Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Cancer > Urologic Oncology
  • Urologic Neoplasms
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Translational Medical Research
  • Molecular Targeted Therapy
  • Nano-proteomics
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Medical Oncology

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Research Mentor, Canary Cancer Research Education Summer Training (CREST) Program (2019 - Present)
  • Member, Stanford BioX Program (2016 - Present)
  • Faculty Fellow, ChemH [Chemistry, Engineering & Medicine for Human Health Institute] (2018 - Present)
  • Faculty Member, Cancer Center at Stanford for Early Cancer Detection (2017 - Present)
  • Member, Stanford Kidney Cancer Research Group (2011 - Present)
  • Inteviewer, Stanford School of Medicine Internal Medicine Residency (2011 - Present)
  • Research Mentor, NIH/NIDDK Short term education program for under-represented persons (2011 - 2011)
  • Clinical Mentor, Stanford Molecular Imaging Scholars Program (2010 - Present)
  • Associate Member, Stanford Cancer Institute Translational Oncology Program (2008 - Present)
  • Founding Advisor, Stanford Association for Multidisciplinary Medicine and Science (2008 - 2013)
  • Member, Stanford Lymphoma Disease Management Group (2005 - 2013)

Honors & Awards


  • Career Development Award, ConquerCancer/ASCO (2016-2019)
  • K23 Career Development Award, NIH/NCI (July 2010-June 2015)
  • R21: Analysis of CTCs for Early Prediction of Response to Treatment in RCC, NIH/NCI (2014-2016)
  • Innovation Award, Stanford Cancer Institute (2014-2016)
  • Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence: leader of the Clinical Translational Core, NIH/NCI (2015-2020)
  • R21: Nanoscale proteomic profiles of hypoxia pathways to develop biomarkers of renal cell carcinoma, NIH/NCI (August 2012-July 2014)
  • Developmental Cancer Research Award, Stanford Cancer Institute (September 2011-August 2012)
  • TRAM Renewal Grant: Development of blood biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of kidney cancer, Stanford Department of Medicine (October 2012-August 2013)
  • Translational Research and Applied Medicine Program (TRAM) Pilot Grant, Stanford Department of Medicine (October 2011-September 2012)
  • Special Fellow in Clinical Research, Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (July 2006-June 2009)
  • Research Fellowship, Lymphoma Research Foundation (July 2004-June 2006)
  • Dean's Fellowship, Stanford School of Medicine (April 2004- March 2005)

Professional Education


  • Fellowship:Stanford University Hematology and Oncology Fellowship (2006) CA
  • Medical Education:Albany Medical College Office of the Registrar (1998) NY
  • Board Certification: Medical Oncology, American Board of Internal Medicine (2004)
  • Board Certification: Internal Medicine, American Board of Internal Medicine (2001)
  • Residency:Warren Alpert Medical School Brown University (2001) RI
  • Internship:Warren Alpert Medical School Brown University (1999) RI
  • B.A., Harvard College, Biophysics (1994)

Community and International Work


  • Student Travel Health, Stanford Orchestra Tour Physician, Australia, New Zealand, China

    Topic

    2004 Australia/New Zealand Concerts, 2008 China Concerts

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Stanford Symphony Orchestra

    Populations Served

    students

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Violinist, Stanford Hosptial Bing Music Series, Stanford Hospital

    Topic

    Chamber Music

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Founding member of non-profit organization, "Lemonaide", Stanford Cancer Center

    Topic

    Helping adult patients and families

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    Yes

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    Yes

  • Outreach Speaker, Chinese Community Clinical Trials Forum

    Location

    Bay Area

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

  • Grand Rounds Speaker, Hualien Hospital serving aboriginal and local Taiwanese populations, Taiwan

    Topic

    Novel Therapeutics in Lymphoma

    Populations Served

    Aboriginal and Local Taiwanese populations

    Location

    International

    Ongoing Project

    No

    Opportunities for Student Involvement

    No

Patents


  • Alice Fan, Dean Felsher. "United States Patent 10145851 Discovery and validation of cancer biomarkers using a protein analysis methodology to analyze specimens", Leland Stanford Junior University, Dec 4, 2018

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Dr. Fan studies how turning off oncogenes (cancer genes) can cause tumor regression in preclinical and clinical studies. Based on preclinical findings, she has initiated clinical trials studying how tyrosine kinase inhibitors impact the hypoxia pathway in kidney cancer and the use of atorvastatin for the treatment of patients with certain non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. In the laboratory, she also uses preclinical models of cancer to validate new nanotechnology strategies for tumor diagnosis and treatment. She has shown that a new nano-immunoassay (NIA) can be used to measure how well drugs work in tumor cells sampled from individual patients with leukemia, lymphoma and myelodysplastic syndrome taking novel targeted therapies (Fan et al. Nature Medicine 2009, Seetharam, Fan et al. Leukemia Research 2012, Fan et al Oncotarget 2012). She is currently expanding her translational research to include early diagnostics, therapeutic monitoring, and prediction of response to therapeutics in solid tumors such as kidney cancer and lung cancer, with the goal of helping to make personalized medicine possible.

Clinical Trials


  • CANTATA: CB-839 With Cabozantinib vs. Cabozantinib With Placebo in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Recruiting

    This clinical trial is a randomized Phase 2 evaluation of CB-839 (telaglenastat) in combination with cabozantinib versus placebo with cabozantinib in patients with advanced or metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma with a clear cell component.

    View full details

  • Standard-Dose Combination Chemotherapy or High-Dose Combination Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Germ Cell Tumors Recruiting

    This randomized phase III trial studies how well standard-dose combination chemotherapy works compared to high-dose combination chemotherapy and stem cell transplant in treating patients with germ cell tumors that have returned after a period of improvement or did not respond to treatment. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as paclitaxel, ifosfamide, cisplatin, carboplatin, and etoposide, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Giving chemotherapy before a stem cell transplant stops the growth of cancer cells by stopping them from dividing or killing them. Giving colony-stimulating factors, such as filgrastim or pegfilgrastim, and certain chemotherapy drugs, helps stem cells move from the bone marrow to the blood so they can be collected and stored. Chemotherapy is then given to prepare the bone marrow for the stem cell transplant. The stem cells are then returned to the patient to replace the blood-forming cells that were destroyed by the chemotherapy. It is not yet known whether high-dose combination chemotherapy and stem cell transplant are more effective than standard-dose combination chemotherapy in treating patients with refractory or relapsed germ cell tumors.

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  • 18F-FSPG PET/CT for Cancer Patients on Therapy Not Recruiting

    The goal of this phase 2 study trial is to evaluate the utility of the radiolabel 18F-FSPG used before and after treatment to diagnose, predict, and evaluate response to therapy in patients with a wide variety of metastatic cancers.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Phuong Pham, 650-725-9810.

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  • A Phase II Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of AZD6094 (HMPL-504) in Patients With Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma (PRCC) Not Recruiting

    This is an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, global, phase II study designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AZD6094 in patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) who are treatment naïve or previously treated. An independent central pathology review of tumour samples will be used to confirm the diagnosis of PRCC of all patients enrolling. However, locally available pathology results confirming PRCC will be allowed for timely study entry.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Denise Haas, 650-736-1252.

    View full details

  • A Study of Apalutamide (ARN-509) in Men With Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apalutamide in adult men with high-risk non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Denise Haas, 650-736-1252.

    View full details

  • A Study of Atezolizumab in Participants With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Bladder Cancer (Cohort 2) Not Recruiting

    This Phase II, single-arm study is designed to evaluate the effect of atezolizumab treatment in participants with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial bladder cancer. Participants will be enrolled into 1 of 2 cohorts. Cohort 1 will consist of participants who are treatment-naïve and ineligible for cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. The results of Cohort 1 are reported separately (NCT02951767). Cohort 2 (reported here) will contain participants who have progressed during or following a prior platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Participants in both cohorts will be given a 1200 milligrams (mg) intravenous (IV) dose of atezolizumab on Day 1 of 21-day cycles. Treatment of participants in Cohort 1 will continue until disease progression per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors Version 1.1 (RECIST v1.1) or unmanageable toxicity. Treatment of participants in Cohort 2 will continue until loss of clinical benefit or unmanageable toxicity.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Denise Haas, 650-736-1252.

    View full details

  • A Study of Atezolizumab Versus Observation as Adjuvant Therapy in Participants With High-Risk Muscle-Invasive Urothelial Carcinoma (UC) After Surgical Resection Not Recruiting

    This Phase III, open-label, randomized, multicenter study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adjuvant treatment with atezolizumab compared with observation in participants with muscle-invasive UC who are at high risk for recurrence following resection. Eligible participants will be randomized by a 1:1 ratio into atezolizumab group or control group.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Denise Haas, 650-736-1252.

    View full details

  • A Study of Escalating Doses of ASG-22CE Given as Monotherapy in Subjects With Metastatic Urothelial Cancer and Other Malignant Solid Tumors That Express Nectin-4 Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of enfortumab vedotin as well as assess the immunogenicity and antitumor activity in subjects with metastatic urothelial cancer and other malignant solid tumors that express Nectin-4.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • Adjuvant Axitinib Therapy of Renal Cell Cancer in High Risk Patients Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this trial is to determine if adjuvant therapy with axitinib will prevent or delay the recurrence of renal cell cancer after surgery to remove the primary tumor in high risk patients.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Denise Haas, 650-736-1252.

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  • An Efficacy and Safety Study of Erdafitinib (JNJ-42756493) in Participants With Urothelial Cancer Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the objective response rate (complete response [CR]+ partial response [PR]) of the selected dose regimen in participants with metastatic or surgically unresectable urothelial cancers that harbor specific FGFR genomic alterations.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • An Expanded Access Study of Atezolizumab in Participants With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma After Failure With Platinum-Containing Chemotherapy Not Recruiting

    This is an open-label, multicenter, single-arm, expanded access program (EAP) designed to provide atezolizumab access to participants with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma that has progressed on, or is intolerant to, a platinum-containing chemotherapy regimen.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • ENTRATA: CB-839 With Everolimus vs. Placebo With Everolimus in Patients With RCC Not Recruiting

    Phase 2 Study Comparing CB-839 in Combination with Everolimus (CBE) vs. Placebo with Everolimus (PboE) in Patients with Advanced or Metastatic RCC

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Denise Haas, 650-736-1252.

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  • Ipatasertib Plus Abiraterone Plus Prednisone/Prednisolone, Relative to Placebo Plus Abiraterone Plus Prednisone/Prednisolone in Adult Male Patients With Metastatic Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of ipatasertib plus abiraterone and prednisone/prednisolone compared with placebo plus abiraterone and prednisone/prednisolone in participants with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • Lenvatinib/Everolimus or Lenvatinib/Pembrolizumab Versus Sunitinib Alone as Treatment of Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Not Recruiting

    This is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, Phase 3 study to compare the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in combination with everolimus (Arm A) or pembrolizumab (Arm B) versus sunitinib (Arm C) as first-line treatment in participants with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • Nivolumab Combined With Ipilimumab Versus Sunitinib in Previously Untreated Advanced or Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (CheckMate 214) Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to compare the objective response rate, progression free survival and the overall survival of Nivolumab combined with Ipilimumab to Sunitinib monotherapy in patients with previously untreated Renal Cell Cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Denise Haas, 650-736-1252.

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  • ODM-201 in Addition to Standard ADT and Docetaxel in Metastatic Castration Sensitive Prostate Cancer Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to assess the efficacy and safety of BAY1841788 (darolutamide (ODM-201)) in combination with standard androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and docetaxel in patients with metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Cancer Clinical Trials Office (CCTO), 650-498-7061.

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  • Perfusion CT Monitoring to Predict Treatment Efficacy in Renal Cell Carcinoma Not Recruiting

    This pilot clinical trial studies perfusion computed tomography (CT) in predicting response to treatment in patients with advanced kidney cancer. Comparing results of diagnostic procedures done before, during, and after targeted therapy may help doctors predict a patient's response to treatment and help plan the best treatment.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Yoriko Imae, 650-498-5186.

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  • Phase 2 Study of Atorvastatin Safety and Antitumor Effects in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    This is an approach which can inflict significant toxicity. An alternative is to block expression of oncogenes which are over-expressed only in cancer cells, a therapeutic approach which could reduce toxicity to the host while maximizing destruction of the oncogene-dependent malignant cells.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Alice Fan, 650-736-1285.

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  • Randomized Study of ON 01910.Na in Refractory Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients With Excess Blasts Not Recruiting

    The primary objective of this study is to compare overall survival (OS) in patients receiving ON 01910.Na + best supportive care (BSC) to OS of patients receiving BSC in a population of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with excess blasts (5% to 30% bone marrow blasts) who have failed azacitidine or decitabine treatment. This patient population has no available therapy and a short life expectancy (approximately 4 months). The high level of bone marrow activity of ON 01910.Na documented in Phase 1 and 2 studies has the potential to delay substantially the transition of MDS to Acute Myeloid Leukemia(AML), a very significant and severe complication, which shortens survival of these MDS patients.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Savita Kamble, (650) 723 - 8594.

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  • S1314, Co-expression Extrapolation (COXEN) Program to Predict Chemotherapy Response in Patients With Bladder Cancer Not Recruiting

    The primary focus of this study is to see if looking at tumor biomarkers using a program called coexpression extrapolation or "COXEN" may predict a patient's response to chemotherapy before surgery.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Preeti Chavan, 650-723-5957.

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  • Safety and Pharmacology of SNX-5422 Plus Everolimus in Subjects With Neuroendocrine Tumors Not Recruiting

    Study is designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of SNX-5422 when given in combination with everolimus.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Jennifer Dauriac, 650-736-0697.

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  • Safety Study of ABT-263 in Combination With Rituximab in Lymphoid Cancers Not Recruiting

    This is a Phase 1 study evaluating the safety of ABT-263 administered in combination with rituximab in subjects with CD20-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. The extension portion of the study will allow active subjects to continue to receive ABT-263 for up to 9 years after the last subject transitions with quarterly study evaluations.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Euodia Jonathan, (650) 725 - 6432.

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  • Study CB-839 in Combination With Nivolumab in Patients With Melanoma, ccRCC and NSCLC Not Recruiting

    This study is an open-label Phase 1/ 2 evaluation of CB-839 in combination with nivolumab in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and non-small cell lung cancer.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

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  • Study of Dalantercept and Axitinib in Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Not Recruiting

    The purpose of Part 1 of this study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of dalantercept in combination with axitinib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to determine the recommended dose level of dalantercept in combination with axitinib for Part 2. The purpose of Part 2 of this study is to determine whether treatment with dalantercept in combination with axitinib prolongs progression free survival (PFS) compared to axitinib alone in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Denise Haas, 650-736-1252.

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  • Study of MEDI4736 Monotherapy and in Combination With Tremelimumab Versus Standard of Care Therapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer Not Recruiting

    This is a randomized, open-label, multi-center, global, Phase III study to determine the efficacy and safety of MEDI4736 + tremelimumab combination therapy and MEDI4736 monotherapy versus SoC therapy in the target patient population.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Mary (Tookie) May, 650-721-4079.

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  • Study of the Glutaminase Inhibitor CB-839 in Solid Tumors Not Recruiting

    Many tumor cells, in contrast to normal cells, have been shown to require the amino acid glutamine to produce energy for growth and survival. To exploit the dependence of tumors on glutamine, CB-839, a potent and selective inhibitor of the first enzyme in glutamine utilization, glutaminase, will be tested in this Phase 1 study in patients with solid tumors. This study is an open-label Phase 1 evaluation of CB-839 in patients with advanced solid tumors. The study will be conducted in 2 parts. Part 1 is a dose escalation study enrolling patients with locally-advanced, metastatic and/or refractory solid tumors to receive CB-839 capsules orally twice or three times daily. In Part 2, patients with each of the following diseases will be enrolled: A) Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, B) Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (adenocarcinoma), C) Renal Cell Cancer, D) Mesothelioma, E) Fumarate hydratase (FH)-deficient tumors, F) Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), G) SDH-deficient non-GIST tumors, H) tumors harboring mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) or IDH2, and I) cMyc mutation tumors. As an extension of Parts 1 & 2, patients will be treated with CB-839 in combination with standard chemotherapy. Combination groups include: Pac-CB, CBE, CB-Erl, CBD, and CB-Cabo. Pac-CB: patients with locally-advanced or metastatic TNBC will be treated with paclitaxel and CB-839. CBE: patients with advanced clear cell RCC or papillary RCC will be treated with everolimus in combination with CB-839. CB-Erl: patients with advanced NSCLC lacking the T790M EGFR mutation will be treated with erlotinib and CB-839. CBD: patients with NSCLC harboring KRAS mutation will be treated with docetaxel and CB-839. CB-Cabo: patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis of locally-advanced, inoperable or metastatic RCC treated with cabozantinib in combination with CB-839. All patients will be assessed for safety, pharmacokinetics (plasma concentration of drug), pharmacodynamics (inhibition of glutaminase), biomarkers (biochemical markers that may predict responsiveness in later studies), and tumor response.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Pei-Jen Chang, 650-725-0866.

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Teaching

Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

All Publications


  • 18F-FPPRGD2 PET/CT in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer. European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging Toriihara, A., Duan, H., Thompson, H. M., Park, S., Hatami, N., Baratto, L., Fan, A. C., Iagaru, A. 2019

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: The usefulness of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) using (18F)-2-fluoropropionyl-labeled PEGylated dimeric arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide [PEG3-E{c(RGDyk)}2] (18F-FPPRGD2) in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) has not been evaluated; therefore, we were prompted to conduct this pilot study.METHODS: Seven patients with mRCC were enrolled in this prospective study. 18F-FPPRGD2 and 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG) PET/CT images were evaluated in a per-lesion analysis. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and tumor-to-background ratio (T/B) were measured for all detected lesions, both before and after starting antiangiogenic therapy.RESULTS: Sixty lesions in total were detected in this cohort. SUVmax from 18F-FPPRGD2 PET/CT was lower than that from 18F-FDG PET/CT (4.4±2.9 vs 7.8±5.6, P<0.001). Both SUVmax and T/B from 18F-FPPRGD2 PET/CT decreased after starting antiangiogenic therapy (SUVmax, 4.2±3.2 vs 2.6±1.4, P=0.003; T/B, 3.7±3.2 vs 1.5±0.8, P<0.001). Average changes in SUVmax and T/B were-29.3±23.6% and-48.1±28.3%, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: 18F-FPPRGD2 PET/CT may be an useful tool for monitoring early response to antiangiogenic therapy in patients with mRCC. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in larger cohorts.

    View details for PubMedID 30850872

  • The 'Achilles Heel' of Metabolism in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Glutaminase Inhibition as a Rational Treatment Strategy. Kidney cancer Hoerner, C. R., Chen, V. J., Fan, A. C. 2019; 3 (1): 15–29

    Abstract

    An important hallmark of cancer is 'metabolic reprogramming' or the rewiring of cellular metabolism to support rapid cell proliferation [1-5]. Metabolic reprogramming through oncometabolite-mediated transformation or activation of oncogenes in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) globally impacts energy production as well as glucose and glutamine utilization in RCC cells, which can promote dependence on glutamine supply to support cell growth and proliferation [6, 7]. Novel inhibitors of glutaminase, a key enzyme in glutamine metabolism, target glutamine addiction as a viable treatment strategy in metastatic RCC (mRCC). Here, we review glutamine metabolic pathways and how changes in cellular glutamine utilization enable the progression of RCC. This overview provides scientific rationale for targeting this pathway in patients with mRCC. We will summarize the current understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying anti-tumor efficacy of glutaminase inhibitors in RCC, provide an overview of clinical efforts targeting glutaminase in mRCC, and review approaches for identifying biomarkers for patient stratification and detecting therapeutic response early on in patients treated with this novel class of anti-cancer drug. Ultimately, results of ongoing clinical trials will demonstrate whether glutaminase inhibition can be a worthy addition to the current armamentarium of drugs used for patients with mRCC.

    View details for PubMedID 30854496

  • Early Changes in CT Perfusion Parameters: Primary Renal Carcinoma Versus Metastases After Treatment with Targeted Therapy. Cancers Fan, A. C., Sundaram, V., Kino, A., Schmiedeskamp, H., Metzner, T. J., Kamaya, A. 2019; 11 (5)

    Abstract

    Computed tomography (CT) perfusion is a novel imaging method to determine tumor perfusion using a low-dose CT technique to measure iodine concentration at multiple time points. We determined if early changes in perfusion differ between primary renal tumors and metastatic tumor sites in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) receiving targeted anti-angiogenic therapy. A total of 10 patients with advanced RCC underwent a CT perfusion scan at treatment baseline and at one week after initiating treatment. Perfusion measurements included blood volume (BV), blood flow (BF), and flow extraction product (FEP) in a total of 13 lesions (six primary RCC tumors, seven RCC metastases). Changes between baseline and week 1 were compared between tumor locations: primary kidney tumors vs metastases. Metastatic lesions had a greater decrease in BF (average BF difference ± standard deviation (SD): -75.0 mL/100 mL/min ± 81) compared to primary kidney masses (-25.5 mL/100 mL/min ± 35). Metastatic tumors had a wider variation of change in BF, BV and FEP measures compared to primary renal tumors. Tumor diameters showed little change after one week, but early perfusion changes are evident, especially in metastatic lesions compared to primary lesions. Future studies are needed to determine if these changes can predict which patients are benefiting from targeted therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 31052289

  • Real-time nanoscale proteomic analysis of the novel multi-kinase pathway inhibitor rigosertib to measure the response to treatment of cancer. Expert opinion on investigational drugs Fan, A. C., O'Rourke, J. J., Praharaj, D. R., Felsher, D. W. 2013; 22 (11): 1495-1509

    Abstract

    Rigosertib (ON01910.Na), is a targeted therapeutic that inhibits multiple kinases, including PI3K and PIk-1. Rigosertib has been found to induce the proliferative arrest and apoptosis of myeloblasts but not of other normal hematopoietic cells. Rigosertib has significant clinical activity as a therapy for patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome who are otherwise refractory to DNA methyltransferase inhibitors. Moreover, rigosertib has potential clinical activity in a multitude of solid tumors.The objective of this review is to evaluate the mechanism of activity, efficacy and dosing of rigosertib. Furthermore, the challenge in the clinical development of rigosertib, to identify the specific patients that are most likely to benefit from this therapeutic agent, is discussed. A PubMed search was performed using the following key words: rigosertib and ON01910.Na.We describe the application of a novel nanoscale proteomic assay, the nanoimmunoassay, a tractable approach for measuring the activity and predicting the efficacy of rigosertib, in real-time, using limited human clinical specimens. Our strategy suggests a possible paradigm where proteomic analysis during the pre-clinical and clinical development of a therapy can be used to uncover biomarkers for the analysis and prediction of efficacy in human patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1517/13543784.2013.829453

    View details for PubMedID 23937225

  • "Picolog," a Synthetically-Available Bryostatin Analog, Inhibits Growth of MYC-Induced Lymphoma In Vivo ONCOTARGET DeChristopher, B. A., Fan, A. C., Felsher, D. W., Wender, P. A. 2012; 3 (1): 58-66

    Abstract

    Bryostatin 1 is a naturally occurring complex macrolide with potent anti-neoplastic activity. However, its extremely low natural occurrence has impeded clinical advancement. We developed a strategy directed at the design of simplified and synthetically more accessible bryostatin analogs. Our lead analog, "picolog", can be step-economically produced. Picolog, compared to bryostatin, exhibited superior growth inhibition of MYC-induced lymphoma in vitro. A key mechanism of picolog's (and bryostatin's) activity is activation of PKC. A novel nano-immunoassay (NIA) revealed that picolog treatment increased phospho-MEK2 in the PKC pathway. Moreover, the inhibition of PKC abrogated picolog's activity. Finally, picolog was highly potent at 100 micrograms/kg and well tolerated at doses ranging from 100 micrograms/kg to 1 milligram/kg in vivo for the treatment of our aggressive model of MYC-induced lymphoma. We provide the first in vivo validation that the bryostatin analog, picolog, is a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer and other diseases.

    View details for PubMedID 22308267

  • Nanofluidic proteomic assay for serial analysis of oncoprotein activation in clinical specimens NATURE MEDICINE Fan, A. C., Deb-Basu, D., Orban, M. W., Gotlib, J. R., Natkunam, Y., O'Neill, R., Padua, R., Xu, L., Taketa, D., Shirer, A. E., Beer, S., Yee, A. X., Voehringer, D. W., Felsher, D. W. 2009; 15 (5): 566-571

    Abstract

    Current methods of protein detection are insensitive to detecting subtle changes in oncoprotein activation that underlie key cancer signaling processes. The requirement for large numbers of cells precludes serial tumor sampling for assessing a response to therapeutics. Therefore, we have developed a nanofluidic proteomic immunoassay (NIA) to quantify total and low-abundance protein isoforms in nanoliter volumes. Our method can quantify amounts of MYC oncoprotein and B cell lymphoma protein-2 (BCL2) in Burkitt's and follicular lymphoma; identify changes in activation of extracellular signal-related kinases-1 (ERK1) and ERK2, mitogen-activated kinase-1 (MEK), signal transducer and activator of transcription protein-3 (STAT3) and STAT5, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 in imatinib-treated chronic myelogeneous leukemia (CML) cells; measure an unanticipated change in the phosphorylation of an ERK2 isomer in individuals with CML who responded to imatinib; and detect a decrease in STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation in individuals with lymphoma who were treated with atorvastatin. Therefore, we have described a new and highly sensitive method for determining oncoprotein expression and phosphorylation in clinical specimens for the development of new therapeutics for cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.1903

    View details for PubMedID 19363496

  • Supramolecular Stacking of Doxorubicin on Carbon Nanotubes for In Vivo Cancer Therapy ANGEWANDTE CHEMIE-INTERNATIONAL EDITION Liu, Z., Fan, A. C., Rakhra, K., Sherlock, S., Goodwin, A., Chen, X., Yang, Q., Felsher, D. W., Dai, H. 2009; 48 (41): 7668-7672

    View details for DOI 10.1002/anie.200902612

    View details for PubMedID 19760685

  • A quantitative PCR method to detect blood microRNAs associated with tumorigenesis in transgenic mice MOLECULAR CANCER Fan, A. C., Goldrick, M. M., Ho, J., Liang, Y., Bachireddy, P., Felsher, D. W. 2008; 7

    Abstract

    MicroRNA (miRNA) dysregulation frequently occurs in cancer. Analysis of whole blood miRNA in tumor models has not been widely reported, but could potentially lead to novel assays for early detection and monitoring of cancer. To determine whether miRNAs associated with malignancy could be detected in the peripheral blood, we used real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR to determine miRNA profiles in whole blood obtained from transgenic mice with c-MYC-induced lymphoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and osteosarcoma. The PCR-based assays used in our studies require only 10 nanograms of total RNA, allowing serial mini-profiles (20 - 30 miRNAs) to be carried out on individual animals over time. Blood miRNAs were measured from mice at different stages of MYC-induced lymphomagenesis and regression. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the data identified specific miRNA expression profiles that correlated with tumor type and stage. The miRNAs found to be altered in the blood of mice with tumors frequently reverted to normal levels upon tumor regression. Our results suggest that specific changes in blood miRNA can be detected during tumorigenesis and tumor regression.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1476-4598-7-74

    View details for PubMedID 18826639

  • Combined Inactivation of MYC and K-Ras Oncogenes Reverses Tumorigenesis in Lung Adenocarcinomas and Lymphomas PLOS ONE Tran, P. T., Fan, A. C., Bendapudi, P. K., Koh, S., Komatsubara, K., Chen, J., Horng, G., Bellovin, D. I., Giuriato, S., Wang, C. S., Whitsett, J. A., Felsher, D. W. 2008; 3 (5)

    Abstract

    Conditional transgenic models have established that tumors require sustained oncogene activation for tumor maintenance, exhibiting the phenomenon known as "oncogene-addiction." However, most cancers are caused by multiple genetic events making it difficult to determine which oncogenes or combination of oncogenes will be the most effective targets for their treatment.To examine how the MYC and K-ras(G12D) oncogenes cooperate for the initiation and maintenance of tumorigenesis, we generated double conditional transgenic tumor models of lung adenocarcinoma and lymphoma. The ability of MYC and K-ras(G12D) to cooperate for tumorigenesis and the ability of the inactivation of these oncogenes to result in tumor regression depended upon the specific tissue context. MYC-, K-ras(G12D)- or MYC/K-ras(G12D)-induced lymphomas exhibited sustained regression upon the inactivation of either or both oncogenes. However, in marked contrast, MYC-induced lung tumors failed to regress completely upon oncogene inactivation; whereas K-ras(G12D)-induced lung tumors regressed completely. Importantly, the combined inactivation of both MYC and K-ras(G12D) resulted more frequently in complete lung tumor regression. To account for the different roles of MYC and K-ras(G12D) in maintenance of lung tumors, we found that the down-stream mediators of K-ras(G12D) signaling, Stat3 and Stat5, are dephosphorylated following conditional K-ras(G12D) but not MYC inactivation. In contrast, Stat3 becomes dephosphorylated in lymphoma cells upon inactivation of MYC and/or K-ras(G12D). Interestingly, MYC-induced lung tumors that failed to regress upon MYC inactivation were found to have persistent Stat3 and Stat5 phosphorylation.Taken together, our findings point to the importance of the K-Ras and associated down-stream Stat effector pathways in the initiation and maintenance of lymphomas and lung tumors. We suggest that combined targeting of oncogenic pathways is more likely to be effective in the treatment of lung cancers and lymphomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0002125

    View details for PubMedID 18461184

  • F-18-FPPRGD(2) PET/CT in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer Toriihara, A., Duan, H., Park, S., Hatami, N., Baratto, L., Fan, A., Iagaru, A. SOC NUCLEAR MEDICINE INC. 2018
  • Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Fumarate Hydratase-Deficient and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma-Associated Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Series of 10 Cases Lau, H., Williamson, S. R., Kunder, C., Fan, A. C., Kao, C. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2018: 358
  • Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Fumarate Hydratase-Deficient and Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma-Associated Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Series of 10 Cases Lau, H., Williamson, S. R., Kunder, C., Fan, A. C., Kao, C. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2018: 358
  • Serum miR371a Quantitation for Assessing Tumor Burden in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors Kunder, C., Imae, Y., Srinivas, S., Fan, A. C. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2018: 703
  • Acquired Resistance to Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitor Olaparib in BRCA2-Associated Prostate Cancer Resulting From Biallelic BRCA2 Reversion Mutations Restores Both Germline and Somatic Loss-of-Function Mutations JCO PRECISION ONCOLOGY Carneiro, B. A., Collier, K., Nagy, R. J., Pamarthy, S., Sagar, V., Fairclough, S., Odegaard, J., Lanman, R. B., Costa, R., Taxter, T., Kuzel, T. M., Fan, A., Chae, Y., Cristofanilli, M., Hussain, M. H., Abdulkadir, S. A., Giles, F. J. 2018; 2
  • A phase 1/2 study of CB-839, a first-in-class glutaminase inhibitor, combined with nivolumab in patients with advanced melanoma (MEL), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) Meric-Bernstam, F., Gordon, M., Tykodi, S., Lam, E., Vaishampayan, U., Chaves, J., Nikolinakos, P., Fan, A., Lee, R., McDermott, D., Shapiro, G., Gandhi, L., Tawbi, H., Bhatia, S., Muigai, L., Jenkins, Y., Whiting, S., Voss, M. BMC. 2017
  • KB004, a first in class monoclonal antibody targeting the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA3, in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies: Results from a phase 1 study (vol 50, pg 123, 2016) LEUKEMIA RESEARCH Swords, R. T., Greenberg, P. L., Wei, A. H., Durrant, S., Advani, A. S., Hertzberg, M. S., Lewis, I. D., Rivera, G., Gratzinger, D., Fan, A. C., Felsher, D. W., Cortes, J. E., Watts, J. M., Yarranton, G. T., Walling, J. M., Lancet, J. E. 2017; 59: 65

    View details for PubMedID 28575698

  • Economic burden of empiric drug utilization in metastatic renal cell carcinoma emphasizes the need for early biomarkers of response. Chen, V., Gong, C., Zhang, C. A., Srinivas, S., Lee, H. E., Fan, A. C. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2017
  • Consolidative Radiotherapy in Metastatic Urothelial Cancer. Clinical genitourinary cancer Shah, S., Zhang, C. A., Hancock, S., Fan, A., Skinner, E., Srinivas, S. 2017

    Abstract

    We report outcomes of a retrospective, single-institution experience with consolidative radiation after chemotherapy in metastatic urothelial cancer (MUC).From our single-institution database of 2597 patients with urothelial carcinoma treated since 1997, we identified 22 patients with MUC who underwent consolidative radiotherapy after a partial response to chemotherapy with the intent of rendering them disease-free. All patients had undergone primary surgical therapy with either cystectomy or nephroureterectomy. Progression-free survival (PFS) was defined as time from completion of radiation therapy to relapse or last follow-up. Overall survival (OS) was defined as time from start of chemotherapy to death or last follow-up.In the selected group of patients with MUC, the median age was 67 years; 59% had received previous cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The most common sites radiated were the regional lymph nodes (64%). Other radiated sites included the lung, adrenal glands, and omental metastases. Median survival from diagnosis to cystectomy was 48 months. Median PFS was 13 months and median OS was 29 months. Eight patients (36%) were alive and disease-free 6 years after radiation therapy. Patients who were rendered disease-free were those with nodal metastases and delivery of radiation to a single site of metastasis.In this highly selective cohort of patients with MUC treated with consolidative radiation after chemotherapy, 36% were rendered disease-free. This suggests that radiation is feasible and might contribute to long-term disease control. Further prospective studies are needed to better characterize the benefit of combined modality treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clgc.2017.04.007

    View details for PubMedID 28465049

  • INTRA-TUMOR HETEROGENEITY IN RENAL CELL CARCINOMA: IMPLICATIONS FOR PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF RENAL MASS BIOPSIES Massoudi, R., Hoerner, C., Metzner, T., O'Rourke, J., Curtis, R., Stell, L., Sabatti, C., Brooks, J., Fan, A., Leppert, J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2017: E496–E497
  • High-throughput screening of tyrosine kinase inhibitor cardiotoxicity with human induced pluripotent stem cells. Science translational medicine Sharma, A., Burridge, P. W., McKeithan, W. L., Serrano, R., Shukla, P., Sayed, N., Churko, J. M., Kitani, T., Wu, H., Holmström, A., Matsa, E., Zhang, Y., Kumar, A., Fan, A. C., Del Álamo, J. C., Wu, S. M., Moslehi, J. J., Mercola, M., Wu, J. C. 2017; 9 (377)

    Abstract

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), despite their efficacy as anticancer therapeutics, are associated with cardiovascular side effects ranging from induced arrhythmias to heart failure. We used human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs), generated from 11 healthy individuals and 2 patients receiving cancer treatment, to screen U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved TKIs for cardiotoxicities by measuring alterations in cardiomyocyte viability, contractility, electrophysiology, calcium handling, and signaling. With these data, we generated a "cardiac safety index" to reflect the cardiotoxicities of existing TKIs. TKIs with low cardiac safety indices exhibit cardiotoxicity in patients. We also derived endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs) and cardiac fibroblasts (hiPSC-CFs) to examine cell type-specific cardiotoxicities. Using high-throughput screening, we determined that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-inhibiting TKIs caused cardiotoxicity in hiPSC-CMs, hiPSC-ECs, and hiPSC-CFs. With phosphoprotein analysis, we determined that VEGFR2/PDGFR-inhibiting TKIs led to a compensatory increase in cardioprotective insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling in hiPSC-CMs. Up-regulating cardioprotective signaling with exogenous insulin or IGF1 improved hiPSC-CM viability during cotreatment with cardiotoxic VEGFR2/PDGFR-inhibiting TKIs. Thus, hiPSC-CMs can be used to screen for cardiovascular toxicities associated with anticancer TKIs, and the results correlate with clinical phenotypes. This approach provides unexpected insights, as illustrated by our finding that toxicity can be alleviated via cardioprotective insulin/IGF signaling.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaf2584

    View details for PubMedID 28202772

  • Monitoring Neutropenia for Cancer Patients at the Point of Care Small Methods Inan, H., et al 2017

    View details for DOI 10.1002/smtd.201700193

  • Monitoring Neutropenia for Cancer Patients at the Point of Care. Small methods Inan, H., Kingsley, J. L., Ozen, M. O., Tekin, H. C., Hoerner, C. R., Imae, Y., Metzner, T. J., Preiss, J. S., Durmus, N. G., Ozsoz, M., Wakelee, H., Fan, A. C., Tüzel, E., Demirci, U. 2017; 1 (9)

    Abstract

    Neutrophils have a critical role in regulating the immune system. The immune system is compromised during chemotherapy, increasing infection risks and imposing a need for regular monitoring of neutrophil counts. Although commercial hematology analyzers are currently used in clinical practice for neutrophil counts, they are only available in clinics and hospitals, use large blood volumes, and are not available at the point of care (POC). Additionally, phlebotomy and blood processing require trained personnel, where patients are often admitted to hospitals when the infections are at late stage due to lack of frequent monitoring. Here, a reliable method is presented that selectively captures and quantifies white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils from a finger prick volume of whole blood by integrating microfluidics with high-resolution imaging algorithms. The platform is compact, portable, and easy to use. It captures and quantifies WBCs and neutrophils with high efficiency (>95%) and specificity (>95%) with an overall 4.2% bias compared to standard testing. The results from a small cohort of patients (N = 11 healthy, N = 5 lung and kidney cancer) present a unique disposable cell counter, demonstrating the ability of this tool to monitor neutrophil and WBC counts within clinical or in resource-constrained environments.

    View details for PubMedID 30740513

  • KB004, a first in class monoclonal antibody targeting the receptor tyrosine kinase EphA3, in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies: Results from a phase 1 study. Leukemia research Swords, R. T., Greenberg, P. L., Wei, A. H., Durrant, S., Advani, A. S., Hertzberg, M. S., Lewis, I. D., Rivera, G., Gratzinger, D., Fan, A. C., Felsher, D. W., Cortes, J. E., Watts, J. M., Yarranton, G. T., Walling, J. M., Lancet, J. E. 2016; 50: 123-131

    Abstract

    EphA3 is an Ephrin receptor tyrosine kinase that is overexpressed in most hematologic malignancies. We performed a first-in-human multicenter phase I study of the anti-EphA3 monoclonal antibody KB004 in refractory hematologic malignancies in order to determine safety and tolerability, along with the secondary objectives of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) assessments, as well as preliminary assessment of efficacy. Patients were enrolled on a dose escalation phase (DEP) initially, followed by a cohort expansion phase (CEP). KB004 was administered by intravenous infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 of each 21-day cycle in escalating doses. A total of 50 patients (AML 39, MDS/MPN 3, MDS 4, DLBCL 1, MF 3) received KB004 in the DEP; an additional 14 patients were treated on the CEP (AML 8, MDS 6). The most common toxicities were transient grade 1 and grade 2 infusion reactions (IRs) in 79% of patients. IRs were dose limiting above 250mg. Sustained exposure exceeding the predicted effective concentration (1ug/mL) and covering the 7-day interval between doses was achieved above 190mg. Responses were observed in patients with AML, MF, MDS/MPN and MDS. In this study, KB004 was well tolerated and clinically active when given as a weekly infusion.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.leukres.2016.09.012

    View details for PubMedID 27736729

  • Phase II Study of Pazopanib and Paclitaxel in Patients With Refractory Urothelial Cancer. Clinical genitourinary cancer Narayanan, S., Lam, A., Vaishampayan, U., Harshman, L., Fan, A., Pachynski, R., Poushnejad, S., Haas, D., Li, S., Srinivas, S. 2016; 14 (5): 432-437

    Abstract

    Currently, no standard treatments are available for relapsed or refractory urothelial carcinoma (UC). Paclitaxel has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of UC when used alone or combined with other cytotoxic therapies. We designed a phase II trial combining paclitaxel with pazopanib, a commonly used antiangiogenic agent with significant antitumor activity in various solid tumors.We enrolled 32 patients with refractory UC who had demonstrated disease progression after 2 previous chemotherapeutic regimens. The patients received paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle and oral pazopanib 800 mg daily. The primary endpoint was the overall response rate (ORR). The secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, overall survival, and a safety assessment of the combination.Of the 28 evaluable patients, a complete response was observed in 3 patients and a partial response in 12, with an ORR of 54% (95% confidence interval, 33.9-72.5). The median progression-free and overall survival was 6.2 and 10 months, respectively. The most frequent side effects noted (all grades) were fatigue (63%), diarrhea (44%), and nausea and vomiting (41%). Hematologic toxicities were common and included (all grades) anemia (69%), neutropenia (38%), and thrombocytopenia (47%). Growth factor support was required for 44% of the patients.The combination of paclitaxel and pazopanib resulted in a promising ORR of 54% in patients with advanced pretreated UC. This represents a greater response rate and median survival than found with other existing second-line regimens for UC and is worthy of further study.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.clgc.2016.03.011

    View details for PubMedID 27068017

  • BIM mediates oncogene inactivation-induced apoptosis in multiple transgenic mouse models of acute lymphoblastic leukemia ONCOTARGET Li, Y., Deutzmann, A., Choi, P. S., Fan, A. C., Felsher, D. W. 2016; 7 (19): 26926-26934

    Abstract

    Oncogene inactivation in both clinical targeted therapies and conditional transgenic mouse cancer models can induce significant tumor regression associated with the robust induction of apoptosis. Here we report that in MYC-, RAS-, and BCR-ABL-induced acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), apoptosis upon oncogene inactivation is mediated by the same pro-apoptotic protein, BIM. The induction of BIMin the MYC- and RAS-driven leukemia is mediated by the downregulation of miR-17-92. Overexpression of miR-17-92 blocked the induction of apoptosis upon oncogene inactivation in the MYC and RAS-driven but not in the BCR-ABL-driven ALL leukemia. Hence, our results provide novel insight into the mechanism of apoptosis upon oncogene inactivation and suggest that induction of BIM-mediated apoptosis may be an important therapeutic approach for ALL.

    View details for DOI 10.18632/oncotarget.8731

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377741700001

  • Consolidative radiotherapy in metastatic urothelial cancer (MUC) Srinivas, S., Narayanan, S., Fan, A. C., Hancock, S., Skinner, E. C. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2016
  • BIM mediates oncogene inactivation-induced apoptosis in multiple transgenic mouse models of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Oncotarget Li, Y., Deutzmann, A., Choi, P. S., Fan, A. C., Felsher, D. W. 2016

    Abstract

    Oncogene inactivation in both clinical targeted therapies and conditional transgenic mouse cancer models can induce significant tumor regression associated with the robust induction of apoptosis. Here we report that in MYC-, RAS-, and BCR-ABL-induced acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), apoptosis upon oncogene inactivation is mediated by the same pro-apoptotic protein, BIM. The induction of BIMin the MYC- and RAS-driven leukemia is mediated by the downregulation of miR-17-92. Overexpression of miR-17-92 blocked the induction of apoptosis upon oncogene inactivation in the MYC and RAS-driven but not in the BCR-ABL-driven ALL leukemia. Hence, our results provide novel insight into the mechanism of apoptosis upon oncogene inactivation and suggest that induction of BIM-mediated apoptosis may be an important therapeutic approach for ALL.

    View details for PubMedID 27095570

  • Phase II study of pazopanib with weekly paclitaxel in refractory urothelial cancer. Srinivas, S., Narayanan, S., Harshman, L., Pachynski, R., Lam, A. P., Fan, A. C., Poushnejad, S., Haas, D., Vaishampayan, U. N. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2015
  • Alteration of the lipid profile in lymphomas induced by MYC overexpression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Eberlin, L. S., Gabay, M., Fan, A. C., Gouw, A. M., Tibshirani, R. J., Felsher, D. W., Zare, R. N. 2014; 111 (29): 10450-10455

    Abstract

    Overexpression of the v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) oncogene is one of the most commonly implicated causes of human tumorigenesis. MYC is known to regulate many aspects of cellular biology including glucose and glutamine metabolism. Little is known about the relationship between MYC and the appearance and disappearance of specific lipid species. We use desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI), statistical analysis, and conditional transgenic animal models and cell samples to investigate changes in lipid profiles in MYC-induced lymphoma. We have detected a lipid signature distinct from that observed in normal tissue and in rat sarcoma-induced lymphoma cells. We found 104 distinct molecular ions that have an altered abundance in MYC lymphoma compared with normal control tissue by statistical analysis with a false discovery rate of less than 5%. Of these, 86 molecular ions were specifically identified as complex phospholipids. To evaluate whether the lipid signature could also be observed in human tissue, we examined 15 human lymphoma samples with varying expression levels of MYC oncoprotein. Distinct lipid profiles in lymphomas with high and low MYC expression were observed, including many of the lipid species identified as significant for MYC-induced animal lymphoma tissue. Our results suggest a relationship between the appearance of specific lipid species and the overexpression of MYC in lymphomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1409778111

    View details for PubMedID 24994904

  • Oncogene withdrawal engages the immune system to induce sustained cancer regression. Journal for immunotherapy of cancer Casey, S. C., Li, Y., Fan, A. C., Felsher, D. W. 2014; 2: 24-?

    Abstract

    The targeted inactivation of a single oncogene can induce dramatic tumor regression, suggesting that cancers are "oncogene addicted." Tumor regression following oncogene inactivation has been thought to be a consequence of restoration of normal physiological programs that induce proliferative arrest, apoptosis, differentiation, and cellular senescence. However, recent observations illustrate that oncogene addiction is highly dependent upon the host immune cells. In particular, CD4(+) helper T cells were shown to be essential to the mechanism by which MYC or BCR-ABL inactivation elicits "oncogene withdrawal." Hence, immune mediators contribute in multiple ways to the pathogenesis, prevention, and treatment of cancer, including mechanisms of tumor initiation, progression, and surveillance, but also oncogene inactivation-mediated tumor regression. Data from both the bench and the bedside illustrates that the inactivation of a driver oncogene can induce activation of the immune system that appears to be essential for sustained tumor regression.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/2051-1426-2-24

    View details for PubMedID 25089198

  • BCL-2 inhibition with ABT-737 prolongs survival in an NRAS/BCL-2 mouse model of AML by targeting primitive LSK and progenitor cells. Blood Beurlet, S., Omidvar, N., Gorombei, P., Krief, P., Le Pogam, C., Setterblad, N., de la Grange, P., Leboeuf, C., Janin, A., Noguera, M., Hervatin, F., Sarda-Mantel, L., Konopleva, M., Andreeff, M., Tu, A. W., Fan, A. C., Felsher, D. W., Whetton, A., Pla, M., West, R., Fenaux, P., Chomienne, C., Padua, R. A. 2013; 122 (16): 2864-2876

    Abstract

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) transforms into an acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) with associated increased bone marrow (BM) blast infiltration. Using a transgenic mouse model, MRP8[NRASD12/hBCL-2], in which the NRAS:BCL-2 complex at the mitochondria induces MDS progressing to AML with dysplastic features, we studied the therapeutic potential of a BCL-2 homology domain 3 mimetic inhibitor, ABT-737. Treatment significantly extended lifespan, increased survival of lethally irradiated secondary recipients transplanted with cells from treated mice compared with cells from untreated mice, with a reduction of BM blasts, Lin-/Sca-1(+)/c-Kit(+), and progenitor populations by increased apoptosis of infiltrating blasts of diseased mice assessed in vivo by technicium-labeled annexin V single photon emission computed tomography and ex vivo by annexin V/7-amino actinomycin D flow cytometry, terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling, caspase 3 cleavage, and re-localization of the NRAS:BCL-2 complex from mitochondria to plasma membrane. Phosphoprotein analysis showed restoration of wild-type (WT) AKT or protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and mitogen-activated protein kinase patterns in spleen cells after treatment, which showed reduced mitochondrial membrane potential. Exon specific gene expression profiling corroborates the reduction of leukemic cells, with an increase in expression of genes coding for stem cell development and maintenance, myeloid differentiation, and apoptosis. Myelodysplastic features persist underscoring targeting of BCL-2-mediated effects on MDS-AML transformation and survival of leukemic cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2012-07-445635

    View details for PubMedID 23943652

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3799000

  • A c-Myc Activation Sensor-Based High-Throughput Drug Screening Identifies an Antineoplastic Effect of Nitazoxanide. Molecular cancer therapeutics Fan-Minogue, H., Bodapati, S., Solow-Cordero, D., Fan, A., Paulmurugan, R., Massoud, T. F., Felsher, D. W., Gambhir, S. S. 2013; 12 (9): 1896-1905

    Abstract

    Deregulation of c-Myc plays a central role in the tumorigenesis of many human cancers. Yet, the development of drugs regulating c-Myc activity has been challenging. To facilitate the identification of c-Myc inhibitors, we developed a molecular imaging sensor based high throughput-screening (HTS) system. This system uses a cell-based assay to detect c-Myc activation in a HTS format, which is established from a pure clone of a stable breast cancer cell line that constitutively expresses a c-Myc activation sensor. Optimization of the assay performance in the HTS format resulted in uniform and robust signals at the baseline. Using this system, we performed a quantitative HTS against approximately 5,000 existing bioactive compounds from five different libraries. Thirty-nine potential hits were identified, including currently known c-Myc inhibitors. There are a few among the top potent hits that are not known for anti-c-Myc activity. One of these hits is nitazoxanide (NTZ), a thiazolide for treating human protozoal infections. Validation of NTZ in different cancer cell lines revealed a high potency for c-Myc inhibition with IC50 ranging between 10 - 500nM. Oral administration of NTZ in breast cancer xenograft mouse models significantly suppressed tumor growth by inhibition of c-Myc and induction of apoptosis. These findings suggest a potential of NTZ to be repurposed as a new anti-tumor agent for inhibition of c-Myc associated neoplasia. Our work also demonstrated the unique advantage of molecular imaging in accelerating discovery of drugs for c-Myc targeted cancer therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-12-1243

    View details for PubMedID 23825064

  • NANO-SCALE PROTEOMIC PROFILING TO DEFINE DIAGNOSTIC SIGNATURES AND BIOMARKERS OF THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY IN RCC Leppert, J., Fan, A., Liliental, J., Xu, L., Thong, A., Yost, C., Yaghi, A., Metzner, T., Brooks, J., Harshman, L., Sabatti, C., Srinivas, S., Felsher, D. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2013: E246–E247
  • Nanoscale proteomic profiling to define diagnostic signatures and biomarkers of therapeutic activity in patients with RCC Fan, A. C., Leppert, J., Liliental, J. E., Xu, L., Thong, A. E., Yost, C., Yaghi, A., Brooks, J. D., Harshman, L., Sabatti, C., Srinivas, S., Felsher, D. W. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2013
  • The Simple Western rapidly generates quantitative profiles of MAPK and PI3K proteins in clinical specimens Fan, A. C., Banerjee, P., Felsher, D. W. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2012
  • Nano-scale phospho-proteomic analysis to define diagnostic signatures and biomarkers of therapeutic activity in cancer Fan, A. C., Banerjee, P., Xu, L., Kong, C., Sabatti, C., Wilheim, F., Greenberg, P., Felsher, D. W. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2012
  • Treatment of higher risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients unresponsive to hypomethylating agents with ON 01910.Na LEUKEMIA RESEARCH Seetharam, M., Fan, A. C., Tran, M., Xu, L., Renschler, J. P., Felsher, D. W., Sridhar, K., Wilhelm, F., Greenberg, P. L. 2012; 36 (1): 98-103

    Abstract

    In a Phase I/II clinical trial, 13 higher risk red blood cell-dependent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients unresponsive to hypomethylating therapy were treated with the multikinase inhibitor ON 01910.Na. Responses occurred in all morphologic, prognostic risk and cytogenetic subgroups, including four patients with marrow complete responses among eight with stable disease, associated with good drug tolerance. In a subset of patients, a novel nanoscale immunoassay showed substantially decreased AKT2 phosphorylation in CD34+ marrow cells from patients responding to therapy but not those who progressed on therapy. These data demonstrate encouraging efficacy and drug tolerance with ON 01910.Na treatment of higher risk MDS patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.leukres.2011.08.022

    View details for PubMedID 21924492

  • Cryptococcal osteomyelitis and meningitis in a patient with non-hodgkin's lymphoma treated with PEP-C. BMJ case reports To, C. A., Hsieh, R. W., McClellan, J. S., Howard, W., Fischbein, N. J., Brown, J. M., Felsher, D. W., Fan, A. C. 2012; 2012

    Abstract

    The authors present the first case report of a patient with lymphoma who developed disseminated cryptococcal osteomyelitis and meningitis while being treated with the PEP-C (prednisone, etoposide, procarbazine and cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy regimen. During investigation of fever and new bony lesions, fungal culture from a rib biopsy revealed that the patient had cryptococcal osteomyelitis. Further evaluation demonstrated concurrent cryptococcal meningitis. The patient's disseminated cryptococcal infections completely resolved after a full course of antifungal treatment. Cryptococcal osteomyelitis is itself an extremely rare diagnosis, and the unique presentation with concurrent cryptococcal meningitis in our patient with lymphoma was likely due to his PEP-C treatment. It is well recognised that prolonged intensive chemotherapeutic regimens place patients at risk for atypical infections; yet physicians should recognise that even chronic low-dose therapies can put patients at risk for fungal infections. Physicians should consider fungal infections as part of the infectious investigation of a lymphopaenic patient on PEP-C.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bcr.08.2011.4578

    View details for PubMedID 22962380

  • Definition of an Enhanced Immune Cell Therapy in Mice That Can Target Stem-Like Lymphoma Cells CANCER RESEARCH Contag, C. H., Sikorski, R., Negrin, R. S., Schmidt, T., Fan, A. C., Bachireddy, P., Felsher, D. W., Thorne, S. H. 2010; 70 (23): 9837-9845

    Abstract

    Current treatments of high-grade lymphoma often have curative potential, but unfortunately many patients relapse and develop therapeutic resistance. Thus, there remains a need for novel therapeutics that can target the residual cancer cells whose phenotypes are distinct from the bulk tumor and that are capable of reforming tumors from very few cells. Oncolytic viruses offer an approach to destroy tumors by multiple mechanisms, but they cannot effectively reach residual disease or micrometastases, especially within the lymphatic system. To address these limitations, we have generated immune cells infected with oncolytic viruses as a therapeutic strategy that can combine effective cellular delivery with synergistic tumor killing. In this study, we tested this approach against minimal disease states of lymphomas characterized by the persistence of cancer cells that display stem cell-like properties and resistance to conventional therapies. We found that the immune cells were capable of trafficking to and targeting residual cancer cells. The combination biotherapy used prevented relapse by creating a long-term, disease-free state, with acquired immunity to the tumor functioning as an essential mediator of this effect. Immune components necessary for this acquired immunity were identified. We further demonstrated that the dual biotherapy could be applied before or after conventional therapy. Our approach offers a potentially powerful new way to clear residual cancer cells, showing how restoring immune surveillance is critical for maintenance of a disease-free state.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2650

    View details for PubMedID 20935221

  • Treatment of Higher Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patients Unresponsive to Hypomethylating Agents with ON 01910.Na 52nd Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American-Society-of-Hematology (ASH) Seetharam, M., Tran, M., Fan, A. C., Xu, L., Renschler, J. P., Felsher, D. W., Sridhar, K., Wilhelm, F., Greenberg, P. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2010: 1635–35
  • ABT-737 Targets Leukemic Stem Cells In Mouse Models of Mutant NRASD12/hBCL-2-Mediated Acute Myeloid Leukemia progression with Increased Survival 52nd Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American-Society-of-Hematology (ASH) Padua, R. A., Beurlet, S., Krief, P., Omidvar, N., Le Pogam, C., Auboeuf, D., de la Grange, P., Soulie, A., Janin, A., Noguera, M., Merlet, P., Sarda-Mantel, L., Fenaux, P., Konopleva, M., Andreeff, M., Tu, A., Yang, P., Fan, A. C., Kogan, S. C., Weissman, I. L., Felsher, D. W., Pla, M., West, R., Chomienne, C. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2010: 1355–56
  • CD4(+) T Cells Contribute to the Remodeling of the Microenvironment Required for Sustained Tumor Regression upon Oncogene Inactivation CANCER CELL Rakhra, K., Bachireddy, P., Zabuawala, T., Zeiser, R., Xu, L., Kopelman, A., Fan, A. C., Yang, Q., Braunstein, L., Crosby, E., Ryeom, S., Felsher, D. W. 2010; 18 (5): 485-498

    Abstract

    Oncogene addiction is thought to occur cell autonomously. Immune effectors are implicated in the initiation and restraint of tumorigenesis, but their role in oncogene inactivation-mediated tumor regression is unclear. Here, we show that an intact immune system, specifically CD4(+) T cells, is required for the induction of cellular senescence, shutdown of angiogenesis, and chemokine expression resulting in sustained tumor regression upon inactivation of the MYC or BCR-ABL oncogenes in mouse models of T cell acute lymphoblastic lymphoma and pro-B cell leukemia, respectively. Moreover, immune effectors knocked out for thrombospondins failed to induce sustained tumor regression. Hence, CD4(+) T cells are required for the remodeling of the tumor microenvironment through the expression of chemokines, such as thrombospondins, in order to elicit oncogene addiction.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2010.10.002

    View details for PubMedID 21035406

  • A rapid screening method for monitoring signaling changes in the monocyte cell line U937 Huang, Y., Shahijanian, F., Deb-Basu, D., Fan, A., Voehringer, D., Hirschberg, D. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2009
  • Apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP2) heterozygous mice are tumor-prone and have attenuated cellular damage-response thresholds PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Kampa, K. M., Acoba, J. D., Chen, D., Gay, J., Lee, H., Beemer, K., Padiernos, E., Boonmark, N., Zhu, Z., Fan, A. C., Bailey, A. S., Fleming, W. H., Corless, C., Felsher, D. W., Naumovski, L., Lopez, C. D. 2009; 106 (11): 4390-4395

    Abstract

    The expression of ASPP2 (53BP2L), a proapoptotic member of a family of p53-binding proteins, is frequently suppressed in many human cancers. Accumulating evidence suggests that ASPP2 inhibits tumor growth; however, the mechanisms by which ASPP2 suppresses tumor formation remain to be clarified. To study this, we targeted the ASPP2 allele in a mouse by replacing exons 10-17 with a neoR gene. ASPP2(-/-) mice were not viable because of an early embryonic lethal event. Although ASPP2(+/-) mice appeared developmentally normal, they displayed an increased incidence of a variety of spontaneous tumors as they aged. Moreover, gamma-irradiated 6-week-old ASPP2(+/-) mice developed an increased incidence of high-grade T cell lymphomas of thymic origin compared with ASPP2(+/+) mice. Primary thymocytes derived from ASPP2(+/-) mice exhibited an attenuated apoptotic response to gamma-irradiation compared with ASPP2(+/+) thymocytes. Additionally, ASPP2(+/-) primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts demonstrated a defective G(0)/G(1) cell cycle checkpoint after gamma-irradiation. Our results demonstrate that ASPP2 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor and, importantly, open new avenues for investigation into the mechanisms by which disruption of ASPP2 pathways could play a role in tumorigenesis and response to therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0809080106

    View details for PubMedID 19251665

  • A nano-immunoassay system for monitoring changes in signaling upon oncogene inactivation in hematopoietic tumors Fan, A. C., Deb-Basu, D., Gotlib, J., Voehringer, D. W., Felsher, D. W. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2007: 3610S
  • A novel nano-immunoassay system capable of absolute protein measurements from 400 tumor-derived stem cells. Voehringer, D. W., Deb-Basu, D., Weissman, I., Fan, A., Nguyen, U., Bhamidipati, A., Felsher, D. W. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2007: 3556S–3556S
  • Inhibition of HMGcoA reductase by atorvastatin prevents and reverses MYC-induced lymphomagenesis BLOOD Shachaf, C. M., Perez, O. D., Youssef, S., Fan, A. C., Elchuri, S., Goldstein, M. J., Shirer, A. E., Sharpe, O., Chen, J., Mitchell, D. J., Chang, M., Nolan, G. P., Steinman, L., Felsher, D. W. 2007; 110 (7): 2674-2684

    Abstract

    Statins are a class of drugs that inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMGcoA) reductase, a critical enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. Several reports document that statins may prevent different human cancers. However, whether or not statins can prevent cancer is controversial due to discordant results. One possible explanation for these conflicting conclusions is that only some tumors or specific statins may be effective. Here, we demonstrate in an in vivo transgenic model in which atorvastatin reverses and prevents the onset of MYC-induced lymphomagenesis, but fails to reverse or prevent tumorigenesis in the presence of constitutively activated K-Ras (G12D). Using phosphoprotein fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, atorvastatin treatment was found to result in the inactivation of the Ras and ERK1/2 signaling pathways associated with the dephosphorylation and inactivation of MYC. Correspondingly, tumors with a constitutively activated K-Ras (G12D) did not exhibit dephosphorylation of ERK1/2 and MYC. Atorvastatin's effects on MYC were specific to the inhibition of HMGcoA reductase, as treatment with mevalonate, the product of HMG-CoA reductase activity, abrogated these effects and inhibited the ability of atorvastatin to reverse or suppress tumorigenesis. Also, RNAi directed at HMGcoA reductase was sufficient to abrogate the neoplastic properties of MYC-induced tumors. Thus, atorvastatin, by inhibiting HMGcoA reductase, induces changes in phosphoprotein signaling that in turn prevent MYC-induced lymphomagenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2006-09-048033

    View details for PubMedID 17622571

  • Cellular senescence is an important mechanism of tumor regression upon c-Myc inactivation PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Wu, C., van Riggelen, J., Yetil, A., Fan, A. C., Bachireddy, P., Felsher, D. W. 2007; 104 (32): 13028-13033

    Abstract

    Oncogene-induced senescence is an important mechanism by which normal cells are restrained from malignant transformation. Here we report that the suppression of the c-Myc (MYC) oncogene induces cellular senescence in diverse tumor types including lymphoma, osteosarcoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. MYC inactivation was associated with prototypical markers of senescence, including acidic beta-gal staining, induction of p16INK4a, and p15INK4b expression. Moreover, MYC inactivation induced global changes in chromatin structure associated with the marked reduction of histone H4 acetylation and increased histone H3 K9 methylation. Osteosarcomas engineered to be deficient in p16INK4a or Rb exhibited impaired senescence and failed to exhibit sustained tumor regression upon MYC inactivation. Similarly, only after lymphomas were repaired for p53 expression did MYC inactivation induce robust senescence and sustained tumor regression. The pharmacologic inhibition of signaling pathways implicated in oncogene-induced senescence including ATM/ATR and MAPK did not prevent senescence associated with MYC inactivation. Our results suggest that cellular senescence programs remain latently functional, even in established tumors, and can become reactivated, serving as a critical mechanism of oncogene addiction associated with MYC inactivation.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0701953104

    View details for PubMedID 17664422

  • Nano-fluidic detection of oncoprotein signaling in preclinical and patient lymphoma samples. Fan, A. C., Deb-Basu, D., Horoschak, M., Shirer, A., Voehringer, D., O'Neill, R., Felsher, D. W. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2006: 715A
  • ASPP2 haploinsufficiency promotes tumor formation in a mouse model. 48th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Kampa, K. M., Acoba, J. D., Chen, D., Beemer, K., Gay, J., Zhu, Z., Padiernos, E., Fan, A., Felsher, D., Corless, C., Naumovski, L., Lopez, C. D. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2006: 162B–162B
  • Sustained regression of tumors upon MYC inactivation requires p53 or thrombospondin-1 to reverse the angiogenic switch PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Giuriato, S., Ryeom, S., Fan, A. C., Bachireddy, P., Lynch, R. C., Rioth, M. J., van Riggelen, J., Kopelman, A. M., Passegue, E., Tang, F., Folkman, J., Felsher, D. W. 2006; 103 (44): 16266-16271

    Abstract

    The targeted inactivation of oncogenes offers a rational therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer. However, the therapeutic inactivation of a single oncogene has been associated with tumor recurrence. Therefore, it is necessary to develop strategies to override mechanisms of tumor escape from oncogene dependence. We report here that the targeted inactivation of MYC is sufficient to induce sustained regression of hematopoietic tumors in transgenic mice, except in tumors that had lost p53 function. p53 negative tumors were unable to be completely eliminated, as demonstrated by the kinetics of tumor cell elimination revealed by bioluminescence imaging. Histological examination revealed that upon MYC inactivation, the loss of p53 led to a deficiency in thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) expression, a potent antiangiogenic protein, and the subsequent inability to shut off angiogenesis. Restoration of p53 expression in these tumors re-established TSP-1 expression. This permitted the suppression of angiogenesis and subsequent sustained tumor regression upon MYC inactivation. Similarly, the restoration of TSP-1 alone in p53 negative tumors resulted in the shut down of angiogenesis and led to sustained tumor regression upon MYC inactivation. Hence, the complete regression of tumor mass driven by inactivation of the MYC oncogene requires the p53-dependent induction of TSP-1 and the shut down of angiogenesis. Notably, overexpression of TSP-1 alone did not influence tumor growth. Therefore, the combined inactivation of oncogenes and angiogenesis may be a more clinically effective treatment of cancer. We conclude that angiogenesis is an essential component of oncogene addiction.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0608017103

    View details for PubMedID 17056717

  • MYC or RAS, but not BCL2 expression induces reversible lymphomagenesis Fan, A. C., Giuriato, S., Karlsson, A., Bachireddy, P., Bendapudi, P., Rakhra, K., Padua, R., Felsher, D. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2006
  • MYC quantification in lymphoma fine needle aspirates using "Firefly," a novel nanofluidic protein analysis system Fan, A. C., Voehringer, D., Deb-Basu, D., Gossett, J., O'Neill, R., Felsher, D. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2006
  • Nanoliter-scale Western-blot-like BCL-2 analysis of lymphoma fine needle aspirates Fan, A. C., Voehringer, D., Deb-Basu, D., Gossett, J., O-Neill, R., Felsher, D. W. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2006
  • Two oncogenic hits are required to initiate lymphomagenesis in adult, but not neonatal hosts. Fan, A. C., Giuriato, S., Karlsson, A., Padua, R. A., Felsher, D. W. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2005: 732A
  • Cooperation between MYC and BCL2 to induce lymphoma is uncovered in an adult context Fan, A. C., Giuriato, S., Feng, C., Padua, R. A., Felsher, D. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2004: 429A
  • Conditional animal models: a strategy to define when oncogenes will be effective targets to treat cancer SEMINARS IN CANCER BIOLOGY Giuriato, S., Rabin, K., Fan, A. C., Shachaf, C. M., Felsher, D. W. 2004; 14 (1): 3-11

    Abstract

    The ability to model cancer in the mouse has provided a robust methodology to dissect the molecular etiology of cancer. These models serve as potentially powerful platforms to preclinically evaluate novel therapeutics. In particular, the recent development of strategies to conditionally induce the or knockout the function of genes in a tissue specific manner has enabled investigators to engineer mice to demonstrate that the targeted inactivation of specific oncogenes can be effective in inducing sustained regression of tumors. Thus, these animal models will be useful to define the specific genes that will be therapeutically useful to target for the treatment of particular human cancers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.semcancer.2003.11.002

    View details for PubMedID 14757531

  • Defining the genetic contexts when MYC inactivation induces sustained regression of hematopoietic tumors. Giuriato, S., Passegue, E., Fan, A., Tang, F., Felsher, D. W. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2003: 586A
  • p53 mutations do not predict response to paclitaxel in metastatic nonsmall cell lung carcinoma CANCER King, T. C., Akerley, W., Fan, A. C., Moore, T., Mangray, S., Chen, M. H., Safran, H. 2000; 89 (4): 769-773

    Abstract

    In vitro data and animal studies suggest that paclitaxel may have a unique ability to activate tumor cell apoptosis in the absence of wild-type p53 function. The authors previously demonstrated that response to paclitaxel and concurrent radiation was not affected by p53 mutations in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). We sought to determine whether p53 mutations affect response to paclitaxel alone in patients with metastatic NSCLC.Twenty-five patients with metastatic NSCLC who participated in Brown University Oncology Group protocols utilizing single-agent weekly paclitaxel had tumor tissue that was adequate for p53 analysis. Tumor tissue was evaluated for p53 gene mutations in exons 5 through 8 by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing of altered mobility polymerase chain reaction products.Mutations in p53 were found in 8 of 25 patients (32%). The response rates of 75% for patients with tumors with p53 mutations and 47% for patients with wild-type p53 do not differ significantly (P = 0.12). The 1-year survival rates for patients with and without p53 mutation after treatment with weekly paclitaxel were 63% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31-100%) and 53% (95% CI, 33-86%), respectively.p53 mutations do not adversely affect response to paclitaxel as a single agent in metastatic NSCLC. These results provide clinical support for in vitro observations that paclitaxel can bypass mutant p53 and lead to tumor cell death by alternate pathway(s). Paclitaxel should be considered as a component of treatment for patients with metastatic NSCLC with tumors that have p53 mutations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088753500008

    View details for PubMedID 10951339