributes to foam cell formation in the atherosclerotic lesion. Recent studies have shown that arterial wall cells in vitro can secrete a number of cytokines, several of which have been reported to modulate macrophage cell function. Thus, cytokines have the potential to modulate the acetyl-LDL receptor pathway and to influence the rate of foam cell generation. To study the regulation of this pathway by cytokines, the effect of cytokines on the degradation of acetyl-LDL protein by mouse peritoneal macrophages was examined. Initially, supernatant from stimulated lymphocytes was used as a source of cytokines. Macrophages preincubated with supernatants obtained after the stimulation of T-cell helper type 1 (Th1) clone HDK-1 or BALB/c spleen cells degraded acetyl-LDL at a slower rate, whereas supernatant from stimulated T-cell helper type 2 (Th2) clone D-10 had no effect. Comparison of the lymphokine profiles showed that spleen and HDK-1 cells secreted several lymphokines in common including significant levels of interferon-gamma. Interferon-gamma was then directly shown to be inhibitory; an anti-interferon-gamma monoclonal antibody blocked the HDK-1-mediated inhibition by 70% and the addition of recombinant interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) to macrophages inhibited the specific degradation of acetyl-LDL in a dose- and time-dependent manner with a maximum suppression to approximately 40% of control. The inhibition was not accompanied by an increase in the amount of cell-associated acetyl-LDL and was not due to cell death nor could it be accounted for by the presence of endotoxin. To study the mechanism of the inhibition, the effects of IFN-gamma on the itinerary of acetyl-LDL and its receptor were examined. IFN-gamma decreased specific acetyl-LDL binding only to a small degree, and the rate of lysosome-mediated degradation was not affected. The principal alteration was in the rate of transport to the lysosome which was markedly slowed. Since the receptors eventually returned to the surface to maintain a steady state, and there was not an increase in cell-associated lipoprotein, there must be other changes in the itinerary that were not identified with the techniques used. Thus, the receptor cycle is being regulated at a discrete point. IFN-gamma also suppressed the LDL receptor pathway in macrophages, but this pathway was not affected by IFN-gamma in mouse fibroblasts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DN23300053

    View details for PubMedID 2114402

  • THE EFFECT OF PERFLUOROCHEMICAL ARTIFICIAL BLOOD ON LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM IN RATS METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL Nagata, Y., Mondon, C. E., Cooper, A. D. 1990; 39 (7): 682-689

    Abstract

    Experiments were performed to evaluate the utility of a perfluorochemical emulsion as an artificial blood substitute for studies of lipoprotein metabolism in rats. Perfusing the liver of fed rats with perfluorochemical emulsion FC-34 at the same rate as a 20% red blood cell (RBC) perfusate, there was comparable oxygen uptake; however, there was a greater release of glucose and production of lactate than in RBC perfused livers. Under the stimulation of a low level of free fatty acid, there was less free fatty acid uptake and less triglyceride secretion in emulsion perfused livers. The lipoprotein secreted contained similar apoprotein, but there was a lower triglyceride to cholesterol ratio in the emulsion perfused liver. In addition to these moderate metabolic alterations, the uptake of radiolabeled chylomicron remnants by the perfused liver was almost completely suppressed when the perfluorochemical emulsion was used as an oxygen carrier. In vivo the presence of the perfluorochemical emulsion (5% of blood volume) decreased the rate of clearance of chylomicron remnants, beta-very-low-density lipoprotein (beta-VLDL) and cholesterol-rich high-density lipoprotein (HDLc), but not of low-density lipoprotein (LDL). In the presence of the emulsion, the degradation of 125I remnants, but not of [125I]LDL, by rat hepatoma cells was inhibited. The perfluorochemical emulsion did not inactivate lipoprotein lipase. The perfluorochemical emulsion did not change the triglyceride concentration or apoprotein composition of chylomicron remnants when they were incubated with the perfluorochemical emulsion at 37 degrees C for 1 hour and reisolated. The detergent used to solubilize the fluorocarbon FC-43, Pluronic F-68, did not affect the removal of chylomicron remnants in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990DM71300004

    View details for PubMedID 2366660

  • IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTORS IN ADRENAL-GLAND, LIVER, AND INTESTINE JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Fong, L. G., Bonney, E., Kosek, J. C., Cooper, A. D. 1989; 84 (3): 847-856

    Abstract

    The localization of LDL receptors in adrenal gland, liver, and intestine was studied using immunohistochemistry. The anti-LDL receptor antibody used was shown to be monospecific and did not react with striated muscle, a tissue which has a very low level of LDL receptors. Similarly, cerebral cortex showed only faint reactivity and that was to an area previously demonstrated to have LDL receptors. Adrenal gland was intensely reactive with the zona fasciculata, having a greater density of receptors than the zona reticularis. In normal liver, LDL receptors were present on the sinusoidal membranes and were sparse in the areas of hepatocyte-to-hepatocyte contact without an obvious portal to central gradient. LDL receptors were present throughout the intestine. In jejunum, staining was most intense at the base of the villus and extended up toward the villus tip. At the base of the villus, the receptor was primarily at the basal lateral membrane, but toward the villus tip, there was appreciable intracellular staining. Staining in crypts was more faint; in duodenum, staining in crypts equaled that in the villus region in intensity. In colon, there was intense staining throughout the epithelial cells. These results provide new information about the cellular and subcellular localization of LDL receptors and raise the interesting possibility that there is a role for LDL-derived cholesterol in new lipoprotein formation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AN25900018

    View details for PubMedID 2760216

  • Mechanisms responsible for inhibition of vein-graft arteriosclerosis by fish oil. Circulation Sarris, G. E., Fann, J. I., Sokoloff, M. H., Smith, D. L., LOVEDAY, M., Kosek, J. C., Stephens, R. J., Cooper, A. D., May, K., Willis, A. L. 1989; 80 (3): I109-23

    Abstract

    Favorable changes in lipoproteins, inhibition of platelet aggregation, reduction of serum thromboxane (TX), altered plasma-membrane fluidity, and reduced production of growth factors (mitogens) have all been implicated as possibly being involved in the inhibition of arteriosclerosis by fish oil (FO), which is rich in omega 3 fatty acids; however, causal relations are mostly lacking. Several putative mechanisms responsible for the salutary effects of FO were investigated in a canine model of accelerated vein-graft arteriosclerosis. Venoarterial autografts (N = 192) were implanted in 48 hypercholesterolemic dogs divided into six groups: group A, control; B, FO (as MaxEPA, 200 mg/kg/day eicosapentaenoic acid); C, aspirin (ASA, 50 mg/kg/day); D, TX synthetase inhibitor (TXSI [CGS-12970], 10 mg/kg/day); E, FO + ASA; and F, FO + TXSI. At sacrifice 3 months later, there was no significant difference in plasma lipoproteins, hepatic low density lipoprotein-receptor concentration, red blood cell fragility, bleeding time, or platelet count compared with controls; the decrease in platelet aggregation (30 +/- 5% [mean +/- SEM]) was similar in all treatment groups. Arterialized vein-graft intimal thickening was significantly inhibited by FO (with or without ASA), while ASA alone was ineffective. Conversely, serum TX was significantly lower only in the ASA and FO + ASA groups. Serum mitogenic activity was higher at 3 months in the control group versus all treatment groups. Compared with baseline values, serum mitogenic activity rose significantly over time in the control and the TXSI groups, and an increase or rising trend was present in all other treatment groups except for the FO-treated animals. Thus, the salutary biologic effect of FO in this hypercholesterolemic model of arterialized vein grafts may have been more related to in vivo inhibition of platelet-mitogen growth factor release than to changes in lipoproteins, low density lipoprotein receptors, platelet function, or eicosanoid metabolism. These observations underscore the need for further studies to clarify the interactions between FO (omega 3 fatty acids) and paracrine cellular mitogenic factors in the context of atherosclerosis prevention.

    View details for PubMedID 2766520

  • PATHO-PHYSIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OF GALLSTONES MEDICAL CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Cooper, A. D., Young, H. S. 1989; 73 (4): 753-774

    Abstract

    Spurred on by the discovery of "lithogenic bile" as a precursor, there has been much attention focused on the pathophysiology and treatment of gallstones. The article reviews the progress to date regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, therapy, and recurrence/prevention of gallstones.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AA64200002

    View details for PubMedID 2657261

  • REDUCED BINDING AND REMOVAL OF CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS BY ETHIONINE-INDUCED PREMALIGNANT LIVER HEPATOLOGY Barnard, G. F., Erickson, S. K., Nagata, Y., Cooper, A. D. 1989; 9 (5): 731-739

    Abstract

    The suppression of cholesterol synthesis by dietary cholesterol which occurs in the livers of normal animals is absent in hepatomas. This abnormality has been reported to occur in the livers of animals fed hepatocarcinogens, even before there is any histologic evidence of malignancy (premalignant liver). We have proposed, in an earlier publication, that the deletion of feedback inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in malignancy is due, at least in part, to the loss of receptors which bind chylomicron remnants, the lipoprotein particles that transport dietary cholesterol to the liver. This hypothesis was further tested in the premalignant liver model. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.25% of a known hepatic carcinogen, ethionine. After 3 to 5 weeks on this diet, the liver had no histologic evidence of malignancy; the rate of [14C]acetate incorporation into cholesterol by liver homogenates was elevated as compared to that of controls (5.13 +/- 0.70 vs. 0.65 +/- 0.14 nmoles cholesterol per gm per hr), and in contrast to control animals, this was not reduced by the inclusion of 5% cholesterol in the diet for 48 hr before killing. The serum (44.4 +/- 6.3 vs. 51.4 +/- 3.8 mg per 100 ml) and hepatic (15.8 +/- 0.2 vs. 17.0 +/- 0.4 micrograms per mg protein) cholesterol contents were not substantially different in ethionine-fed as compared to control-fed rats. Hepatic cholesterol content increased when cholesterol was included in the diet (15.8 +/- 0.2 to 25.8 +/- 7.3 micrograms per mg protein and 17.0 +/- 0.4 to 36 +/- 3.7 micrograms per mg protein in ethionine-fed and control-fed animals, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989U351000012

    View details for PubMedID 2540082

  • REFRACTORY ASCITES DUE TO POEMS SYNDROME GASTROENTEROLOGY Loeb, J. M., HAUGER, P. H., CARNEY, J. D., Cooper, A. D. 1989; 96 (1): 247-249

    Abstract

    A 52-yr-old woman developed exudative ascites 2 yr after the onset of peripheral neuropathy. Extensive evaluation revealed that the patient had no underlying liver disease, malignancy, infection, or cardiac or renal disease. The ascites initially responded to high-dose corticosteroid therapy. The patient had many clinical features of the recently described POEMS syndrome, including a persistent IgA lambda-paraprotein. Initially, her ascites responded to treatment with steroids. This is characteristic of the syndrome and should be considered in patients with POEMS syndrome and refractory ascites.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989R447600034

    View details for PubMedID 2535829

  • ROLE OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR-DEPENDENT AND RECEPTOR-INDEPENDENT SITES IN BINDING AND UPTAKE OF CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS IN RAT-LIVER JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Nagata, Y., Chen, J., Cooper, A. D. 1988; 263 (29): 15151-15158

    Abstract

    The role of the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in the binding of chylomicron remnants to liver membranes and in their uptake by hepatocytes was assessed using a monospecific polyclonal antibody to the LDL receptor of the rat liver. The anti-LDL receptor antibody inhibited the binding and uptake of chylomicron remnants and LDL by the poorly differentiated rat hepatoma cell HTC 7288C as completely as did unlabeled lipoproteins. The antireceptor antibody, however, decreased binding of chylomicron remnants to liver membranes from normal rats by only about 10%. This was true for intact membranes and for solubilized reconstituted membranes and with both a crude membrane fraction as well as with purified sinusoidal membranes. Further, complete removal of the LDL receptor from solubilized membranes by immunoprecipitation with antireceptor antibody only decreased remnant binding to the reconstituted supernatant by 10% compared to solubilized, nonimmunoprecipitated membranes. Treatment of rats with ethinyl estradiol induced an increase in remnant binding by liver membranes. All of the increased binding could be inhibited by the antireceptor antibody. The LDL receptor-independent remnant binding site was not EDTA sensitive and was not affected by ethinyl estradiol treatment. LDL receptor-independent remnant binding was competed for by beta-VLDL = HDLc greater than rat LDL greater than human LDL (where VLDL is very low density lipoprotein, and HDL is high density lipoprotein). There was weak and incomplete competition by apoE-free HDL, probably due to removal of apoE from the remnant. The LDL receptor-independent remnant-binding site was also present in membranes prepared from isolated hepatocytes and had the same characteristics as the site on membranes prepared from whole liver. In contrast, when chylomicron remnants were incubated with a primary culture of rat hepatocytes, the anti-LDL receptor antibody prevented specific cell association by 84% and degradation of chylomicron remnants completely. Based on these studies, we conclude that although binding of chylomicron remnants to liver cell membranes is not dependent on the LDL receptor, their intact uptake by hepatocytes is.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q416000086

    View details for PubMedID 3170577

  • REGULATION OF APOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND SECRETION IN THE HUMAN HEPATOMA HEP-G2 - THE EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS LIPOPROTEIN JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Craig, W. Y., NUTIK, R., Cooper, A. D. 1988; 263 (27): 13880-13890

    Abstract

    The regulation of lipoprotein assembly and secretion at a molecular level is incompletely understood. To begin to identify the determinants of apoprotein synthesis and distribution among lipoprotein classes, we have examined the effects of chylomicron remnants which deliver triglyceride and cholesterol, and beta very low density lipoprotein (beta VLDL), which deliver primarily cholesterol, on apolipoprotein synthesis and secretion by the human hepatoma Hep G2. Hep G2 cells were incubated with remnants or beta VLDL for 24 h, the medium was changed and the cells then incubated with [35S]methionine. The secreted lipoproteins were separated by gradient ultracentrifugation and the radiolabeled apoproteins were isolated by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and counted. Remnants caused a 14-fold, and beta VLDL a 7-fold, increase in VLDL apoprotein (apo) secretion; the apoB/apoE ratio in this class was unchanged. Preincubation with either of the lipoproteins also stimulated low density lipoprotein apoB secretion. Preincubation with beta VLDL, but not with remnants, significantly increased apoE and apoA-I secreted in high density lipoprotein (HDL). In addition, the apoE/apoA-I ratio precipitated from the HDL of beta VLDL-treated cells by anti-apoE was 2.2-fold higher than that precipitated by anti-apoA-I. There was no difference in the ratios precipitated from control HDL. This was due to the secretion of a lipoprotein, subsequently isolated by immunoaffinity chromatography, that contained predominantly apoE. When Hep G2 cells were preincubated with oleic acid alone, total apoprotein secretion was not altered. However, cholesterol-rich liposomes stimulated secretion of newly synthesized apoE, but not apoB, while apoA-I secretion was variably affected. Cholesterol-poor liposomes had no effect. Thus, lipid supply is a determinant of apoprotein synthesis and secretion, and cholesterol may be of particular importance in initiating apoprotein synthesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988Q159400066

    View details for PubMedID 2843542

  • REGULATION OF CHOLESTEROL-METABOLISM IN A SLOW-GROWING HEPATOMA INVIVO BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA Erickson, S. K., Cooper, A. D., Barnard, G. F., HAVEL, C. M., Watson, J. A., Feingold, K. R., Moser, A. H., HUGHESFULFORD, M., SIPERSTEIN, M. D. 1988; 960 (2): 131-138

    Abstract

    Cholesterol metabolism and its regulation are altered in hepatomas as compared to normal liver. We investigated parameters of cholesterol metabolism and their regulation in rats bearing the well-differentiated Morris hepatoma 9108. The numbers of membrane associated receptors recognizing chylomicron remnants, the lipoproteins that deliver dietary lipid to the liver, were substantially decreased in the 9108 tumor relative to the host liver. Cholesterol synthetic rates were 2-3-fold higher in the tumor, while the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase (EC 1.1.1.88), a rate-limiting enzyme for sterol synthesis, was elevated 6-14-fold. Although tumor free and esterified cholesterol contents were elevated, the activity of acylcoenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.26), the enzyme responsible for intracellular sterol esterification, was unchanged. Similar to the host liver, cholesterol synthesis and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarylcoenzyme A reductase were inhibited in the tumor when rats were fed a diet containing cholesterol, cholate and lard, and there was no effect on the numbers of chylomicron remnant receptors. Administering an intravenous bolus of very low density lipoproteins obtained from hypercholesterolemic rats caused an inhibition of tumor reductase activity, but had little effect on cholesterol content or cholesterol esterification. Thus, hepatoma 9108 expressed quantitative differences in cellular parameters involved in the uptake, metabolism, and synthesis of cholesterol and their susceptibility to regulation when compared with the host liver. These differences are best explained by changes in the hepatoma of multiple factors involved in the regulation of normal hepatic cholesterol metabolism.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N579100001

    View details for PubMedID 2835108

  • STIMULATION OF LDL RECEPTOR ACTIVITY IN HEP-G2 CELLS BY A SERUM FACTOR(S) JOURNAL OF CELLULAR PHYSIOLOGY Ellsworth, J. L., Brown, C., Cooper, A. D. 1988; 135 (2): 213-223

    Abstract

    The regulation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor activity in the human hepatoma cell line Hep-G2 by serum components was examined. Incubation of dense monolayers of Hep-G2 cells with fresh medium containing 10% fetal calf serum (FM) produced a time-dependent increase in LDL receptor activity. Uptake and degradation of 125I-LDL was stimulated two- to four-fold, as compared with that of Hep-G2 cells cultured in the same media in which they had been grown to confluence (CM); the maximal 125I-LDL uptake plus degradation increased from 0.2 microgram/mg cell protein/4 h to 0.8 microgram/mg cell protein/4 h. In addition, a two-fold increase in cell surface binding of 125I-LDL to Hep-G2 cells was observed when binding was measured at 4 degrees C. There was no change in the "apparent" Kd. The stimulation of LDL receptor activity was suppressed in a concentration-dependent manner by the addition of cholesterol, as LDL, to the cell medium. In contrast to the stimulation of LDL receptor activity, FM did not affect the uptake or degradation of 125I-asialoorosomucoid. Addition of FM increased the protein content per dish, and DNA synthesis was stimulated approximately five-fold, as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA; however, the cell number did not change. Cellular cholesterol biosynthesis was also stimulated by FM; [14C]acetate incorporation into unesterified and esterified cholesterol was increased approximately five-fold. Incubation of Hep-G2 cells with high-density lipoproteins (200 micrograms protein/ml) or albumin (8.0 mg/ml) in the absence of the serum factor did not significantly increase the total processed 125I-LDL. Stimulation of LDL receptor activity was dependent on a heat-stable, nondialyzable serum component that eluted in the inclusion volume of a Sephadex G-75 column. Uptake of 125I-LDL by confluent monolayers of human skin fibroblasts was not changed by incubation with FM or by incubation with Hep-G2 conditioned medium. Taken together, these data demonstrate that LDL receptor activity in Hep-G2 cells is stimulated by a serum component. Furthermore, this serum factor shows some specificity for the LDL receptor pathway in liver-derived Hep-G2 cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988N698000007

    View details for PubMedID 2836440

  • EFFECTS OF CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS AND BETA-VLDL ON THE CLASS AND COMPOSITION OF NEWLY SECRETED LIPOPROTEINS BY HEPG2 CELLS JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Craig, W. Y., Cooper, A. D. 1988; 29 (3): 299-308

    Abstract

    The regulation of lipoprotein secretion in the cell line HepG2 was studied. HepG2 cells were preincubated with chylomicron remnants (triglyceride- and cholesterol-rich) or with beta very low density lipoproteins (beta-VLDL) (cholesterol-rich). The medium was removed and the cells were incubated for and additional 24 hr in a lipoprotein-free medium that contained either [2-3H]glycerol or DL-[2-3H]mevalonate. Cells and media were harvested, and lipoproteins were separated and fractionated. The mass and radioactivity of the lipids in cells and in the lipoproteins were measured. The activities of cellular acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase were also determined. Preincubation with chylomicron remnants induced an increase in cellular triglyceride and stimulated both HMG-CoA reductase and ACAT. Preincubation with beta-VLDL induced an increase in cellular free and esterified cholesterol, inhibited HMG-CoA reductase and stimulated ACAT. Although the absolute amount of VLDL is small, chylomicron remnants induced large relative increases in the amount of triglyceride and phospholipid secreted in VLDL and decreases in the amount of triglyceride secreted in low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins as well as a decrease in the amount of phospholipid secreted in HDL. In contrast, preincubation with beta-VLDL did not affect triglyceride secretion, but markedly stimulated the amount of phospholipid secreted in HDL. Comparison of the mass of glycerolipid actually secreted with that calculated from the cellular specific activity suggested that glycerolipids are secreted from single, rapidly equilibrating pools. Cholesterol and cholesteryl ester secretion were affected differently. Preincubation with chylomicron remnants increased the amount of free cholesterol secreted in both VLDL and LDL, but did not alter cholesteryl ester secretion. Preincubation with beta-VLDL increased free cholesterol secretion in all lipoprotein fractions and increased cholesteryl ester secretion in VLDL and LDL, but not HDL. Comparison of isotope and mass data suggested that the cholesteryl ester secreted came primarily from a preformed, rather than an newly synthesized, pool. In summary, these data provide insight to the mechanism whereby a liver cell regulates the deposition of exogenous lipid.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988M669500006

    View details for PubMedID 2837527

  • INHIBITION OF VEIN GRAFT INTIMAL THICKENING BY EICOSAPENTANOIC ACID - REDUCED THROMBOXANE PRODUCTION WITHOUT CHANGE IN LIPOPROTEIN LEVELS OR LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR DENSITY JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY CAHILL, P. D., Sarris, G. E., Cooper, A. D., Wood, P. D., Kosek, J. C., Mitchell, R. S., Miller, D. C. 1988; 7 (1): 108-118

    Abstract

    Marine lipids containing omega-3 fatty acids (chiefly, eicosapentanoic acid [EPA] and docosahexanoic acid [DHA]) may inhibit the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease, but the mechanisms responsible for this putative beneficial effect are unknown. We investigated the effects of EPA and DHA in a canine model of accelerated vein graft arteriosclerosis during a 3-month period. Twenty-five dogs were divided into three dietary groups: group I (control), group II (2.5% cholesterol), and group III (2.5% cholesterol plus 2 gm EPA/day [as MaxEPA]). The effects of EPA on vein graft intimal thickening, platelet and vascular prostaglandin metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein receptor metabolism, and hematologic parameters were assessed. Cholesterol feeding caused a significant 54% increase in graft intimal thickness compared with control animals (124.9 +/- 50.4 vs 81.2 +/- 32.4 micron; p = 0.013), which was prevented by supplementation with EPA in group III (56.9 +/- 30.0 micron; p = 0.001 vs group II). Intimal thickness in group III was not significantly different from that of control. EPA supplementation was also associated with a 38% decline in serum thromboxane levels from 457.0 +/- 129.3 pg/0.1 ml in group II to 283.5 +/- 96.9 pg/0.1 ml in group III (p = 0.007). The alterations in lipoprotein metabolism associated with cholesterol feeding were not affected by EPA: in both groups II and III, serum cholesterol and high-density lipoproteins and liver cholesterol content were elevated and hepatic low-density lipoproteins (LDL) receptor content was reduced. There were no differences between the three groups in terms of vein graft or native vessel prostacyclin production, hematocrit, platelet count, or coagulation parameters. In this canine model, dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids reduced the extent and magnitude of accelerated vein graft intimal thickening induced by hypercholesterolemia; moreover, this beneficial effect was associated with lower serum thromboxane production and appeared to be independent of alterations in lipoprotein metabolism or LDL receptor density.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1988L687000013

    View details for PubMedID 3336117

  • REGULATION OF RAT HEPATIC CHOLESTEROL-METABOLISM - EFFECTS OF LIPOPROTEIN COMPOSITION ON ACYL COENZYME-A - CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE INVIVO AND IN THE PERFUSED LIVER AND ON HEPATIC CHOLESTEROL SECRETION JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH VANZUIDEN, P. E., Cooper, A. D., Erickson, S. K. 1987; 28 (8): 930-940

    Abstract

    Lipoproteins that are removed from the circulation by the liver can deliver both cholesterol and triglycerides to the hepatocyte. Relative proportions of these lipids may vary in lipoproteins and, thus, their uptake may have differing effects on cholesterol homeostasis. To study this, lipoproteins containing the same amounts of cholesterol but different amounts of triglyceride were administered to intact rats or to an isolated perfused rat liver. The responses of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride and cholesterol secretion, and biliary cholesterol content were examined after 2 hr. Administration of triglyceride-rich chylomicrons (average triglyceride:cholesterol = 136.5 by mass) in vivo or their remnants (average triglyceride:cholesterol = 32.7 by mass) to the perfused liver resulted in an 80% decrease in ACAT activity. In the perfused liver system, VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride secretion was increased while biliary cholesterol content decreased. Administration of standard chylomicrons (average triglyceride:cholesterol = 33.9 by mass) or their remnants (average triglyceride:cholesterol = 11.4 by mass) lowered ACAT activity by 24% in vivo, but had no significant effect on any of the parameters measured in the perfused liver system. Administration of cholesterol-rich VLDL (average triglyceride:cholesterol = 0.47 by mass) in vivo increased ACAT activity 1.4-fold, but administration of their remnants (average triglyceride:cholesterol = 0.17 by mass) had little effect on any of the parameters measured in the perfused liver. Thus, the lipid composition of lipoproteins removed by the liver elicited acute responses by parameters important in the maintenance of hepatic cholesterol homeostasis. These responses reflected the net effects of both the cholesterol and the triglyceride contents of the particles.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987J421600005

    View details for PubMedID 3668389

  • TRANSPORT OF BETA-VERY LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS AND CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS BY MACROPHAGES IS MEDIATED BY THE LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR PATHWAY JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Ellsworth, J. L., Kraemer, F. B., Cooper, A. D. 1987; 262 (5): 2316-2325

    Abstract

    The receptor-mediated uptake of rat hypercholesterolemic very low density lipoproteins (beta VLDL) and rat chylomicron remnants was studied in monolayer cultures of the J774 and P388D1 macrophage cell lines and in primary cultures of mouse peritoneal macrophages. Uptake of 125I-beta VLDL and 125I-chylomicron remnants was reduced 80-90% in the presence of high concentrations of unlabeled human low density lipoproteins (LDL). Human acetyl-LDL did not significantly compete at any concentration tested. Uptake of 125I-beta VLDL and 125I-chylomicron remnants was also competitively inhibited by specific polyclonal antibodies directed against the estrogen-induced LDL receptor of rat liver. Incubation in the presence of anti-LDL receptor IgG, but not nonimmune IgG, reduced specific uptake greater than 80%. Anti-LDL receptor IgG, 125I-beta VLDL, and 125I-chylomicron remnants bound to two protein components of apparent molecular weights 125,000 and 111,000 on nitrocellulose blots of detergent-solubilized macrophage membranes. Between 70-90% of 125I-lipoprotein binding was confined to the 125,000-Da peptide. Binding of 125I-beta VLDL and 125I-chylomicron remnants to these proteins was competitively inhibited by anti-LDL receptor antibodies. Comparison of anti-LDL receptor IgG immunoblot profiles of detergent-solubilized membranes from mouse macrophages, fibroblasts, and liver, and normal and estrogen-induced rat liver demonstrated that the immunoreactive LDL receptor of mouse cells is of a lower molecular weight than that of rat liver. Incubation of J774 cells with 1.0 micrograms of 25-hydroxycholesterol/ml plus 20 micrograms of cholesterol/ml for 48 h decreased 125I-beta VLDL uptake and immuno- and ligand blotting to the 125,000- and 111,000-Da peptides by only 25%. Taken together, these data demonstrate that uptake of beta VLDL and chylomicron remnants by macrophages is mediated by an LDL receptor that is immunologically related to the LDL receptor of rat liver.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987G509800061

    View details for PubMedID 3546288

  • CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ESTROGEN-INDUCED LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR OF RAT-LIVER JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Cooper, A. D., NUTIK, R., Chen, J. 1987; 28 (1): 59-68

    Abstract

    The ethinyl estradiol-induced lipoprotein receptor of rat liver was purified and characterized. Liver membranes were prepared from ethinyl estradiol-treated rats, solubilized, and subjected to DEAE chromatography. A fraction with a high specific activity for low density lipoprotein (LDL) binding was isolated and used to immunize mice. Hybridomas were prepared from their spleen cells, and a clone that secreted an IgG antibody, which cross-reacted with an ethinyl estradiol-induced protein of the same molecular weight as the bovine adrenal LDL receptor, was expanded. This antibody, designated P1B3, immunoprecipitated the induced lipoprotein receptor. P1B3 was used to purify the receptor, and a polyclonal antibody was raised against the pure protein. This antibody recognized a protein of similar molecular weight in rat liver, adult dog liver, and human skin fibroblasts, thus demonstrating that the induced rat lipoprotein receptor was related to the LDL receptor of other species. This receptor is present in normal rat liver, and its content is reduced by feeding an atherogenic diet, but not by feeding a diet containing 0.5% cholesterol. Moreover, cholestyramine supplementation of the diet did not induce the receptor on liver membranes. The polyclonal antibody could prevent the binding of LDL to liver membranes from control or ethinyl estradiol-treated rats. It decreased chylomicron remnant binding to membranes from ethinyl estradiol-treated membranes, but did not affect chylomicron remnant binding to liver membranes of untreated rats, a result compatible with the existence of a distinct receptor for these latter particles. The amount of LDL receptor-independent, specific remnant binding was the same in both control and ethinyl estradiol-treated rats. This is consistent with the concept that the remnant receptor is not regulated by this treatment. Based on the above, we conclude that the ethinyl estradiol-induced lipoprotein receptor of rat liver is biochemically and immunologically similar to the LDL receptor of other species. It is present on the liver of normal adult rats and could account for LDL as well as beta VLDL and HDLc removal. Although it may contribute to chylomicron remnant removal, there appears to be a second unrelated receptor or process which recognizes this lipoprotein.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987F711900007

    View details for PubMedID 3559401

  • THE SEQUENCE OF A SEA-URCHIN MUSCLE ACTIN GENE SUGGESTS A GENE CONVERSION WITH A CYTOSKELETAL ACTIN GENE JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR EVOLUTION Crain, W. R., BOSHAR, M. F., Cooper, A. D., Durica, D. S., Nagy, A., Steffen, D. 1987; 25 (1): 37-45

    Abstract

    We report the nucleotide sequence of the single muscle actin gene of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Comparison of the protein-coding sequence of this muscle actin gene (pSpG28) with that of two linked sea urchin cytoskeletal actin genes (pSpG17 and CyIIa) reveals a region of exceptional sequence conservation from codon 61 through codon 120. Furthermore, when silent nucleotide changes are compared, the conservation of this region is still evident (7.9% silent site differences in the conserved region vs 43.3% silent site differences in the rest of the gene when pSpG28 and CyIIa are compared), indicating that the conservation is not due to particularly stringent selection on the portion of the protein encoded by this region of the genes. These observations suggest that a gene conversion has occurred between the muscle actin gene and a cytoskeletal actin gene recently in the evolution of the sea urchin genome. Gene conversion between nonallelic actin genes may thus play a role in maintaining the homogeneity of this highly conserved gene family.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1987H482100007

    View details for PubMedID 3114500

  • REGULATION OF LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTORS ON RAT HEPATOMAS INVIVO BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA Barnard, G. F., Erickson, S. K., Cooper, A. D. 1986; 879 (3): 301-312

    Abstract

    It has been shown previously that the rat hepatoma no. 7288C grown in vivo or in vitro expresses fewer receptors which recognize chylomicron remnants than does normal rat liver, and it was suggested that this may contribute to the deletion of dietary cholesterol-induced regulation of cholesterol synthesis in hepatomas (Barnard, G., Erickson, S. and Cooper, A. (1984) J. Clin. Invest. 74, 173-184). To investigate this further, Buffalo rats bearing hepatomas (HTC no. 7288C) were made hypercholesterolemic by feeding an atherogenic diet and hypocholesterolemic by ethinyl estradiol injections. Under all circumstances, tumor membranes had fewer receptors than liver membranes as measured by specific binding of [125I]chylomicron remnants. Ethinyl estradiol treatment increased the number of lipoprotein receptors 1.7-fold in liver membranes and 1.2-1.6-fold in tumor membranes, but hypercholesterolemia did not produce any significant changes in remnant binding to either liver or hepatoma membranes. Feeding an atherogenic diet induced a 2.4-fold increase in total cholesterol content in the liver, primarily as cholesterol ester; however, there was no change in total, free or ester cholesterol in the hepatomas. Acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase activity was low in this hepatoma line and neither treatment significantly affected its activity. One explanation for the lack of effect of the atherogenic diet on hepatoma cholesterol metabolism in addition to the decreased number of lipoprotein receptors might be the failure of access of lipoproteins to the tumor cell. To assess this, radioiodinated apo E-rich lipoproteins of various sizes were injected intravenously into rats with hepatomas. Their disappearance from the circulation was followed, and the uptake of each lipoprotein into a variety of tissues was determined. Chylomicron remnants were the most avidly removed particles. VLDLH, IDLH and HDLC were removed more slowly and less completely. None of the lipoproteins accumulated substantially in the tumors suggesting a limited access to the hepatoma tissue. Thus, in addition to the observed reduction in lipoprotein receptor number, limited lipoprotein access to the hepatoma tissue may be a significant factor in contributing to the apparent lack of feedback regulation of cholesterol synthesis by hepatoma tissue in vivo.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986F163000006

    View details for PubMedID 3022819

  • EVIDENCE THAT CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS AND BETA-VLDL ARE TRANSPORTED BY THE SAME RECEPTOR PATHWAY IN J774 MURINE MACROPHAGE-DERIVED CELLS JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Ellsworth, J. L., Cooper, A. D., Kraemer, F. B. 1986; 27 (10): 1062-1072

    Abstract

    To characterize lipoprotein uptake by macrophages, we studied J774 murine macrophage-derived cells. Uptake of 125I-labeled beta-VLDL and 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants was saturable, specific, and of high affinity. Maximal specific uptake and the concentration at which half-maximal uptake occurred were similar for both beta-VLDL and chylomicron remnants. Specific uptake of 125I-labeled chylomicrons was only 1/5 that of the other two lipoproteins. Cholesterol loading decreased 125I-labeled chylomicron remnant and 125I-labeled beta-VLDL uptake by 25%. Chylomicron remnants and beta-VLDL were equipotent in cross-competition studies; acetyl-LDL did not compete, and human LDL was a poor competitor. Although the amounts of cell-associated lipoproteins were similar, beta-VLDL and chylomicron remnants had different effects on cellular lipid metabolism. beta-VLDL produced a threefold stimulation while chylomicron remnants caused a decrease in [3H]oleate incorporation into cholesteryl ester. beta-VLDL had no effect while chylomicron remnants caused a threefold increase in [3H]oleate incorporation into triacylglycerol. beta-VLDL produced a 44% suppression and chylomicron remnants produced a 78% increase in HMG-CoA reductase activity. In summary, J774 macrophages express a receptor site that recognizes both beta-VLDL and chylomicron remnants; however, these lipoproteins exhibit strikingly different effects on intracellular lipid metabolism.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E941500005

    View details for PubMedID 3025323

  • VERY LOW AND LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN SYNTHESIS AND SECRETION BY THE HUMAN HEPATOMA-CELL LINE HEP-G2 - EFFECTS OF FREE FATTY-ACID JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Ellsworth, J. L., Erickson, S. K., Cooper, A. D. 1986; 27 (8): 858-874

    Abstract

    The liver is a major source of the plasma lipoproteins; however, direct studies of the regulation of lipoprotein synthesis and secretion by human liver are lacking. Dense monolayers of Hep-G2 cells incorporated radiolabeled precursors into protein ([35S]methionine), cholesterol ([3H]mevalonate and [14C]acetate), triacylglycerol, and phospholipid ([3H]glycerol), and secreted them as lipoproteins. In the absence of free fatty acid in the media, the principal lipoprotein secretory product that accumulated had a density maximum of 1.039 g/ml, similar to serum low density lipoprotein (LDL). ApoB-100 represented greater than 95% of the radiolabeled apoprotein of these particles, with only traces of apoproteins A and E present. Inclusion of 0.8 mM oleic acid in the media resulted in a 54% reduction in radiolabeled triacylglycerol in the LDL fraction and a 324% increase in triacylglycerol in the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) fraction. Similar changes occurred in the secretion of newly synthesized apoB-100. The VLDL contained apoB-100 as well as apoE. In the absence of exogenous free fatty acid, the radiolabeled cholesterol was recovered in both the LDL and the high density lipoprotein (HDL) regions. Oleic acid caused a 50% decrease in HDL radiolabeled cholesterol and increases of radiolabeled cholesterol in VLDL and LDL. In general, less than 15% of the radiolabeled cholesterol was esterified, despite the presence of cholesteryl ester in the cell. Incubation with oleic acid did not cause an increase in the total amount of radiolabeled lipid or protein secreted. We conclude that human liver-derived cells can secrete distinct VLDL and LDL-like particles, and the relative amounts of these lipoproteins are determined, at least in part, by the availability of free fatty acid.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1986E328000006

    View details for PubMedID 3021884

  • ROLE OF THE LIVER IN THE DEGRADATION OF LIPOPROTEINS GASTROENTEROLOGY Cooper, A. D. 1985; 88 (1): 192-205

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985TW36500032

    View details for PubMedID 2981081

  • CHYLOMICRON REMNANT AND ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN METABOLISM ARE INDEPENDENT LIPIDS Cooper, A. D., Coleman, D. 1985; 20 (10): 664-667

    Abstract

    Because of the considerable similarities between the hepatic metabolism of chylomicron remnants and asialoglycoproteins, the hypothesis that they might share a cell surface receptor or a common step in internalization was tested. Unlabeled chylomicron remnants did not reduce the binding of 125I-asia-glycoprotein to plasma membranes, but did compete for 125I-chylomicron remnant binding. The converse also was true. This suggested the receptors were distinct. The two substances did not compete with each other for removal by the isolated perfused rat liver. This suggests that no potentially common post binding events can become rate limiting. In conclusion, despite similarities in their removal and metabolism, chylomicron remnants and asialoglycoproteins are metabolized independently.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985ASP9100004

    View details for PubMedID 2414633

  • REGULATION OF RAT BILIARY CHOLESTEROL SECRETION BY AGENTS THAT ALTER INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTEROL-METABOLISM - EVIDENCE FOR A DISTINCT BILIARY PRECURSOR POOL JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION STONE, B. G., Erickson, S. K., Craig, W. Y., Cooper, A. D. 1985; 76 (5): 1773-1781

    Abstract

    Propensity for cholesterol gallstone formation is determined in part by biliary cholesterol content relative to bile salts and phospholipid. We examined the hypothesis that the rate of biliary cholesterol secretion can be controlled by availability of an hepatic metabolically active free cholesterol pool whose size is determined in part by rates of sterol synthesis, as reflected by activity of the primary rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase and of sterol esterification, as reflected by the activity of the enzyme acyl coenzyme A/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). Rats were prepared with biliary, venous, and duodenal catheters. The enterohepatic circulation of biliary lipids was maintained constant by infusion of a bile salt, lecithin, cholesterol replacement solution. Administration of 25-hydroxycholesterol decreased HMG CoA reductase activity, increased ACAT activity, and decreased biliary cholesterol output 26% by 1 h. By 2 h, ACAT activity and biliary cholesterol secretion were at control levels. Administration of mevinolin, a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase, had no effect on ACAT activity and decreased biliary cholesterol secretion 16%. Administration of progesterone, an inhibitor of ACAT, had no effect on HMG CoA reductase and increased biliary cholesterol output 32% at 1 h. By 2 h, all parameters were near control levels. None of these agents had any significant effect on biliary bile salt or phospholipid secretion. Thus, acutely altering rates of esterification and/or synthesis can have profound effects on biliary cholesterol secretion independent of the other biliary lipids. These experiments suggest the existence of a metabolically active pool of free cholesterol that serves as a precursor pool for biliary cholesterol secretion. Furthermore, the size of this precursor pool is determined in part both by rates of cholesterol synthesis and esterification and is a key determinant of biliary cholesterol secretion.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1985AUM6100009

    View details for PubMedID 4056052

  • REGULATION OF "3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL-COENZYME A REDUCTASE AND CHOLESTEROL-SYNTHESIS AND ESTERIFICATION DURING THE 1ST CELL-CYCLE OF LIVER-REGENERATION BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA Trentalance, A., Leoni, S., Mangiantini, M. T., Spagnuolo, S., Feingold, K., HUGHESFULFORD, M., SIPERSTEIN, M., Cooper, A. D., Erickson, S. K. 1984; 794 (1): 142-151

    Abstract

    The regenerating rat liver provides a unique in vivo synchronized system for study of the interrelationships between mevalonate and sterol metabolism during the cell cycle. The regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, cholesterol synthesis and acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase during the first cell cycle was investigated. At 8 h postoperative and prior to onset of DNA synthesis or S phase, cholesterol synthesis was depressed in the regenerating liver relative to that in sham-operated controls. This suppression was observed whether assayed in vitro with liver homogenates utilizing radiolabeled acetate, mevalonate or water or in vivo with tritium water. In contrast, at this time point, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity was increased in microsomes prepared both in the presence and absence of NaF. By 24 h, well into S phase and approaching mitosis, reductase activity and cholesterol synthesis both approached levels observed in the sham-operated control animals. There were no detectable changes in acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase activity at any time point. Thus, at the 8 h time point, the regulation of the three processes appeared uncoupled. The increased levels of in vitro expressed 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity compared with the decrease in the rate of both cholesterol and squalene biosynthesis suggested diversion of mevalonate into products other than squalene or sterols. We propose that this may reflect the needs of the cell for a nonsterol metabolite of mevalonate necessary for entry of cells into S phase.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SY11800018

    View details for PubMedID 6733123

  • THE INDIRECT COSTS OF SPONSORED RESEARCH CLINICAL RESEARCH Cooper, A. D. 1984; 32 (2): 99-105

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SJ72500001

    View details for PubMedID 6713806

  • LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM BY RAT HEPATOMAS - STUDIES ON THE ETIOLOGY OF DEFECTIVE DIETARY FEEDBACK INHIBITION OF CHOLESTEROL-SYNTHESIS JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Barnard, G. F., Erickson, S. K., Cooper, A. D. 1984; 74 (1): 173-184

    Abstract

    In contrast to normal liver, it is known that in vivo hepatomas fail to decrease their rate of cholesterol biosynthesis in response to increased dietary cholesterol. From a consideration of the available data it has been hypothesized that the defect might lie in the delivery of cholesterol to the hepatoma cell. To study this further, lipoprotein interactions with rat hepatoma cells in tissue culture (HTC 7288C) and with the same cell line in vivo were investigated. HTC cells grown in a medium containing 10% calf serum exhibited saturable, specific, calcium-dependent binding of rat 125I-chylomicron remnants at 4 degrees C with half maximal saturation at 4.8 micrograms protein/ml and maximum binding of 96 ng protein/10(6) cells. At 4 degrees C, HTC cells also bound human 125I-low density lipoprotein (LDL) specifically, but bound it with a much lower affinity. These cells also exhibited specific binding for rat LDL and rat hypercholesterolemic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). All these lipoproteins were degraded by HTC cells. Thus, it was concluded that hepatoma cells possess lipoprotein receptors that recognize and process LDL, VLDL, and chylomicron remnants. Overnight incubation of HTC cells in lipid-depleted medium containing 0.5 microM compactin increased binding of rat chylomicron remnants and of hypercholesterolemic VLDL approximately 1.7-fold without a significant change in binding affinity. LDL binding also increased, by approximately 3.5-fold. These changes were also observed when binding and internalization were measured at 37 degrees C. After HTC cells were incubated in lipid-depleted medium, the rate at which [14C]acetate was incorporated into [14C]cholesterol increased 2.5-fold. Inclusion of rat chylomicron remnants at 5-10 micrograms protein/ml prevented this increase in acetate incorporation or, if added after culture in lipid-depleted medium, reduced the increased levels back to control values. However, the rate of acetate incorporation into cholesterol by cells grown in complete medium was not decreased to levels below base line by rat chylomicron remnants. Inclusion of human LDL only partially prevented the rise or only partially reduced the increased levels back to control and did not reduce control levels below base line. Hypercholesterolemic VLDL, which contain more cholesterol per particle than chylomicron remnants, did reduce [14C]acetate incorporation to below control levels. Therefore, the intracellular mechanism for down regulation of cholesterol synthesis by lipoproteins is intact in these cells. Based on these results we hypothesized that a relative lack of lipoprotein receptors expressed by hepatomas in vivo in comparison with those expressed by normal liver would explain the apparent absence of feedback inhibition of cholesterol synthesis. Consistent with this hypothesis, the binding of chylomicron remnants to liver cell membranes was 3-5 times greater than to membranes from tumors grown in vivo subcutaneously or intramuscularly. Membranes from tumor cells grown in vitro bound remnants least well. It is proposed that the relative lack of receptors places the hepatoma at a disadvantage in competing with the liver for lipoproteins of dietary origin and may account for the lack of feedback regulation of cholesterol synthesis in hepatomas.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1984SY22400021

    View details for PubMedID 6330173

  • EFFECT OF REMOVAL OF LIPOPROTEINS OF DIFFERENT COMPOSITION ON HEPATIC 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL COENZYME-A REDUCTASE-ACTIVITY AND HEPATIC VERY LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN SECRETION JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH VANZUIDEN, P. E., Erickson, S. K., Cooper, A. D. 1983; 24 (4): 418-428

    Abstract

    The effect of remnant lipoproteins on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion was studied in the perfused rat liver and in vivo. As had been observed previously, when the liver was perfused with a lipid-free medium, HMG-CoA reductase activity increased about twofold after 150 min, and this increase could be prevented by the addition of chylomicron remnants to the medium. However, suppression below base line activity did not occur even with increasing amounts of remnant cholesterol. When chylomicron remnants prepared from triglyceride-rich particles were included in the medium, reductase activity was increased even above that in the control perfusions despite the fact that approximately the same amount of cholesterol was removed from these particles as from standard particles. In contrast, particles that were low in triglycerides and rich in cholesterol not only prevented the rise in reductase activity but inhibited it significantly below base line activity. Again, the total amount of cholesterol removed was the same as with the other types of particles. These results suggested that both the triglycerides and cholesterol exerted an effect on HMG-CoA reductase. Consistent with this hypothesis, a significant correlation was found between reductase activity and the ratio of triglycerides to cholesterol removed, but not to either alone. To explore the role of triglycerides further, the effect of these lipoprotein particles on VLDL secretion was determined. VLDL secretion was stimulated by both standard and triglyceride-rich remnants but not by triglyceride-poor remnants. The degree of stimulation with standard chylomicron was comparable to that induced by infusion of a comparable fatty acid load as oleic acid bound to albumin. In vivo a similar effect of these lipoproteins on HMG-CoA reductase activity was observed. Rats were injected with a lipoprotein bolus containing 7 mg of cholesterol, and reductase activity in the liver was measured 2 hr later. Standard chylomicrons and triglyceride-rich chylomicrons stimulated reductase to 157% and 187% of control activity, respectively, whereas cholesterol-rich VLDL suppressed reductase activity to 30% of control activity. These observations support the hypothesis that remnant lipoproteins have a dual effect on hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity; the cholesterol in these lipoproteins suppresses hepatic reductase activity while the triglycerides concommitantly delivered stimulate reductase activity at least in part because they stimulate hepatic VLDL secretion. Therefore, the net response of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase to a particular dietary lipoprotein will depend upon the balance between the cholesterol and triglycerides carried to the liver.-Van Zuiden, P. E. A., S. K. Erickson, and A. D. Cooper. Effect of removal of lipoproteins of different composition on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity and hepatic very low density lipoprotein secretion.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1983QL46200008

    View details for PubMedID 6854151

  • LYMPHOMAS INVOLVING THE GASTROINTESTINAL-TRACT GASTROENTEROLOGY Gray, G. M., Rosenberg, S. A., Cooper, A. D., Gregory, P. B., Stein, D. T., HERZENBERG, H. 1982; 82 (1): 143-152

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982MW05000026

    View details for PubMedID 7053326

  • COMPARISON OF BINDING AND REMOVAL OF REMNANTS OF TRIGLYCERIDE-RICH LIPOPROTEINS OF INTESTINAL AND HEPATIC ORIGIN BY RAT-LIVER INVITRO AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY Cooper, A. D., SHREWSBURY, M. A., Erickson, S. K. 1982; 243 (5): G389-G395

    Abstract

    Chylomicrons were isolated from intestinal lymph and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) from the perfusate of isolated perfused livers. In vivo the initial phase of clearance of these particles was very rapid. Chylomicrons appeared to be cleared more quickly than VLDL (t1/2 = 3.7 +/- 1.4 vs. 10.6 +/- 4.0 min). Remnants were prepared from these particles in eviscerated rats and isolated using conditions under which contamination of particles from one organ by particles from the other organ was minimal. The removal of these remnant particles by isolated perfused livers was studied. VLDL remnants were removed more rapidly than the nascent VLDL. The removal of 125I-labeled VLDL remnants was inhibited by the presence of unlabeled VLDL remnants or chylomicron remnants in the perfusate. A 15- to 20-fold excess of either particle inhibited about 50% of the uptake of the labeled lipoprotein. The two types of remnants had comparable potency as competitors of uptake. Similarly, the two types of remnants inhibited uptake of a trace of labeled chylomicron remnants. The binding of these particles to rat liver plasma remnants. The binding of these particles to rat liver plasma membranes was also investigated. Both labeled chylomicron remnants and VLDL remnants bound specifically to the membranes, and either type of remnant displaced the binding of the other with equal potency. Taken together, these results indicate that chylomicron and VLDL remnants share the same hepatic removal mechanism and suggest that the rate of removal of a remnant is not a function of the organ of origin of the precursor lipoprotein.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PQ53100037

    View details for PubMedID 7137355

  • LIPID HAPTEN CONTAINING MEMBRANE TARGETS CAN TRIGGER SPECIFIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN-E-DEPENDENT DE-GRANULATION OF RAT BASOPHIL LEUKEMIA-CELLS JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Balakrishnan, K., Hsu, F. J., Cooper, A. D., McConnell, H. M. 1982; 257 (11): 6427-6433

    Abstract

    We have studied the binding of liposomes containing dinitrophenylated lipid to rat basophil leukemia cells armed with monoclonal anti-dinitrophenyl IgE. The liposomes were either "fluid" at 37 degrees C (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine or an equimolar binary mixture dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol) or "solid" (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, distearoylphosphatidylcholine, or dibehanoylphosphatidylcholine). We have also studied the immune mediated degranulation of these cells induced by the above lipid membrane targets. In some cases both studies were carried out with liposomes containing various surface densities of lipid haptens. From these studies we conclude that freely mobile nonaggregated lipid haptens in bilayer membrane targets can trigger efficient serotonin release from rat basophil leukemia cells in the presence of specific antihapten IgE. Solid target membranes are also effective as stimulators of serotonin release. The release of serotonin depends strongly on the surface density of lipid haptens over a narrow range of surface densities. These studies with lipid membrane targets having well defined physical properties indicate the need for generalized molecular models of receptor-mediated cell triggering.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NT78300073

    View details for PubMedID 6281271

  • 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL COENZYME-A REDUCTASE FROM RAT INTESTINE - SUB-CELLULAR LOCALIZATION AND INVITRO REGULATION JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Field, F. J., Erickson, S. K., SHREWSBURY, M. A., Cooper, A. D. 1982; 23 (1): 105-113

    Abstract

    The subcellular localization of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase in rat intestine was reinvestigated. Highly enriched fractions of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria were prepared from mucosal cells. The highest specific activity of HMG-CoA reductase was located in the endoplasmic reticulum fraction with recovery of 25% of the total activity. The mitochondria had low specific activity and low recovery of reductase activity relative to whole homogenate (2-5%). Despite attempts to maximize cell lysis, much of the activity (about 60%) was recovered in a low speed pellet which consisted of whole cells, nuclei, and cell debris as determined by light microscopy. Taken together, the evidence strongly suggests that much of the cellular HMG-CoA reductase activity is present in the endoplasmic reticulum fraction and that mitochondria have little or no intrinsic HMG-CoA reductase. The in vitro regulation of intestinal microsomal HMG-CoA reductase was studied. The intestine possesses a cytosolic HMG-CoA reductase kinase-phosphatase system which appears to be closely related to that present in the liver. Intestinal reductase activity in microsomes prepared from whole mucosal scrapings was inhibited 40-50% by the presence of 50 mM NaF in the homogenizing buffer. It was less susceptible to the action of the kinase than liver reductase. The effects of NaF were reversed by incubation with partially purified intestinal or liver phosphatases. These results suggest that the kinase-phosphatase system could play a role in the regulation of intestinal sterol and isoprene synthesis in vivo.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NB03800012

    View details for PubMedID 6276481

  • REGULATION OF RABBIT INTESTINAL ACYL CO-ENZYME A-CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE INVIVO AND INVITRO GASTROENTEROLOGY Field, F. J., Cooper, A. D., Erickson, S. K. 1982; 83 (4): 873-880

    Abstract

    The rate of intestinal cholesterol esterification may be an important determinant of the rates of entry and exit of cholesterol from the body. Acyl coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase, the intracellular cholesterol esterifying enzyme, may play a role in this process. To assess this, the response of rabbit intestinal acyl coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase in vivo was studied. Animals were fed a diet containing cholesterol and corn oil, and they responded with an increase in acyl coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase activity. The increase was apparent in all segments of the intestine proximal to the distal ileum, and it occurred specifically in the villus cells where the bulk of lipid absorption is believed to take place. In cultured intestinal explants, the activity responded rapidly to sterols (increased) and to fatty acids (decreased) when control intestine was used. If intestine from cholesterol-corn oil-fed animals was cultured, sterols still induced an increase, but fatty acids did not affect the enzyme activity. The acutely induced increases in acyl coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase activity were not prevented by cycloheximide. The results show that acyl coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase in the absorptive cells of intestine responds both acutely and chronically to dietary factors, supporting the hypothesis that acyl coenzyme A-cholesterol acyltransferase plays a role in cholesterol absorption.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982PG26300018

    View details for PubMedID 7106517

  • COMPLETE NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCE OF A SEA-URCHIN ACTIN GENE NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH Cooper, A. D., Crain, W. R. 1982; 10 (13): 4081-4092

    Abstract

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a sea urchin actin gene, including the entire protein-coding sequence, introns and approximately 500 and 700 nucleotides adjacent to protein-coding-sequence on the 5' and 3' sides, respectively. This gene is split between codons 121 and 122 and within codon 204 by two introns which are 233 and 181 nucleotides in length, respectively. Comparison of the sequence of the two introns indicates a region of distant relatedness which covers about 25% of their lengths, suggesting that these sequences might have derived from a common ancestral sequence. The encoded amino acid sequence, which matches plasmic-like than muscle-like when compared to vertebrate actins. Analysis of the coding-flanking regions indicates the presence of sequences similar to those thought to be important for initiation of transcription and polyadenylation of mRNA. The location of these sequences and the size of an actin mRNA, transcribed from this or a very closely related gene, suggests that initiation occurs 347 nucleotides 5' of coding and polyadenylation approximately 515 nucleotides 3' of coding.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NX64500020

    View details for PubMedID 7111028

  • CHARACTERIZATION OF CHYLOMICRON REMNANT BINDING TO RAT-LIVER MEMBRANES JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Cooper, A. D., Erickson, S. K., NUTIK, R., SHREWSBURY, M. A. 1982; 23 (1): 42-52

    Abstract

    The binding of chylomicron remnants to rat liver membranes was investigated using radioiodinated lipoproteins. The specific activity of binding increased in parallel with increased enrichment in plasma membrane markers. The yield of receptor activity, however, decreased with enrichment. Accordingly, a partially purified plasma membrane preparation was used for routine studies. Binding was saturable, with half maximal binding achieved at 4.6 micro g tetramethylurea-precipitable protein per ml. The rate of binding was time- and temperature-dependent. It could be inhibited only moderately by 10 mM EDTA. Chylomicron remnants appeared to bind to the membrane as a unit. The bound particle was richer in apoproteins of 20,000-50,000 molecular weight relative to low molecular weight apoproteins than the particles that were not bound. Lipoprotein particles containing only human apoB did not bind to liver membranes nor did they compete for the remnant binding site. Rat lipoproteins of d 1.019-1.063 g/ml did compete for remnant binding. When they were separated into apoB-rich (LDL) or apoE-rich (HDL(c)) fractions by block electrophoresis, the apoE-rich fraction was a more potent competitor. ApoE purified and reconstituted into dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles was a potent competitor for the remnant binding site. Vesicles containing (125)I-labeled apoE bound to the membranes, and they could be displaced by unlabeled remnants. Dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles themselves did not compete with either remnants or apoE-phospholipid vesicles. These results offer strong support for the hypothesis that the liver membrane chylomicron remnant receptor recognizes apoE with a high affinity, and this initiates the rapid removal of lipoproteins that contain this apoprotein.-Cooper, A. D., S. K. Erickson, R. Nutik, and M. A. Shrewsbury. Characterization of chylomicron remnant binding to rat liver membranes.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1982NB03800005

    View details for PubMedID 6799601

  • MOBILE HAPTENS IN LIPOSOMES STIMULATE SEROTONIN RELEASE BY RAT BASOPHIL LEUKEMIA-CELLS IN THE PRESENCE OF SPECIFIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN-E JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Cooper, A. D., Balakrishnan, K., McConnell, H. M. 1981; 256 (18): 9379-9381

    Abstract

    A new method for studying the physicochemical determinants of IgE-mediated activation of basophils is described. Rat basophil leukemia cells having IgE receptors were preincubated with monoclonal anti-dinitrophenyl IgE. These cells were then exposed to liposomes containing dinitrophenyl conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine. The release of serotonin was measured. Using this system it was observed that liposomes containing dinitrophenyl conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine by aminoethylformamidomethoxy acetyl (but not by caproic acid) were able to trigger the release of serotonin. "Solid" liposomes composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and 2 mol % hapten were more potent inducers of serotonin release than "fluid" liposomes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and hapten, but the fluid liposomes definitely triggered the cells to release serotonin. The addition of cholesterol to both types of liposomes enhanced their potency as activators and diminished the difference between the two types of phospholipid. This occurred despite the fact that cholesterol renders the solid liposomes fluid. Since it is unlikely that these fluid membranes can provide lateral forces that produce IgE-Fc receptor molecular clustering, we conclude that either receptor clustering is not necessary for basophil triggering, or molecular clustering is driven by molecular forces derived from IgE and components of the basophil cell.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1981MH39400004

    View details for PubMedID 7287691

  • STUDIES ON THE MECHANISMS OF THE RAPID MODULATION OF 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL COENZYME A REDUCTASE IN INTACT LIVER BY MEVALONOLACTONE AND 25-HYDROXYCHOLESTEROL BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA Erickson, S. K., SHREWSBURY, M. A., Gould, R. G., Cooper, A. D. 1980; 620 (1): 70-79

    Abstract

    A rapid, biphasic inhibition of rat hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (mevalonate:NADP+ oxidoreductase (CoA-acylating), EC 1.1.1.34) was induced by intragastric administration of R,S-mevalonolactone. The initial phase had a t1/2 of 5.3 min. 30 min after drug administration the inhibition could be reversed in vitro by cytosol or a partially purified cytosolic activator. The reactivation was prevented by 50mM NaF. Thus the initial inhibition appeared to be the result of reversible inactivation possibly by phosphorylation of the enzyme. Consistent with this was the finding that the net reductase activator (phosphatase) activity present in cytosol was decreased 64% in these animals. The rapid reversible inhibition could not be reproduced in vitro by incubating microsomes or postmitochondrial supernatants with mevalonate suggesting the intact cell was necessary for expression of the effect. The second phase of inhibition due to mevalonate administration had a t1/2 of 1.3 h and was not reversible. It was attributed to inhibition of synthesis of reductase probably as the result of sterol accumulation in the cell. Perfusion of 25-hydroxycholesterol through livers isolated from animals at the circadian peak of cholesterol biosynthesis resulted in a rapid, 75-80% inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase. This inhibition was not reversed by incubation with cytosol or partially purified activator. Further, there was no apparent change in net activator levels in cytosol from the livers perfused with 25-hydroxycholesterol. This suggests the effect of this sterol on reductase does not involve reversible phosphorylation-dephosphorylation. On the basis of this study it is postulated that there are at least two mechanisms by which 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity can be rapidly suppressed in the intact liver. One is reversible and appears to be the result of alteration in the reductase kinase-phosphatase system. The second is irreversible and may be due to acceleration of the normal degradation system.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980KM41800009

    View details for PubMedID 7417482

  • ACYL-COENZYME-A - CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE IN HUMAN-LIVER - INVITRO DETECTION AND SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENZYME METABOLISM-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL Erickson, S. K., Cooper, A. D. 1980; 29 (10): 991-996

    Abstract

    The enzyme, acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT), is responsible for the intracellular esterification of cholesterol. Although it has been detected in the liver from a variety of animals and in human skin fibroblasts and human intestine, it has been reported to be absent from human liver. Since this enzyme may play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis, evidence for its presence in human liver was again sought. Using labeled oleoyl CoA and the endogenous cholesterol as reactants, ACAT was detected in fresh samples of human liver obtained from patients undergoing staging laparotomy for Hodgkin's disease. The enzyme is present almost exclusively in membrane fractions with little activity detected in cytosol. Microsomal ACAT activity was linear with incubation time for up to 10 min. After this, the rate of cholesterol esterification remained constant despite the fact that adequate acyl CoA was present as judged by the continued incorporation of oleate into triglyceride. ACAT activity is destroyed by heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min. It was inhibited only up to 20%-30% by 1 mM 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid), which completely inactivates the serum cholesterol esterifying enzyme, lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT). Like ACAT in human skin fibroblasts, human liver ACAT was also inhibited by progesterone in vitro. ACAT activity averaged 10.3 +/- 5.1 pmole cholesteryl oleate/min/mg microsomal protein for 3 normal livers and 39.0 +/- 12.5 for 2 fatty livers. Thus, the level of ACAT activity estimated for the whole liver was 2.1-35.8 mumol/hr in the fasting state. This activity may account for some portion of the cholesterol esters present in plasma VLDL in fasting normolipidemic individuals. However, it is likely that the major role of hepatic ACAT is in the regulation and maintenance of hepatic cholesterol homeostasis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980KM49500015

    View details for PubMedID 7421586

  • STUDIES ON THE ETIOLOGY OF THE HYPERLIPEMIA IN RATS FED AN ATHEROGENIC DIET JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH KRISETHERTON, P. M., Cooper, A. D. 1980; 21 (4): 435-442

    Abstract

    The etiology of the hyperlipemia which occurs in cholesterol- and fat-fed hypothyroid rats was investigated. In hyperlipemic rats the disappearance rate of 125I-labeled chylomicron remnants was markedly prolonged (t1/2 of 13.1 +/- 0.9 min versus t1/2 of 2.1 +/- 0.5 min in controls). However the ability of isolated livers from these rats to remove remnants was not significantly different from that of control livers. This suggested that the delay in removal was due to an increase in the circulating remnant concentration without a removal defect. 125I-labeled VLDL from hyperlipemic rats was removed by isolated livers from normal rats at a rate similar to normal chylomicrons or hepatic VLDL and more slowly than normal remnants. This suggested that remnants were not the principal constituents of the VLDL in these animals. Moreover when these VLDL were injected into intact normal rats they were removed with a t1/2 (5.5 +/- 1.2 min) comparable to normal VLDL rather than remnants. Finally, livers from hyperlipemic rats were perfused and the composition of the VLDL secreted was examined Compared to controls or animals fed propylthiouracil, these livers secreted a particle which was triglyceride-poor and cholesteryl ester-rich. Thus, the etiology of the hyperlipemia has several components. There is both expansion of the remnant pool and secretion of an abnormal lipoprotein.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1980JT87300006

    View details for PubMedID 7381335

  • HIGH AFFINITY BINDING OF CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS TO RAT-LIVER PLASMA-MEMBRANES PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Carrella, M., Cooper, A. D. 1979; 76 (1): 338-342

    Abstract

    The binding of chylomicron remnants rat liver plasma membranes was studied. Liver membranes bound up to 8 times more remnants than they bound chylomicrons. The remnant particle appeared to bind to the membrane as a unit. Remnant binding was greatest to liver plasma membrane; only one third as much binding was observed with whole liver homogenate, and virtually no binding occurred to erythrocyte membranes or glass. Binding was saturable and had kinetics compatible with the existence of a high affinity site. Half-maximal binding occurred at 27 micron. Competitive binding studies revealed no competition with albumin, a triglyceride dispersion, cholesterol/lecithin vesicles, very low density lipoprotein, or low density lipoprotein. Some displacement of remnant binding was observed with chylomicrons and high density lipoprotein. Binding was decreased by treatment of the membranes with trypsin or the presence of heparin in the incubation medium. These studies suggest that there is a high affinity receptor for the chylomicron remnant on the surface of the hepatocyte.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1979GF88500073

    View details for PubMedID 284350

  • REGULATION OF CHOLESTEROL-SYNTHESIS IN CULTURED CANINE INTESTINAL-MUCOSA JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Gebhard, R. L., Cooper, A. D. 1978; 253 (8): 2790-2796

    Abstract

    The regulation of intestinal cholesterol synthesis was studied utilizing canine ileal mucosa maintained in organ culture for 6 h. Viability was monitored by light and electron microscopy, measurement of cellular enzymes, and the ability to actively transport a glucose analogue. The activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase (EC 1.1.4.3.4), the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, increased 4-fold during a 6-h culture. A parallel increase occurred in the rate of acetate incorporation into digitonin-precipitable sterols during this period. This increase could be prevented by the addition of cycloheximide to the culture. Pure cholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, when present during the last 4 h of culture, also caused significant suppression of the rise in HMG-CoA reductase activity (final HMG-CoA reductase with the three sterols was 77 +/- 4%, 68 +/- 5%, and 58 +/- 3% of control postculture value). Bile salts at low, nontoxic concentrations also inhibited the increase of enzyme activity (2 mM taurocholate = 63 +/- 3% of control, 0.5 mM taurochenodeoxycholate = 76 +/- 6% of control). In contrast, dog lipoproteins separated by ultracentrifugation failed to significantly affect intestinal cholesterol synthesis in these short term organ cultures.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978EW93100049

    View details for PubMedID 632302

  • RATES OF REMOVAL AND DEGRADATION OF CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS BY ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT-LIVER JOURNAL OF LIPID RESEARCH Cooper, A. D., YU, P. Y. 1978; 19 (5): 635-643

    Abstract

    Chylomicron remnants are removed intact by isolated perfused rat livers and their lipid components are metabolized by the liver (Biochim. Biophys. Acta 488: 464, 1977). The present study provides quantitative information regarding these processes. When the lipoprotein concentration of the perfusate was constant, the removal of chylomicron remnants increases lineraly for 17 min. The rate of remnant removal was a hyperbolic function of the perfusate's remnant concentration. The removal rate had aV max of 28microgram cholesterol per g liver per min and an apparent Km of 64 microgram cholesterol per ml perfusate. Feeding the liver donors a diet containing 1% cholesterol or 4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid failed to alter the hepatic removal rate. The cholesteryl ester removed from the remnants was hydrolyzed at a rate that was a small fraction of the removal rate (about 0.5% of removed cholesteryl ester per min). The rate of cholesteryl ester hydrolysis did not appear to approach saturation in the range studied. Studies of the lysosomal cholesteryl ester hydrolase suggested that this enzyme was not responsible for limiting the initial rate of hydrolysis, raising the possibility that the degradation rate is determined by the movement of the removed remnant to the site of hydrolysis.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978FG89800014

    View details for PubMedID 670837

  • EFFECTS OF 25-HYDROXYCHOLESTEROL ON RAT HEPATIC 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL COENZYME A REDUCTASE-ACTIVITY INVIVO, IN PERFUSED LIVER, AND IN HEPATOCYTES JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Erickson, S. K., Matsui, S. M., SHREWSBURY, M. A., Cooper, A. D., Gould, R. G. 1978; 253 (12): 4159-4164

    View details for Web of Science ID A1978FE05100016

    View details for PubMedID 659411

  • METABOLISM OF CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS BY ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT-LIVER BIOCHIMICA ET BIOPHYSICA ACTA Cooper, A. D. 1977; 488 (3): 464-474

    View details for Web of Science ID A1977DW89500012

    View details for PubMedID 901798

  • 7-KETOCHOLESTEROL - ITS EFFECTS ON HEPATIC CHOLESTEROGENESIS AND ITS HEPATIC-METABOLISM INVIVO AND INVITRO JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Erickson, S. K., Cooper, A. D., Matsui, S. M., Gould, R. G. 1977; 252 (15): 5186-5193

    View details for Web of Science ID A1977DS11600004

    View details for PubMedID 885845

  • REGULATION OF 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL COENZYME A REDUCTASE IN ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT-LIVER JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Cooper, A. D. 1976; 57 (6): 1461-1470

    Abstract

    The effect of perfusion of an isolated rat liver on hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was studied. In liver removed during the basal period of the diurnal cycle of enzyme activity, a 227 +/- 41% increase in enzyme activity occurred after 3 h of a plasma-free perfusion. This could be prevented by the addition of cycloheximide or pure cholesterol (dispersed with lecithin) to the perfusate. In contrast, the continuous addition of taurocholate or taurochenodeoxycholate, alone or in combination, at a variety of rates did not prevent the increase in enzyme activity. The added bile salts were efficiently extracted from the perfusate and excreted in the bile. The addition of these bile salts to a cholesterol-enriched perfusate did not alter the effect obtained with cholesterol alone. If the perfusate contained whole serum, the increase induced by perfusion in the basal period was smaller (88 +/- 27%) than with plasma-free perfusate. Again, the major bile salts of the rat failed to prevent the increase in enzyme activity induced by liver perfusion. If livers were removed and perfused at the height of the diurnal cycle of enzyme activity, the enzyme activity remained high (2 +/- 10% increase) rather than decreasing, as occurs in vivo. If cholesterol was added to these perfusions, a 52 +/- 4% decrease was induced. Bile salt addition induced no decrease. From the results it is concluded that the major bile salts are not direct regulators of hepatic cholesterol synthesis, but pure cholesterol, in the absence of bile salt or lipoprotein, is able to initiate the mechanism that represses hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1976BV24500009

    View details for PubMedID 945302

  • LIVER-DISEASE IN NONPARENTERAL DRUG-ABUSERS JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Cooper, A. D., NIEJADLIK, D., Huston, K. 1975; 233 (9): 964-966

    Abstract

    Liver function tests were performed in 500 young servicemen with a history of drug abuse. Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) level was abnormal in 66% of 68 patients with a history of parenteral drug abuse. Forty-one percent of 432 patients with a history of only nonparenteral drug abuse also had elevated SGOT levels. A high incidence of liver disease in parenteral drug abusers is well established; however, to our knowledge, the magnitude of the problem in nonparenteral drug abusers has not been noted previously. Liver biopsy specimens in 34 of our patients showed either a classic viral hepatitis or a mild nonspecific hepatitis. Limited follow-up suggested a slowly resolving process. We conclude that hepatitis may be a common sequel to epidemic nonparenteral drug abuse.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1975AN21400013

    View details for PubMedID 1173917

  • SELECTIVE BILIARY OBSTRUCTION - MODEL FOR STUDY OF LIPID-METABOLISM IN CHOLESTASIS GASTROENTEROLOGY Cooper, A. D., Jones, A. L., KOLDINGE, R. E., Ockner, R. K. 1974; 66 (4): 574-585

    View details for Web of Science ID A1974S906500013

    View details for PubMedID 4821080

  • GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS OF ADVERSE DRUG-REACTIONS - CLINDAMYCIN AMERICAN JOURNAL OF DIGESTIVE DISEASES DEFORD, J. W., Daly, J. J., Cooper, A. D., Molinaro, J. R. 1974; 19 (6): 581-581

    View details for Web of Science ID A1974T297500012

    View details for PubMedID 4829384

  • STUDIES OF HEPATIC CHOLESTEROL-SYNTHESIS IN EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE BILIARY OBSTRUCTION GASTROENTEROLOGY Cooper, A. D., Ockner, R. K. 1974; 66 (4): 586-595

    View details for Web of Science ID A1974S906500014

    View details for PubMedID 4821081

Conference Proceedings


  • ONLINE RECOVERY OF TRIMEPRAZINE ENANTIOMERS FOLLOWING CHIRAL SEPARATION BY REVERSED-PHASE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY USING A BETA-CYCLODEXTRIN-CONTAINING MOBILE PHASE Cooper, A. D., Jefferies, T. M. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 1990: 847-851

    Abstract

    A procedure is described which allows the on-line recovery of enantiomers following semi-preparative chiral separation by RP-HPLC using beta-cyclodextrin in the mobile phase. By this method, the phenothiazine antihistamine trimeprazine (I) was resolved into its antipodes at greater than 95% optical purity at a throughput of more than 1 mg of each enantiomer per hour, using 4 mm i.d. columns. The recovered trimeprazine was found to be free from cyclodextrin.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1990EW53900043

    View details for PubMedID 2100631

Stanford Medicine Resources: