STAG2 deficiency induces interferon responses via cGAS-STING pathway and restricts virus infection.
2018; 9 (1): 1485
Cohesin is a multi-subunit nuclear protein complex that coordinates sister chromatid separation during cell division. Highly frequent somatic mutations in genes encoding core cohesin subunits have been reported in multiple cancer types. Here, using a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening approach to identify host dependency factors and novel innate immune regulators of rotavirus (RV) infection, we demonstrate that the loss of STAG2, an important component of the cohesin complex, confers resistance to RV replication in cell culture and human intestinal enteroids. Mechanistically, STAG2 deficiency results in spontaneous genomic DNA damage and robust interferon (IFN) expression via the cGAS-STING cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway. The resultant activation of JAK-STAT signaling and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression broadly protects against virus infections, including RVs. Our work highlights a previously undocumented role of the cohesin complex in regulating IFN homeostasis and identifies new therapeutic avenues for manipulating the innate immunity.
View details for DOI 10.1038/s41467-018-03782-z
View details for PubMedID 29662124
MLKL Requires the Inositol Phosphate Code to Execute Necroptosis.
2018; 70 (5): 936–48.e7
Necroptosis is an important form of lytic cell death triggered by injury and infection, but whether mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is sufficient to execute this pathway is unknown. In a genetic selection for human cell mutants defective for MLKL-dependent necroptosis, we identified mutations in IPMK and ITPK1, which encode inositol phosphate (IP) kinases that regulate the IP code of soluble molecules. We show that IP kinases are essential for necroptosis triggered by death receptor activation, herpesvirus infection, or a pro-necrotic MLKL mutant. In IP kinase mutant cells, MLKL failed to oligomerize and localize to membranes despite proper receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3)-dependent phosphorylation. We demonstrate that necroptosis requires IP-specific kinase activity and that a highly phosphorylated product, but not a lowly phosphorylated precursor, potently displaces the MLKL auto-inhibitory brace region. These observations reveal control of MLKL-mediated necroptosis by a metabolite and identify a key molecular mechanism underlying regulated cell death.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2018.05.010
View details for PubMedID 29883610
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5994928
Drebrin restricts rotavirus entry by inhibiting dynamin-mediated endocytosis
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2017; 114 (18): E3642-E3651
Despite the wide administration of several effective vaccines, rotavirus (RV) remains the single most important etiological agent of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide, with an annual mortality of over 200,000 people. RV attachment and internalization into target cells is mediated by its outer capsid protein VP4. To better understand the molecular details of RV entry, we performed tandem affinity purification coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry to map the host proteins that interact with VP4. We identified an actin-binding protein, drebrin (DBN1), that coprecipitates and colocalizes with VP4 during RV infection. Importantly, blocking DBN1 function by siRNA silencing, CRISPR knockout (KO), or chemical inhibition significantly increased host cell susceptibility to RV infection. Dbn1 KO mice exhibited higher incidence of diarrhea and more viral antigen shedding in their stool samples compared with the wild-type littermates. In addition, we found that uptake of other dynamin-dependent cargos, including transferrin, cholera toxin, and multiple viruses, was also enhanced in DBN1-deficient cells. Inhibition of cortactin or dynamin-2 abrogated the increased virus entry observed in DBN1-deficient cells, suggesting that DBN1 suppresses dynamin-mediated endocytosis via interaction with cortactin. Our study unveiled an unexpected role of DBN1 in restricting the entry of RV and other viruses into host cells and more broadly to function as a crucial negative regulator of diverse dynamin-dependent endocytic pathways.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1619266114
View details for Web of Science ID 000400358000009
View details for PubMedID 28416666
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5422808
An essential receptor for adeno-associated virus infection.
2016; 530 (7588): 108-112
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are currently the leading candidates for virus-based gene therapies because of their broad tissue tropism, non-pathogenic nature and low immunogenicity. They have been successfully used in clinical trials to treat hereditary diseases such as haemophilia B (ref. 2), and have been approved for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in Europe. Considerable efforts have been made to engineer AAV variants with novel and biomedically valuable cell tropisms to allow efficacious systemic administration, yet basic aspects of AAV cellular entry are still poorly understood. In particular, the protein receptor(s) required for AAV entry after cell attachment remains unknown. Here we use an unbiased genetic screen to identify proteins essential for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) infection in a haploid human cell line. The most significantly enriched gene of the screen encodes a previously uncharacterized type I transmembrane protein, KIAA0319L (denoted hereafter as AAV receptor (AAVR)). We characterize AAVR as a protein capable of rapid endocytosis from the plasma membrane and trafficking to the trans-Golgi network. We show that AAVR directly binds to AAV2 particles, and that anti-AAVR antibodies efficiently block AAV2 infection. Moreover, genetic ablation of AAVR renders a wide range of mammalian cell types highly resistant to AAV2 infection. Notably, AAVR serves as a critical host factor for all tested AAV serotypes. The importance of AAVR for in vivo gene delivery is further highlighted by the robust resistance of Aavr(-/-) (also known as Au040320(-/-) and Kiaa0319l(-/-)) mice to AAV infection. Collectively, our data indicate that AAVR is a universal receptor involved in AAV infection.
View details for DOI 10.1038/nature16465
View details for PubMedID 26814968
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4962915