Although AKI is common among hospitalized children, comprehensive epidemiologic data are lacking. This study characterizes pediatric AKI across the United States and identifies AKI risk factors using high-content/high-throughput analytic techniques.For the cross-sectional analysis of the 2009 Kids Inpatient Database, AKI events were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Demographics, incident rates, and outcome data were analyzed and reported for the entire AKI cohort as well as AKI subsets. Statistical learning methods were applied to the highly imbalanced dataset to derive AKI-related risk factors.Of 2,644,263 children, 10,322 children developed AKI (3.9/1000 admissions). Although 19% of the AKI cohort was ≤1 month old, the highest incidence was seen in children 15-18 years old (6.6/1000 admissions); 49% of the AKI cohort was white, but AKI incidence was higher among African Americans (4.5 versus 3.8/1000 admissions). In-hospital mortality among patients with AKI was 15.3% but higher among children ≤1 month old (31.3% versus 10.1%, P<0.001) and children requiring critical care (32.8% versus 9.4%, P<0.001) or dialysis (27.1% versus 14.2%, P<0.001). Shock (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.95 to 2.36), septicemia (odds ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.32 to 1.43), intubation/mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.16 to 1.25), circulatory disease (odds ratio, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.32 to 1.65), cardiac congenital anomalies (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.23), and extracorporeal support (odds ratio, 2.58; 95% confidence interval, 2.04 to 3.26) were associated with AKI.AKI occurs in 3.9/1000 at-risk US pediatric hospitalizations. Mortality is highest among neonates and children requiring critical care or dialysis. Identified risk factors suggest that AKI occurs in association with systemic/multiorgan disease more commonly than primary renal disease.
View details for DOI 10.2215/CJN.00270113
View details for PubMedID 23833312