Bio

Administrative Appointments


  • Director, Institute of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine (2003 - Present)

Honors & Awards


  • Election to the Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences (1989)
  • Award for Outstanding Contribution to Cancer Biology, Pasarow Foundation (1989)
  • Bass Award, Society of Neurological Surgeons (2003)
  • Jessie Stevenson Kovalenko Medal, National Academy of Sciences Council (2004)
  • Alan Cranston Awardee, Alliance for Aging Research (2004)
  • Medal for Distinguished Contributions to Biomedical Research, New York Academy of Medicine (2004)
  • Rabbi Shai Shacknai Memorial Prize in Immunology and Cancer Research, The Lautenberg Center for General and Tumor Immunology (2004)
  • The Linus Pauling Medal for Outstanding Contributions to Science, Stanford University (2005)
  • Jeffrey Modell "Dare to Dream" Award, Jeffrey Modell Foundation (2005)
  • The Commonwealth Club of California 18th Annual Distinguished Citizen Award, Commonwealth Club of California (2006)
  • Honorary Doctorate, Columbia University (2006)
  • American-Italian Cancer Foundation Prize for Scientific Excellence in Medicine, American-Italian Cancer Foundation (2006)
  • John Scott Award, City of Philadelphia (2006)
  • Honorary Doctorate, Mount Sinai School of Medicine (2007)
  • I & H Wachter Award, I & H Wachter Foundation (2007)
  • Honoree of the Arthritis Foundation of Northern California Chapter's 2007 Tribute Dinner, Arthritis Foundation (2007)
  • Robert Koch Award, Koch Foundation (2008)
  • Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (2008)
  • Rosentiel Award, Brandeis University (2009)
  • Passano Award, The Passano Foundation (2009)
  • Honorary Director, Center for Biotech/BioMedicine and Shenzhen Key Lab of Gene & Antibody Therapy, Graduate School of Shenzhen, Tsinghau University, China (2009)
  • The Cockrell Foundation Award in Clinical or Translational Research, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute (2009)
  • Simon M. Shubitz Award for Excellence in the Field of Cancer Research, University of Chicago (2010)
  • Honorary Professor, Peking Union Medical College, China (2010)
  • Honorary Investigator, State Key Laboratory of Experimental Hematology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, China (2010)
  • National Academy of Sciences Council, National Academy of Sciences (2011)

Professional Education


  • MD, Stanford University, Medicine (1965)
  • BS, Montana State College, Pre-med (1961)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Dr. Weissman directs a research group consisting of graduate students, medical student-scientists, and postdoctoral fellows, all of whom study stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. He has trained and supervised hundreds of students and fellows, authored more than 750 scientific articles and has numerous awards and honorary degrees for his research accomplishments. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Amerian Philosophical Society, and many other societies. He is past president of the American Association of Immunologists [1994] and the International Society of Stem Cell Research [2009]. Dr. Weissman is an expert in the field of hematopoiesis, leukemia, and hematopoietic stem cells [HSC], and most recently, the clonal events leading from HSC to leukemia stem cells.. His research also encompasses the phylogeny and developmental biology of the cells that make up the blood-forming and immune systems. He has a laboratory at Hopkins Marine Station of Stanford University, where he studies the histocompatibility systems in colonial protochordate, a system which he proposed evolved to prevent predatory germline stem cell lineages from passing from one individual to another in multi-individual colonies that share a common extracorporeal blood vascular system; only histocompatible stem cells can colonize allogeneic natural parabionts. His laboratory was first to identify and isolate the blood-forming stem cell [HSC] from mice, and has defined, by lineage analysis, the stages of development between the stem cells and mature progeny. His laboratories have also discovered the human HSC, a human brain-forming stem cell population, mouse skeletal muscle stem cells, and an osteochondral stem cell in mice. He has worked in the area of cancer since 1977, and is a leader in the field of cancer stem cell biology. In recent years his work has included studying the potential of CD47 as a cancer therapeutic and identifying cancer stem cells from a variety of blood and solid cancers. He and his colleagues have found that CD47, a ‘don’t eat me signal’ is highly expressed beginning in the latter stages of progression of cancer stem cells from the benign to the highly malignant state, and this counteracts ‘eat me’ signals on preneoplastic and highly malignant cancer cells, presumably as part of the evolution of cancer clones driven by self-renewing subsets of cells in the cancer. This research brings into focus the primary role of phagocytic cells such as macrophages of the innate immune system, in tumor surveillance. Dr. Weissman was a founder of three companies, SyStemix, Cellerant, and Stem Cells, Inc., all focused on bringing stem cell therapies into the clinic, and earlier was on the founding SABs of Amgen, DNAX, and T Cell Sciences.

Clinical Trials


  • A Comprehensive Study to Isolate Tumor-initiating Cells From Human Epithelial Malignancies Not Recruiting

    We hypothesize that all human malignancies harbour a subpopulation of tumor initiating cells/cancer stem cells (CSCs) that drives tumor development and potentially recurrence or metastasis of the disease. The primary aim of this study is to develop strategies for prospective isolation/enrichment of CSCs from human tumors of different tissue origins. In addition, we will characterize the signaling pathways and/or tumor specific antigens that are specific for CSCs, in order to specifically target these CSCs as the endpoint of this study.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Linda Quinn, 650-723-6520.

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  • Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression and Identification of Progenitor Cells in Lung Carcinoma Not Recruiting

    This study will help us understand the gene expression profiles of lung cancer. We will identify genes related to lung cancer development, their growth and metastasis to the lung. In addition, we will examine the role nicotine in the development and progression of lung tumors of smokers, ex-smokers, non-smokers on supplemental nicotine and non smokers with no exposure to nicotine.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Susan Jacobs, RN, 650-725-8082.

    View full details

Teaching

2020-21 Courses


Stanford Advisees


Graduate and Fellowship Programs


Publications

All Publications


  • Humanized anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody magrolimab (Hu5F9-G4) plus trastuzumab potentiates antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and cooperate to inhibit human HER2+breast cancer (BC) xenografts growth in vivo Upton, R., Feng, D., Banuelos, A. M., Biswas, T., Willingham, S., Kao, K. S., McKenna, K., Rosenthal, B., Tal, M. C., Volkmer, J., Pegram, M. D., Weissman, I. L. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2021
  • Restoring metabolism of myeloid cells reverses cognitive decline in ageing. Nature Minhas, P. S., Latif-Hernandez, A., McReynolds, M. R., Durairaj, A. S., Wang, Q., Rubin, A., Joshi, A. U., He, J. Q., Gauba, E., Liu, L., Wang, C., Linde, M., Sugiura, Y., Moon, P. K., Majeti, R., Suematsu, M., Mochly-Rosen, D., Weissman, I. L., Longo, F. M., Rabinowitz, J. D., Andreasson, K. I. 2021

    Abstract

    Ageing is characterized by the development of persistent pro-inflammatory responses that contribute to atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, cancer and frailty1-3. The ageing brain is also vulnerable to inflammation, as demonstrated by the high prevalence of age-associated cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease4-6. Systemically, circulating pro-inflammatory factors can promote cognitive decline7,8, and in the brain, microglia lose the ability to clear misfolded proteins that are associated with neurodegeneration9,10. However, the underlying mechanisms that initiate and sustain maladaptive inflammation with ageing are not well defined. Here we show that in ageing mice myeloid cell bioenergetics are suppressed in response to increased signalling by the lipid messenger prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major modulator of inflammation11. In ageing macrophages and microglia, PGE2 signalling through its EP2 receptor promotes the sequestration of glucose into glycogen, reducing glucose flux and mitochondrial respiration. This energy-deficient state, which drives maladaptive pro-inflammatory responses, is further augmented by a dependence of aged myeloid cells on glucose as a principal fuel source. In aged mice, inhibition of myeloid EP2 signalling rejuvenates cellular bioenergetics, systemic and brain inflammatory states, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory. Moreover, blockade of peripheral myeloid EP2 signalling is sufficient to restore cognition in aged mice. Our study suggests that cognitive ageing is not a static or irrevocable condition but can be reversed by reprogramming myeloid glucose metabolism to restore youthful immune functions.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-03160-0

    View details for PubMedID 33473210

  • Safe and Effective In Vivo Targeting and Gene Editing in Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Strategies for Accelerating Development National Institutes of Health/Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Expert Scientific Roundtable Webinar Meeting. Human gene therapy Cannon, P., Asokan, A., Czechowicz, A., Hammond, P., Kohn, D. B., Lieber, A., Malik, P., Marks, P., Porteus, M., Verhoeyen, E., Weissman, D., Weissman, I., Kiem, H. 2021

    Abstract

    Introduction On May 11, 2020, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (Gates Foundation) held an exploratory expert scientific roundtable to inform an NIH-Gates Foundation collaboration on the development of scalable, sustainable, and accessible HIV and sickle cell disease (SCD) therapies based on in vivo gene editing of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). A particular emphasis was on how such therapies could be developed for low-resource settings in sub-Saharan Africa. Paula Cannon, Ph.D., of the University of Southern California and Hans-Peter Kiem, M.D., Ph.D., of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center served as roundtable co-chairs. Welcoming remarks were provided by the leadership of NIH, NHLBI, and BMGF, who cited the importance of assessing the state of the science and charting a path toward finding safe, effective, and durable gene-based therapies for HIV and sickle cell disease. These remarks were followed by three sessions in which participants heard presentations on and discussed the therapeutic potential of modified HSCs, leveraging HSC biology and differentiation, and in vivo HSC targeting approaches. This roundtable serves as the beginning of an ongoing discussion among NIH, the Gates Foundation, research and patient communities, and the public at large. As this collaboration progresses, these communities will be engaged as we collectively navigate the complex scientific and ethical issues surrounding in vivo HSC targeting and editing. Summarized excerpts from each of the presentations are below, reflecting the individual views and perspectives of each presenter.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/hum.2020.263

    View details for PubMedID 33427035

  • Global analysis of shared T cell specificities in human non-small cell lung cancer enables HLA inference and antigen discovery. Immunity Chiou, S. H., Tseng, D. n., Reuben, A. n., Mallajosyula, V. n., Molina, I. S., Conley, S. n., Wilhelmy, J. n., McSween, A. M., Yang, X. n., Nishimiya, D. n., Sinha, R. n., Nabet, B. Y., Wang, C. n., Shrager, J. B., Berry, M. F., Backhus, L. n., Lui, N. S., Wakelee, H. A., Neal, J. W., Padda, S. K., Berry, G. J., Delaidelli, A. n., Sorensen, P. H., Sotillo, E. n., Tran, P. n., Benson, J. A., Richards, R. n., Labanieh, L. n., Klysz, D. D., Louis, D. M., Feldman, S. A., Diehn, M. n., Weissman, I. L., Zhang, J. n., Wistuba, I. I., Futreal, P. A., Heymach, J. V., Garcia, K. C., Mackall, C. L., Davis, M. M. 2021; 54 (3): 586–602.e8

    Abstract

    To identify disease-relevant T cell receptors (TCRs) with shared antigen specificity, we analyzed 778,938 TCRβ chain sequences from 178 non-small cell lung cancer patients using the GLIPH2 (grouping of lymphocyte interactions with paratope hotspots 2) algorithm. We identified over 66,000 shared specificity groups, of which 435 were clonally expanded and enriched in tumors compared to adjacent lung. The antigenic epitopes of one such tumor-enriched specificity group were identified using a yeast peptide-HLA A∗02:01 display library. These included a peptide from the epithelial protein TMEM161A, which is overexpressed in tumors and cross-reactive epitopes from Epstein-Barr virus and E. coli. Our findings suggest that this cross-reactivity may underlie the presence of virus-specific T cells in tumor infiltrates and that pathogen cross-reactivity may be a feature of multiple cancers. The approach and analytical pipelines generated in this work, as well as the specificity groups defined here, present a resource for understanding the T cell response in cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2021.02.014

    View details for PubMedID 33691136

  • Reactivation of the pluripotency program precedes formation of the cranial neural crest. Science (New York, N.Y.) Zalc, A., Sinha, R., Gulati, G. S., Wesche, D. J., Daszczuk, P., Swigut, T., Weissman, I. L., Wysocka, J. 2021; 371 (6529)

    Abstract

    During development, cells progress from a pluripotent state to a more restricted fate within a particular germ layer. However, cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs), a transient cell population that generates most of the craniofacial skeleton, have much broader differentiation potential than their ectodermal lineage of origin. Here, we identify a neuroepithelial precursor population characterized by expression of canonical pluripotency transcription factors that gives rise to CNCCs and is essential for craniofacial development. Pluripotency factor Oct4 is transiently reactivated in CNCCs and is required for the subsequent formation of ectomesenchyme. Furthermore, open chromatin landscapes of Oct4+ CNCC precursors resemble those of epiblast stem cells, with additional features suggestive of priming for mesenchymal programs. We propose that CNCCs expand their developmental potential through a transient reacquisition of molecular signatures of pluripotency.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.abb4776

    View details for PubMedID 33542111

  • Sexual and asexual development: two distinct programs producing the same tunicate. Cell reports Kowarsky, M. n., Anselmi, C. n., Hotta, K. n., Burighel, P. n., Zaniolo, G. n., Caicci, F. n., Rosental, B. n., Neff, N. F., Ishizuka, K. J., Palmeri, K. J., Okamoto, J. n., Gordon, T. n., Weissman, I. L., Quake, S. R., Manni, L. n., Voskoboynik, A. n. 2021; 34 (4): 108681

    Abstract

    Colonial tunicates are the only chordate that possess two distinct developmental pathways to produce an adult body: either sexually through embryogenesis or asexually through a stem cell-mediated renewal termed blastogenesis. Using the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri, we combine transcriptomics and microscopy to build an atlas of the molecular and morphological signatures at each developmental stage for both pathways. The general molecular profiles of these processes are largely distinct. However, the relative timing of organogenesis and ordering of tissue-specific gene expression are conserved. By comparing the developmental pathways of B. schlosseri with other chordates, we identify hundreds of putative transcription factors with conserved temporal expression. Our findings demonstrate that convergent morphology need not imply convergent molecular mechanisms but that it showcases the importance that tissue-specific stem cells and transcription factors play in producing the same mature body through different pathways.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108681

    View details for PubMedID 33503429

  • Effect of CD47 Blockade on Vascular Inflammation. The New England journal of medicine Jarr, K. U., Nakamoto, R. n., Doan, B. H., Kojima, Y. n., Weissman, I. L., Advani, R. H., Iagaru, A. n., Leeper, N. J. 2021; 384 (4): 382–83

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMc2029834

    View details for PubMedID 33503349

  • Hoxb5 defines the heterogeneity of self-renewal capacity in the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. Biochemical and biophysical research communications Sakamaki, T. n., Kao, K. S., Nishi, K. n., Chen, J. Y., Sadaoka, K. n., Fujii, M. n., Takaori-Kondo, A. n., Weissman, I. L., Miyanishi, M. n. 2021; 539: 34–41

    Abstract

    Self-renewal and multipotency are essential functions of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). To maintain homeostatic hematopoiesis, functionally uniform HSCs have been thought to be an ideal cell-of-origin. Recent technological advances in the field have allowed us to analyze HSCs with single cell resolution and implicate that functional heterogeneity may exist even within the highly purified HSC compartment. However, due in part to the technical limitations of analyzing extremely rare populations and our incomplete understanding of HSC biology, neither the biological meaning of why heterogeneity exists nor the precise mechanism of how heterogeneity is determined within the HSC compartment is entirely known. Here we show the first evidence that self-renewal capacity varies with the degree of replication stress dose and results in heterogeneity within the HSC compartment. Using the Hoxb5-reporter mouse line which enables us to distinguish between long-term (LT)-HSCs and short-term (ST)-HSCs, we have found that ST-HSCs quickly lose self-renewal capacity under high stress environments but can maintain self-renewal under low stress environments for long periods of time. Critically, exogeneous Hoxb5 expression confers protection against loss of self-renewal to Hoxb5-negative HSCs and can partially alter the cell fate of ST-HSCs to that of LT-HSCs. Our results demonstrate that Hoxb5 imparts functional heterogeneity in the HSC compartment by regulating self-renewal capacity. Additionally, Hoxb5-positive HSCs may exist as fail-safe system to protect from the exhaustion of HSCs throughout an organism's lifespan.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.12.077

    View details for PubMedID 33418191

  • Wounds Inhibit Tumor Growth In Vivo ANNALS OF SURGERY Hu, M. S., Maan, Z. N., Leavitt, T., Hong, W., Rennert, R. C., Marshall, C. D., Borrelli, M. R., Zhu, T. N., Esquivel, M., Zimmermann, A., McArdle, A., Chung, M. T., Foster, D. S., Jones, R., Gurtner, G. C., Giaccia, A. J., Lorenz, H., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2021; 273 (1): 173–80
  • Proteomic analysis of young and old mouse hematopoietic stem cells and their progenitors reveals post-transcriptional regulation in stem cells. eLife Zaro, B. W., Noh, J. J., Mascetti, V. L., Demeter, J., George, B., Zukowska, M., Gulati, G. S., Sinha, R., Flynn, R. A., Banuelos, A., Zhang, A., Wilkinson, A. C., Jackson, P., Weissman, I. L. 2020; 9

    Abstract

    The balance of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation is critical for a healthy blood supply; imbalances underlie hematological diseases. The importance of HSCs and their progenitors have led to their extensive characterization at genomic and transcriptomic levels. However, the proteomics of hematopoiesis remains incompletely understood. Here we report a proteomics resource from mass spectrometry of mouse young adult and old adult mouse HSCs, multipotent progenitors and oligopotent progenitors; 12 cell types in total. We validated differential protein levels, including confirmation that Dnmt3a protein levels are undetected in young adult mouse HSCs until forced into cycle. Additionally, through integrating proteomics and RNA-sequencing datasets, we identified a subset of genes with apparent post-transcriptional repression in young adult mouse HSCs. In summary, we report proteomic coverage of young and old mouse HSCs and progenitors, with broader implications for understanding mechanisms for stem cell maintenance, niche interactions and fate determination.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.62210

    View details for PubMedID 33236985

  • A molecular cell atlas of the human lung from single-cell RNA sequencing. Nature Travaglini, K. J., Nabhan, A. N., Penland, L., Sinha, R., Gillich, A., Sit, R. V., Chang, S., Conley, S. D., Mori, Y., Seita, J., Berry, G. J., Shrager, J. B., Metzger, R. J., Kuo, C. S., Neff, N., Weissman, I. L., Quake, S. R., Krasnow, M. A. 2020

    Abstract

    Although single-cell RNA sequencing studies have begun to provide compendia of cell expression profiles1-9, it has been difficult to systematically identify and localize all molecularcell types in individual organs to create a full molecular cell atlas. Here, using droplet- and plate-based single-cell RNA sequencing of approximately 75,000 human cells across all lung tissue compartments and circulating blood, combined with a multi-pronged cell annotation approach, we create an extensive cell atlas of the human lung. We define the gene expression profiles and anatomical locations of 58 cell populations in the human lung, including 41 out of 45 previously known cell types and 14 previously unknown ones. This comprehensive molecular atlas identifies the biochemical functions of lung cells and the transcription factors and markers for making and monitoring them; defines the cell targets of circulating hormones and predicts local signalling interactions and immune cell homing; and identifies cell types that are directly affected by lung disease genes and respiratory viruses. By comparing human and mouse data, we identified 17 molecular cell types that have been gained or lost during lung evolution and others with substantially altered expression profiles, revealing extensive plasticity of cell types and cell-type-specific gene expression during organ evolution including expression switches between cell types. This atlas provides the molecular foundation for investigating how lung cell identities, functions and interactions are achieved in development and tissue engineering and altered in disease and evolution.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-2922-4

    View details for PubMedID 33208946

  • Effects of ultra-high dose rate FLASH irradiation on the tumor microenvironment in Lewis lung carcinoma: role of myosin light chain. International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics Kim, Y., Gwak, S., Hong, B., Oh, J., Choi, H., Kim, M. S., Oh, D., Lartey, F., Rafat, M., Schuler, E., Kim, H., von Eyben, R., Weissman, I. L., Koch, C. J., Maxim, P. G., Loo, B. W., Ahn, G. 2020

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether the vascular collapse in tumors by conventional dose rate (CONV) irradiation (IR) would also occur by the ultra-high dose rate FLASH IR.METHODS AND MATERIALS: Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) were subcutaneously implanted in mice followed by CONV or FLASH IR at 15 Gy. Tumors were harvested at 6 or 48 hr post-IR and stained for CD31, phosphorylated myosin-light chain (p-MLC), gammaH2AX, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), or immune cells such as myeloid and CD8alpha T cells. Cell lines were irradiated with CONV IR for Western blot analyses. ML-7 was intraperitoneally administered daily to LLC-bearing mice for 7 days prior to 15 Gy CONV IR. Tumors were similarly harvested and analyzed as above.RESULTS: By immunostaining, we observed that CONV IR at 6 hr post-IR resulted in constricted vessel morphology, increased expression of phosphorylated myosin light chain (p-MLC), and much higher numbers of gammaH2AX (surrogate marker for DNA double strand break)-positive cells in tumors, which were not observed with FLASH IR. Mechanistically, we found that MLC activation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is unlikely since FLASH IR produced significantly higher ROS than CONV IR in tumors. In vitro studies demonstrated that ML-7, an inhibitor of MLC kinase abrogated IR-induced gammaH2AX formation and disappearance kinetics. Lastly, we observed that CONV IR when combined with ML-7 produced some effects similar to FLASH IR including the reduction in the vasculature collapse, fewer gammaH2AX-positive cells, and increased immune cell influx to the tumors.CONCLUSIONS: FLASH IR produced novel changes in the tumor microenvironment that were not observed with CONV IR. We believe that MLC activation in tumors may be responsible for some of those microenvironmental changes differentially regulated between CONV and FLASH IR.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.11.012

    View details for PubMedID 33186615

  • Articular cartilage regeneration by activated skeletal stem cells. Nature medicine Murphy, M. P., Koepke, L. S., Lopez, M. T., Tong, X., Ambrosi, T. H., Gulati, G. S., Marecic, O., Wang, Y., Ransom, R. C., Hoover, M. Y., Steininger, H., Zhao, L., Walkiewicz, M. P., Quarto, N., Levi, B., Wan, D. C., Weissman, I. L., Goodman, S. B., Yang, F., Longaker, M. T., Chan, C. K. 2020

    Abstract

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease resulting in irreversible, progressive destruction of articular cartilage1. The etiology of OA is complex and involves a variety of factors, including genetic predisposition, acute injury and chronic inflammation2-4. Here we investigate the ability of resident skeletal stem-cell (SSC) populations to regenerate cartilage in relation to age, a possible contributor to the development of osteoarthritis5-7. We demonstrate that aging is associated with progressive loss of SSCs and diminished chondrogenesis in the joints of both mice and humans. However, a local expansion of SSCs could still be triggered in the chondral surface of adult limb joints in mice by stimulating a regenerative response using microfracture (MF) surgery. Although MF-activated SSCs tended to form fibrous tissues, localized co-delivery of BMP2 and soluble VEGFR1 (sVEGFR1), a VEGF receptor antagonist, in a hydrogel skewed differentiation of MF-activated SSCs toward articular cartilage. These data indicate that following MF, a resident stem-cell population can be induced to generate cartilage for treatment of localized chondral disease in OA.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41591-020-1013-2

    View details for PubMedID 32807933

  • Digit tip regeneration relies on germ layer restricted Wnt and Hedgehog signaling Barrera, J., Maan, Z., Rinkevich, Y., Henn, D., Chen, K., Bonham, C. A., Padmanabhan, J., Januszyk, M., Weissman, I. L., Gurtner, G. C. WILEY. 2020: S5
  • James L. Gowans 1924-2020. Nature immunology Howard, J. C., Weissman, I. L. 2020; 21 (6): 595

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41590-020-0696-3

    View details for PubMedID 32457533

  • Magrolimab and gemcitabine-cisplatin combination enhance phagocytic elimination of bladder cancer. Kiss, B., Volkmer, A., Feng, D., McKenna, K., Mihardja, S., Chao, M., Takimoto, C. M., Liao, J. C., Volkmer, J., Weissman, I. L. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2020
  • Functional cytotoxic T cells exhibit tissue-specific phenotypic differences during chronic Friend virus infection Myers, L., Tal, M., Messer, R. J., Carmody, A. B., Weissman, I. L., Hasenkrug, K. J. AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS. 2020
  • Polymorphisms in SIRPA impact macrophage phagocytosis in response to therapeutic antibody blockade. Yiu, Y. Y., Barkal, A. A., Tal, M. C., Ollila, H. M., Hansen, P. S., Mansfield, P., Weissman, I. L. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2020: 49
  • Evolutionary perspective on the hematopoietic system through a colonial chordate: allogeneic immunity and hematopoiesis. Current opinion in immunology Rosental, B., Raveh, T., Voskoboynik, A., Weissman, I. L. 2020; 62: 91–98

    Abstract

    Evolution and selection have shaped diverse immune systems throughout phylogeny, the vast majority of which remain unexplored. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial tunicate, a sister group to vertebrates, that develops as a chordate, then metamorphoses to an asexually reproductive invertebrate that every week makes the same body plan from budded stem cells. Genetically distinct B. schlosseri colonies can fuse to form a chimera, or reject each other based on allogeneic recognition. In chimeras, circulating germline and somatic stem cells participate in development; stem cells compete in all individuals in the fused colonies, with rejection preventing germline parasitism. Here we review the isolation and characterization of B. schlosseri hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and their niches, and the role of the immune effector cells in allorecognition.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.coi.2019.12.006

    View details for PubMedID 31954962

  • Pro-efferocytic nanoparticles are specifically taken up by lesional macrophages and prevent atherosclerosis. Nature nanotechnology Flores, A. M., Hosseini-Nassab, N. n., Jarr, K. U., Ye, J. n., Zhu, X. n., Wirka, R. n., Koh, A. L., Tsantilas, P. n., Wang, Y. n., Nanda, V. n., Kojima, Y. n., Zeng, Y. n., Lotfi, M. n., Sinclair, R. n., Weissman, I. L., Ingelsson, E. n., Smith, B. R., Leeper, N. J. 2020

    Abstract

    Atherosclerosis is the process that underlies heart attack and stroke. A characteristic feature of the atherosclerotic plaque is the accumulation of apoptotic cells in the necrotic core. Prophagocytic antibody-based therapies are currently being explored to stimulate the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells; however, these therapies can cause off-target clearance of healthy tissues, which leads to toxicities such as anaemia. Here we developed a macrophage-specific nanotherapy based on single-walled carbon nanotubes loaded with a chemical inhibitor of the antiphagocytic CD47-SIRPα signalling axis. We demonstrate that these single-walled carbon nanotubes accumulate within the atherosclerotic plaque, reactivate lesional phagocytosis and reduce the plaque burden in atheroprone apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice without compromising safety, and thereby overcome a key translational barrier for this class of drugs. Single-cell RNA sequencing analysis reveals that prophagocytic single-walled carbon nanotubes decrease the expression of inflammatory genes linked to cytokine and chemokine pathways in lesional macrophages, which demonstrates the potential of 'Trojan horse' nanoparticles to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41565-019-0619-3

    View details for PubMedID 31988506

  • Clonally expanding smooth muscle cells promote atherosclerosis by escaping efferocytosis and activating the complement cascade. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Wang, Y. n., Nanda, V. n., Direnzo, D. n., Ye, J. n., Xiao, S. n., Kojima, Y. n., Howe, K. L., Jarr, K. U., Flores, A. M., Tsantilas, P. n., Tsao, N. n., Rao, A. n., Newman, A. A., Eberhard, A. V., Priest, J. R., Ruusalepp, A. n., Pasterkamp, G. n., Maegdefessel, L. n., Miller, C. L., Lind, L. n., Koplev, S. n., Björkegren, J. L., Owens, G. K., Ingelsson, E. n., Weissman, I. L., Leeper, N. J. 2020

    Abstract

    Atherosclerosis is the process underlying heart attack and stroke. Despite decades of research, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Dogma suggests that atherosclerotic plaques expand primarily via the accumulation of cholesterol and inflammatory cells. However, recent evidence suggests that a substantial portion of the plaque may arise from a subset of "dedifferentiated" vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) which proliferate in a clonal fashion. Herein we use multicolor lineage-tracing models to confirm that the mature SMC can give rise to a hyperproliferative cell which appears to promote inflammation via elaboration of complement-dependent anaphylatoxins. Despite being extensively opsonized with prophagocytic complement fragments, we find that this cell also escapes immune surveillance by neighboring macrophages, thereby exacerbating its relative survival advantage. Mechanistic studies indicate this phenomenon results from a generalized opsonin-sensing defect acquired by macrophages during polarization. This defect coincides with the noncanonical up-regulation of so-called don't eat me molecules on inflamed phagocytes, which reduces their capacity for programmed cell removal (PrCR). Knockdown or knockout of the key antiphagocytic molecule CD47 restores the ability of macrophages to sense and clear opsonized targets in vitro, allowing for potent and targeted suppression of clonal SMC expansion in the plaque in vivo. Because integrated clinical and genomic analyses indicate that similar pathways are active in humans with cardiovascular disease, these studies suggest that the clonally expanding SMC may represent a translational target for treating atherosclerosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.2006348117

    View details for PubMedID 32541024

  • Ageing hallmarks exhibit organ-specific temporal signatures. Nature Schaum, N. n., Lehallier, B. n., Hahn, O. n., Pálovics, R. n., Hosseinzadeh, S. n., Lee, S. E., Sit, R. n., Lee, D. P., Losada, P. M., Zardeneta, M. E., Fehlmann, T. n., Webber, J. T., McGeever, A. n., Calcuttawala, K. n., Zhang, H. n., Berdnik, D. n., Mathur, V. n., Tan, W. n., Zee, A. n., Tan, M. n., Pisco, A. O., Karkanias, J. n., Neff, N. F., Keller, A. n., Darmanis, S. n., Quake, S. R., Wyss-Coray, T. n. 2020

    Abstract

    Ageing is the single greatest cause of disease and death worldwide, and understanding the associated processes could vastly improve quality of life. Although major categories of ageing damage have been identified-such as altered intercellular communication, loss of proteostasis and eroded mitochondrial function1-these deleterious processes interact with extraordinary complexity within and between organs, and a comprehensive, whole-organism analysis of ageing dynamics has been lacking. Here we performed bulk RNA sequencing of 17 organs and plasma proteomics at 10 ages across the lifespan of Mus musculus, and integrated these findings with data from the accompanying Tabula Muris Senis2-or 'Mouse Ageing Cell Atlas'-which follows on from the original Tabula Muris3. We reveal linear and nonlinear shifts in gene expression during ageing, with the associated genes clustered in consistent trajectory groups with coherent biological functions-including extracellular matrix regulation, unfolded protein binding, mitochondrial function, and inflammatory and immune response. Notably, these gene sets show similar expression across tissues, differing only in the amplitude and the age of onset of expression. Widespread activation of immune cells is especially pronounced, and is first detectable in white adipose depots during middle age. Single-cell RNA sequencing confirms the accumulation of T cells and B cells in adipose tissue-including plasma cells that express immunoglobulin J-which also accrue concurrently across diverse organs. Finally, we show how gene expression shifts in distinct tissues are highly correlated with corresponding protein levels in plasma, thus potentially contributing to the ageing of the systemic circulation. Together, these data demonstrate a similar yet asynchronous inter- and intra-organ progression of ageing, providing a foundation from which to track systemic sources of declining health at old age.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-2499-y

    View details for PubMedID 32669715

  • Targeting macrophage checkpoint inhibitor SIRPa for anticancer therapy. JCI insight Liu, J. n., Xavy, S. n., Mihardja, S. n., Chen, S. n., Sompalli, K. n., Feng, D. n., Choi, T. S., Agoram, B. n., Majeti, R. n., Weissman, I. L., Volkmer, J. P. 2020

    Abstract

    The SIRPα-CD47 interaction provides a macrophage immune checkpoint pathway that plays a critical role in cancer immune evasion across multiple cancers. Here, we report the engineering of a humanized anti-SIRPα monoclonal antibody (1H9) for antibody target cancer therapy. 1H9 has broad activity across a wide range of SIRPα variants. Binding of 1H9 to SIRPα blocks its interaction with CD47, thereby promoting macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of cancer cells. Pre-clinical studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that 1H9 synergizes with other therapeutic antibodies to promote phagocytosis of tumor cells and inhibit tumor growth in both syngeneic and xenograft tumor models, leading to survival benefit. Thus, 1H9 can potentially act as a universal agent to enhance therapeutic efficacy when used in combination with most tumor-targeting antibodies. We report for the first time, a comparison of anti-SIRPα and anti-CD47 antibodies in CD47/SIRPα double humanized mice, and found that 1H9 exhibits a substantially reduced antigen-sink effect due to the limited tissue distribution of SIRPα expression. Toxicokinetic studies in non-human primates show that 1H9 is well tolerated with no treatment-related adverse effects noted. These data highlight the clinical potential of 1H9 as a pan-therapeutic with the desired properties when used in combination with tumor-targeting antibodies.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.134728

    View details for PubMedID 32427583

  • Upregulation of CD47 Is a Host Checkpoint Response to Pathogen Recognition. mBio Tal, M. C., Torrez Dulgeroff, L. B., Myers, L. n., Cham, L. B., Mayer-Barber, K. D., Bohrer, A. C., Castro, E. n., Yiu, Y. Y., Lopez Angel, C. n., Pham, E. n., Carmody, A. B., Messer, R. J., Gars, E. n., Kortmann, J. n., Markovic, M. n., Hasenkrug, M. n., Peterson, K. E., Winkler, C. W., Woods, T. A., Hansen, P. n., Galloway, S. n., Wagh, D. n., Fram, B. J., Nguyen, T. n., Corey, D. n., Kalluru, R. S., Banaei, N. n., Rajadas, J. n., Monack, D. M., Ahmed, A. n., Sahoo, D. n., Davis, M. M., Glenn, J. S., Adomati, T. n., Lang, K. S., Weissman, I. L., Hasenkrug, K. J. 2020; 11 (3)

    Abstract

    It is well understood that the adaptive immune response to infectious agents includes a modulating suppressive component as well as an activating component. We now show that the very early innate response also has an immunosuppressive component. Infected cells upregulate the CD47 "don't eat me" signal, which slows the phagocytic uptake of dying and viable cells as well as downstream antigen-presenting cell (APC) functions. A CD47 mimic that acts as an essential virulence factor is encoded by all poxviruses, but CD47 expression on infected cells was found to be upregulated even by pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), that encode no mimic. CD47 upregulation was revealed to be a host response induced by the stimulation of both endosomal and cytosolic pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs). Furthermore, proinflammatory cytokines, including those found in the plasma of hepatitis C patients, upregulated CD47 on uninfected dendritic cells, thereby linking innate modulation with downstream adaptive immune responses. Indeed, results from antibody-mediated CD47 blockade experiments as well as CD47 knockout mice revealed an immunosuppressive role for CD47 during infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Since CD47 blockade operates at the level of pattern recognition receptors rather than at a pathogen or antigen-specific level, these findings identify CD47 as a novel potential immunotherapeutic target for the enhancement of immune responses to a broad range of infectious agents.IMPORTANCE Immune responses to infectious agents are initiated when a pathogen or its components bind to pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRR binding sets off a cascade of events that activates immune responses. We now show that, in addition to activating immune responses, PRR signaling also initiates an immunosuppressive response, probably to limit inflammation. The importance of the current findings is that blockade of immunomodulatory signaling, which is mediated by the upregulation of the CD47 molecule, can lead to enhanced immune responses to any pathogen that triggers PRR signaling. Since most or all pathogens trigger PRRs, CD47 blockade could be used to speed up and strengthen both innate and adaptive immune responses when medically indicated. Such immunotherapy could be done without a requirement for knowing the HLA type of the individual, the specific antigens of the pathogen, or, in the case of bacterial infections, the antimicrobial resistance profile.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/mBio.01293-20

    View details for PubMedID 32576678

  • Immunotherapeutic Blockade of CD47 Inhibitory Signaling Enhances Innate and Adaptive Immune Responses to Viral Infection. Cell reports Cham, L. B., Torrez Dulgeroff, L. B., Tal, M. C., Adomati, T. n., Li, F. n., Bhat, H. n., Huang, A. n., Lang, P. A., Moreno, M. E., Rivera, J. M., Galkina, S. A., Kosikova, G. n., Stoddart, C. A., McCune, J. M., Myers, L. M., Weissman, I. L., Lang, K. S., Hasenkrug, K. J. 2020; 31 (2): 107494

    Abstract

    Paradoxically, early host responses to infection include the upregulation of the antiphagocytic molecule, CD47. This suggests that CD47 blockade could enhance antigen presentation and subsequent immune responses. Indeed, mice treated with anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody following lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections show increased activation of both macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), enhancement of the kinetics and potency of CD8+ T cell responses, and significantly improved virus control. Treatment efficacy is critically dependent on both APCs and CD8+ T cells. In preliminary results from one of two cohorts of humanized mice infected with HIV-1 for 6 weeks, CD47 blockade reduces plasma p24 levels and restores CD4+ T cell counts. The results indicate that CD47 blockade not only enhances the function of innate immune cells but also links to adaptive immune responses through improved APC function. As such, immunotherapy by CD47 blockade may have broad applicability to treat a wide range of infectious diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.03.058

    View details for PubMedID 32294445

  • Semaphorin 3A mediated brain tumor stem cell proliferation and invasion in EGFRviii mutant gliomas. BMC cancer Higgins, D. M., Caliva, M. n., Schroeder, M. n., Carlson, B. n., Upadhyayula, P. S., Milligan, B. D., Cheshier, S. H., Weissman, I. L., Sarkaria, J. N., Meyer, F. B., Henley, J. R. 2020; 20 (1): 1213

    Abstract

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults, with a median survival of approximately 15 months. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), known for its axon guidance and antiangiogenic properties, has been implicated in GBM growth. We hypothesized that Sema3A directly inhibits brain tumor stem cell (BTSC) proliferation and drives invasion via Neuropilin 1 (Nrp1) and Plexin A1 (PlxnA1) receptors.GBM BTSC cell lines were assayed by immunostaining and PCR for levels of Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and its receptors Nrp1 and PlxnA1. Quantitative BrdU, cell cycle and propidium iodide labeling assays were performed following exogenous Sema3A treatment. Quantitative functional 2-D and 3-D invasion assays along with shRNA lentiviral knockdown of Nrp1 and PlxnA1 are also shown. In vivo flank studies comparing tumor growth of knockdown versus control BTSCs were performed. Statistics were performed using GraphPad Prism v7.Immunostaining and PCR analysis revealed that BTSCs highly express Sema3A and its receptors Nrp1 and PlxnA1, with expression of Nrp1 in the CD133 positive BTSCs, and absence in differentiated tumor cells. Treatment with exogenous Sema3A in quantitative BrdU, cell cycle, and propidium iodide labeling assays demonstrated that Sema3A significantly inhibited BTSC proliferation without inducing cell death. Quantitative functional 2-D and 3-D invasion assays showed that treatment with Sema3A resulted in increased invasion. Using shRNA lentiviruses, knockdown of either NRP1 or PlxnA1 receptors abrogated Sema3A antiproliferative and pro-invasive effects. Interestingly, loss of the receptors mimicked Sema3A effects, inhibiting BTSC proliferation and driving invasion. Furthermore, in vivo studies comparing tumor growth of knockdown and control infected BTSCs implanted into the flanks of nude mice confirmed the decrease in proliferation with receptor KD.These findings demonstrate the importance of Sema3A signaling in GBM BTSC proliferation and invasion, and its potential as a therapeutic target.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12885-020-07694-4

    View details for PubMedID 33302912

  • A single-cell transcriptomic atlas characterizes ageing tissues in the mouse. Nature 2020

    Abstract

    Ageing is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity, leading to impaired function and increased vulnerability to death1. Despite rapid advances over recent years, many of the molecular and cellular processes that underlie the progressive loss of healthy physiology are poorly understood2. To gain a better insight into these processes, here we generate a single-cell transcriptomic atlas across the lifespan of Mus musculus that includes data from 23 tissues and organs. We found cell-specific changes occurring across multiple cell types and organs, as well as age-related changes in the cellular composition of different organs. Using single-cell transcriptomic data, we assessed cell-type-specific manifestations of different hallmarks of ageing-such as senescence3, genomic instability4 and changes in the immune system2. This transcriptomic atlas-which we denote Tabula Muris Senis, or 'Mouse Ageing Cell Atlas'-provides molecular information about how the most important hallmarks of ageing are reflected in a broad range of tissues and cell types.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-020-2496-1

    View details for PubMedID 32669714

  • Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency triggers exhaustion of hematopoietic stem cells. EMBO reports Szade, K., Zukowska, M., Szade, A., Nowak, W., Skulimowska, I., Ciesla, M., Bukowska-Strakova, K., Gulati, G. S., Kachamakova-Trojanowska, N., Kusienicka, A., Einwallner, E., Kijowski, J., Czauderna, S., Esterbauer, H., Benes, V., L Weissman, I., Dulak, J., Jozkowicz, A. 2019: e47895

    Abstract

    While intrinsic changes in aging hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are well characterized, it remains unclear how extrinsic factors affect HSC aging. Here, we demonstrate that cells in the niche-endothelial cells (ECs) and CXCL12-abundant reticular cells (CARs)-highly express the heme-degrading enzyme, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), but then decrease its expression with age. HO-1-deficient animals (HO-1-/- ) have altered numbers of ECs and CARs that produce less hematopoietic factors. HSCs co-cultured invitro with HO-1-/- mesenchymal stromal cells expand, but have altered kinetic of growth and differentiation of derived colonies. HSCs from young HO-1-/- animals have reduced quiescence and regenerative potential. Young HO-1-/- HSCs exhibit features of premature exhaustion on the transcriptional and functional level. HO-1+/+ HSCs transplanted into HO-1-/- recipients exhaust their regenerative potential early and do not reconstitute secondary recipients. In turn, transplantation of HO-1-/- HSCs to the HO-1+/+ recipients recovers the regenerative potential of HO-1-/- HSCs and reverses their transcriptional alterations. Thus, HSC-extrinsic activity of HO-1 prevents HSCs from premature exhaustion and may restore the function of aged HSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.15252/embr.201947895

    View details for PubMedID 31885181

  • Neogenin-1 distinguishes between myeloid-biased and balanced Hoxb5+ mouse long-term hematopoietic stem cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Gulati, G. S., Zukowska, M., Noh, J. J., Zhang, A., Wesche, D. J., Sinha, R., George, B. M., Weissman, I. L., Szade, K. 2019

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) self-renew and generate all blood cells. Recent studies with single cell transplants and lineage tracing suggest that adult HSCs are diverse in their reconstitution and lineage potentials. However, prospective isolation of these subpopulations has remained challenging. Here, we identify Neogenin-1 (NEO1) as a unique surface marker on a fraction of mouse HSCs labeled with Hoxb5, a specific reporter of long-term HSCs (LT-HSCs). We show that NEO1+ Hoxb5 + LT-HSCs expand with age and respond to myeloablative stress in young mice while NEO1- Hoxb5 + LT-HSCs exhibit no significant change in number. Furthermore, NEO1+ Hoxb5 + LT-HSCs are more often in the G2/S cell cycle phase compared to NEO1- Hoxb5 + LT-HSCs in both young and old bone marrow. Upon serial transplantation, NEO1+ Hoxb5 + LT-HSCs exhibit myeloid-biased differentiation and reduced reconstitution while NEO1- Hoxb5 + LT-HSCs are lineage-balanced and stably reconstitute recipients. Gene expression analysis reveals erythroid and myeloid priming in the NEO1+ fraction and association of quiescence and self-renewal-related transcription factors with NEO1- LT-HSCs. Finally, transplanted NEO1+ Hoxb5 + LT-HSCs rarely generate NEO1- Hoxb5 + LT-HSCs while NEO1- Hoxb5 + LT-HSCs repopulate both LT-HSC fractions. This supports a model in which dormant, balanced NEO1- Hoxb5 + LT-HSCs can hierarchically precede active, myeloid-biased NEO1+ Hoxb5 + LT-HSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1911024116

    View details for PubMedID 31754028

  • The Ban on US Government Funding Research Using Human Fetal Tissues: How Does This Fit with the NIH Mission to Advance Medical Science for the Benefit of the Citizenry? Stem cell reports McCune, J. M., Weissman, I. L. 2019; 13 (5): 777–86

    Abstract

    Some have argued that human fetal tissue research is unnecessary and/or immoral. Recently, the Trump administration has taken the drastic--and we believe misguided--step to effectively ban government-funded research on fetal tissue altogether. In this article, we show that entire lines of research and their clinical outcomes would not have progressed had fetal tissue been unavailable. We argue that this research has been carried out in a manner that is ethical and legal, and that it has provided knowledge that has saved lives, particularly those of pregnant women, their unborn fetuses, and newborns. We believe that those who support a ban on the use of fetal tissue are halting medical progress and therefore endangering the health and lives of many, and for this they should accept responsibility. At the very least, we challenge them to be true to their beliefs: if they wish to short-circuit a scientific process that has led to medical advances, they should pledge to not accept for themselves the health benefits that such advances provide.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stemcr.2019.10.003

    View details for PubMedID 31722191

  • Adult stem cells and regenerative medicine-a symposium report. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Cable, J., Fuchs, E., Weissman, I., Jasper, H., Glass, D., Rando, T. A., Blau, H., Debnath, S., Oliva, A., Park, S., Passegue, E., Kim, C., Krasnow, M. A. 2019

    Abstract

    Adult stem cells are rare, undifferentiated cells found in all tissues of the body. Although normally kept in a quiescent, nondividing state, these cells can proliferate and differentiate to replace naturally dying cells within their tissue and to repair its wounds in response to injury. Due to their proliferative nature and ability to regenerate tissue, adult stem cells have the potential to treat a variety of degenerative diseases as well as aging. In addition, since stem cells are often thought to be the source of malignant tumors, understanding the mechanisms that keep their proliferative abilities in check can pave the way for new cancer therapies. While adult stem cells have had limited practical and clinical applications to date, several clinical trials of stem cell-based therapies are underway. This report details recent research presented at the New York Academy of Sciences on March 14, 2019 on understanding the factors that regulate stem cell activity and differentiation, with the hope of translating these findings into the clinic.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/nyas.14243

    View details for PubMedID 31655007

  • Digit Tip Regeneration Relies on Germ Layer Restricted Wnt and Hedgehog Signaling Maan, Z. N., Januszyk, M., Rinkevich, Y., Weissman, I., Gurtner, G. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2019: S220–S221
  • Neutrophil and monocyte kinetics play critical roles in mouse peritoneal adhesion formation. Blood advances Tsai, J. M., Shoham, M., Fernhoff, N. B., George, B. M., Marjon, K. D., McCracken, M. N., Kao, K. S., Sinha, R., Volkmer, A. K., Miyanishi, M., Seita, J., Rinkevich, Y., Weissman, I. L. 2019; 3 (18): 2713–21

    Abstract

    Peritoneal adhesions are pathological fibroses that ensnare organs after abdominal surgery. This dense connective tissue can cause small bowel obstruction, female infertility, and chronic abdominal pain. The pathogenesis of adhesions is a fibrotic response to tissue damage coordinated between mesothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells. We have previously demonstrated that peritoneal adhesions are a consequence of mechanical injury to the mesothelial layer sustained during surgery. Neutrophils are among the first leukocytes involved in the early response to tissue damage. Here, we show that when subjected to mechanical stress, activated mesothelial cells directly recruit neutrophils and monocytes through upregulation of chemokines such as CXCL1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). We find that neutrophils within the adhesion sites undergo cell death and form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETosis) that contribute to pathogenesis. Conversely, tissue-resident macrophages were profoundly depleted throughout the disease time course. We show that this is distinct from traditional inflammatory kinetics such as after sham surgery or chemically induced peritonitis, and suggest that adhesions result from a primary difference in inflammatory kinetics. We find that transient depletion of circulating neutrophils significantly decreases adhesion burden, and further recruitment of monocytes with thioglycolate or MCP-1 also improves outcomes. Our findings suggest that the combination of neutrophil depletion and monocyte recruitment is sufficient to prevent adhesion formation, thus providing insight for potential clinical interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/bloodadvances.2018024026

    View details for PubMedID 31519647

  • Phagocytosis checkpoints as new targets for cancer immunotherapy. Nature reviews. Cancer Feng, M., Jiang, W., Kim, B. Y., Zhang, C. C., Fu, Y., Weissman, I. L. 2019

    Abstract

    Cancer immunotherapies targeting adaptive immune checkpoints have substantially improved patient outcomes across multiple metastatic and treatment-refractory cancer types. However, emerging studies have demonstrated that innate immune checkpoints, which interfere with the detection and clearance of malignant cells through phagocytosis and suppress innate immune sensing, also have a key role in tumour-mediated immune escape and might, therefore, be potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. Indeed, preclinical studies and early clinical data have established the promise of targeting phagocytosis checkpoints, such as the CD47-signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPalpha) axis, either alone or in combination with other cancer therapies. In this Review, we highlight the current understanding of how cancer cells evade the immune system by disrupting phagocytic clearance and the effect of phagocytosis checkpoint blockade on induction of antitumour immune responses. Given the role of innate immune cells in priming adaptive immune responses, an improved understanding of the tumour-intrinsic processes that inhibit essential immune surveillance processes, such as phagocytosis and innate immune sensing, could pave the way for the development of highly effective combination immunotherapy strategies that modulate both innate and adaptive antitumour immune responses.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41568-019-0183-z

    View details for PubMedID 31462760

  • The GABA receptor GABRR1 is expressed on and functional in hematopoietic stem cells and megakaryocyte progenitors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Zhu, F., Feng, M., Sinha, R., Murphy, M. P., Luo, F., Kao, K. S., Szade, K., Seita, J., Weissman, I. L. 2019

    Abstract

    GABRR1 is a rho subunit receptor of GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. While most investigations of its function focused on the nervous system, its regulatory role in hematopoiesis has not been reported. In this study, we found GABRR1 is mainly expressed on subsets of human and mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and megakaryocyte progenitors (MkPs). GABRR1-negative (GR-) HSCs led to higher donor-derived hematopoietic chimerism than GABRR1-positive (GR+) HSCs. GR+ but not GR- HSCs and MkPs respond to GABA in patch clamp studies. Inhibition of GABRR1 via genetic knockout or antagonists inhibited MkP differentiation and reduced platelet numbers in blood. Overexpression of GABRR1 or treatment with agonists significantly promoted MkP generation and megakaryocyte colonies. Thus, this study identifies a link between the neural and hematopoietic systems and opens up the possibility of manipulating GABA signaling for platelet-required clinical applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1906251116

    View details for PubMedID 31451629

  • CD24 signalling through macrophage Siglec-10 is a target for cancer immunotherapy. Nature Barkal, A. A., Brewer, R. E., Markovic, M., Kowarsky, M., Barkal, S. A., Zaro, B. W., Krishnan, V., Hatakeyama, J., Dorigo, O., Barkal, L. J., Weissman, I. L. 2019

    Abstract

    Ovarian cancer and triple-negative breast cancer are among the most lethal diseases affecting women, with few targeted therapies and high rates of metastasis. Cancer cells are capable of evading clearance by macrophages through the overexpression of anti-phagocytic surface proteins called 'don't eat me' signals-including CD471, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1)2 and the beta-2 microglobulin subunit of the major histocompatibility class I complex (B2M)3. Monoclonal antibodies that antagonize the interaction of 'don't eat me' signals with their macrophage-expressed receptors have demonstrated therapeutic potential in several cancers4,5. However, variability in the magnitude and durability of the response to these agents has suggested the presence of additional, as yet unknown 'don't eat me' signals. Here we show that CD24 can be the dominant innate immune checkpoint in ovarian cancer and breast cancer, and is a promising target for cancer immunotherapy. We demonstrate a role for tumour-expressed CD24 in promoting immune evasion through its interaction with the inhibitory receptor sialic-acid-binding Ig-like lectin 10 (Siglec-10), which is expressed by tumour-associated macrophages. We find that many tumours overexpress CD24 and that tumour-associated macrophages express high levels of Siglec-10. Genetic ablation of either CD24 or Siglec-10, as well as blockade of the CD24-Siglec-10 interaction using monoclonal antibodies, robustly augment the phagocytosis of all CD24-expressing human tumours that we tested. Genetic ablation and therapeutic blockade of CD24 resulted in a macrophage-dependent reduction of tumour growth in vivo and an increase in survival time. These data reveal CD24 as a highly expressed, anti-phagocytic signal in several cancers and demonstrate the therapeutic potential for CD24 blockade in cancer immunotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-019-1456-0

    View details for PubMedID 31367043

  • CD47-Targeted Near-Infrared Photoimmunotherapy for Human Bladder Cancer CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Kiss, B., van den Berg, N. S., Ertsey, R., McKenna, K., Mach, K. E., Zhang, C., Volkmer, J., Weissman, I. L., Rosenthal, E. L., Liao, J. C. 2019; 25 (12): 3561–71
  • Evolutionarily conserved resistance to phagocytosis observed in melanoma cells is insensitive to upregulation of pro-phagocytic signals and to CD47 blockade. Melanoma research Anderson, K. L., Snyder, K. M., Ito, D., Lins, D. C., Mills, L. J., Weiskopf, K., Ring, N. G., Ring, A. M., Shimizu, Y., Mescher, M. F., Weissman, I. L., Modiano, J. F. 2019

    Abstract

    Therapeutic activation of macrophage phagocytosis has the ability to restrain tumour growth through phagocytic clearance of tumour cells and activation of the adaptive immune response. Our objective for this study was to evaluate the effects of modulating pro- and anti-phagocytic pathways in malignant melanoma. In order to identify evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of resistance that may be important for melanoma cell survival, we utilized a multi-species approach and examined the phagocytosis of human, mouse, and dog melanoma cells. We observed that melanoma cells from all three species displayed unexpected resistance to phagocytosis that could not be fully mitigated by blockade of the 'don't eat me' signal CD47 or by chemotherapeutic enhancement of known 'eat me' signals. Additionally, CD47 blockade failed to promote anti-melanoma immune responses or tumour regression in vivo. This melanoma resistance to phagocytosis was not mediated by soluble factors, and it was unaffected by siRNA-mediated knockdown of 47 prospective 'don't eat me' signals or by CRISPR-Cas-mediated CD47 knockout. Unexpectedly, CD47 knockout also did not enhance phagocytosis of lymphoma cells, but it eliminated the pro-phagocytic effect of CD47 blockade, suggesting that the pro-phagocytic effects of CD47 blockade are due in part to Fc receptor engagement. From this study, we conclude that melanoma cells possess an evolutionarily conserved resistance to macrophage phagocytosis. Further investigation will be needed to overcome the mechanisms that mediate melanoma cell resistance to innate immunity.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/CMR.0000000000000629

    View details for PubMedID 31205227

  • Antibody Conditioning Enables MHC-Mismatched Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants and Organ Graft Tolerance. Cell stem cell George, B. M., Kao, K. S., Kwon, H., Velasco, B. J., Poyser, J., Chen, A., Le, A. C., Chhabra, A., Burnett, C. E., Cajuste, D., Hoover, M., Loh, K. M., Shizuru, J. A., Weissman, I. L. 2019

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation can correct hematological and immunological disorders by replacing a diseased blood system with a healthy one, but this currently requires depleting a patient's existing hematopoietic system with toxic and non-specific chemotherapy, radiation, or both. Here we report an antibody-based conditioning protocol with reduced toxicity and enhanced specificity for robust hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation and engraftment in recipient mice. Host pre-treatment with six monoclonal antibodies targeting CD47, Tcells, NK cells, and HSCs followed by donor HSC transplantation enabled stable hematopoietic system reconstitution in recipients with mismatches at half (haploidentical) or all major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. This approach allowed tolerance to heart tissue from HSC donor strains in haploidentical recipients, showing potential applications for solid organ transplantation without immune suppression. Fully mismatched chimeric mice developed antibody responses to nominal antigens, showing preserved functional immunity. These findings suggest approaches for transplanting immunologically mismatched HSCs and solid organs with limited toxicity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2019.05.018

    View details for PubMedID 31204177

  • Anti-CD117 antibody depletes normal and myelodysplastic syndrome human hematopoietic stem cells in xenografted mice BLOOD Pang, W. W., Czechowicz, A., Logan, A. C., Bhardwaj, R., Poyser, J., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2019; 133 (19): 2069–78
  • Anti-human CD117 antibody-mediated bone marrow niche clearance in nonhuman primates and humanized NSG mice BLOOD Kwon, H., Logan, A. C., Chhabra, A., Pang, W. W., Czechowicz, A., Tate, K., Le, A., Poyser, J., Hollis, R., Kelly, B. V., Kohn, D. B., Weissman, I. L., Prohaska, S. S., Shizuru, J. A. 2019; 133 (19): 2104–8
  • Voices: The Importance of Fetal Tissue Research CELL STEM CELL Weissman, I., Rawlins, E., Jensen, K., Barker, R., Beltrao-Braga, P., Dekel, B., Frisen, J., Surani, A., Fehlings, M. 2019; 24 (3): 357–59

    Abstract

    The value of fetal tissue research cannot be understated and has led to remarkable advances in understanding human development, therapeutic discovery, and stem cell research across many organ systems. We asked 9 researchers to reflect on the impact and key contributions of fetal tissue in their field of expertise.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2019.01.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000460672700008

    View details for PubMedID 30770301

  • First-in-Human, First-in-Class Phase I Trial of the Anti-CD47 Antibody Hu5F9-G4 in Patients With Advanced Cancers. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Sikic, B. I., Lakhani, N., Patnaik, A., Shah, S. A., Chandana, S. R., Rasco, D., Colevas, A. D., O'Rourke, T., Narayanan, S., Papadopoulos, K., Fisher, G. A., Villalobos, V., Prohaska, S. S., Howard, M., Beeram, M., Chao, M. P., Agoram, B., Chen, J. Y., Huang, J., Axt, M., Liu, J., Volkmer, J., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L., Takimoto, C. H., Supan, D., Wakelee, H. A., Aoki, R., Pegram, M. D., Padda, S. K. 2019: JCO1802018

    Abstract

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of Hu5F9-G4 (5F9), a humanized IgG4 antibody that targets CD47 to enable phagocytosis.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adult patients with solid tumors were treated in four cohorts: part A, to determine a priming dose; part B, to determine a weekly maintenance dose; part C, to study a loading dose in week 2; and a tumor biopsy cohort.RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were treated: 11 in part A, 14 in B, 22 in C, and 15 in the biopsy cohort. Part A used doses that ranged from 0.1 to 3 mg/kg. On the basis of tolerability and receptor occupancy studies that showed 100% CD47 saturation on RBCs, 1 mg/kg was selected as the priming dose. In subsequent groups, patients were treated with maintenance doses that ranged from 3 to 45 mg/kg, and most toxicities were mild to moderate. These included transient anemia (57% of patients), hemagglutination on peripheral blood smear (36%), fatigue (64%), headaches (50%), fever (45%), chills (45%), hyperbilirubinemia (34%), lymphopenia (34%), infusion-related reactions (34%), and arthralgias (18%). No maximum tolerated dose was reached with maintenance doses up to 45 mg/kg. At doses of 10 mg/kg or more, the CD47 antigen sink was saturated by 5F9, and a 5F9 half-life of approximately 13 days was observed. Strong antibody staining of tumor tissue was observed in a patient at 30 mg/kg. Two patients with ovarian/fallopian tube cancers had partial remissions for 5.2 and 9.2 months.CONCLUSION: 5F9 is well tolerated using a priming dose at 1 mg/kg on day 1 followed by maintenance doses of up to 45 mg/kg weekly.

    View details for PubMedID 30811285

  • Wounds Inhibit Tumor Growth In Vivo. Annals of surgery Hu, M. S., Maan, Z. N., Leavitt, T., Hong, W. X., Rennert, R. C., Marshall, C. D., Borrelli, M. R., Zhu, T. N., Esquivel, M., Zimmermann, A., McArdle, A., Chung, M. T., Foster, D. S., Jones, R. E., Gurtner, G. C., Giaccia, A. J., Lorenz, H. P., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2019

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the interaction of full thickness excisional wounds and tumors in vivo.SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Tumors have been described as wounds that do not heal due to similarities in stromal composition. On the basis of observations of slowed tumor growth after ulceration, we hypothesized that full thickness excisional wounds would inhibit tumor progression in vivo.METHODS: To determine the interaction of tumors and wounds, we developed a tumor xenograft/allograft (human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma SAS/mouse breast carcinoma 4T1) wound mouse model. We examined tumor growth with varying temporospatial placement of tumors and wounds or ischemic flap. In addition, we developed a tumor/wound parabiosis model to understand the ability of tumors and wounds to recruit circulating progenitor cells.RESULTS: Tumor growth inhibition by full thickness excisional wounds was dose-dependent, maintained by sequential wounding, and relative to distance. This effect was recapitulated by placement of an ischemic flap directly adjacent to a xenograft tumor. Using a parabiosis model, we demonstrated that a healing wound was able to recruit significantly more circulating progenitor cells than a growing tumor. Tumor inhibition by wound was unaffected by presence of an immune response in an immunocompetent model using a mammary carcinoma. Utilizing functional proteomics, we identified 100 proteins differentially expressed in tumors and wounds.CONCLUSION: Full thickness excisional wounds have the ability to inhibit tumor growth in vivo. Further research may provide an exact mechanism for this remarkable finding and new advances in wound healing and tumor biology.

    View details for PubMedID 30829705

  • Regenerating the field of cardiovascular cell therapy. Nature biotechnology Chien, K. R., Frisen, J., Fritsche-Danielson, R., Melton, D. A., Murry, C. E., Weissman, I. L. 2019

    Abstract

    The retraction of >30 falsified studies by Anversa et al. has had a disheartening impact on the cardiac cell therapeutics field. The premise of heart muscle regeneration by the transdifferentiation of bone marrow cells or putative adult resident cardiac progenitors has been largely disproven. Over the past 18 years, a generation of physicians and scientists has lost years chasing these studies, and patients have been placed at risk with little scientific grounding. Funding agencies invested hundreds of millions of dollars in irreproducible work, and both academic institutions and the scientific community ignored troubling signals over a decade of questionable work. Our collective retrospective analysis identifies preventable problems at the level of the editorial and peer-review process, funding agencies and academic institutions. This Perspective provides a chronology of the forces that led to this scientific debacle, integrating direct knowledge of the process. We suggest a science-driven path forward that includes multiple novel approaches to the problem of heart muscle regeneration.

    View details for PubMedID 30778231

  • A functional subset of CD8+ T cells during chronic exhaustion is defined by SIRPalpha expression. Nature communications Myers, L. M., Tal, M. C., Torrez Dulgeroff, L. B., Carmody, A. B., Messer, R. J., Gulati, G., Yiu, Y. Y., Staron, M. M., Angel, C. L., Sinha, R., Markovic, M., Pham, E. A., Fram, B., Ahmed, A., Newman, A. M., Glenn, J. S., Davis, M. M., Kaech, S. M., Weissman, I. L., Hasenkrug, K. J. 2019; 10 (1): 794

    Abstract

    Prolonged exposure of CD8+ T cells to antigenic stimulation, as in chronic viral infections, leads to a state of diminished function termed exhaustion. We now demonstrate that even during exhaustion there is a subset of functional CD8+ T cells defined by surface expression of SIRPalpha, a protein not previously reported on lymphocytes. On SIRPalpha+ CD8+ T cells, expression of co-inhibitory receptors is counterbalanced by expression of co-stimulatory receptors and it is only SIRPalpha+ cells that actively proliferate, transcribe IFNgamma and show cytolytic activity. Furthermore, target cells that express the ligand for SIRPalpha, CD47, are more susceptible to CD8+ T cell-killing in vivo. SIRPalpha+ CD8+ T cells are evident in mice infected with Friend retrovirus, LCMV Clone 13, and in patients with chronic HCV infections. Furthermore, therapeutic blockade of PD-L1 to reinvigorate CD8+ T cells during chronic infection expands the cytotoxic subset of SIRPalpha+ CD8+ T cells.

    View details for PubMedID 30770827

  • Anti-CD117 antibody depletes normal and myelodysplastic syndrome human hematopoietic stem cells in xenografted mice. Blood Pang, W. W., Czechowicz, A., Logan, A. C., Bhardwaj, R., Poyser, J., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2019

    Abstract

    The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a group of clonal disorders that result in ineffective hematopoiesis and are associated with an increased risk of transformation into acute leukemia. MDS arises from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); therefore, successful elimination of MDS HSCs is an important part of any curative therapy. However, current treatment options, including allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), often fail to ablate disease-initiating MDS HSCs, and thus have low curative potential and high relapse rates. Here, we demonstrate that human HSCs can be targeted and eliminated by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind cell surface CD117 (c-Kit). We show that an anti-human CD117 mAb, SR-1, inhibits normal cord blood and bone marrow HSCs in vitro. Further, SR-1 and clinical-grade humanized anti-human CD117 mAb, AMG 191, deplete normal and MDS HSCs in vivo in xenograft mouse models. Anti-CD117 mAbs also facilitate the engraftment of normal donor human HSCs in MDS xenograft mouse models, restoring normal human hematopoiesis and eradicating aggressive pathologic MDS cells. This study is the first to demonstrate that anti-human CD117 mAbs have potential as novel therapeutics to eradicate MDS HSCs and augment the curative effect of allogeneic HCT for this disease. Moreover, we establish the foundation for use of these antibody agents not only in the treatment of MDS but for the multitude of other HSC-driven blood and immune disorders for which transplant can be disease-altering.

    View details for PubMedID 30745302

  • Clonal-level lineage commitment pathways of hematopoietic stem cells in vivo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Lu, R., Czechowicz, A., Seita, J., Jiang, D., Weissman, I. L. 2019

    Abstract

    While the aggregate differentiation of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population has been extensively studied, little is known about the lineage commitment process of individual HSC clones. Here, we provide lineage commitment maps of HSC clones under homeostasis and after perturbations of the endogenous hematopoietic system. Under homeostasis, all donor-derived HSC clones regenerate blood homogeneously throughout all measured stages and lineages of hematopoiesis. In contrast, after the hematopoietic system has been perturbed by irradiation or by an antagonistic anti-ckit antibody, only a small fraction of donor-derived HSC clones differentiate. Some of these clones dominantly expand and exhibit lineage bias. We identified the cellular origins of clonal dominance and lineage bias and uncovered the lineage commitment pathways that lead HSC clones to different levels of self-renewal and blood production under various transplantation conditions. This study reveals surprising alterations in HSC fate decisions directed by conditioning and identifies the key hematopoiesis stages that may be manipulated to control blood production and balance.

    View details for PubMedID 30622181

  • Tumor-associated macrophages enhance tumor hypoxia and aerobic glycolysis. Cancer research Jeong, H., Kim, S., Hong, B., Lee, C., Kim, Y., Bok, S., Oh, J., Gwak, S., Yoo, M. Y., Lee, M. S., Chung, S., Defrene, J., Tessier, P., Pelletier, M., Jeon, H., Roh, T., Kim, B., Kim, K. H., Ju, J. H., Kim, S., Lee, Y., Kim, D., Kim, I. H., Kim, H. J., Park, J., Lee, Y., Lee, J. S., Cheon, G. J., Weissman, I. L., Chung, D. H., Jeon, Y. K., Ahn, G. 2019

    Abstract

    Tumor hypoxia and aerobic glycolysis are well-known resistance factors for anticancer therapies. Here we demonstrate that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) enhance tumor hypoxia and aerobic glycolysis in mice subcutaneous tumors and in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We found a strong correlation between CD68 TAM immunostaining and positron emission tomography (PET) 18fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in 98 matched tumors of NSCLC patients. We also observed a significant correlation between CD68 and glycolytic gene signatures in 513 NSCLC patients from the TCGA database. TAM secreted tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) to promote tumor cell glycolysis while increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1alpha) in TAM facilitated tumor hypoxia. Depletion of TAM by clodronate was sufficient to abrogate aerobic glycolysis and tumor hypoxia, thereby improving tumor response to anticancer therapies. TAM depletion led to a significant increase in programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in aerobic cancer cells as well as T cell infiltration in tumors, resulting in antitumor efficacy by PD-L1 antibodies which were otherwise completely ineffective. These data suggest that TAM can significantly alter tumor metabolism, further complicating tumor response to anticancer therapies including immunotherapy.

    View details for PubMedID 30610087

  • Microglia are effector cells of CD47-SIRPalpha antiphagocytic axis disruption against glioblastoma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Hutter, G., Theruvath, J., Graef, C. M., Zhang, M., Schoen, M. K., Manz, E. M., Bennett, M. L., Olson, A., Azad, T. D., Sinha, R., Chan, C., Assad Kahn, S., Gholamin, S., Wilson, C., Grant, G., He, J., Weissman, I. L., Mitra, S. S., Cheshier, S. H. 2019

    Abstract

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive malignant brain tumor with fatal outcome. Tumor-associated macrophages and microglia (TAMs) have been found to be major tumor-promoting immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Hence, modulation and reeducation of tumor-associated macrophages and microglia in GBM is considered a promising antitumor strategy. Resident microglia and invading macrophages have been shown to have distinct origin and function. Whereas yolk sac-derived microglia reside in the brain, blood-derived monocytes invade the central nervous system only under pathological conditions like tumor formation. We recently showed that disruption of the SIRPalpha-CD47 signaling axis is efficacious against various brain tumors including GBM primarily by inducing tumor phagocytosis. However, most effects are attributed to macrophages recruited from the periphery but the role of the brain resident microglia is unknown. Here, we sought to utilize a model to distinguish resident microglia and peripheral macrophages within the GBM-TAM pool, using orthotopically xenografted, immunodeficient, and syngeneic mouse models with genetically color-coded macrophages (Ccr2 RFP) and microglia (Cx3cr1 GFP). We show that even in the absence of phagocytizing macrophages (Ccr2 RFP/RFP), microglia are effector cells of tumor cell phagocytosis in response to anti-CD47 blockade. Additionally, macrophages and microglia show distinct morphological and transcriptional changes. Importantly, the transcriptional profile of microglia shows less of an inflammatory response which makes them a promising target for clinical applications.

    View details for PubMedID 30602457

  • Hematopoietic stem cell-independent hematopoiesis and the origins of innate-like B lymphocytes. Development (Cambridge, England) Ghosn, E. n., Yoshimoto, M. n., Nakauchi, H. n., Weissman, I. L., Herzenberg, L. A. 2019; 146 (15)

    Abstract

    The current paradigm that a single long-term hematopoietic stem cell can regenerate all components of the mammalian immune system has been challenged by recent findings in mice. These findings show that adult tissue-resident macrophages and innate-like lymphocytes develop early in fetal hematopoiesis from progenitors that emerge prior to, and apparently independently of, conventional long-term hematopoietic stem cells. Here, we discuss these recent findings, which show that an early and distinct wave of hematopoiesis occurs for all major hematopoietic lineages. These data provide evidence that fetal hematopoietic progenitors not derived from the bona fide long-term hematopoietic stem cells give rise to tissue-resident immune cells that persist throughout adulthood. We also discuss recent insights into B lymphocyte development and attempt to synthesize seemingly contradictory recent findings on the origins of innate-like B-1a lymphocytes during fetal hematopoiesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1242/dev.170571

    View details for PubMedID 31371526

  • Dysregulated integrin αVβ3 and CD47 signaling promotes joint inflammation, cartilage breakdown, and progression of osteoarthritis. JCI insight Wang, Q. n., Onuma, K. n., Liu, C. n., Wong, H. n., Bloom, M. S., Elliott, E. E., Cao, R. R., Hu, N. n., Lingampalli, N. n., Sharpe, O. n., Zhao, X. n., Sohn, D. H., Lepus, C. M., Sokolove, J. n., Mao, R. n., Cisar, C. T., Raghu, H. n., Chu, C. R., Giori, N. J., Willingham, S. B., Prohaska, S. S., Cheng, Z. n., Weissman, I. L., Robinson, W. H. 2019; 4 (18)

    Abstract

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of joint failure, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, and no approved therapies that slow progression exist. Dysregulated integrin function was previously implicated in OA pathogenesis. However, the roles of integrin αVβ3 and the integrin-associated receptor CD47 in OA remain largely unknown. Here, transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of human and murine osteoarthritic tissues revealed dysregulated expression of αVβ3, CD47, and their ligands. Using genetically deficient mice and pharmacologic inhibitors, we showed that αVβ3, CD47, and the downstream signaling molecules Fyn and FAK are crucial to OA pathogenesis. MicroPET/CT imaging of a mouse model showed elevated ligand-binding capacities of integrin αVβ3 and CD47 in osteoarthritic joints. Further, our in vitro studies demonstrated that chondrocyte breakdown products, derived from articular cartilage of individuals with OA, induced αVβ3/CD47-dependent expression of inflammatory and degradative mediators, and revealed the downstream signaling network. Our findings identify a central role for dysregulated αVβ3 and CD47 signaling in OA pathogenesis and suggest that activation of αVβ3 and CD47 signaling in many articular cell types contributes to inflammation and joint destruction in OA. Thus, the data presented here provide a rationale for targeting αVβ3, CD47, and their signaling pathways as a disease-modifying therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/jci.insight.128616

    View details for PubMedID 31534047

  • Therapeutic Targeting of the Macrophage Immune Checkpoint CD47 in Myeloid Malignancies. Frontiers in oncology Chao, M. P., Takimoto, C. H., Feng, D. D., McKenna, K., Gip, P., Liu, J., Volkmer, J., Weissman, I. L., Majeti, R. 2019; 9: 1380

    Abstract

    In recent years, immunotherapies have been clinically investigated in AML and other myeloid malignancies. While most of these are focused on stimulating the adaptive immune system (including T cell checkpoint inhibitors), several key approaches targeting the innate immune system have been identified. Macrophages are a key cell type in the innate immune response with CD47 being identified as a dominant macrophage checkpoint. CD47 is a "do not eat me" signal, overexpressed in myeloid malignancies that leads to tumor evasion of phagocytosis by macrophages. Blockade of CD47 leads to engulfment of leukemic cells and therapeutic elimination. Pre-clinical data has demonstrated robust anti-cancer activity in multiple hematologic malignancies including AML and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In addition, clinical studies have been underway with CD47 targeting agents in both AML and MDS as monotherapy and in combination. This review will describe the role of CD47 in myeloid malignancies and pre-clinical data supporting CD47 targeting. In addition, initial clinical data of CD47 targeting in AML/MDS will be reviewed, and including the first-in-class anti-CD47 antibody magrolimab.

    View details for DOI 10.3389/fonc.2019.01380

    View details for PubMedID 32038992

  • De novo mutations in mitochondrial DNA of iPSCs produce immunogenic neoepitopes in mice and humans. Nature biotechnology Deuse, T. n., Hu, X. n., Agbor-Enoh, S. n., Koch, M. n., Spitzer, M. H., Gravina, A. n., Alawi, M. n., Marishta, A. n., Peters, B. n., Kosaloglu-Yalcin, Z. n., Yang, Y. n., Rajalingam, R. n., Wang, D. n., Nashan, B. n., Kiefmann, R. n., Reichenspurner, H. n., Valantine, H. n., Weissman, I. L., Schrepfer, S. n. 2019

    Abstract

    The utility of autologous induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) therapies for tissue regeneration depends on reliable production of immunologically silent functional iPSC derivatives. However, rejection of autologous iPSC-derived cells has been reported, although the mechanism underlying rejection is largely unknown. We hypothesized that de novo mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which has far less reliable repair mechanisms than chromosomal DNA, might produce neoantigens capable of eliciting immune recognition and rejection. Here we present evidence in mice and humans that nonsynonymous mtDNA mutations can arise and become enriched during reprogramming to the iPSC stage, long-term culture and differentiation into target cells. These mtDNA mutations encode neoantigens that provoke an immune response that is highly specific and dependent on the host major histocompatibility complex genotype. Our results reveal that autologous iPSCs and their derivatives are not inherently immunologically inert for autologous transplantation and suggest that iPSC-derived products should be screened for mtDNA mutations.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41587-019-0227-7

    View details for PubMedID 31427818

  • Irradiation or temozolomide chemotherapy enhances anti-CD47 treatment of glioblastoma. Innate immunity Gholamin, S. n., Youssef, O. A., Rafat, M. n., Esparza, R. n., Kahn, S. n., Shahin, M. n., Giaccia, A. J., Graves, E. E., Weissman, I. n., Mitra, S. n., Cheshier, S. H. 2019: 1753425919876690

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1753425919876690

    View details for PubMedID 31547758

  • RUNX3 levels in human hematopoietic progenitors are regulated by aging and dictate erythroid-myeloid balance. Haematologica Balogh, P. n., Adelman, E. R., Pluvinage, J. V., Capaldo, B. J., Freeman, K. C., Singh, S. n., Elagib, K. E., Nakamura, Y. n., Kurita, R. n., Sashida, G. n., Zunder, E. R., Li, H. n., Gru, A. A., Price, E. A., Schrier, S. L., Weissman, I. L., Figueroa, M. E., Pang, W. W., Goldfarb, A. N. 2019

    Abstract

    Healthy bone marrow progenitors yield a coordinated balance of hematopoietic lineages. This balance shifts with aging toward enhanced granulopoiesis with diminished erythropoiesis and lymphopoiesis, changes which likely contribute to the development of bone marrow disorders in the elderly. In this study, RUNX3 was identified as a hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell factor whose levels decline with aging in humans and mice. This decline is exaggerated in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from subjects diagnosed with unexplained anemia of the elderly. Hematopoietic stem cells from elderly unexplained anemia patients had diminished erythroid but unaffected granulocytic colony forming potential. Knockdown studies revealed human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to be strongly influenced by RUNX3 levels, with modest deficiencies abrogating erythroid differentiation at multiple steps while retaining capacity for granulopoiesis. Transcriptome profiling indicated control by RUNX3 of key erythroid transcription factors, including KLF1 and GATA1. These findings thus implicate RUNX3 as a participant in HSPC aging, and a key determinant of erythroid-myeloid lineage balance.

    View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2018.208918

    View details for PubMedID 31171641

  • Single-cell analysis reveals T cell infiltration in old neurogenic niches. Nature Dulken, B. W., Buckley, M. T., Navarro Negredo, P. n., Saligrama, N. n., Cayrol, R. n., Leeman, D. S., George, B. M., Boutet, S. C., Hebestreit, K. n., Pluvinage, J. V., Wyss-Coray, T. n., Weissman, I. L., Vogel, H. n., Davis, M. M., Brunet, A. n. 2019

    Abstract

    The mammalian brain contains neurogenic niches that comprise neural stem cells and other cell types. Neurogenic niches become less functional with age, but how they change during ageing remains unclear. Here we perform single-cell RNA sequencing of young and old neurogenic niches in mice. The analysis of 14,685 single-cell transcriptomes reveals a decrease in activated neural stem cells, changes in endothelial cells and microglia, and an infiltration of T cells in old neurogenic niches. T cells in old brains are clonally expanded and are generally distinct from those in old blood, which suggests that they may experience specific antigens. T cells in old brains also express interferon-γ, and the subset of neural stem cells that has a high interferon response shows decreased proliferation in vivo. We find that T cells can inhibit the proliferation of neural stem cells in co-cultures and in vivo, in part by secreting interferon-γ. Our study reveals an interaction between T cells and neural stem cells in old brains, opening potential avenues through which to counteract age-related decline in brain function.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-019-1362-5

    View details for PubMedID 31270459

  • RBC-Specific CD47 Pruning Confers Protection and Underlies the Transient Anemia in Patients Treated with Anti-CD47 Antibody 5F9 Chen, J. Y., McKenna, K., Choi, T. S., Duan, J., Brown, L., Stewart, J. J., Sompalli, K., Vyas, P., Schrier, S., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L., Elrod, K., Chao, M., Takimoto, C. H., Liu, J., Volkmer, J. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2018
  • Combination Treatment with 5F9 and Azacitidine Enhances Phagocytic Elimination of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Feng, D., Gip, P., McKenna, K., Zhao, F., Mata, O., Choi, T. S., Duan, J., Sompalli, K., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L., Takimoto, C. H., Chao, M., Chen, J. Y., Liu, J., Volkmer, J. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2018
  • Surgical adhesions in mice are derived from mesothelial cells and can be targeted by antibodies against mesothelial markers. Science translational medicine Tsai, J. M., Sinha, R., Seita, J., Fernhoff, N., Christ, S., Koopmans, T., Krampitz, G. W., McKenna, K. M., Xing, L., Sandholzer, M., Sales, J. H., Shoham, M., McCracken, M., Joubert, L., Gordon, S. R., Poux, N., Wernig, G., Norton, J. A., Weissman, I. L., Rinkevich, Y. 2018; 10 (469)

    Abstract

    Peritoneal adhesions are fibrous tissues that tether organs to one another or to the peritoneal wall and are a major cause of postsurgical and infectious morbidity. The primary molecular chain of events leading to the initiation of adhesions has been elusive, chiefly due to the lack of an identifiable cell of origin. Using clonal analysis and lineage tracing, we have identified injured surface mesothelium expressing podoplanin (PDPN) and mesothelin (MSLN) as a primary instigator of peritoneal adhesions after surgery in mice. We demonstrate that an anti-MSLN antibody diminished adhesion formation in a mouse model where adhesions were induced by surgical ligation to form ischemic buttons and subsequent surgical abrasion of the peritoneum. RNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses of mouse mesothelial cells from injured mesothelium revealed aspects of the pathological mechanism of adhesion development and yielded several potential regulators of this process. Specifically, we show that PDPN+MSLN+ mesothelium responded to hypoxia by early up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1alpha) that preceded adhesion development. Inhibition of HIF1alpha with small molecules ameliorated the injury program in damaged mesothelium and was sufficient to diminish adhesion severity in a mouse model. Analyses of human adhesion tissue suggested that similar surface markers and signaling pathways may contribute to surgical adhesions in human patients.

    View details for PubMedID 30487249

  • Identification of phagocytosis regulators using magnetic genome-wide CRISPR screens. Nature genetics Haney, M. S., Bohlen, C. J., Morgens, D. W., Ousey, J. A., Barkal, A. A., Tsui, C. K., Ego, B. K., Levin, R., Kamber, R. A., Collins, H., Tucker, A., Li, A., Vorselen, D., Labitigan, L., Crane, E., Boyle, E., Jiang, L., Chan, J., Rincon, E., Greenleaf, W. J., Li, B., Snyder, M. P., Weissman, I. L., Theriot, J. A., Collins, S. R., Barres, B. A., Bassik, M. C. 2018

    Abstract

    Phagocytosis is required for a broad range of physiological functions, from pathogen defense to tissue homeostasis, but the mechanisms required for phagocytosis of diverse substrates remain incompletely understood. Here, we developed a rapid magnet-based phenotypic screening strategy, and performed eight genome-wide CRISPR screens in human cells to identify genes regulating phagocytosis of distinct substrates. After validating select hits in focused miniscreens, orthogonal assays and primary human macrophages, we show that (1) the previously uncharacterized gene NHLRC2 is a central player in phagocytosis, regulating RhoA-Rac1 signaling cascades that control actin polymerization and filopodia formation, (2) very-long-chain fatty acids are essential for efficient phagocytosis of certain substrates and (3) the previously uncharacterized Alzheimer's disease-associated gene TM2D3 can preferentially influence uptake of amyloid-beta aggregates. These findings illuminate new regulators and core principles of phagocytosis, and more generally establish an efficient method for unbiased identification of cellular uptake mechanisms across diverse physiological and pathological contexts.

    View details for PubMedID 30397336

  • Publisher Correction: Notch1 regulates the initiation of metastasis and self-renewal of Group 3 medulloblastoma. Nature communications Kahn, S. A., Wang, X., Nitta, R. T., Gholamin, S., Theruvath, J., Hutter, G., Azad, T. D., Wadi, L., Bolin, S., Ramaswamy, V., Esparza, R., Liu, K., Edwards, M., Swartling, F. J., Sahoo, D., Li, G., Wechsler-Reya, R. J., Reimand, J., Cho, Y., Taylor, M. D., Weissman, I. L., Mitra, S. S., Cheshier, S. H. 2018; 9 (1): 4651

    Abstract

    The original version of this Article omitted Suzana A. Kahn, Siddhartha S. Mitra & Samuel H. Cheshier as jointly supervising authors. This has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

    View details for PubMedID 30389946

  • Method of Isolating and Transplanting the Hematopoietic Stem Cell with Its Microenvironment Which Improves Functional Hematopoietic Engraftment Borrelli, M. R., Lopez, M., Gulati, G., Murphy, M. P., Sinha, R., Longaker, M. T., Weissman, I. L., Newman, A. M., Chan, C. K., Sokol, J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E224
  • Identification of the Human Skeletal Stem Cell. Cell Chan, C. K., Gulati, G. S., Sinha, R., Tompkins, J. V., Lopez, M., Carter, A. C., Ransom, R. C., Reinisch, A., Wearda, T., Murphy, M., Brewer, R. E., Koepke, L. S., Marecic, O., Manjunath, A., Seo, E. Y., Leavitt, T., Lu, W., Nguyen, A., Conley, S. D., Salhotra, A., Ambrosi, T. H., Borrelli, M. R., Siebel, T., Chan, K., Schallmoser, K., Seita, J., Sahoo, D., Goodnough, H., Bishop, J., Gardner, M., Majeti, R., Wan, D. C., Goodman, S., Weissman, I. L., Chang, H. Y., Longaker, M. T. 2018; 175 (1): 43

    Abstract

    Stem cell regulation and hierarchical organization ofhuman skeletal progenitors remain largely unexplored. Here, we report the isolation of a self-renewing and multipotent human skeletal stem cell (hSSC) that generates progenitors of bone, cartilage, and stroma, but not fat. Self-renewing and multipotent hSSCs are present in fetal and adult bones and can also be derived from BMP2-treated human adipose stroma (B-HAS) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Gene expression analysis of individual hSSCs reveals overall similarity between hSSCs obtained from different sources and partially explains skewed differentiation toward cartilage in fetal and iPSC-derived hSSCs. hSSCs undergo local expansion in response to acute skeletal injury. In addition, hSSC-derived stroma can maintain human hematopoietic stem cells (hHSCs) in serum-free culture conditions. Finally, we combine gene expression and epigenetic data of mouse skeletal stem cells (mSSCs) and hSSCs to identify evolutionarily conserved and divergent pathways driving SSC-mediated skeletogenesis. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

    View details for PubMedID 30241615

  • Screening for genes that regulate the differentiation of human megakaryocytic lineage cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Zhu, F., Feng, M., Sinha, R., Seita, J., Mori, Y., Weissman, I. L. 2018

    Abstract

    Different combinations of transcription factors (TFs) function at each stage of hematopoiesis, leading to distinct expression patterns of lineage-specific genes. The identification of such regulators and their functions in hematopoiesis remain largely unresolved. In this study, we utilized screening approaches to study the transcriptional regulators of megakaryocyte progenitor (MkP) generation, a key step before platelet production. Promising candidate genes were generated from a microarray platform gene expression commons and individually manipulated in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Deletion of some of the candidate genes (the hit genes) by CRISPR/Cas9 led to decreased MkP generation during HSPC differentiation, while more MkPs were produced when some hit genes were overexpressed in HSPCs. We then demonstrated that overexpression of these genes can increase the frequency of mature megakaryocytic colonies by functional colony forming unit-megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk) assay and the release of platelets after in vitro maturation. Finally, we showed that the histone deacetylase inhibitors could also increase MkP differentiation, possibly by regulating some of the newly identified TFs. Therefore, identification of such regulators will advance the understanding of basic mechanisms of HSPC differentiation and conceivably enable the generation and maturation of megakaryocytes and platelets in vitro.

    View details for PubMedID 30150396

  • HIF-1 alpha activation in myeloid cells accelerates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis progression in mice DISEASE MODELS & MECHANISMS Kim, Y., Lee, M., Gu, H., Kim, J., Jeong, S., Yeo, S., Lee, Y., Im, S., Sung, Y., Kim, H., Weissman, I. L., Ahn, G. 2018; 11 (7)

    Abstract

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, in which the intestinal epithelium loses its barrier function. Given the existence of the oxygen gradient in the intestinal epithelium and that inflammation further contributes to the tissue hypoxia, we investigated the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a transcription factor activated under hypoxic conditions in myeloid cells, in the progression of IBD. To do this, we utilized myeloid-specific knockout (KO) mice targeting HIF pathways, created by a Cre-loxP system with human MRP8 (hMRP8), an intracellular calcium-binding protein, as the myeloid promoter. By feeding 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to hMRP8 von Hippel Lindau (Vhl) KO mice, in which HIF-1α and HIF-2α are constitutively activated in myeloid cells, we found that these mice were highly susceptible to DSS-induced colitis, demonstrating greater body weight loss, increased mortality, faster onset of rectal bleeding, shortened colon length, and increased CD11b- or Gr-1-positive myeloid cells in the colon compared with wild-type (WT) mice. These parameters were restored to, if not better than, the WT levels when we examined hMRP8 Hif-1a KO mice upon 5% DSS feeding. hMRP8 Hif-2a KO mice, on the other hand, exhibited a similar degree of DSS-induced colitis to that of WT mice. Lastly, when DSS was given together with azoxymethane to induce tumorigenesis in the colon, we found that hMRP8 Hif-1a KO mice exhibited comparable levels of colorectal tumors to those of WT mice, indicating that HIF-1α in myeloid cells is dispensable for tumorigenesis. Collectively, our results suggest that HIF-1α activation in myeloid cells critically regulates IBD progression.

    View details for PubMedID 29967068

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC6078398

  • Stem cell competition is central to leukemogenesis Weissman, I. L. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2018
  • Isolation and functional assessment of mouse skeletal stem cell lineage NATURE PROTOCOLS Gulati, G. S., Murphy, M. P., Marecic, O., Lopez, M., Brewer, R. E., Koepke, L. S., Manjunath, A., Ransom, R. C., Salhotra, A., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T., Chan, C. F. 2018; 13 (6): 1294–1309

    Abstract

    There are limited methods available to study skeletal stem, progenitor, and progeny cell activity in normal and diseased contexts. Most protocols for skeletal stem cell isolation are based on the extent to which cells adhere to plastic or whether they express a limited repertoire of surface markers. Here, we describe a flow cytometry-based approach that does not require in vitro selection and that uses eight surface markers to distinguish and isolate mouse skeletal stem cells (mSSCs); bone, cartilage, and stromal progenitors (mBCSPs); and five downstream differentiated subtypes, including chondroprogenitors, two types of osteoprogenitors, and two types of hematopoiesis-supportive stroma. We provide instructions for the optimal mechanical and chemical digestion of bone and bone marrow, as well as the subsequent flow-cytometry-activated cell sorting (FACS) gating schemes required to maximally yield viable skeletal-lineage cells. We also describe a methodology for renal subcapsular transplantation and in vitro colony-formation assays on the isolated mSSCs. The isolation of mSSCs can be completed in 9 h, with at least 1 h more required for transplantation. Experience with flow cytometry and mouse surgical procedures is recommended before attempting the protocol. Our system has wide applications and has already been used to study skeletal response to fracture, diabetes, and osteoarthritis, as well as hematopoietic stem cell-niche interactions in the bone marrow.

    View details for PubMedID 29748647

  • Computational correction of index switching in multiplexed sequencing libraries NATURE METHODS Larsson, A. M., Stanley, G., Sinha, R., Weissman, I. L., Sandberg, R. 2018; 15 (5): 305–7

    View details for PubMedID 29702636

  • HUMANIZED ANTI-CD47 ANTIBODY (HU-5F9-G4) FOR METASTATIC BLADDER CANCER IS SUPERIOR TO CONVENTIONAL CHEMOTHERAPY WITH CISPLATIN AND GEMCITABINE IN A MURINE BLADDER CANCER MODEL. Kiss, B., Volkmer, A., Liao, J., Volkmer, J., Weissman, I. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: E864
  • Improving immune-vascular crosstalk for cancer immunotherapy NATURE REVIEWS IMMUNOLOGY Huang, Y., Kim, B. S., Chan, C. K., Hahn, S. M., Weissman, I. L., Jiang, W. 2018; 18 (3): 195–203

    Abstract

    The vasculature of tumours is highly abnormal and dysfunctional. Consequently, immune effector cells have an impaired ability to penetrate solid tumours and often exhibit compromised functions. Normalization of the tumour vasculature can enhance tissue perfusion and improve immune effector cell infiltration, leading to immunotherapy potentiation. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the stimulation of immune cell functions can also help to normalize tumour vessels. In this Opinion article, we propose that the reciprocal regulation between tumour vascular normalization and immune reprogramming forms a reinforcing loop that reconditions the tumour immune microenvironment to induce durable antitumour immunity. A deeper understanding of these pathways could pave the way for identifying new biomarkers and developing more effective combination treatment strategies for patients with cancer.

    View details for PubMedID 29332937

  • Anti-Human CD117 Antibodies Mediate Clearance of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Facilitate Establishment of Normal Hematopoiesis in Transplantation Pang, W. W., Czechowicz, A., Poyser, J., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2018: S230–S231
  • A Roadmap for Human Liver Differentiation from Pluripotent Stem Cells CELL REPORTS Ang, L., Tan, A., Autio, M. I., Goh, S., Choo, S., Lee, K., Tan, J., Pan, B., Lee, J., Lum, J., Lim, C., Yeo, I., Wong, C., Liu, M., Oh, J., Chia, C., Loh, C., Chen, A., Chen, Q., Weissman, I. L., Loh, K. M., Lim, B. 2018; 22 (8): 2190–2205

    Abstract

    How are closely related lineages, including liver, pancreas, and intestines, diversified from a common endodermal origin? Here, we apply principles learned from developmental biology to rapidly reconstitute liver progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Mapping the formation of multiple endodermal lineages revealed how alternate endodermal fates (e.g., pancreas and intestines) are restricted during liver commitment. Human liver fate was encoded by combinations of inductive and repressive extracellular signals at different doses. However, these signaling combinations were temporally re-interpreted: cellular competence to respond to retinoid, WNT, TGF-β, and other signals sharply changed within 24 hr. Consequently, temporally dynamic manipulation of extracellular signals was imperative to suppress the production of unwanted cell fates across six consecutive developmental junctures. This efficiently generated 94.1% ± 7.35% TBX3+HNF4A+ human liver bud progenitors and 81.5% ± 3.2% FAH+ hepatocyte-like cells by days 6 and 18 of hPSC differentiation, respectively; the latter improved short-term survival in the Fah-/-Rag2-/-Il2rg-/- mouse model of liver failure.

    View details for PubMedID 29466743

  • Proefferocytic Therapy Promotes Transforming Growth Factor-beta Signaling and Prevents Aneurysm Formation CIRCULATION Kojima, Y., Werner, N., Ye, J., Nanda, V., Tsao, N., Wang, Y., Flores, A. M., Miller, C. L., Weissman, I., Deng, H., Xu, B., Dalman, R. L., Eken, S. M., Pelisek, J., Li, Y., Maegdefessel, L., Leeper, N. J. 2018; 137 (7): 750–53

    View details for PubMedID 29440201

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5819616

  • Mentoring the Next Generation: Irving Weissman CELL STEM CELL Weissman, I. 2018; 22 (2): 151–52

    Abstract

    Mentor-mentee relationships are essential for professional development, but developing these interpersonal skills is not often highlighted as a priority in scientific endeavors. In a yearlong series, Cell Stem Cell interviews prominent scientists who have prioritized mentorship over the years. Here, we chat with Dr. Irving Weissman about his views.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2018.01.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000423840400006

    View details for PubMedID 29413391

  • Where Hematopoietic Stem Cells Live: The Bone Marrow Niche ANTIOXIDANTS & REDOX SIGNALING Szade, K., Gulati, G. S., Chan, C. F., Kao, K. S., Miyanishi, M., Marjon, K. D., Sinha, R., George, B. M., Chen, J. Y., Weissman, I. L. 2018

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can sustain the production of blood throughout one's lifetime. However, for proper self-renewal of its own population and differentiation to blood, the HSC requires a specialized microenvironment called the "niche." Recent Advances: Recent studies using novel mouse models have shed new light on the cellular architecture and function of the HSC niche. Here, we review the different cells that constitute the HSC niche and the molecular mechanisms that underlie HSC and niche interaction. We discuss the evidence and potential features that distinguish the HSC niche from other microenvironments in the bone marrow. The relevance of the niche in malignant transformation of the HSCs and harboring cancer metastasis to the bone is also outlined. In addition, we address how the niche may regulate reactive oxygen species levels surrounding the HSCs. Critical Issues and Future Directions: We propose future directions and remaining challenges in investigating the niche of HSCs. We discuss how a better understanding of the HSC niche may help in restoring an aged hematopoietic system, fighting against malignancies, and transplanting purified HSCs safely and effectively into patients. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.

    View details for PubMedID 29113449

  • Partial Lobular Hepatectomy: A Surgical Model for Morphologic Liver Regeneration. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE Tsai, J. M., Weissman, I. L., Rinkevich, Y. 2018

    Abstract

    Morphological organ regeneration following acute tissue loss is common among lower vertebrates, but is rarely observed in mammalian postnatal life. Adult liver regeneration after 70% partial hepatectomy results in hepatocyte hypertrophy with some replication in remaining lobes with restoration of metabolic activity, but with permanent loss of the injured lobe's morphology and architecture. Here, we detail a new surgical method in the neonate that leaves a physiologic environment conducive to regeneration. This model involves amputation of the left lobe apex and a subsequent conservative management regimen, and lacks the necessity for ligation of major liver vessels or chemical injury, leaving a physiologic environment where regeneration may occur. We extend this protocol to amputations on juvenile (P7-14) mice, during which the injured liver transitions from organ regeneration to compensatory growth by hypertrophy. The presented, brief 30 min protocol provides a framework to study the mechanisms of regeneration, its age-associated decline in mammals, and the characterization of putative hepatic stem or progenitors.

    View details for PubMedID 29912198

  • Single-cell transcriptomics of 20 mouse organs creates a Tabula Muris. Nature 2018; 562 (7727): 367–72

    Abstract

    Here we present a compendium of single-cell transcriptomic data from the model organism Mus musculus that comprises more than 100,000 cells from 20 organs and tissues. These data represent a new resource for cell biology, reveal gene expression in poorly characterized cell populations and enable the direct and controlled comparison of gene expression in cell types that are shared between tissues, such as T lymphocytes and endothelial cells from different anatomical locations. Two distinct technical approaches were used for most organs: one approach, microfluidic droplet-based 3'-end counting, enabled the survey of thousands of cells at relatively low coverage, whereas the other, full-length transcript analysis based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting, enabled the characterization of cell types with high sensitivity and coverage. The cumulative data provide the foundation for an atlas of transcriptomic cell biology.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/s41586-018-0590-4

    View details for PubMedID 30283141

  • CD47 Blockade by Hu5F9-G4 and Rituximab in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. The New England journal of medicine Advani, R., Flinn, I., Popplewell, L., Forero, A., Bartlett, N. L., Ghosh, N., Kline, J., Roschewski, M., LaCasce, A., Collins, G. P., Tran, T., Lynn, J., Chen, J. Y., Volkmer, J., Agoram, B., Huang, J., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L., Takimoto, C. H., Chao, M. P., Smith, S. M. 2018; 379 (18): 1711–21

    Abstract

    BACKGROUND: The Hu5F9-G4 (hereafter, 5F9) antibody is a macrophage immune checkpoint inhibitor blocking CD47 that induces tumor-cell phagocytosis. 5F9 synergizes with rituximab to eliminate B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells by enhancing macrophage-mediated antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis. This combination was evaluated clinically.METHODS: We conducted a phase 1b study involving patients with relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Patients may have had diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or follicular lymphoma. 5F9 (at a priming dose of 1 mg per kilogram of body weight, administered intravenously, with weekly maintenance doses of 10 to 30 mg per kilogram) was given with rituximab to determine safety and efficacy and to suggest a phase 2 dose.RESULTS: A total of 22 patients (15 with DLBCL and 7 with follicular lymphoma) were enrolled. Patients had received a median of 4 (range, 2 to 10) previous therapies, and 95% of the patients had disease that was refractory to rituximab. Adverse events were predominantly of grade 1 or 2. The most common adverse events were anemia and infusion-related reactions. Anemia (an expected on-target effect) was mitigated by the strategy of 5F9 prime and maintenance dosing. Dose-limiting side effects were rare. A selected phase 2 dose of 30 mg of 5F9 per kilogram led to an approximate 100% CD47-receptor occupancy on circulating white and red cells. A total of 50% of the patients had an objective (i.e., complete or partial) response, with 36% having a complete response. The rates of objective response and complete response were 40% and 33%, respectively, among patients with DLBCL and 71% and 43%, respectively, among those with follicular lymphoma. At a median follow-up of 6.2 months among patients with DLBCL and 8.1 months among those with follicular lymphoma, 91% of the responses were ongoing.CONCLUSIONS: The macrophage checkpoint inhibitor 5F9 combined with rituximab showed promising activity in patients with aggressive and indolent lymphoma. No clinically significant safety events were observed in this initial study. (Funded by Forty Seven and the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02953509 .).

    View details for PubMedID 30380386

  • Notch1 regulates the initiation of metastasis and self-renewal of Group 3 medulloblastoma. Nature communications Kahn, S. A., Wang, X. n., Nitta, R. T., Gholamin, S. n., Theruvath, J. n., Hutter, G. n., Azad, T. D., Wadi, L. n., Bolin, S. n., Ramaswamy, V. n., Esparza, R. n., Liu, K. W., Edwards, M. n., Swartling, F. J., Sahoo, D. n., Li, G. n., Wechsler-Reya, R. J., Reimand, J. n., Cho, Y. J., Taylor, M. D., Weissman, I. L., Mitra, S. S., Cheshier, S. H. 2018; 9 (1): 4121

    Abstract

    Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood. Group 3 medulloblastoma, the most aggressive molecular subtype, frequently disseminates through the leptomeningeal cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces in the brain and spinal cord. The mechanism of dissemination through the CSF remains poorly understood, and the molecular pathways involved in medulloblastoma metastasis and self-renewal are largely unknown. Here we show that NOTCH1 signaling pathway regulates both the initiation of metastasis and the self-renewal of medulloblastoma. We identify a mechanism in which NOTCH1 activates BMI1 through the activation of TWIST1. NOTCH1 expression and activity are directly related to medulloblastoma metastasis and decreased survival rate of tumor-bearing mice. Finally, medulloblastoma-bearing mice intrathecally treated with anti-NRR1, a NOTCH1 blocking antibody, present lower frequency of spinal metastasis and higher survival rate. These findings identify NOTCH1 as a pivotal driver of Group 3 medulloblastoma metastasis and self-renewal, supporting the development of therapies targeting this pathway.

    View details for PubMedID 30297829

  • Complex mammalian-like haematopoietic system found in a colonial chordate. Nature Rosental, B. n., Kowarsky, M. n., Seita, J. n., Corey, D. M., Ishizuka, K. J., Palmeri, K. J., Chen, S. Y., Sinha, R. n., Okamoto, J. n., Mantalas, G. n., Manni, L. n., Raveh, T. n., Clarke, D. N., Tsai, J. M., Newman, A. M., Neff, N. F., Nolan, G. P., Quake, S. R., Weissman, I. L., Voskoboynik, A. n. 2018

    Abstract

    Haematopoiesis is an essential process that evolved in multicellular animals. At the heart of this process are haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are multipotent and self-renewing, and generate the entire repertoire of blood and immune cells throughout an animal's life1. Although there have been comprehensive studies on self-renewal, differentiation, physiological regulation and niche occupation in vertebrate HSCs, relatively little is known about the evolutionary origin and niches of these cells. Here we describe the haematopoietic system of Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial tunicate that has a vasculature and circulating blood cells, and interesting stem-cell biology and immunity characteristics2-8. Self-recognition between genetically compatible B. schlosseri colonies leads to the formation of natural parabionts with shared circulation, whereas incompatible colonies reject each other3,4,7. Using flow cytometry, whole-transcriptome sequencing of defined cell populations and diverse functional assays, we identify HSCs, progenitors, immune effector cells and an HSC niche, and demonstrate that self-recognition inhibits allospecific cytotoxic reactions. Our results show that HSC and myeloid lineage immune cells emerged in a common ancestor of tunicates and vertebrates, and also suggest that haematopoietic bone marrow and the B. schlosseri endostyle niche evolved from a common origin.

    View details for PubMedID 30518860

  • Programmed cell removal by calreticulin in tissue homeostasis and cancer. Nature communications Feng, M. n., Marjon, K. D., Zhu, F. n., Weissman-Tsukamoto, R. n., Levett, A. n., Sullivan, K. n., Kao, K. S., Markovic, M. n., Bump, P. A., Jackson, H. M., Choi, T. S., Chen, J. n., Banuelos, A. M., Liu, J. n., Gip, P. n., Cheng, L. n., Wang, D. n., Weissman, I. L. 2018; 9 (1): 3194

    Abstract

    Macrophage-mediated programmed cell removal (PrCR) is a process essential for the clearance of unwanted (damaged, dysfunctional, aged, or harmful) cells. The detection and recognition of appropriate target cells by macrophages is a critical step for successful PrCR, but its molecular mechanisms have not been delineated. Here using the models of tissue turnover, cancer immunosurveillance, and hematopoietic stem cells, we show that unwanted cells such as aging neutrophils and living cancer cells are susceptible to "labeling" by secreted calreticulin (CRT) from macrophages, enabling their clearance through PrCR. Importantly, we identified asialoglycans on the target cells to which CRT binds to regulate PrCR, and the availability of such CRT-binding sites on cancer cells correlated with the prognosis of patients in various malignancies. Our study reveals a general mechanism of target cell recognition by macrophages, which is the key for the removal of unwanted cells by PrCR in physiological and pathophysiological processes.

    View details for PubMedID 30097573

  • Single-cell analysis of early progenitor cells that build coronary arteries. Nature Su, T. n., Stanley, G. n., Sinha, R. n., D'Amato, G. n., Das, S. n., Rhee, S. n., Chang, A. H., Poduri, A. n., Raftrey, B. n., Dinh, T. T., Roper, W. A., Li, G. n., Quinn, K. E., Caron, K. M., Wu, S. n., Miquerol, L. n., Butcher, E. C., Weissman, I. n., Quake, S. n., Red-Horse, K. n. 2018

    Abstract

    Arteries and veins are specified by antagonistic transcriptional programs. However, during development and regeneration, new arteries can arise from pre-existing veins through a poorly understood process of cell fate conversion. Here, using single-cell RNA sequencing and mouse genetics, we show that vein cells of the developing heart undergo an early cell fate switch to create a pre-artery population that subsequently builds coronary arteries. Vein cells underwent a gradual and simultaneous switch from venous to arterial fate before a subset of cells crossed a transcriptional threshold into the pre-artery state. Before the onset of coronary blood flow, pre-artery cells appeared in the immature vessel plexus, expressed mature artery markers, and decreased cell cycling. The vein-specifying transcription factor COUP-TF2 (also known as NR2F2) prevented plexus cells from overcoming the pre-artery threshold by inducing cell cycle genes. Thus, vein-derived coronary arteries are built by pre-artery cells that can differentiate independently of blood flow upon the release of inhibition mediated by COUP-TF2 and cell cycle factors.

    View details for PubMedID 29973725

  • Anti-SIRP alpha antibody immunotherapy enhances neutrophil and macrophage antitumor activity PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ring, N., Herndler-Brandstetter, D., Weiskopf, K., Shan, L., Volkmer, J., George, B. M., Lietzenmayer, M., McKenna, K. M., Naik, T. J., McCarty, A., Zheng, Y., Ring, A. M., Flavell, R. A., Weissman, I. L. 2017; 114 (49): E10578–E10585

    Abstract

    Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic intervention. However, complete and durable responses are only seen in a fraction of patients who have cancer. A key factor that limits therapeutic success is the infiltration of tumors by cells of the myeloid lineage. The inhibitory receptor signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα) is a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that engages the "don't eat me" signal CD47 expressed on tumors and normal tissues. We therefore developed the monoclonal antibody KWAR23, which binds human SIRPα with high affinity and disrupts its binding to CD47. Administered by itself, KWAR23 is inert, but given in combination with tumor-opsonizing monoclonal antibodies, KWAR23 greatly augments myeloid cell-dependent killing of a collection of hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic human tumor-derived cell lines. Following KWAR23 antibody treatment in a human SIRPA knockin mouse model, both neutrophils and macrophages infiltrate a human Burkitt's lymphoma xenograft and inhibit tumor growth, generating complete responses in the majority of treated animals. We further demonstrate that a bispecific anti-CD70/SIRPα antibody outperforms individually delivered antibodies in specific types of cancers. These studies demonstrate that SIRPα blockade induces potent antitumor activity by targeting multiple myeloid cell subsets that frequently infiltrate tumors. Thus, KWAR23 represents a promising candidate for combination therapy.

    View details for PubMedID 29158380

  • Lessons from immuno-oncology: a new era for cancer nanomedicine? NATURE REVIEWS DRUG DISCOVERY Jiang, W., Yuan, H., Chan, C. K., von Roemeling, C. A., Yan, Z., Weissman, I. L., Kim, B. S. 2017; 16 (6): 369–70

    Abstract

    Despite a decade of intensive preclinical research, the translation of cancer nanomedicine to the clinic has been slow. Here, we discuss how recent lessons learned from the successes with immuno-oncology therapies could be applied to cancer nanomedicine and how this may help to overcome some of the key technical challenges in this field.

    View details for PubMedID 28303024

  • PD-1 expression by tumour-associated macrophages inhibits phagocytosis and tumour immunity. Nature Gordon, S. R., Maute, R. L., Dulken, B. W., Hutter, G., George, B. M., McCracken, M. N., Gupta, R., Tsai, J. M., Sinha, R., Corey, D., Ring, A. M., Connolly, A. J., Weissman, I. L. 2017; 545 (7655): 495-499

    Abstract

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint receptor that is upregulated on activated T cells for the induction of immune tolerance. Tumour cells frequently overexpress the ligand for PD-1, programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1), facilitating their escape from the immune system. Monoclonal antibodies that block the interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1, by binding to either the ligand or receptor, have shown notable clinical efficacy in patients with a variety of cancers, including melanoma, colorectal cancer, non-small-cell lung cancer and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Although it is well established that PD-1-PD-L1 blockade activates T cells, little is known about the role that this pathway may have in tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs). Here we show that both mouse and human TAMs express PD-1. TAM PD-1 expression increases over time in mouse models of cancer and with increasing disease stage in primary human cancers. TAM PD-1 expression correlates negatively with phagocytic potency against tumour cells, and blockade of PD-1-PD-L1 in vivo increases macrophage phagocytosis, reduces tumour growth and lengthens the survival of mice in mouse models of cancer in a macrophage-dependent fashion. This suggests that PD-1-PD-L1 therapies may also function through a direct effect on macrophages, with substantial implications for the treatment of cancer with these agents.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature22396

    View details for PubMedID 28514441

  • intestinal stem-cell self-renewal. Nature Yan, K. S., Janda, C. Y., Chang, J., Zheng, G. X., Larkin, K. A., Luca, V. C., Chia, L. A., Mah, A. T., Han, A., Terry, J. M., Ootani, A., Roelf, K., Lee, M., Yuan, J., Li, X., Bolen, C. R., Wilhelmy, J., Davies, P. S., Ueno, H., von Furstenberg, R. J., Belgrader, P., Ziraldo, S. B., Ordonez, H., Henning, S. J., Wong, M. H., Snyder, M. P., Weissman, I. L., Hsueh, A. J., Mikkelsen, T. S., Garcia, K. C., Kuo, C. J. 2017; 545 (7653): 238-242

    Abstract

    The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway governs diverse developmental, homeostatic and pathological processes. Palmitoylated Wnt ligands engage cell-surface frizzled (FZD) receptors and LRP5 and LRP6 co-receptors, enabling β-catenin nuclear translocation and TCF/LEF-dependent gene transactivation. Mutations in Wnt downstream signalling components have revealed diverse functions thought to be carried out by Wnt ligands themselves. However, redundancy between the 19 mammalian Wnt proteins and 10 FZD receptors and Wnt hydrophobicity have made it difficult to attribute these functions directly to Wnt ligands. For example, individual mutations in Wnt ligands have not revealed homeostatic phenotypes in the intestinal epithelium-an archetypal canonical, Wnt pathway-dependent, rapidly self-renewing tissue, the regeneration of which is fueled by proliferative crypt Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells (ISCs). R-spondin ligands (RSPO1-RSPO4) engage distinct LGR4-LGR6, RNF43 and ZNRF3 receptor classes, markedly potentiate canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling, and induce intestinal organoid growth in vitro and Lgr5(+) ISCs in vivo. However, the interchangeability, functional cooperation and relative contributions of Wnt versus RSPO ligands to in vivo canonical Wnt signalling and ISC biology remain unknown. Here we identify the functional roles of Wnt and RSPO ligands in the intestinal crypt stem-cell niche. We show that the default fate of Lgr5(+) ISCs is to differentiate, unless both RSPO and Wnt ligands are present. However, gain-of-function studies using RSPO ligands and a new non-lipidated Wnt analogue reveal that these ligands have qualitatively distinct, non-interchangeable roles in ISCs. Wnt proteins are unable to induce Lgr5(+) ISC self-renewal, but instead confer a basal competency by maintaining RSPO receptor expression that enables RSPO ligands to actively drive and specify the extent of stem-cell expansion. This functionally non-equivalent yet cooperative interaction between Wnt and RSPO ligands establishes a molecular precedent for regulation of mammalian stem cells by distinct priming and self-renewal factors, with broad implications for precise control of tissue regeneration.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature22313

    View details for PubMedID 28467820

  • Identification of mouse cochlear progenitors that develop hair and supporting cells in the organ of Corti NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Xu, J., Ueno, H., Xu, C. Y., Chen, B., Weissman, I. L., Xu, P. 2017; 8

    Abstract

    The adult mammalian cochlear sensory epithelium houses two major types of cells, mechanosensory hair cells and underlying supporting cells, and lacks regenerative capacity. Recent evidence indicates that a subset of supporting cells can spontaneously regenerate hair cells after ablation only within the first week postparturition. Here in vivo clonal analysis of mouse inner ear cells during development demonstrates clonal relationship between hair and supporting cells in sensory organs. We report the identification in mouse of a previously unknown population of multipotent stem/progenitor cells that are capable of not only contributing to the hair and supporting cells but also to other cell types, including glia, in cochlea undergoing development, maturation and repair in response to damage. These multipotent progenitors originate from Eya1-expressing otic progenitors. Our findings also provide evidence for detectable regenerative potential in the postnatal cochlea beyond 1 week of age.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms15046

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400960800001

    View details for PubMedID 28492243

  • Non-equivalence of Wnt and R-spondin ligands during Lgr5(+) intestinal stem-cell self-renewal NATURE Yan, K. S., Janda, C. Y., Chang, J., Zheng, G. X., Larkin, K. A., Luca, V. C., Chia, L. A., Mah, A. T., Han, A., Terry, J. M., Ootani, A., Roelf, K., Lee, M., Yuan, J., Li, X., Bolen, C. R., Wilhelmy, J., Davies, P. S., Ueno, H., von Furstenberg, R. J., Belgrader, P., Ziraldo, S. B., Ordonez, H., Henning, S. J., Wong, M. H., Snyder, M. P., Weissman, I. L., Hsueh, A. J., Mikkelsen, T. S., Garcia, K. C., Kuo, C. J. 2017; 545 (7653): 238-?

    Abstract

    The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway governs diverse developmental, homeostatic and pathological processes. Palmitoylated Wnt ligands engage cell-surface frizzled (FZD) receptors and LRP5 and LRP6 co-receptors, enabling β-catenin nuclear translocation and TCF/LEF-dependent gene transactivation. Mutations in Wnt downstream signalling components have revealed diverse functions thought to be carried out by Wnt ligands themselves. However, redundancy between the 19 mammalian Wnt proteins and 10 FZD receptors and Wnt hydrophobicity have made it difficult to attribute these functions directly to Wnt ligands. For example, individual mutations in Wnt ligands have not revealed homeostatic phenotypes in the intestinal epithelium-an archetypal canonical, Wnt pathway-dependent, rapidly self-renewing tissue, the regeneration of which is fueled by proliferative crypt Lgr5(+) intestinal stem cells (ISCs). R-spondin ligands (RSPO1-RSPO4) engage distinct LGR4-LGR6, RNF43 and ZNRF3 receptor classes, markedly potentiate canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling, and induce intestinal organoid growth in vitro and Lgr5(+) ISCs in vivo. However, the interchangeability, functional cooperation and relative contributions of Wnt versus RSPO ligands to in vivo canonical Wnt signalling and ISC biology remain unknown. Here we identify the functional roles of Wnt and RSPO ligands in the intestinal crypt stem-cell niche. We show that the default fate of Lgr5(+) ISCs is to differentiate, unless both RSPO and Wnt ligands are present. However, gain-of-function studies using RSPO ligands and a new non-lipidated Wnt analogue reveal that these ligands have qualitatively distinct, non-interchangeable roles in ISCs. Wnt proteins are unable to induce Lgr5(+) ISC self-renewal, but instead confer a basal competency by maintaining RSPO receptor expression that enables RSPO ligands to actively drive and specify the extent of stem-cell expansion. This functionally non-equivalent yet cooperative interaction between Wnt and RSPO ligands establishes a molecular precedent for regulation of mammalian stem cells by distinct priming and self-renewal factors, with broad implications for precise control of tissue regeneration.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature22313

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400963800037

  • Unifying mechanism for different fibrotic diseases PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Wernig, G., Chen, S., Cui, L., Van Neste, C., Tsai, J. M., Kambham, N., Vogel, H., Natkunam, Y., Gilliland, D. G., Nolan, G., Weissman, I. L. 2017; 114 (18): 4757-4762

    Abstract

    Fibrotic diseases are not well-understood. They represent a number of different diseases that are characterized by the development of severe organ fibrosis without any obvious cause, such as the devastating diseases idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and scleroderma. These diseases have a poor prognosis comparable with endstage cancer and are uncurable. Given the phenotypic differences, it was assumed that the different fibrotic diseases also have different pathomechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that many endstage fibrotic diseases, including IPF; scleroderma; myelofibrosis; kidney-, pancreas-, and heart-fibrosis; and nonalcoholic steatohepatosis converge in the activation of the AP1 transcription factor c-JUN in the pathologic fibroblasts. Expression of the related AP1 transcription factor FRA2 was restricted to pulmonary artery hypertension. Induction of c-Jun in mice was sufficient to induce severe fibrosis in multiple organs and steatohepatosis, which was dependent on sustained c-Jun expression. Single cell mass cytometry revealed that c-Jun activates multiple signaling pathways in mice, including pAkt and CD47, which were also induced in human disease. αCD47 antibody treatment and VEGF or PI3K inhibition reversed various organ c-Jun-mediated fibroses in vivo. These data suggest that c-JUN is a central molecular mediator of most fibrotic conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1621375114

    View details for PubMedID 28424250

  • Normal and Neoplastic Stem Cells. Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology McCracken, M. N., George, B. M., Kao, K. S., Marjon, K. D., Raveh, T., Weissman, I. L. 2017

    Abstract

    A stem cell is broadly defined as a cell that retains the capacity to self-renew, a feature that confers the ability to continuously make identical daughter cells or additional cells that will differentiate into downstream progeny. This highly regulated genetic program to retain "stemness" is under active investigation. Research in our laboratory has explored similarities and differences in embryonic, tissue-specific, and neoplastic stem cells and their terminally differentiated counterparts. In this review, we will focus on the contributions of our laboratory, in particular on the studies that identified the mouse hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and the human leukemic stem cell. These studies have led to significant improvements in both preclinical and clinical research, including improved clinical bone marrow transplantation protocols, isolation of nonleukemic HSCs, a cancer immunotherapy currently in clinical trials, and development of a HSC reporter mouse. These studies and the current follow-up research by us and others will continue to identify the properties, function, and regulation of both normal and neoplastic stem cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/sqb.2016.81.030965

    View details for PubMedID 28416577

  • A CD47-associated super-enhancer links pro-inflammatory signalling to CD47 upregulation in breast cancer NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Betancur, P. A., Abraham, B. J., Yiu, Y. Y., Willingham, S. B., Khameneh, F., Zarnegar, M., Kuo, A. H., McKenna, K., Kojima, Y., Leeper, N. J., Ho, P., Gip, P., Swigut, T., Sherwood, R. I., Clarke, M. F., Somlo, G., Young, R. A., Weissman, I. L. 2017; 8

    Abstract

    CD47 is a cell surface molecule that inhibits phagocytosis of cells that express it by binding to its receptor, SIRPα, on macrophages and other immune cells. CD47 is expressed at different levels by neoplastic and normal cells. Here, to reveal mechanisms by which different neoplastic cells generate this dominant 'don't eat me' signal, we analyse the CD47 regulatory genomic landscape. We identify two distinct super-enhancers (SEs) associated with CD47 in certain cancer cell types. We show that a set of active constituent enhancers, located within the two CD47 SEs, regulate CD47 expression in different cancer cell types and that disruption of CD47 SEs reduces CD47 gene expression. Finally we report that the TNF-NFKB1 signalling pathway directly regulates CD47 by interacting with a constituent enhancer located within a CD47-associated SE specific to breast cancer. These results suggest that cancers can evolve SE to drive CD47 overexpression to escape immune surveillance.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms14802

    View details for Web of Science ID 000398343600001

    View details for PubMedID 28378740

  • Localized hepatic lobular regeneration by central-vein-associated lineage-restricted progenitors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Tsai, J. M., Koh, P. W., Stefanska, A., Xing, L., Walmsley, G. G., Poux, N., Weissman, I. L., Rinkevich, Y. 2017; 114 (14): 3654-3659

    Abstract

    The regeneration of organ morphology and function following tissue loss is critical to restore normal physiology, yet few cases are documented in mammalian postnatal life. Partial hepatectomy of the adult mammalian liver activates compensatory hepatocyte hypertrophy and cell division across remaining lobes, resulting in restitution of organ mass but with permanent alteration of architecture. Here, we identify a time window in early postnatal life wherein partial amputation culminates in a localized regeneration instead of global hypertrophy and proliferation. Quantifications of liver mass, enzymatic activity, and immunohistochemistry demonstrate that damaged lobes underwent multilineage regeneration, reforming a lobe often indistinguishable from undamaged ones. Clonal analysis during regeneration reveals local clonal expansions of hepatocyte stem/progenitors at injured sites that are lineage but not fate restricted. Tetrachimeric mice show clonal selection occurs during development with further selections following injury. Surviving progenitors associate mainly with central veins, in a pattern of selection different from that of normal development. These results illuminate a previously unknown program of liver regeneration after acute injury and allow for exploration of latent regenerative programs with potential applications to adult liver regeneration.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1621361114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000398159000047

    View details for PubMedID 28330992

  • Practical Immuno-PET Radiotracer Design Considerations for Human Immune Checkpoint Imaging JOURNAL OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE Mayer, A. T., Natarajan, A., Gordon, S. R., Maute, R. L., McCracken, M. N., Ring, A. M., Weissman, I. L., Gambhir, S. S. 2017; 58 (4): 538-546

    Abstract

    Immune checkpoint blockade has emerged as a promising cancer treatment paradigm. Unfortunately, there are still a large number of patients and malignancies that do not respond to therapy. A major barrier to validating biomarkers for the prediction and monitoring of responders to clinical checkpoint blockade has been the lack of imaging tools to accurately assess dynamic immune checkpoint expression. Here, we sought to optimize noninvasive immuno-PET imaging of human programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, in a preclinical model, using a small high-affinity engineered protein scaffold (HAC-PD1). Six HAC-PD1 radiotracer variants were developed and used in preclinical imaging and biodistribution studies to assess their ability to detect human PD-L1 expression in vivo. Radiotracer design modifications included chelate, glycosylation, and radiometal. HACA-PD1 was adopted as the naming convention for aglycosylated tracer variants. NOD scid γ-(NSG) mice were inoculated with subcutaneous tumors engineered to either be constitutively positive (CT26 hPD-L1) or be negative (ΔmPD-L1 CT26) for human PD-L1 expression. When the tumors had grown to an average size of 1 cm in diameter, mice were injected with 0.75-2.25 MBq (∼10 μg) of an engineered radiotracer variant and imaged. At 1 h after injection, organs were harvested for biodistribution. Of the practical immuno-PET tracer modifications considered, glycosylation was the most prominent design factor affecting tracer uptake, specificity, and clearance. In imaging studies, aglycosylated (64)Cu-NOTA-HACA-PD1 most accurately visualized human PD-L1 expression in vivo. We reasoned that because of the scaffold's small size (14 kDa), its pharmacokinetics may be suitable for labeling with the short-lived and widely clinically available radiometal (68)Ga. At 1 h after injection, (68)Ga-NOTA-HACA-PD1 and (68)Ga-DOTA-HACA-PD1 exhibited promising target-to-background ratios in ex vivo biodistribution studies (12.3 and 15.2 tumor-to-muscle ratios, respectively). Notably, all HAC-PD1 radiotracer variants enabled much earlier detection of human PD-L1 expression (1 h after injection) than previously reported radiolabeled antibodies (>24 h after injection). This work provides a template for assessing immuno-PET tracer design parameters and supports the translation of small engineered protein radiotracers for imaging human immune checkpoints.

    View details for DOI 10.2967/jnumed.116.177659

    View details for Web of Science ID 000398249600012

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5373501

  • Disrupting the CD47-SIRP alpha anti-phagocytic axis by a humanized anti-CD47 antibody is an efficacious treatment for malignant pediatric brain tumors SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Gholamin, S., Mitra, S. S., Feroze, A. H., Liu, J., Kahn, S. A., Zhang, M., Esparza, R., Richard, C., Ramaswamy, V., Remke, M., Volkmer, A. K., Willingham, S., Ponnuswami, A., McCarty, A., Lovelace, P., Storm, T. A., Schubert, S., Hutter, G., Narayanan, C., Chu, P., Raabe, E. H., Harsh, G., Taylor, M. D., Monje, M., Cho, Y., Majeti, R., Volkmer, J. P., Fisher, P. G., Grant, G., Steinberg, G. K., Vogel, H., Edwards, M., Weissman, I. L., Cheshier, S. H. 2017; 9 (381)

    Abstract

    Morbidity and mortality associated with pediatric malignant primary brain tumors remain high in the absence of effective therapies. Macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of tumor cells via blockade of the anti-phagocytic CD47-SIRPα interaction using anti-CD47 antibodies has shown promise in preclinical xenografts of various human malignancies. We demonstrate the effect of a humanized anti-CD47 antibody, Hu5F9-G4, on five aggressive and etiologically distinct pediatric brain tumors: group 3 medulloblastoma (primary and metastatic), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, primitive neuroectodermal tumor, pediatric glioblastoma, and diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Hu5F9-G4 demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in vitro and in vivo in patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models. Intraventricular administration of Hu5F9-G4 further enhanced its activity against disseminated medulloblastoma leptomeningeal disease. Notably, Hu5F9-G4 showed minimal activity against normal human neural cells in vitro and in vivo, a phenomenon reiterated in an immunocompetent allograft glioma model. Thus, Hu5F9-G4 is a potentially safe and effective therapeutic agent for managing multiple pediatric central nervous system malignancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaf2968

    View details for PubMedID 28298418

  • Decoupling the Functional Pleiotropy of Stem Cell Factor by Tuning c-Kit Signaling CELL Ho, C. C., Chhabra, A., Starkl, P., Schnorr, P., Wilmes, S., Moraga, I., Kwon, H., Gaudenzio, N., Sibilano, R., Wehrman, T. S., Gakovic, M., Sockolosky, J. T., Tiffany, M. R., Ring, A. M., Piehler, J., Weissman, I. L., Galli, S. J., Shizuru, J. A., Garcia, K. C. 2017; 168 (6): 1041-?

    Abstract

    Most secreted growth factors and cytokines are functionally pleiotropic because their receptors are expressed on diverse cell types. While important for normal mammalian physiology, pleiotropy limits the efficacy of cytokines and growth factors as therapeutics. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor that acts through the c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase to elicit hematopoietic progenitor expansion but can be toxic when administered in vivo because it concurrently activates mast cells. We engineered a mechanism-based SCF partial agonist that impaired c-Kit dimerization, truncating downstream signaling amplitude. This SCF variant elicited biased activation of hematopoietic progenitors over mast cells in vitro and in vivo. Mouse models of SCF-mediated anaphylaxis, radioprotection, and hematopoietic expansion revealed that this SCF partial agonist retained therapeutic efficacy while exhibiting virtually no anaphylactic off-target effects. The approach of biasing cell activation by tuning signaling thresholds and outputs has applications to many dimeric receptor-ligand systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2017.02.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000396287900012

    View details for PubMedID 28283060

  • Mechanisms of melanoma cell resistance to phagocytosis Anderson, K. L., Snyder, K. M., Lins, D., Weiskopf, K., Shimizu, Y., Weissman, I., Mescher, M., Modiano, J. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2017
  • Breaking Down the Barriers to Precision Cancer Nanomedicine TRENDS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY von Roemeling, C., Jian, W., Chan, C. K., Weissman, I. L., Kim, B. Y. 2017; 35 (2): 159-171

    Abstract

    Nanomedicine offers unique advantages in treating human cancers. However, physiological and pathological barriers within normal and disease tissues, which are highly variable among individuals, often hinder its effectiveness. The body possesses specific innate responses to nanoparticles (NPs), which when combined with unique pathophysiological signatures in the tumor microenvironment, can severely limit the utility of nanomedicine in the oncological setting. Furthermore, with the successes of cancer immunotherapies, understanding nanoimmune interactions and developing immune-smart cancer nanomedicine that can take advantage of the body's immune functions will increasingly become clinically relevant. Therefore, a better understanding of the important native and acquired biological processes that dictate the fate of nanomedicine is integral to developing more effective individualized platforms for treating cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tibtech.2016.07.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393261300009

  • Breaking Down the Barriers to Precision Cancer Nanomedicine. Trends in biotechnology von Roemeling, C., Jiang, W., Chan, C. K., Weissman, I. L., Kim, B. Y. 2017; 35 (2): 159-171

    Abstract

    Nanomedicine offers unique advantages in treating human cancers. However, physiological and pathological barriers within normal and disease tissues, which are highly variable among individuals, often hinder its effectiveness. The body possesses specific innate responses to nanoparticles (NPs), which when combined with unique pathophysiological signatures in the tumor microenvironment, can severely limit the utility of nanomedicine in the oncological setting. Furthermore, with the successes of cancer immunotherapies, understanding nanoimmune interactions and developing immune-smart cancer nanomedicine that can take advantage of the body's immune functions will increasingly become clinically relevant. Therefore, a better understanding of the important native and acquired biological processes that dictate the fate of nanomedicine is integral to developing more effective individualized platforms for treating cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tibtech.2016.07.006

    View details for PubMedID 27492049

  • The Role of Efferocytosis in Atherosclerosis CIRCULATION Kojima, Y., Weissman, I. L., Leeper, N. J. 2017; 135 (5): 476-489

    Abstract

    The necrotic core has long been a hallmark of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. Although apoptotic cells are cleared quickly in almost all other tissue beds, their removal appears to be significantly impaired in the diseased blood vessel. Emerging evidence indicates that this phenomenon is caused by a defect in efferocytosis, the process by which apoptotic tissue is recognized for engulfment by phagocytic cells such as macrophages. Genetic and experimental data suggest that efferocytosis is impaired during atherogenesis caused by dysregulation of so-called eat me ligands, which govern the edibility of cells undergoing programmed cell death. The following is a summary of recent data indicating that efferocytosis is a major unappreciated driver of lesion expansion but also a reversible defect that can potentially be targeted as a means to prevent plaque progression.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.025684

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393716200009

    View details for PubMedID 28137963

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5302553

  • Pharmacological rescue of diabetic skeletal stem cell niches. Science translational medicine Tevlin, R., Seo, E. Y., Marecic, O., McArdle, A., Tong, X., Zimdahl, B., Malkovskiy, A., Sinha, R., Gulati, G., Li, X., Wearda, T., Morganti, R., Lopez, M., Ransom, R. C., Duldulao, C. R., Rodrigues, M., Nguyen, A., Januszyk, M., Maan, Z., Paik, K., Yapa, K., Rajadas, J., Wan, D. C., Gurtner, G. C., Snyder, M., Beachy, P. A., Yang, F., Goodman, S. B., Weissman, I. L., Chan, C. K., Longaker, M. T. 2017; 9 (372)

    Abstract

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease frequently associated with impaired bone healing. Despite its increasing prevalence worldwide, the molecular etiology of DM-linked skeletal complications remains poorly defined. Using advanced stem cell characterization techniques, we analyzed intrinsic and extrinsic determinants of mouse skeletal stem cell (mSSC) function to identify specific mSSC niche-related abnormalities that could impair skeletal repair in diabetic (Db) mice. We discovered that high serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α directly repressed the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) in mSSCs and in their downstream skeletogenic progenitors in Db mice. When hedgehog signaling was inhibited during fracture repair, injury-induced mSSC expansion was suppressed, resulting in impaired healing. We reversed this deficiency by precise delivery of purified Ihh to the fracture site via a specially formulated, slow-release hydrogel. In the presence of exogenous Ihh, the injury-induced expansion and osteogenic potential of mSSCs were restored, culminating in the rescue of Db bone healing. Our results present a feasible strategy for precise treatment of molecular aberrations in stem and progenitor cell populations to correct skeletal manifestations of systemic disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.aag2809

    View details for PubMedID 28077677

  • Surgical debulking promotes recruitment of macrophages and triggers glioblastoma phagocytosis in combination with CD47 blocking immunotherapy. Oncotarget Zhu, H., Leiss, L., Yang, N., Rygh, C. B., Mitra, S. S., Cheshier, S. H., Weissman, I. L., Huang, B., Miletic, H., Bjerkvig, R., Enger, P. Ø., Li, X., Wang, J. 2017

    Abstract

    Surgical resection is a standard component of treatment in the clinical management of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, experimental therapies are rarely investigated in the context of tumor debulking in preclinical models. Here, a surgical debulking GBM xenograft model was developed in nude rats, and was used in combination with CD47 blocking immunotherapy, a novel treatment strategy that triggers phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages in diverse cancer types including GBM. Orthotopic patient-derived xenograft tumors expressing CD47 were resected at 4 weeks after implantation and immediately thereafter treated with anti-CD47 or control antibodies injected into the cavity. Debulking prolonged survival (median survival, 68.5 vs 42.5 days, debulking and non-debulking survival times, respectively; n = 6 animals/group; P = 0.0005). Survival was further improved in animals that underwent combination treatment with anti-CD47 mAbs (median survival, 81.5 days vs 69 days, debulking + anti-CD47 vs debulking + control IgG, respectively; P = 0.0007). Immunohistochemistical staining of tumor sections revealed an increase in recruitment of cells positive for CD68, a marker for macrophages/immune cell types, to the surgical site (50% vs 10%, debulking vs non-debulking, respectively). Finally, analysis of tumor protein lysates on antibody microarrays demonstrated an increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as CXCL10, and a decrease in angiogenic proteins in debulking + anti-CD47 vs non-debulking + IgG tumors. The results indicated that surgical resection combined with anti-CD47 blocking immunotherapy promoted an inflammatory response and prolonged survival in animals, and is therefore an attractive strategy for clinical translation.

    View details for DOI 10.18632/oncotarget.14553

    View details for PubMedID 28076333

  • Delivery of monocyte lineage cells in a biomimetic scaffold enhances tissue repair. JCI insight Hu, M. S., Walmsley, G. G., Barnes, L. A., Weiskopf, K. n., Rennert, R. C., Duscher, D. n., Januszyk, M. n., Maan, Z. N., Hong, W. X., Cheung, A. T., Leavitt, T. n., Marshall, C. D., Ransom, R. C., Malhotra, S. n., Moore, A. L., Rajadas, J. n., Lorenz, H. P., Weissman, I. L., Gurtner, G. C., Longaker, M. T. 2017; 2 (19)

    Abstract

    The monocyte lineage is essential to normal wound healing. Macrophage inhibition or knockout in mice results in impaired wound healing through reduced neovascularization, granulation tissue formation, and reepithelialization. Numerous studies have either depleted macrophages or reduced their activity in the context of wound healing. Here, we demonstrate that by increasing the number of macrophages or monocytes in the wound site above physiologic levels via pullulan-collagen composite dermal hydrogel scaffold delivery, the rate of wound healing can be significantly accelerated in both wild-type and diabetic mice, with no adverse effect on the quality of repair. Macrophages transplanted onto wounds differentiate into M1 and M2 phenotypes of different proportions at various time points, ultimately increasing angiogenesis. Given that monocytes can be readily isolated from peripheral blood without in vitro manipulation, these findings hold promise for translational medicine aimed at accelerating wound healing across a broad spectrum of diseases.

    View details for PubMedID 28978794

  • Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α regulates microglial functions affecting neuronal survival in the acute phase of ischemic stroke in mice. Oncotarget Bok, S. n., Kim, Y. E., Woo, Y. n., Kim, S. n., Kang, S. J., Lee, Y. n., Park, S. K., Weissman, I. L., Ahn, G. O. 2017; 8 (67): 111508–21

    Abstract

    Cells universally adapt to ischemic conditions by turning on a transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), in which its role is known to differ widely across many different types of cells. Given that microglia have been reported as an essential mediator of neuroinflammation in many brain diseases, we examined the role of HIF in microglia in the progression of an acute phase of ischemic stroke by challenging our novel strains of myeloid-specific Hif-1α or Hif-2α knockout (KO) mice created by Cre-loxP system via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). We observed that Hif-1α but not Hif-2α KO mice exhibited an improved recovery compared to wild-type (WT) mice determined by behavioral tests. Immunostaining analyses revealed that there were increased numbers of both mature and immature neurons while microglia and apoptotic cells were significantly decreased in the dentate gyrus of Hif-1α KO mice following MCAO. By isolating microglia with fluorescence-activated cell sorter, we found that HIF-1α-deficient microglia were impaired in phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion. We further observed a significant decrease in the expression of Cd36 and milk fat globule-epidermal growth factor 8 (Mfg-e8) genes, both of which contain hypoxia-responsive element (HRE). Knocking down either of these genes in BV2 microglial cells was sufficient to abrogate HIF-mediated increase in phagocytosis, production of intracellular ROS, or TNF-α secretion. Our results therefore suggest that HIF-1α in microglia is a novel therapeutic target to protect neuronal survival following an acute phase of ischemic stroke.

    View details for PubMedID 29340071

  • External Beam Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Teratomas. Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) Lee, A. S., Tang, C. n., Hong, W. X., Park, S. n., Bazalova, M. n., Nelson, G. n., Sanchez-Freire, V. n., Bakerman, I. n., Zhang, W. n., Neofytou, E. n., Connolly, A. J., Chan, C. K., Graves, E. E., Weissman, I. L., Nguyen, P. K., Wu, J. C. 2017

    Abstract

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), have great potential as an unlimited donor source for cell-based therapeutics. The risk of teratoma formation from residual undifferentiated cells, however, remains a critical barrier to the clinical application of these cells. Herein we describe external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as an attractive option for the treatment of this iatrogenic growth. We present the evidence that EBRT is effective in arresting growth of hESC-derived teratomas in vivo at day 28 post-implantation by utilizing a microCT irradiator capable of targeted treatment in small animals. Within several days of irradiation, teratomas derived from injection of undifferentiated hESCs and hiPSCs demonstrated complete growth arrest lasting several months. In addition, EBRT reduced re-seeding potential of teratoma cells during serial transplantation experiments, requiring irradiated teratomas to be seeded at 1x10(3) higher doses to form new teratomas. We demonstrate that radiation induces teratoma cell apoptosis, senescence, and growth arrest, similar to established radiobiology mechanisms. Taken together, these results provide proof of concept for the use of EBRT in the treatment of existing teratomas and highlight a strategy to increase the safety of stem cell-based therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for PubMedID 28600830

  • Age-associated changes in human hematopoietic stem cells. Seminars in hematology Pang, W. W., Schrier, S. L., Weissman, I. L. 2017; 54 (1): 39-42

    Abstract

    Aging has a broad impact on the function of the human hematopoietic system. This review will focus primarily on the effect of aging on the human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population. With age, even though human HSCs increase in number, they have decreased self-renewal capacity and reconstitution potential upon transplantation. As a population, human HSCs become more myeloid-biased in their differentiation potential. This is likely due to the human HSC population becoming more clonal with age, selecting for myeloid-biased HSC clones. The HSC clones that come to predominate with age may also contain disease-causing genetic and epigenetic changes that confer an increased risk of developing into an age-associated clonal hematopoietic disease, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, or leukemia. The selection of these aged human HSC clones may be in part due to changes in the aging bone marrow microenvironment. While there have been significant advances in the understanding of the effect of aging on mouse hematopoiesis and mouse HSCs, we have comparatively less detailed analyses of the effect of aging on human HSCs. Continued evaluation of human HSCs in the context of aging will be important to determine how applicable the findings in mice and other model organisms are to the human clinical setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.seminhematol.2016.10.004

    View details for PubMedID 28088986

  • Age-associated changes in human hematopoietic stem cells SEMINARS IN HEMATOLOGY Pang, W. W., Schrier, S. L., Weissmann, I. L. 2017; 54 (1): 39-42

    Abstract

    Aging has a broad impact on the function of the human hematopoietic system. This review will focus primarily on the effect of aging on the human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population. With age, even though human HSCs increase in number, they have decreased self-renewal capacity and reconstitution potential upon transplantation. As a population, human HSCs become more myeloid-biased in their differentiation potential. This is likely due to the human HSC population becoming more clonal with age, selecting for myeloid-biased HSC clones. The HSC clones that come to predominate with age may also contain disease-causing genetic and epigenetic changes that confer an increased risk of developing into an age-associated clonal hematopoietic disease, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, or leukemia. The selection of these aged human HSC clones may be in part due to changes in the aging bone marrow microenvironment. While there have been significant advances in the understanding of the effect of aging on mouse hematopoiesis and mouse HSCs, we have comparatively less detailed analyses of the effect of aging on human HSCs. Continued evaluation of human HSCs in the context of aging will be important to determine how applicable the findings in mice and other model organisms are to the human clinical setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.seminhematol.2016.10.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393445800007

  • Clonal reversal of ageing-associated stem cell lineage bias via a pluripotent intermediate. Nature communications Wahlestedt, M. n., Erlandsson, E. n., Kristiansen, T. n., Lu, R. n., Brakebusch, C. n., Weissman, I. L., Yuan, J. n., Martin-Gonzalez, J. n., Bryder, D. n. 2017; 8: 14533

    Abstract

    Ageing associates with significant alterations in somatic/adult stem cells and therapies to counteract these might have profound benefits for health. In the blood, haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) ageing is linked to several functional shortcomings. However, besides the recent realization that individual HSCs might be preset differentially already from young age, HSCs might also age asynchronously. Evaluating the prospects for HSC rejuvenation therefore ultimately requires approaching those HSCs that are functionally affected by age. Here we combine genetic barcoding of aged murine HSCs with the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. This allows us to specifically focus on aged HSCs presenting with a pronounced lineage skewing, a hallmark of HSC ageing. Functional and molecular evaluations reveal haematopoiesis from these iPS clones to be indistinguishable from that associating with young mice. Our data thereby provide direct support to the notion that several key functional attributes of HSC ageing can be reversed.

    View details for PubMedID 28224997

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5322498

  • Engagement of MHC class I by the inhibitory receptor LILRB1 suppresses macrophages and is a target of cancer immunotherapy. Nature immunology Barkal, A. A., Weiskopf, K. n., Kao, K. S., Gordon, S. R., Rosental, B. n., Yiu, Y. Y., George, B. M., Markovic, M. n., Ring, N. G., Tsai, J. M., McKenna, K. M., Ho, P. Y., Cheng, R. Z., Chen, J. Y., Barkal, L. J., Ring, A. M., Weissman, I. L., Maute, R. L. 2017

    Abstract

    Exciting progress in the field of cancer immunotherapy has renewed the urgency of the need for basic studies of immunoregulation in both adaptive cell lineages and innate cell lineages. Here we found a central role for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in controlling the phagocytic function of macrophages. Our results demonstrated that expression of the common MHC class I component β2-microglobulin (β2M) by cancer cells directly protected them from phagocytosis. We further showed that this protection was mediated by the inhibitory receptor LILRB1, whose expression was upregulated on the surface of macrophages, including tumor-associated macrophages. Disruption of either MHC class I or LILRB1 potentiated phagocytosis of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo, which defines the MHC class I-LILRB1 signaling axis as an important regulator of the effector function of innate immune cells, a potential biomarker for therapeutic response to agents directed against the signal-regulatory protein CD47 and a potential target of anti-cancer immunotherapy.

    View details for PubMedID 29180808

  • An atlas of transcriptional, chromatin accessibility, and surface marker changes in human mesoderm development SCIENTIFIC DATA Koh, P. W., Sinha, R., Barkal, A. A., Morganti, R. M., Chen, A., Weissman, I. L., Ang, L. T., Kundaje, A., Loh, K. M. 2016; 3

    Abstract

    Mesoderm is the developmental precursor to myriad human tissues including bone, heart, and skeletal muscle. Unravelling the molecular events through which these lineages become diversified from one another is integral to developmental biology and understanding changes in cellular fate. To this end, we developed an in vitro system to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells through primitive streak intermediates into paraxial mesoderm and its derivatives (somites, sclerotome, dermomyotome) and separately, into lateral mesoderm and its derivatives (cardiac mesoderm). Whole-population and single-cell analyses of these purified populations of human mesoderm lineages through RNA-seq, ATAC-seq, and high-throughput surface marker screens illustrated how transcriptional changes co-occur with changes in open chromatin and surface marker landscapes throughout human mesoderm development. This molecular atlas will facilitate study of human mesoderm development (which cannot be interrogated in vivo due to restrictions on human embryo studies) and provides a broad resource for the study of gene regulation in development at the single-cell level, knowledge that might one day be exploited for regenerative medicine.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sdata.2016.109

    View details for PubMedID 27996962

  • Practical ImmunoPET radiotracer design considerations for human immune checkpoint imaging. Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine Mayer, A. T., Natarajan, A., Gordon, S., Maute, R., McCracken, M., Ring, A., Weissman, I., Gambhir, S. S. 2016

    Abstract

    Immune checkpoint blockade has emerged as a promising cancer treatment paradigm. Unfortunately, there are still a large number of patients and malignancies that do not respond to therapy. A major barrier to validating biomarkers for the prediction and monitoring of responders to clinical checkpoint blockade has been the lack of imaging tools to accurately assess dynamic immune checkpoint expression. Here, we sought to optimize noninvasive immuno-PET imaging of human programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, in a preclinical model, using a small high-affinity engineered protein scaffold (HAC-PD1). Six HAC-PD1 radiotracer variants were developed and used in preclinical imaging and biodistribution studies to assess their ability to detect human PD-L1 expression in vivo. Radiotracer design modifications included chelate, glycosylation, and radiometal. HACA-PD1 was adopted as the naming convention for aglycosylated tracer variants. NOD scid γ-(NSG) mice were inoculated with subcutaneous tumors engineered to either be constitutively positive (CT26 hPD-L1) or be negative (ΔmPD-L1 CT26) for human PD-L1 expression. When the tumors had grown to an average size of 1 cm in diameter, mice were injected with 0.75-2.25 MBq (∼10 μg) of an engineered radiotracer variant and imaged. At 1 h after injection, organs were harvested for biodistribution. Of the practical immuno-PET tracer modifications considered, glycosylation was the most prominent design factor affecting tracer uptake, specificity, and clearance. In imaging studies, aglycosylated (64)Cu-NOTA-HACA-PD1 most accurately visualized human PD-L1 expression in vivo. We reasoned that because of the scaffold's small size (14 kDa), its pharmacokinetics may be suitable for labeling with the short-lived and widely clinically available radiometal (68)Ga. At 1 h after injection, (68)Ga-NOTA-HACA-PD1 and (68)Ga-DOTA-HACA-PD1 exhibited promising target-to-background ratios in ex vivo biodistribution studies (12.3 and 15.2 tumor-to-muscle ratios, respectively). Notably, all HAC-PD1 radiotracer variants enabled much earlier detection of human PD-L1 expression (1 h after injection) than previously reported radiolabeled antibodies (>24 h after injection). This work provides a template for assessing immuno-PET tracer design parameters and supports the translation of small engineered protein radiotracers for imaging human immune checkpoints.

    View details for PubMedID 27980047

  • Evidence that beta 7 Integrin Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cell Homing and Engraftment Through Interaction with MAdCAM-1 STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT Murakami, J. L., Xu, B., Franco, C. B., Hu, X., Galli, S. J., Weissman, I. L., Chen, C. 2016; 25 (1): 18-26

    View details for DOI 10.1089/scd.2014.0551

    View details for PubMedID 26422691

  • Eradication of Canine Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in a Murine Xenograft Model with CD47 Blockade and Anti-CD20 CANCER IMMUNOLOGY RESEARCH Weiskopf, K., Anderson, K. L., Ito, D., Schnorr, P. J., Tomiyasu, H., Ring, A. M., Bloink, K., Efe, J., Rue, S., Lowery, D., Barkal, A., Prohaska, S., McKenna, K. M., Cornax, I., O'Brien, T. D., O'Sullivan, M. G., Weissman, I. L., Modiano, J. F. 2016; 4 (12): 1072-1087

    Abstract

    Cancer immunotherapies hold much promise, but their potential in veterinary settings has not yet been fully appreciated. Canine lymphomas are among the most common tumors of dogs and bear remarkable similarity to human disease. In this study, we examined the combination of CD47 blockade with anti-CD20 passive immunotherapy for canine lymphoma. The CD47/SIRPα axis is an immune checkpoint that regulates macrophage activation. In humans, CD47 is expressed on cancer cells and enables evasion from phagocytosis. CD47-blocking therapies are now under investigation in clinical trials for a variety of human cancers. We found the canine CD47/SIRPα axis to be conserved biochemically and functionally. We identified high-affinity SIRPα variants that antagonize canine CD47 and stimulate phagocytosis of canine cancer cells in vitro When tested as Fc fusion proteins, these therapeutic agents exhibited single-agent efficacy in a mouse xenograft model of canine lymphoma. As robust synergy between CD47 blockade and tumor-specific antibodies has been demonstrated for human cancer, we evaluated the combination of CD47 blockade with 1E4-cIgGB, a canine-specific antibody to CD20. 1E4-cIgGB could elicit a therapeutic response against canine lymphoma in vivo as a single agent. However, augmented responses were observed when combined with CD47-blocking therapies, resulting in synergy in vitro and in vivo and eliciting cures in 100% of mice bearing canine lymphoma. Our findings support further testing of CD47-blocking therapies alone and in combination with CD20 antibodies in the veterinary setting. Cancer Immunol Res; 4(12); 1072-87. ©2016 AACR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-16-0105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389702900009

    View details for PubMedID 27856424

  • LYVE1 Marks the Divergence of Yolk Sac Definitive Hemogenic Endothelium from the Primitive Erythroid Lineage CELL REPORTS Lee, L. K., Ghorbanian, Y., Wang, W., Wang, Y., Kim, Y. J., Weissman, I. L., Inlay, M. A., Mikkola, H. K. 2016; 17 (9): 2286-2298

    Abstract

    The contribution of the different waves and sites of developmental hematopoiesis to fetal and adult blood production remains unclear. Here, we identify lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1 (LYVE1) as a marker of yolk sac (YS) endothelium and definitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Endothelium in mid-gestation YS and vitelline vessels, but not the dorsal aorta and placenta, were labeled by Lyve1-Cre. Most YS HSPCs and erythro-myeloid progenitors were Lyve1-Cre lineage traced, but primitive erythroid cells were not, suggesting that they represent distinct lineages. Fetal liver (FL) and adult HSPCs showed 35%-40% Lyve1-Cre marking. Analysis of circulation-deficient Ncx1(-/-) concepti identified the YS as a major source of Lyve1-Cre labeled HSPCs. FL proerythroblast marking was extensive at embryonic day (E) 11.5-13.5, but decreased to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) levels by E16.5, suggesting that HSCs from multiple sources became responsible for erythropoiesis. Lyve1-Cre thus marks the divergence between YS primitive and definitive hematopoiesis and provides a tool for targeting YS definitive hematopoiesis and FL colonization.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.10.080

    View details for Web of Science ID 000390893600011

    View details for PubMedID 27880904

  • Inhibition of Apoptosis Overcomes Stage-Related Compatibility Barriers to Chimera Formation in Mouse Embryos. Cell stem cell Masaki, H., Kato-Itoh, M., Takahashi, Y., Umino, A., Sato, H., Ito, K., Yanagida, A., Nishimura, T., Yamaguchi, T., Hirabayashi, M., Era, T., Loh, K. M., Wu, S. M., Weissman, I. L., Nakauchi, H. 2016; 19 (5): 587-592

    Abstract

    Cell types more advanced in development than embryonic stem cells, such as EpiSCs, fail to contribute to chimeras when injected into pre-implantation-stage blastocysts, apparently because the injected cells undergo apoptosis. Here we show that transient promotion of cell survival through expression of the anti-apoptotic gene BCL2 enables EpiSCs and Sox17(+) endoderm progenitors to integrate into blastocysts and contribute to chimeric embryos. Upon injection into blastocyst, BCL2-expressing EpiSCs contributed to all bodily tissues in chimeric animals while Sox17(+) endoderm progenitors specifically contributed in a region-specific fashion to endodermal tissues. In addition, BCL2 expression enabled rat EpiSCs to contribute to mouse embryonic chimeras, thereby forming interspecies chimeras that could survive to adulthood. Our system therefore provides a method to overcome cellular compatibility issues that typically restrict chimera formation. Application of this type of approach could broaden the use of embryonic chimeras, including region-specific chimeras, for basic developmental biology research and regenerative medicine.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2016.10.013

    View details for PubMedID 27814480

  • Immune Priming of the Tumor Microenvironment by Radiation TRENDS IN CANCER Jiang, W., Chan, C. K., Weissman, I. L., Kim, B. S., Hahn, S. M. 2016; 2 (11): 638–45

    Abstract

    Ionizing irradiation can induce a multitude of alterations within the tumor microenvironment. Unlike targeted therapies, radiation delivered to the tumor bed can prompt phenotypic changes in both normal stromal and cancer cells, leading to molecular and physiological alterations within the tumor microenvironment. These environmental modulations directly influence the degree of immunogenicity of the tumor microenvironment and may ultimately affect tumor responsiveness to cancer immunotherapies. Here we review the preclinical evidence for tumor microenvironment-mediated immune suppression and how radiation can modulate immune properties within a tumor. We then discuss the therapeutic opportunities for combining radiation with molecular agents to enhance tumor immunogenicity and how this represents a potential exciting strategy to complement immunotherapies including immune checkpoint blockers in cancer treatment.

    View details for PubMedID 28741502

  • Myeloid Cell Origins, Differentiation, and Clinical Implications. Microbiology spectrum Weiskopf, K., Schnorr, P. J., Pang, W. W., Chao, M. P., Chhabra, A., Seita, J., Feng, M., Weissman, I. L. 2016; 4 (5)

    Abstract

    The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a multipotent stem cell that resides in the bone marrow and has the ability to form all of the cells of the blood and immune system. Since its first purification in 1988, additional studies have refined the phenotype and functionality of HSCs and characterized all of their downstream progeny. The hematopoietic lineage is divided into two main branches: the myeloid and lymphoid arms. The myeloid arm is characterized by the common myeloid progenitor and all of its resulting cell types. The stages of hematopoiesis have been defined in both mice and humans. During embryological development, the earliest hematopoiesis takes place in yolk sac blood islands and then migrates to the fetal liver and hematopoietic organs. Some adult myeloid populations develop directly from yolk sac progenitors without apparent bone marrow intermediates, such as tissue-resident macrophages. Hematopoiesis also changes over time, with a bias of the dominating HSCs toward myeloid development as animals age. Defects in myelopoiesis contribute to many hematologic disorders, and some of these can be overcome with therapies that target the aberrant stage of development. Furthermore, insights into myeloid development have informed us of mechanisms of programmed cell removal. The CD47/SIRPα axis, a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint, limits macrophage removal of HSCs but can be exploited by hematologic and solid malignancies. Therapeutics targeting CD47 represent a new strategy for treating cancer. Overall, an understanding of hematopoiesis and myeloid cell development has implications for regenerative medicine, hematopoietic cell transplantation, malignancy, and many other diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/microbiolspec.MCHD-0031-2016

    View details for PubMedID 27763252

  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in immunocompetent hosts without radiation or chemotherapy. Science translational medicine Chhabra, A., Ring, A. M., Weiskopf, K., Schnorr, P. J., Gordon, S., Le, A. C., Kwon, H., Ring, N. G., Volkmer, J., Ho, P. Y., Tseng, S., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2016; 8 (351): 351ra105-?

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation can cure diverse diseases of the blood system, including hematologic malignancies, anemias, and autoimmune disorders. However, patients must undergo toxic conditioning regimens that use chemotherapy and/or radiation to eliminate host HSCs and enable donor HSC engraftment. Previous studies have shown that anti-c-Kit monoclonal antibodies deplete HSCs from bone marrow niches, allowing donor HSC engraftment in immunodeficient mice. We show that host HSC clearance is dependent on Fc-mediated antibody effector functions, and enhancing effector activity through blockade of CD47, a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint, extends anti-c-Kit conditioning to fully immunocompetent mice. The combined treatment leads to elimination of >99% of host HSCs and robust multilineage blood reconstitution after HSC transplantation. This targeted conditioning regimen that uses only biologic agents has the potential to transform the practice of HSC transplantation and enable its use in a wider spectrum of patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.aae0501

    View details for PubMedID 27510901

  • Antibody Therapy Targeting CD47 and CD271 Effectively Suppresses Melanoma Metastasis in Patient-Derived Xenografts. Cell reports Ngo, M., Han, A., Lakatos, A., Sahoo, D., Hachey, S. J., Weiskopf, K., Beck, A. H., Weissman, I. L., Boiko, A. D. 2016; 16 (6): 1701-1716

    Abstract

    The high rate of metastasis and recurrence among melanoma patients indicates the existence of cells within melanoma that have the ability to both initiate metastatic programs and bypass immune recognition. Here, we identify CD47 as a regulator of melanoma tumor metastasis and immune evasion. Protein and gene expression analysis of clinical melanoma samples reveals that CD47, an anti-phagocytic signal, correlates with melanoma metastasis. Antibody-mediated blockade of CD47 coupled with targeting of CD271(+) melanoma cells strongly inhibits tumor metastasis in patient-derived xenografts. This therapeutic effect is mediated by drastic changes in the tumor and metastatic site immune microenvironments, both of whichwhich exhibit greatly increased density of differentiated macrophages and significantly fewer inflammatory monocytes, pro-metastatic macrophages (CCR2(+)/VEGFR1(+)), and neutrophils, all of which are associated with disease progression. Thus, antibody therapy that activates the innate immune response in combination with selective targeting of CD271(+) melanoma cells represents a powerful therapeutic approach against metastatic melanoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.07.004

    View details for PubMedID 27477289

  • CD47-blocking antibodies restore phagocytosis and prevent atherosclerosis. Nature Kojima, Y., Volkmer, J., McKenna, K., Civelek, M., Lusis, A. J., Miller, C. L., DiRenzo, D., Nanda, V., Ye, J., Connolly, A. J., Schadt, E. E., Quertermous, T., Betancur, P., Maegdefessel, L., Matic, L. P., Hedin, U., Weissman, I. L., Leeper, N. J. 2016; 536 (7614): 86-90

    Abstract

    Atherosclerosis is the disease process that underlies heart attack and stroke. Advanced lesions at risk of rupture are characterized by the pathological accumulation of diseased vascular cells and apoptotic cellular debris. Why these cells are not cleared remains unknown. Here we show that atherogenesis is associated with upregulation of CD47, a key anti-phagocytic molecule that is known to render malignant cells resistant to programmed cell removal, or 'efferocytosis'. We find that administration of CD47-blocking antibodies reverses this defect in efferocytosis, normalizes the clearance of diseased vascular tissue, and ameliorates atherosclerosis in multiple mouse models. Mechanistic studies implicate the pro-atherosclerotic factor TNF-α as a fundamental driver of impaired programmed cell removal, explaining why this process is compromised in vascular disease. Similar to recent observations in cancer, impaired efferocytosis appears to play a pathogenic role in cardiovascular disease, but is not a fixed defect and may represent a novel therapeutic target.

    View details for PubMedID 27437576

  • Mapping the Pairwise Choices Leading from Pluripotency to Human Bone, Heart, and Other Mesoderm Cell Types CELL Loh, K. M., Chen, A., Koh, P. W., Deng, T. Z., Sinha, R., Tsai, J. M., Barkal, A. A., Shen, K. Y., Jain, R., Morganti, R. M., Shyh-Chang, N., Fernhoff, N. B., George, B. M., Wernig, G., Salomon, R. E., Chen, Z., Vogel, H., Epstein, J. A., Kundaje, A., Talbot, W. S., Beachy, P. A., Ang, L. T., Weissman, I. L. 2016; 166 (2): 451-467

    Abstract

    Stem-cell differentiation to desired lineages requires navigating alternating developmental paths that often lead to unwanted cell types. Hence, comprehensive developmental roadmaps are crucial to channel stem-cell differentiation toward desired fates. To this end, here, we map bifurcating lineage choices leading from pluripotency to 12 human mesodermal lineages, including bone, muscle, and heart. We defined the extrinsic signals controlling each binary lineage decision, enabling us to logically block differentiation toward unwanted fates and rapidly steer pluripotent stem cells toward 80%-99% pure human mesodermal lineages at most branchpoints. This strategy enabled the generation of human bone and heart progenitors that could engraft in respective in vivo models. Mapping stepwise chromatin and single-cell gene expression changes in mesoderm development uncovered somite segmentation, a previously unobservable human embryonic event transiently marked by HOPX expression. Collectively, this roadmap enables navigation of mesodermal development to produce transplantable human tissue progenitors and uncover developmental processes. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2016.06.011

    View details for PubMedID 27419872

  • CD47-blocking immunotherapies stimulate macrophage-mediated destruction of small-cell lung cancer JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Weiskopf, K., Jahchan, N. S., Schnorr, P. J., Cristea, S., Ring, A. M., Maute, R. L., Volkmer, A. K., Volkmer, J., Liu, J., Lim, J. S., Yang, D., Seitz, G., Thuyen Nguyen, T., Wu, D., Jude, K., Guerston, H., Barkal, A., Trapani, F., George, J., Poirier, J. T., Gardner, E. E., Miles, L. A., de Stanchina, E., Lofgren, S. M., Vogel, H., Winslow, M. M., Dive, C., Thomas, R. K., Rudin, C. M., van de Rijn, M., Majeti, R., Garcia, K. C., Weissman, I. L., Sage, J. 2016; 126 (7): 2610-2620

    Abstract

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive subtype of lung cancer with limited treatment options. CD47 is a cell-surface molecule that promotes immune evasion by engaging signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), which serves as an inhibitory receptor on macrophages. Here, we found that CD47 is highly expressed on the surface of human SCLC cells; therefore, we investigated CD47-blocking immunotherapies as a potential approach for SCLC treatment. Disruption of the interaction of CD47 with SIRPα using anti-CD47 antibodies induced macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of human SCLC patient cells in culture. In a murine model, administration of CD47-blocking antibodies or targeted inactivation of the Cd47 gene markedly inhibited SCLC tumor growth. Furthermore, using comprehensive antibody arrays, we identified several possible therapeutic targets on the surface of SCLC cells. Antibodies to these targets, including CD56/neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), promoted phagocytosis in human SCLC cell lines that was enhanced when combined with CD47-blocking therapies. In light of recent clinical trials for CD47-blocking therapies in cancer treatment, these findings identify disruption of the CD47/SIRPα axis as a potential immunotherapeutic strategy for SCLC. This approach could enable personalized immunotherapeutic regimens in patients with SCLC and other cancers.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI81603

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379094800024

    View details for PubMedID 27294525

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4922696

  • Developmental cell death programs license cytotoxic cells to eliminate histocompatible partners PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Corey, D. M., rosental, B., Kowarsky, M., Sinha, R., Ishizuka, K. J., Palmeri, K. J., Quake, S. R., Voskoboynik, A., Weissman, I. L. 2016; 113 (23): 6520-6525

    Abstract

    In a primitive chordate model of natural chimerism, one chimeric partner is often eliminated in a process of allogeneic resorption. Here, we identify the cellular framework underlying loss of tolerance to one partner within a natural Botryllus schlosseri chimera. We show that the principal cell type mediating chimeric partner elimination is a cytotoxic morula cell (MC). Proinflammatory, developmental cell death programs render MCs cytotoxic and, in collaboration with activated phagocytes, eliminate chimeric partners during the "takeover" phase of blastogenic development. Among these genes, the proinflammatory cytokine IL-17 enhances cytotoxicity in allorecognition assays. Cellular transfer of FACS-purified MCs from allogeneic donors into recipients shows that the resorption response can be adoptively acquired. Transfer of 1 × 10(5) allogeneic MCs eliminated 33 of 78 (42%) recipient primary buds and 20 of 76 (20.5%) adult parental adult organisms (zooids) by 14 d whereas transfer of allogeneic cell populations lacking MCs had only minimal effects on recipient colonies. Furthermore, reactivity of transferred cells coincided with the onset of developmental-regulated cell death programs and disproportionately affected developing tissues within a chimera. Among chimeric partner "losers," severe developmental defects were observed in asexually propagating tissues, reflecting a pathologic switch in gene expression in developmental programs. These studies provide evidence that elimination of one partner in a chimera is an immune cell-based rejection that operates within histocompatible pairs and that maximal allogeneic responses involve the coordination of both phagocytic programs and the "arming" of cytotoxic cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1606276113

    View details for Web of Science ID 000377155400052

    View details for PubMedID 27217570

  • Identification of tumorigenic cells and therapeutic targets in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Krampitz, G. W., George, B. M., Willingham, S. B., Volkmer, J., Weiskopf, K., Jahchan, N., Newman, A. M., Sahoo, D., Zemek, A. J., Yanovsky, R. L., Nguyen, J. K., Schnorr, P. J., Mazur, P. K., Sage, J., Longacre, T. A., Visser, B. C., Poultsides, G. A., Norton, J. A., Weissman, I. L. 2016; 113 (16): 4464-4469

    Abstract

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are a type of pancreatic cancer with limited therapeutic options. Consequently, most patients with advanced disease die from tumor progression. Current evidence indicates that a subset of cancer cells is responsible for tumor development, metastasis, and recurrence, and targeting these tumor-initiating cells is necessary to eradicate tumors. However, tumor-initiating cells and the biological processes that promote pathogenesis remain largely uncharacterized in PanNETs. Here we profile primary and metastatic tumors from an index patient and demonstrate that MET proto-oncogene activation is important for tumor growth in PanNET xenograft models. We identify a highly tumorigenic cell population within several independent surgically acquired PanNETs characterized by increased cell-surface protein CD90 expression and aldehyde dehydrogenase A1 (ALDHA1) activity, and provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for their stem-like properties. We performed proteomic profiling of 332 antigens in two cell lines and four primary tumors, and showed that CD47, a cell-surface protein that acts as a "don't eat me" signal co-opted by cancers to evade innate immune surveillance, is ubiquitously expressed. Moreover, CD47 coexpresses with MET and is enriched in CD90(hi)cells. Furthermore, blocking CD47 signaling promotes engulfment of tumor cells by macrophages in vitro and inhibits xenograft tumor growth, prevents metastases, and prolongs survival in vivo.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1600007113

    View details for PubMedID 27035983

  • Anti-CD47 Treatment Stimulates Phagocytosis of Glioblastoma by M1 and M2 Polarized Macrophages and Promotes M1 Polarized Macrophages In Vivo PLOS ONE Zhang, M., Hutter, G., Kahn, S. A., Azad, T. D., Gholamin, S., Xu, C. Y., Liu, J., Achrol, A. S., Richard, C., Sommerkamp, P., Schoen, M. K., McCracken, M. N., Majeti, R., Weissman, I., Mitra, S. S., Cheshier, S. H. 2016; 11 (4)

    Abstract

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) represent an important cellular subset within the glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) microenvironment and are a potential therapeutic target. TAMs display a continuum of different polarization states between antitumorigenic M1 and protumorigenic M2 phenotypes, with a lower M1/M2 ratio correlating with worse prognosis. Here, we investigated the effect of macrophage polarization on anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of human glioblastoma cells in vitro, as well as the effect of anti-CD47 on the distribution of M1 versus M2 macrophages within human glioblastoma cells grown in mouse xenografts. Bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and peripheral blood-derived human macrophages were polarized in vitro toward M1 or M2 phenotypes and verified by flow cytometry. Primary human glioblastoma cell lines were offered as targets to mouse and human M1 or M2 polarized macrophages in vitro. The addition of an anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody led to enhanced tumor-cell phagocytosis by mouse and human M1 and M2 macrophages. In both cases, the anti-CD47-induced phagocytosis by M1 was more prominent than that for M2. Dissected tumors from human glioblastoma xenografted within NOD.Cg-Prkdcscid Il2rgtm1Wjl/SzJ mice and treated with anti-CD47 showed a significant increase of M1 macrophages within the tumor. These data show that anti-CD47 treatment leads to enhanced tumor cell phagocytosis by both M1 and M2 macrophage subtypes with a higher phagocytosis rate by M1 macrophages. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that anti-CD47 treatment alone can shift the phenotype of macrophages toward the M1 subtype in vivo.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0153550

    View details for Web of Science ID 000374541200027

    View details for PubMedID 27092773

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4836698

  • New tools for studying microglia in the mouse and human CNS. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Bennett, M. L., Bennett, F. C., Liddelow, S. A., Ajami, B., Zamanian, J. L., Fernhoff, N. B., Mulinyawe, S. B., Bohlen, C. J., Adil, A., Tucker, A., Weissman, I. L., Chang, E. F., Li, G., Grant, G. A., Hayden Gephart, M. G., Barres, B. A. 2016; 113 (12): E1738-46

    Abstract

    The specific function of microglia, the tissue resident macrophages of the brain and spinal cord, has been difficult to ascertain because of a lack of tools to distinguish microglia from other immune cells, thereby limiting specific immunostaining, purification, and manipulation. Because of their unique developmental origins and predicted functions, the distinction of microglia from other myeloid cells is critically important for understanding brain development and disease; better tools would greatly facilitate studies of microglia function in the developing, adult, and injured CNS. Here, we identify transmembrane protein 119 (Tmem119), a cell-surface protein of unknown function, as a highly expressed microglia-specific marker in both mouse and human. We developed monoclonal antibodies to its intracellular and extracellular domains that enable the immunostaining of microglia in histological sections in healthy and diseased brains, as well as isolation of pure nonactivated microglia by FACS. Using our antibodies, we provide, to our knowledge, the first RNAseq profiles of highly pure mouse microglia during development and after an immune challenge. We used these to demonstrate that mouse microglia mature by the second postnatal week and to predict novel microglial functions. Together, we anticipate these resources will be valuable for the future study and understanding of microglia in health and disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1525528113

    View details for PubMedID 26884166

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4812770

  • New tools for studying microglia in the mouse and human CNS PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Bennett, M. L., Bennett, F. C., Liddelow, S. A., Ajami, B., Zamanian, J. L., Fernhoff, N. B., Mulinyawe, S. B., Bohlen, C. J., Adil, A., Tucker, A., Weissman, I. L., Chang, E. F., Li, G., Grant, G. A., Gephart, M. G., Barres, B. A. 2016; 113 (12): E1738-E1746
  • Dynamic Patterns of Clonal Evolution in Tumor Vasculature Underlie Alterations in Lymphocyte-Endothelial Recognition to Foster Tumor Immune Escape. Cancer research Corey, D. M., Rinkevich, Y., Weissman, I. L. 2016; 76 (6): 1348-1353

    Abstract

    Although tumor blood vessels have been a major therapeutic target for cancer chemotherapy, little is known regarding the stepwise development of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we use a multicolor Cre-dependent marker system to trace clonality within the tumor microenvironment to show that tumor blood vessels follow a pattern of dynamic clonal evolution. In an advanced melanoma tumor microenvironment, the vast majority of tumor vasculature clones are derived from a common precursor. Quantitative lineage analysis reveals founder clones diminish in frequency and are replaced by subclones as tumors evolve. These tumor-specific blood vessels are characterized by a developmental switch to a more invasive and immunologically silent phenotype. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis reveals selection for traits promoting upregulation of alternative angiogenic programs such as unregulated HGF-MET signaling and enhanced autocrine signaling through VEGF and PDGF. Furthermore, we show a developmental switch in the expression of functionally significant primary lymphocyte adhesion molecules on tumor endothelium, such as the loss in expression of the mucosal addressin MAdCAM-1, whose counter receptor a4β7 on lymphocytes controls lymphocyte homing. Changes in adhesive properties on tumor endothelial subclones are accompanied by decreases in expression of lymphocyte chemokines CXCL16, CXCL13, CXCL12, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CCL19. These evolutionary patterns in the expressed genetic program within tumor endothelium will have both a quantitative and functional impact on lymphocyte distribution that may well influence tumor immune function and underlie escape mechanisms from current antiangiogenic pharmacotherapies. Cancer Res; 76(6); 1348-53. ©2015 AACR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-1150

    View details for PubMedID 26719541

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4794394

  • A Mechanism for Somatic Brain Mosaicism CELL Weissman, I. L., Gage, F. H. 2016; 164 (4): 593-595

    Abstract

    Double-strand break repair is required for neural development, and brain cells contain somatic genomic variations. Now, Wei et al. demonstrate that neural stem and progenitor cells undergo very frequent DNA breaks in a very restricted set of genes involved in neural cell adhesion and synapse function.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2016.01.048

    View details for Web of Science ID 000369998300003

    View details for PubMedID 26871622

  • Hoxb5 marks long-term haematopoietic stem cells and reveals a homogenous perivascular niche NATURE Chen, J. Y., Miyanishi, M., Wang, S. K., Yamazaki, S., Sinha, R., Kao, K. S., Seita, J., Sahoo, D., Nakauchi, H., Weissman, I. L. 2016; 530 (7589): 223-?

    Abstract

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are arguably the most extensively characterized tissue stem cells. Since the identification of HSCs by prospective isolation, complex multi-parameter flow cytometric isolation of phenotypic subsets has facilitated studies on many aspects of HSC biology, including self-renewal, differentiation, ageing, niche, and diversity. Here we demonstrate by unbiased multi-step screening, identification of a single gene, homeobox B5 (Hoxb5, also known as Hox-2.1), with expression in the bone marrow that is limited to long-term (LT)-HSCs in mice. Using a mouse single-colour tri-mCherry reporter driven by endogenous Hoxb5 regulation, we show that only the Hoxb5(+) HSCs exhibit long-term reconstitution capacity after transplantation in primary transplant recipients and, notably, in secondary recipients. Only 7-35% of various previously defined immunophenotypic HSCs are LT-HSCs. Finally, by in situ imaging of mouse bone marrow, we show that >94% of LT-HSCs (Hoxb5(+)) are directly attached to VE-cadherin(+) cells, implicating the perivascular space as a near-homogenous location of LT-HSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature16943

    View details for Web of Science ID 000369916700040

    View details for PubMedID 26863982

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4854608

  • Training the next generation of biomedical investigators in glycosciences JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Agre, P., Bertozzi, C., Bissell, M., Campbell, K. P., Cummings, R. D., Desai, U. R., Estes, M., Flotte, T., Fogleman, G., Gage, F., Ginsburg, D., Gordon, J. I., Hart, G., Hascall, V., Kiessling, L., Kornfeld, S., Lowe, J., Magnani, J., Mahal, L. K., Medzhitov, R., Roberts, R. J., Sackstein, R., Sarkar, R., Schnaar, R., Schwartz, N., Varki, A., Walt, D., Weissman, I. 2016; 126 (2): 405-408

    Abstract

    This position statement originated from a working group meeting convened on April 15, 2015, by the NHLBI and incorporates follow-up contributions by the participants as well as other thought leaders subsequently consulted, who together represent research fields relevant to all branches of the NIH. The group was deliberately composed not only of individuals with a current research emphasis in the glycosciences, but also of many experts from other fields, who evinced a strong interest in being involved in the discussions. The original goal was to discuss the value of creating centers of excellence for training the next generation of biomedical investigators in the glycosciences. A broader theme that emerged was the urgent need to bring the glycosciences back into the mainstream of biology by integrating relevant education into the curricula of medical, graduate, and postgraduate training programs, thus generating a critical sustainable workforce that can advance the much-needed translation of glycosciences into a more complete understanding of biology and the enhanced practice of medicine.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI85905

    View details for Web of Science ID 000370677300001

    View details for PubMedID 26829621

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4731185

  • Surveillance of Stem Cell Fate and Function: A System for Assessing Cell Survival and Collagen Expression In Situ TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A Walmsley, G. G., Senarath-Yapa, K., Wearda, T. L., Menon, S., Hu, M. S., Duscher, D., Maan, Z. N., Tsai, J. M., Zielins, E. R., Weissman, I. L., Gurtner, G. C., Lorenz, H. P., Longaker, M. T. 2016; 22 (1-2): 31-40

    Abstract

    Cell-based therapy is an emerging paradigm in skeletal regenerative medicine. However, the primary means by which transplanted cells contribute to bone repair and regeneration remain controversial. To gain an insight into the mechanisms of how both transplanted and endogenous cells mediate skeletal healing, we used a transgenic mouse strain expressing both the topaz variant of green fluorescent protein under the control of the collagen, type I, alpha 1 promoter/enhancer sequence (Col1a1(GFP)) and membrane-bound tomato red fluorescent protein constitutively in all cell types (R26(mTmG)). A comparison of healing in parietal versus frontal calvarial defects in these mice revealed that frontal osteoblasts express Col1a1 to a greater degree than parietal osteoblasts. Furthermore, the scaffold-based application of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and osteoblasts derived from these mice to critical-sized calvarial defects allowed for investigation of cell survival and function following transplantation. We found that ASCs led to significantly faster rates of bone healing in comparison to BM-MSCs and osteoblasts. ASCs displayed both increased survival and increased Col1a1 expression compared to BM-MSCs and osteoblasts following calvarial defect transplantation, which may explain their superior regenerative capacity in the context of bone healing. Using this novel reporter system, we were able to elucidate how cell-based therapies impact bone healing and identify ASCs as an attractive candidate for cell-based skeletal regenerative therapy. These insights potentially influence stem cell selection in translational clinical trials evaluating cell-based therapeutics for osseous repair and regeneration.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.tea.2015.0221

    View details for Web of Science ID 000368520300005

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4741228

  • Surveillance of Stem Cell Fate and Function: A System for Assessing Cell Survival and Collagen Expression In Situ. Tissue engineering. Part A Walmsley, G. G., Senarath-Yapa, K. n., Wearda, T. L., Menon, S. n., Hu, M. S., Duscher, D. n., Maan, Z. N., Tsai, J. M., Zielins, E. R., Weissman, I. L., Gurtner, G. C., Lorenz, H. P., Longaker, M. T. 2016; 22 (1-2): 31–40

    Abstract

    Cell-based therapy is an emerging paradigm in skeletal regenerative medicine. However, the primary means by which transplanted cells contribute to bone repair and regeneration remain controversial. To gain an insight into the mechanisms of how both transplanted and endogenous cells mediate skeletal healing, we used a transgenic mouse strain expressing both the topaz variant of green fluorescent protein under the control of the collagen, type I, alpha 1 promoter/enhancer sequence (Col1a1(GFP)) and membrane-bound tomato red fluorescent protein constitutively in all cell types (R26(mTmG)). A comparison of healing in parietal versus frontal calvarial defects in these mice revealed that frontal osteoblasts express Col1a1 to a greater degree than parietal osteoblasts. Furthermore, the scaffold-based application of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs), bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), and osteoblasts derived from these mice to critical-sized calvarial defects allowed for investigation of cell survival and function following transplantation. We found that ASCs led to significantly faster rates of bone healing in comparison to BM-MSCs and osteoblasts. ASCs displayed both increased survival and increased Col1a1 expression compared to BM-MSCs and osteoblasts following calvarial defect transplantation, which may explain their superior regenerative capacity in the context of bone healing. Using this novel reporter system, we were able to elucidate how cell-based therapies impact bone healing and identify ASCs as an attractive candidate for cell-based skeletal regenerative therapy. These insights potentially influence stem cell selection in translational clinical trials evaluating cell-based therapeutics for osseous repair and regeneration.

    View details for PubMedID 26486617

  • How One Thing Led to Another. Annual review of immunology Weissman, I. n. 2016; 34: 1–30

    Abstract

    I started research in high school, experimenting on immunological tolerance to transplantation antigens. This led to studies of the thymus as the site of maturation of T cells, which led to the discovery, isolation, and clinical transplantation of purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The induction of immune tolerance with HSCs has led to isolation of other tissue-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine. Our studies of circulating competing germline stem cells in colonial protochordates led us to document competing HSCs. In human acute myelogenous leukemia we showed that all preleukemic mutations occur in HSCs, and determined their order; the final mutations occur in a multipotent progenitor derived from the preleukemic HSC clone. With these, we discovered that CD47 is an upregulated gene in all human cancers and is a "don't eat me" signal; blocking it with antibodies leads to cancer cell phagocytosis. CD47 is the first known gene common to all cancers and is a target for cancer immunotherapy.

    View details for PubMedID 27168238

  • Engineering high-affinity PD-1 variants for optimized immunotherapy and immuno-PET imaging PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Maute, R. L., Gordon, S. R., Mayer, A. T., McCracken, M. N., Natarajan, A., Ring, N. G., Kimura, R., Tsai, J. M., Manglik, A., Kruse, A. C., Gambhir, S. S., Weissman, I. L., Ring, A. M. 2015; 112 (47): E6506-E6514

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1519623112

    View details for Web of Science ID 000365173100015

    View details for PubMedID 26604307

  • Neural Placode Tissue Derived From Myelomeningocele Repair Serves as a Viable Source of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells. Neurosurgery Mitra, S. S., Feroze, A. H., Gholamin, S., Richard, C., Esparza, R., Zhang, M., Azad, T. D., Alrfaei, B., Kahn, S. A., Hutter, G., Guzman, R., Creasey, G. H., Plant, G. W., Weissman, I. L., Edwards, M. S., Cheshier, S. 2015; 77 (5): 794-802

    Abstract

    The presence, characteristics, and potential clinical relevance of neural progenitor populations within the neural placodes of myelomeningocele patients remain to be studied. Neural stem cells are known to reside adjacent to ependyma-lined surfaces along the central nervous system axis.Given such neuroanatomic correlation and regenerative capacity in fetal development, we assessed myelomeningocele-derived neural placode tissue as a potentially novel source of neural stem and progenitor cells.Nonfunctional neural placode tissue was harvested from infants during the surgical repair of myelomeningocele and subsequently further analyzed by in vitro studies, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. To assess lineage potential, neural placode-derived neurospheres were subjected to differential media conditions. Through assessment of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) and CD15 cell marker expression, Sox2+Olig2+ putative oligodendrocyte progenitor cells were successfully isolated.PDGFRαCD15 cell populations demonstrated the highest rate of self-renewal capacity and multipotency of cell progeny. Immunofluorescence of neural placode-derived neurospheres demonstrated preferential expression of the oligodendrocyte progenitor marker, CNPase, whereas differentiation to neurons and astrocytes was also noted, albeit to a limited degree.Neural placode tissue contains multipotent progenitors that are preferentially biased toward oligodendrocyte progenitor cell differentiation and presents a novel source of such cells for use in the treatment of a variety of pediatric and adult neurological disease, including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and metabolic leukoencephalopathies.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/NEU.0000000000000918

    View details for PubMedID 26225855

  • Evolution of normal and neoplastic tissue stem cells: progress after Robert Hooke PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Weissman, I. 2015; 370 (1680)

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rstb.2014.0364

    View details for PubMedID 26416675

  • Skeletal Stem Cell Niche Aberrancies Underlie Impaired Fracture Healing in a Mouse Model of Type 2 Diabetes. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Tevlin, R., Young Seo, E., Marecic, O., Wearda, T., Mc Ardle, A., Januszyk, M., Gulati, G., Maan, Z., Hu, M. S., Walmsley, G. G., Gurtner, G. C., Chan, C. K., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2015; 136 (4): 73-?

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.prs.0000472372.96995.3e

    View details for PubMedID 26397581

  • Sleep disruption impairs haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in mice NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Rolls, A., Pang, W. W., Ibarra, I., Colas, D., Bonnavion, P., Korin, B., Heller, H. C., Weissman, I. L., de Lecea, L. 2015; 6

    Abstract

    Many of the factors affecting the success of haematopoietic cell transplantation are still unknown. Here we show in mice that donor sleep deprivation reduces the ability of its haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to engraft and reconstitute the blood and bone marrow of an irradiated recipient by more than 50%. We demonstrate that sleep deprivation downregulates the expression of microRNA (miR)-19b, a negative regulator of the suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) genes, which inhibit HSC migration and homing. Accordingly, HSCs from sleep-deprived mice have higher levels of SOCS genes expression, lower migration capacity in vitro and reduced homing to the bone marrow in vivo. Recovery of sleep after sleep deprivation restored the reconstitution potential of the HSCs. Taken together, this study provides insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of sleep deprivation on HSCs, emphasizing the potentially critical role of donor sleep in the success of bone marrow transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms9516

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364930800001

    View details for PubMedID 26465715

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4621781

  • Molecular Pathways: Activating T Cells after Cancer Cell Phagocytosis from Blockade of CD47 "Don't Eat Me" Signals. Clinical cancer research McCracken, M. N., Cha, A. C., Weissman, I. L. 2015; 21 (16): 3597-3601

    Abstract

    Recent advances with immunotherapy agents for the treatment of cancer have provided remarkable, and in some cases, curative results. Our laboratory has identified CD47 as an important "don't eat me" signal expressed on malignant cells. Blockade of the CD47:SIRP-α axis between tumor cells and innate immune cells (monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells) increases tumor cell phagocytosis in both solid tumors (including, but not limited to, bladder, breast, colon, lung, and pancreatic) and hematologic malignancies. These phagocytic innate cells are also professional antigen-presenting cells (APC), providing a link from innate to adaptive antitumor immunity. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that APCs present antigens from phagocytosed tumor cells, causing T-cell activation. Therefore, agents that block the CD47:SIRP-α engagement are attractive therapeutic targets as a monotherapy or in combination with additional immune-modulating agents for activating antitumor T cells in vivo. Clin Cancer Res; 21(16); 3597-601. ©2015 AACR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2520

    View details for PubMedID 26116271

  • Identification and characterization of an injury-induced skeletal progenitor PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Marecic, O., Tevlin, R., McArdle, A., Seo, E. Y., Wearda, T., Duldulao, C., Walmsley, G. G., Nguyen, A., Weissman, I. L., Chan, C. K., Longaker, M. T. 2015; 112 (32): 9920-9925

    Abstract

    The postnatal skeleton undergoes growth, remodeling, and repair. We hypothesized that skeletal progenitor cells active during these disparate phases are genetically and phenotypically distinct. We identified a highly potent regenerative cell type that we term the fracture-induced bone, cartilage, stromal progenitor (f-BCSP) in the fracture callus of adult mice. The f-BCSP possesses significantly enhanced skeletogenic potential compared with BCSPs harvested from uninjured bone. It also recapitulates many gene expression patterns involved in perinatal skeletogenesis. Our results indicate that the skeletal progenitor population is functionally stratified, containing distinct subsets responsible for growth, regeneration, and repair. Furthermore, our findings suggest that injury-induced changes to the skeletal stem and progenitor microenvironments could activate these cells and enhance their regenerative potential.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1513066112

    View details for PubMedID 26216955

  • Prospective isolation of human erythroid lineage-committed progenitors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Mori, Y., Chen, J. Y., Pluvinage, J. V., Seita, J., Weissman, I. L. 2015; 112 (31): 9638-9643

    Abstract

    Determining the developmental pathway leading to erythrocytes and being able to isolate their progenitors are crucial to understanding and treating disorders of red cell imbalance such as anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and polycythemia vera. Here we show that the human erythrocyte progenitor (hEP) can be prospectively isolated from adult bone marrow. We found three subfractions that possessed different expression patterns of CD105 and CD71 within the previously defined human megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor (hMEP; Lineage(-) CD34(+) CD38(+) IL-3Rα(-) CD45RA(-)) population. Both CD71(-) CD105(-) and CD71(+) CD105(-) MEPs, at least in vitro, still retained bipotency for the megakaryocyte (MegK) and erythrocyte (E) lineages, although the latter subpopulation is skewed in differentiation toward the erythroid lineage. Notably, the proliferative and differentiation output of the CD71(intermediate(int)/+) CD105(+) subset of cells within the MEP population was completely restricted to the erythroid lineage with the loss of MegK potential. CD71(+) CD105(-) MEPs are erythrocyte-biased MEPs (E-MEPs) and CD71(int/+) CD105(+) cells are EPs. These previously unclassified populations may facilitate further understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing human erythroid development and serve as potential therapeutic targets in disorders of the erythroid lineage.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1512076112

    View details for PubMedID 26195758

  • Expression of TCR-V peptides by murine bone marrow cells does not identify T-cell progenitors JOURNAL OF CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE Abbey, J. L., Karsunky, H., Serwold, T., Papathanasiou, P., Weissman, I. L., O'Neill, H. C. 2015; 19 (8): 1956-1964

    Abstract

    Germline transcription has been described for both immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor (TCR) genes, raising questions of their functional significance during haematopoiesis. Previously, an immature murine T-cell line was shown to bind antibody to TCR-Vβ8.2 in absence of anti-Cβ antibody binding, and an equivalent cell subset was also identified in the mesenteric lymph node. Here, we investigate whether germline transcription and cell surface Vβ8.2 expression could therefore represent a potential marker of T-cell progenitors. Cells with the TCR phenotype of Vβ8.2(+) Cβ(-) are found in several lymphoid sites, and among the lineage-negative (Lin(-) ) fraction of hematopoietic progenitors in bone marrow (BM). Cell surface marker analysis of these cells identified subsets reflecting common lymphoid progenitors, common myeloid progenitors and multipotential progenitors. To assess whether the Lin(-) Vβ8.2(+) Cβ(-) BM subset contains hematopoietic progenitors, cells were sorted and adoptively transferred into sub-lethally irradiated recipients. No T-cell or myeloid progeny were detected following introduction of cells via the intrathymic or intravenous routes. However, B-cell development was detected in spleen. This pattern of restricted in vivo reconstitution disputes Lin(-) Vβ8.2(+) Cβ(-) BM cells as committed T-cell progenitors, but raises the possibility of progenitors with potential for B-cell development.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jcmm.12572

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358925100020

    View details for PubMedID 25754612

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4549046

  • Stem cells are units of natural selection for tissue formation, for germline development, and in cancer development PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Weissman, I. L. 2015; 112 (29): 8922-8928

    Abstract

    It is obvious that natural selection operates at the level of individuals and collections of individuals. Nearly two decades ago we showed that in multi-individual colonies of protochordate colonial tunicates sharing a blood circulation, there exists an exchange of somatic stem cells and germline stem cells, resulting in somatic chimeras and stem cell competitions for gonadal niches. Stem cells are unlike other cells in the body in that they alone self-renew, so that they form clones that are perpetuated for the life of the organism. Stem cell competitions have allowed the emergence of competitive somatic and germline stem cell clones. Highly successful germline stem cells usually outcompete less successful competitors both in the gonads of the genotype partner from which they arise and in the gonads of the natural parabiotic partners. Therefore, natural selection also operates at the level of germline stem cell clones. In the colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri the formation of natural parabionts is prevented by a single-locus highly polymorphic histocompatibility gene called Botryllus histocompatibility factor. This limits germline stem cell predation to kin, as the locus has hundreds of alleles. We show that in mice germline stem cells compete for gonad niches, and in mice and humans, blood-forming stem cells also compete for bone marrow niches. We show that the clonal progression from blood-forming stem cells to acute leukemias by successive genetic and epigenetic events in blood stem cells also involves competition and selection between clones and propose that this is a general theme in cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1505464112

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358225100052

    View details for PubMedID 26195745

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4517284

  • "Velcro" Engineering of High Affinity CD47 Ectodomain as Signal Regulatory Protein alpha(SIRP alpha) Antagonists That Enhance Antibody-dependent Cellular Phagocytosis JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY Ho, C. C., Guo, N., Sockolosky, J. T., Ring, A. M., Weiskopf, K., Oezkan, E., Mori, Y., Weissman, I. L., Garcia, K. C. 2015; 290 (20): 12650-12663
  • "Velcro" engineering of high affinity CD47 ectodomain as signal regulatory protein a (SIRPa) antagonists that enhance antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis. journal of biological chemistry Ho, C. C., Guo, N., Sockolosky, J. T., Ring, A. M., Weiskopf, K., Özkan, E., Mori, Y., Weissman, I. L., Garcia, K. C. 2015; 290 (20): 12650-12663

    Abstract

    CD47 is a cell surface protein that transmits an anti-phagocytic signal, known as the "don't-eat-me" signal, to macrophages upon engaging its receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα). Molecules that antagonize the CD47-SIRPα interaction by binding to CD47, such as anti-CD47 antibodies and the engineered SIRPα variant CV1, have been shown to facilitate macrophage-mediated anti-tumor responses. However, these strategies targeting CD47 are handicapped by large antigen sinks in vivo and indiscriminate cell binding due to ubiquitous expression of CD47. These factors reduce bioavailability and increase the risk of toxicity. Here, we present an alternative strategy to antagonize the CD47-SIRPα pathway by engineering high affinity CD47 variants that target SIRPα, which has restricted tissue expression. CD47 proved to be refractive to conventional affinity maturation techniques targeting its binding interface with SIRPα. Therefore, we developed a novel engineering approach, whereby we augmented the existing contact interface via N-terminal peptide extension, coined "Velcro" engineering. The high affinity variant (Velcro-CD47) bound to the two most prominent human SIRPα alleles with greatly increased affinity relative to wild-type CD47 and potently antagonized CD47 binding to SIRPα on human macrophages. Velcro-CD47 synergizes with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to enhance macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells in vitro, with similar potency as CV1. Finally, Velcro-CD47 interacts specifically with a subset of myeloid-derived cells in human blood, whereas CV1 binds all myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid populations interrogated. This is consistent with the restricted expression of SIRPα compared with CD47. Herein, we have demonstrated that "Velcro" engineering is a powerful protein-engineering tool with potential applications to other systems and that Velcro-CD47 could be an alternative adjuvant to CD47-targeting agents for cancer immunotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M115.648220

    View details for PubMedID 25837251

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4432284

  • Skin fibrosis. Identification and isolation of a dermal lineage with intrinsic fibrogenic potential. Science Rinkevich, Y., Walmsley, G. G., Hu, M. S., Maan, Z. N., Newman, A. M., Drukker, M., Januszyk, M., Krampitz, G. W., Gurtner, G. C., Lorenz, H. P., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2015; 348 (6232)

    Abstract

    Dermal fibroblasts represent a heterogeneous population of cells with diverse features that remain largely undefined. We reveal the presence of at least two fibroblast lineages in murine dorsal skin. Lineage tracing and transplantation assays demonstrate that a single fibroblast lineage is responsible for the bulk of connective tissue deposition during embryonic development, cutaneous wound healing, radiation fibrosis, and cancer stroma formation. Lineage-specific cell ablation leads to diminished connective tissue deposition in wounds and reduces melanoma growth. Using flow cytometry, we identify CD26/DPP4 as a surface marker that allows isolation of this lineage. Small molecule-based inhibition of CD26/DPP4 enzymatic activity during wound healing results in diminished cutaneous scarring. Identification and isolation of these lineages hold promise for translational medicine aimed at in vivo modulation of fibrogenic behavior.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aaa2151

    View details for PubMedID 25883361

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5088503

  • CD14-expressing cancer cells establish the inflammatory and proliferative tumor microenvironment in bladder cancer. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Cheah, M. T., Chen, J. Y., Sahoo, D., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Volkmer, A. K., Scheeren, F. A., Volkmer, J., Weissman, I. L. 2015; 112 (15): 4725-4730

    Abstract

    Nonresolving chronic inflammation at the neoplastic site is consistently associated with promoting tumor progression and poor patient outcomes. However, many aspects behind the mechanisms that establish this tumor-promoting inflammatory microenvironment remain undefined. Using bladder cancer (BC) as a model, we found that CD14-high cancer cells express higher levels of numerous inflammation mediators and form larger tumors compared with CD14-low cells. CD14 antigen is a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked glycoprotein and has been shown to be critically important in the signaling pathways of Toll-like receptor (TLR). CD14 expression in this BC subpopulation of cancer cells is required for increased cytokine production and increased tumor growth. Furthermore, tumors formed by CD14-high cells are more highly vascularized with higher myeloid cell infiltration. Inflammatory factors produced by CD14-high BC cells recruit and polarize monocytes and macrophages to acquire immune-suppressive characteristics. In contrast, CD14-low BC cells have a higher baseline cell division rate than CD14-high cells. Importantly, CD14-high cells produce factors that further increase the proliferation of CD14-low cells. Collectively, we demonstrate that CD14-high BC cells may orchestrate tumor-promoting inflammation and drive tumor cell proliferation to promote tumor growth.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1424795112

    View details for PubMedID 25825750

  • Tuning Cytokine Receptor Signaling by Re-orienting Dimer Geometry with Surrogate Ligands CELL Moraga, I., Wernig, G., Wilmes, S., Gryshkova, V., Richter, C. P., Hong, W., Sinha, R., Guo, F., Fabionar, H., Wehrman, T. S., Krutzik, P., Demharter, S., Plo, I., Weissman, I. L., Minary, P., Majeti, R., Constantinescu, S. N., Piehler, J., Garcia, K. C. 2015; 160 (6): 1196-1208

    Abstract

    Most cell-surface receptors for cytokines and growth factors signal as dimers, but it is unclear whether remodeling receptor dimer topology is a viable strategy to "tune" signaling output. We utilized diabodies (DA) as surrogate ligands in a prototypical dimeric receptor-ligand system, the cytokine Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EpoR), to dimerize EpoR ectodomains in non-native architectures. Diabody-induced signaling amplitudes varied from full to minimal agonism, and structures of these DA/EpoR complexes differed in EpoR dimer orientation and proximity. Diabodies also elicited biased or differential activation of signaling pathways and gene expression profiles compared to EPO. Non-signaling diabodies inhibited proliferation of erythroid precursors from patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm due to a constitutively active JAK2V617F mutation. Thus, intracellular oncogenic mutations causing ligand-independent receptor activation can be counteracted by extracellular ligands that re-orient receptors into inactive dimer topologies. This approach has broad applications for tuning signaling output for many dimeric receptor systems.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.011

    View details for PubMedID 25728669

  • Macrophages are critical effectors of antibody therapies for cancer. mAbs Weiskopf, K., Weissman, I. L. 2015; 7 (2): 303-310

    Abstract

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that derive from circulating monocytes, reside in all tissues, and participate in many states of pathology. Macrophages play a dichotomous role in cancer, where they promote tumor growth but also serve as critical immune effectors of therapeutic antibodies. Macrophages express all classes of Fcγ receptors, and they have immense potential to destroy tumors via the process of antibody-dependent phagocytosis. A number of studies have demonstrated that macrophage phagocytosis is a major mechanism of action of many antibodies approved to treat cancer. Consequently, a number of approaches to augment macrophage responses to therapeutic antibodies are under investigation, including the exploration of new targets and development of antibodies with enhanced functions. For example, the interaction of CD47 with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα) serves as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint that limits the response of macrophages to antibody therapies, and CD47-blocking agents overcome this barrier to augment phagocytosis. The response of macrophages to antibody therapies can also be enhanced with engineered Fc variants, bispecific antibodies, or antibody-drug conjugates. Macrophages have demonstrated success as effectors of cancer immunotherapy, and further investigation will unlock their full potential for the benefit of patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/19420862.2015.1011450

    View details for PubMedID 25667985

  • Live Fibroblast Harvest Reveals Surface Marker Shift In Vitro TISSUE ENGINEERING PART C-METHODS Walmsley, G. G., Rinkevich, Y., Hu, M. S., Montoro, D. T., Lo, D. D., McArdle, A., Maan, Z. N., Morrison, S. D., Duscher, D., Whittam, A. J., Wong, V. W., Weissman, I. L., Gurtner, G. C., Longaker, M. T. 2015; 21 (3): 314-321

    Abstract

    Current methods for the isolation of fibroblasts require extended ex vivo manipulation in cell culture. As a consequence, prior studies investigating fibroblast biology may fail to adequately represent cellular phenotypes in vivo. To overcome this problem, we describe a detailed protocol for the isolation of fibroblasts from the dorsal dermis of adult mice that bypasses the need for cell culture, thereby preserving the physiological, transcriptional, and proteomic profiles of each cell. Using the described protocol we characterized the transcriptional programs and the surface expression of 176 CD markers in cultured versus uncultured fibroblasts. The differential expression patterns we observed highlight the importance of a live harvest for investigations of fibroblast biology.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.tec.2014.0118

    View details for Web of Science ID 000350043400009

    View details for PubMedID 25275778

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4346232

  • Macrophages eat cancer cells using their own calreticulin as a guide: Roles of TLR and Btk. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Feng, M., Chen, J. Y., Weissman-Tsukamoto, R., Volkmer, J., Ho, P. Y., McKenna, K. M., Cheshier, S., Zhang, M., Guo, N., Gip, P., Mitra, S. S., Weissman, I. L. 2015; 112 (7): 2145-2150

    Abstract

    Macrophage-mediated programmed cell removal (PrCR) is an important mechanism of eliminating diseased and damaged cells before programmed cell death. The induction of PrCR by eat-me signals on tumor cells is countered by don't-eat-me signals such as CD47, which binds macrophage signal-regulatory protein α to inhibit phagocytosis. Blockade of CD47 on tumor cells leads to phagocytosis by macrophages. Here we demonstrate that the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways in macrophages synergizes with blocking CD47 on tumor cells to enhance PrCR. Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) mediates TLR signaling in macrophages. Calreticulin, previously shown to be an eat-me signal on cancer cells, is activated in macrophages for secretion and cell-surface exposure by TLR and Btk to target cancer cells for phagocytosis, even if the cancer cells themselves do not express calreticulin.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1424907112

    View details for PubMedID 25646432

  • Botryllus schlosseri, an emerging model for the study of aging, stem cells, and mechanisms of regeneration INVERTEBRATE REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT Voskoboynik, A., Weissman, I. L. 2015; 59: 33-38
  • Identification and specification of the mouse skeletal stem cell. Cell Chan, C. K., Seo, E. Y., Chen, J. Y., Lo, D., McArdle, A., Sinha, R., Tevlin, R., Seita, J., Vincent-Tompkins, J., Wearda, T., Lu, W., Senarath-Yapa, K., Chung, M. T., Marecic, O., Tran, M., Yan, K. S., Upton, R., Walmsley, G. G., Lee, A. S., Sahoo, D., Kuo, C. J., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2015; 160 (1-2): 285-298

    Abstract

    How are skeletal tissues derived from skeletal stem cells? Here, we map bone, cartilage, and stromal development from a population of highly pure, postnatal skeletal stem cells (mouse skeletal stem cells, mSSCs) to their downstream progenitors of bone, cartilage, and stromal tissue. We then investigated the transcriptome of the stem/progenitor cells for unique gene-expression patterns that would indicate potential regulators of mSSC lineage commitment. We demonstrate that mSSC niche factors can be potent inducers of osteogenesis, and several specific combinations of recombinant mSSC niche factors can activate mSSC genetic programs in situ, even in nonskeletal tissues, resulting in de novo formation of cartilage or bone and bone marrow stroma. Inducing mSSC formation with soluble factors and subsequently regulating the mSSC niche to specify its differentiation toward bone, cartilage, or stromal cells could represent a paradigm shift in the therapeutic regeneration of skeletal tissues.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2014.12.002

    View details for PubMedID 25594184

  • SCNT-Derived ESCs with Mismatched Mitochondria Trigger an Immune Response in Allogeneic Hosts. Cell stem cell Deuse, T., Wang, D., Stubbendorff, M., Itagaki, R., Grabosch, A., Greaves, L. C., Alawi, M., Grünewald, A., Hu, X., Hua, X., Velden, J., Reichenspurner, H., Robbins, R. C., Jaenisch, R., Weissman, I. L., Schrepfer, S. 2015; 16 (1): 33-38

    Abstract

    The generation of pluripotent stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has recently been achieved in human cells and sparked new interest in this technology. The authors reporting this methodical breakthrough speculated that SCNT would allow the creation of patient-matched embryonic stem cells, even in patients with hereditary mitochondrial diseases. However, herein we show that mismatched mitochondria in nuclear-transfer-derived embryonic stem cells (NT-ESCs) possess alloantigenicity and are subject to immune rejection. In a murine transplantation setup, we demonstrate that allogeneic mitochondria in NT-ESCs, which are nucleus-identical to the recipient, may trigger an adaptive alloimmune response that impairs the survival of NT-ESC grafts. The immune response is adaptive, directed against mitochondrial content, and amenable for tolerance induction. Mitochondrial alloantigenicity should therefore be considered when developing therapeutic SCNT-based strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2014.11.003

    View details for PubMedID 25465116

  • Epigenetic and in vivo comparison of diverse MSC sources reveals an endochondral signature for human hematopoietic niche formation. Blood Reinisch, A., Etchart, N., Thomas, D., Hofmann, N. A., Fruehwirth, M., Sinha, S., Chan, C. K., Senarath-Yapa, K., Seo, E., Wearda, T., Hartwig, U. F., Beham-Schmid, C., Trajanoski, S., Lin, Q., Wagner, W., Dullin, C., Alves, F., Andreeff, M., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T., Schallmoser, K., Majeti, R., Strunk, D. 2015; 125 (2): 249-260

    Abstract

    In the last decade there has been a rapid expansion in clinical trials using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from a variety of tissues. However, despite similarities in morphology, immunophenotype and differentiation behavior in vitro, MSCs sourced from distinct tissues do not necessarily have equivalent biological properties. We performed a genome-wide methylation, transcription and in vivo evaluation of MSCs from human bone marrow (BM), white adipose tissue, umbilical cord and skin cultured in humanized media. Surprisingly, only BM-derived MSCs spontaneously formed a bone marrow cavity through a vascularized cartilage intermediate in vivo that was progressively replaced by hematopoietic tissue and bone. Only BM-derived MSCs exhibited a chondrogenic transcriptional program with hypomethylation and increased expression of RUNX3, RUNX2, BGLAP, MMP13 and ITGA10 consistent with a latent and primed skeletal developmental potential. The humanized MSC-derived microenvironment permitted homing and maintenance of long-term murine SLAM(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as well as human CD34(+)/CD38(-)/CD90(+)/CD45RA(+) HSCs after cord blood transplantation. These studies underscore the profound differences in developmental potential between MSC sources independent of donor age with implications for their clinical use. We also demonstrate a tractable human niche model for studying homing and engraftment of human hematopoietic cells in normal and neoplastic states.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2014-04-572255

    View details for PubMedID 25406351

  • Lift NIH restrictions on chimera research. Science (New York, N.Y.) Sharma, A. n., Sebastiano, V. n., Scott, C. T., Magnus, D. n., Koyano-Nakagawa, N. n., Garry, D. J., Witte, O. N., Nakauchi, H. n., Wu, J. C., Weissman, I. L., Wu, S. M. 2015; 350 (6261): 640

    View details for PubMedID 26542560

  • En1 fibroblasts and melanoma. Melanoma management Walmsley, G. G., Hu, M. S., Maan, Z. N., Rinkevich, Y. n., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2015; 2 (3): 191–92

    View details for PubMedID 30190847

  • Botryllus schlosseri, an emerging model for the study of aging, stem cells, and mechanisms of regeneration. Invertebrate reproduction & development Voskoboynik, A. n., Weissman, I. L. 2015; 59 (sup1): 33–38

    Abstract

    The decline of tissue regenerative potential with the loss of stem cell function is a hallmark of mammalian aging. We study Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial chordate which exhibits robust stem cell-mediated regeneration capacities throughout life. Larvae, derived by sexual reproduction and chordate development, metamorphose to clonal founders that undergo weekly formation of new individuals by budding from stem cells. Individuals are transient structures which die through massive apoptosis, and successive buds mature to replicate an entire new body. As a result, their stem cells, which are the only self-renewing cells in a tissue, are the only cells which remain through the entire life of the genotype and retain the effects of time. During aging, a significant decrease in the colonies' regenerative potential is observed and both sexual and asexual reproductions will eventually halt. When a parent colony is experimentally separated into a number of clonal replicates, they frequently undergo senescence simultaneously, suggesting a heritable factor that determines lifespan in these colonies. The availability of the recently published B. schlosseri genome coupled with its unique life cycle features promotes the use of this model organism for the study of the evolution of aging, stem cells, and mechanisms of regeneration.

    View details for PubMedID 26136618

  • Hematopoietic stem cells, regenerative medicine, and leukemogenesis Thomas' Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Weissman, I. 2015; 5: 25–57
  • Pre-Clinical Development of a Humanized Anti-CD47 Antibody with Anti-Cancer Therapeutic Potential. PloS one Liu, J., Wang, L., Zhao, F., Tseng, S., Narayanan, C., Shura, L., Willingham, S., Howard, M., Prohaska, S., Volkmer, J., Chao, M., Weissman, I. L., Majeti, R. 2015; 10 (9)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0137345

    View details for PubMedID 26390038

  • Pericytes are progenitors for coronary artery smooth muscle. eLife Volz, K. S., Jacobs, A. H., Chen, H. I., Poduri, A., McKay, A. S., Riordan, D. P., Kofler, N., Kitajewski, J., Weissman, I., Red-Horse, K. 2015; 4

    Abstract

    Epicardial cells on the heart's surface give rise to coronary artery smooth muscle cells (caSMCs) located deep in the myocardium. However, the differentiation steps between epicardial cells and caSMCs are unknown as are the final maturation signals at coronary arteries. Here, we use clonal analysis and lineage tracing to show that caSMCs derive from pericytes, mural cells associated with microvessels, and that these cells are present in adults. During development following the onset of blood flow, pericytes at arterial remodeling sites upregulate Notch3 while endothelial cells express Jagged-1. Deletion of Notch3 disrupts caSMC differentiation. Our data support a model wherein epicardial-derived pericytes populate the entire coronary microvasculature, but differentiate into caSMCs at arterial remodeling zones in response to Notch signaling. Our data are the first demonstration that pericytes are progenitors for smooth muscle, and their presence in adult hearts reveals a new potential cell type for targeting during cardiovascular disease.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.10036

    View details for PubMedID 26479710

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4728130

  • Upregulation of CD11A on Hematopoietic Stem Cells Denotes the Loss of Long-Term Reconstitution Potential STEM CELL REPORTS Fathman, J. W., Fernhoff, N. B., Seita, J., Chao, C., Scarfone, V. M., Weissman, I. L., Inlay, M. A. 2014; 3 (5): 707-715
  • Upregulation of CD11A on hematopoietic stem cells denotes the loss of long-term reconstitution potential. Stem cell reports Fathman, J. W., Fernhoff, N. B., Seita, J., Chao, C., Scarfone, V. M., Weissman, I. L., Inlay, M. A. 2014; 3 (5): 707-715

    Abstract

    Small numbers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate large numbers of mature effector cells through the successive amplification of transiently proliferating progenitor cells. HSCs and their downstream progenitors have been extensively characterized based on their cell-surface phenotype and functional activities during transplantation assays. These cells dynamically lose and acquire specific sets of surface markers during differentiation, leading to the identification of markers that allow for more refined separation of HSCs from early hematopoietic progenitors. Here, we describe a marker, CD11A, which allows for the enhanced purification of mouse HSCs. We show through in vivo transplantations that upregulation of CD11A on HSCs denotes the loss of their long-term reconstitution potential. Surprisingly, nearly half of phenotypic HSCs (defined as Lin-KIT(+)SCA-1(+)CD150(+)CD34-) are CD11A(+) and lack long-term self-renewal potential. We propose that CD11A(+)Lin-KIT(+)SCA-1(+)CD150(+)CD34- cells are multipotent progenitors and CD11A-Lin-KIT(+)SCA-1(+)CD150(+)CD34- cells are true HSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.09.007

    View details for PubMedID 25418718

  • Endoscopic molecular imaging of human bladder cancer using a CD47 antibody SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Pan, Y., Volkmer, J., Mach, K. E., Rouse, R. V., Liu, J., Sahoo, D., Chang, T. C., Metzner, T. J., Kang, L., van de Rijn, M., Skinner, E. C., Gambhir, S. S., Weissman, I. L., Liao, J. C. 2014; 6 (260)

    Abstract

    A combination of optical imaging technologies with cancer-specific molecular imaging agents is a potentially powerful strategy to improve cancer detection and enable image-guided surgery. Bladder cancer is primarily managed endoscopically by white light cystoscopy with suboptimal diagnostic accuracy. Emerging optical imaging technologies hold great potential for improved diagnostic accuracy but lack imaging agents for molecular specificity. Using fluorescently labeled CD47 antibody (anti-CD47) as molecular imaging agent, we demonstrated consistent identification of bladder cancer with clinical grade fluorescence imaging systems, confocal endomicroscopy, and blue light cystoscopy in fresh surgically removed human bladders. With blue light cystoscopy, the sensitivity and specificity for CD47-targeted imaging were 82.9 and 90.5%, respectively. We detected variants of bladder cancers, which are diagnostic challenges, including carcinoma in situ, residual carcinoma in tumor resection bed, recurrent carcinoma following prior intravesical immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and excluded cancer from benign but suspicious-appearing mucosa. CD47-targeted molecular imaging could improve diagnosis and resection thoroughness for bladder cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3009457

    View details for Web of Science ID 000343920500006

  • Endoscopic molecular imaging of human bladder cancer using a CD47 antibody. Science translational medicine Pan, Y., Volkmer, J., Mach, K. E., Rouse, R. V., Liu, J., Sahoo, D., Chang, T. C., Metzner, T. J., Kang, L., van de Rijn, M., Skinner, E. C., Gambhir, S. S., Weissman, I. L., Liao, J. C. 2014; 6 (260): 260ra148-?

    Abstract

    A combination of optical imaging technologies with cancer-specific molecular imaging agents is a potentially powerful strategy to improve cancer detection and enable image-guided surgery. Bladder cancer is primarily managed endoscopically by white light cystoscopy with suboptimal diagnostic accuracy. Emerging optical imaging technologies hold great potential for improved diagnostic accuracy but lack imaging agents for molecular specificity. Using fluorescently labeled CD47 antibody (anti-CD47) as molecular imaging agent, we demonstrated consistent identification of bladder cancer with clinical grade fluorescence imaging systems, confocal endomicroscopy, and blue light cystoscopy in fresh surgically removed human bladders. With blue light cystoscopy, the sensitivity and specificity for CD47-targeted imaging were 82.9 and 90.5%, respectively. We detected variants of bladder cancers, which are diagnostic challenges, including carcinoma in situ, residual carcinoma in tumor resection bed, recurrent carcinoma following prior intravesical immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and excluded cancer from benign but suspicious-appearing mucosa. CD47-targeted molecular imaging could improve diagnosis and resection thoroughness for bladder cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3009457

    View details for PubMedID 25355698

  • In utero depletion of fetal hematopoietic stem cells improves engraftment after neonatal transplantation in mice. Blood Derderian, S. C., Togarrati, P. P., King, C., Moradi, P. W., Reynaud, D., Czechowicz, A., Weissman, I. L., MacKenzie, T. C. 2014; 124 (6): 973-980

    Abstract

    Although in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation is a promising strategy to treat congenital hematopoietic disorders, levels of engraftment have not been therapeutic for diseases in which donor cells have no survival advantage. We used an antibody against the murine c-Kit receptor (ACK2) to deplete fetal host hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and increase space within the hematopoietic niche for donor cell engraftment. Fetal mice were injected with ACK2 on embryonic days 13.5 to 14.5 and surviving pups were transplanted with congenic hematopoietic cells on day of life 1. Low-dose ACK2 treatment effectively depleted HSCs within the bone marrow with minimal toxicity and the antibody was cleared from the serum before the neonatal transplantation. Chimerism levels were significantly higher in treated pups than in controls; both myeloid and lymphoid cell chimerism increased because of higher engraftment of HSCs in the bone marrow. To test the strategy of repeated HSC depletion and transplantation, some mice were treated with ACK2 postnatally, but the increase in engraftment was lower than that seen with prenatal treatment. We demonstrate a successful fetal conditioning strategy associated with minimal toxicity. Such strategies could be used to achieve clinically relevant levels of engraftment to treat congenital stem cell disorders.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2014-02-550327

    View details for PubMedID 24879814

  • Clonal analysis reveals nerve-dependent and independent roles on mammalian hind limb tissue maintenance and regeneration PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Rinkevich, Y., Montoro, D. T., Muhonen, E., Walmsley, G. G., Lo, D., Hasegawa, M., Januszyk, M., Connolly, A. J., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2014; 111 (27): 9846-9851

    Abstract

    The requirement and influence of the peripheral nervous system on tissue replacement in mammalian appendages remain largely undefined. To explore this question, we have performed genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis of individual cells of mouse hind limb tissues devoid of nerve supply during regeneration of the digit tip, normal maintenance, and cutaneous wound healing. We show that cellular turnover, replacement, and cellular differentiation from presumed tissue stem/progenitor cells within hind limb tissues remain largely intact independent of nerve and nerve-derived factors. However, regenerated digit tips in the absence of nerves displayed patterning defects in bone and nail matrix. These nerve-dependent phenotypes mimic clinical observations of patients with nerve damage resulting from spinal cord injury and are of significant interest for translational medicine aimed at understanding the effects of nerves on etiologies of human injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1410097111

    View details for Web of Science ID 000338514800040

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4103362

  • Clonal analysis reveals nerve-dependent and independent roles on mammalian hind limb tissue maintenance and regeneration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Rinkevich, Y., Montoro, D. T., Muhonen, E., Walmsley, G. G., Lo, D., Hasegawa, M., Januszyk, M., Connolly, A. J., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2014; 111 (27): 9846-9851

    Abstract

    The requirement and influence of the peripheral nervous system on tissue replacement in mammalian appendages remain largely undefined. To explore this question, we have performed genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis of individual cells of mouse hind limb tissues devoid of nerve supply during regeneration of the digit tip, normal maintenance, and cutaneous wound healing. We show that cellular turnover, replacement, and cellular differentiation from presumed tissue stem/progenitor cells within hind limb tissues remain largely intact independent of nerve and nerve-derived factors. However, regenerated digit tips in the absence of nerves displayed patterning defects in bone and nail matrix. These nerve-dependent phenotypes mimic clinical observations of patients with nerve damage resulting from spinal cord injury and are of significant interest for translational medicine aimed at understanding the effects of nerves on etiologies of human injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1410097111

    View details for PubMedID 24958860

  • Quiescent Hematopoietic Stem Cells Accumulate DNA Damage during Aging that Is Repaired upon Entry into Cell Cycle. Cell stem cell Beerman, I., Seita, J., Inlay, M. A., Weissman, I. L., Rossi, D. J. 2014; 15 (1): 37-50

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain homeostasis and regenerate the blood system throughout life. It has been postulated that HSCs may be uniquely capable of preserving their genomic integrity in order to ensure lifelong function. To directly test this, we quantified DNA damage in HSCs and downstream progenitors from young and old mice, revealing that strand breaks significantly accrue in HSCs during aging. DNA damage accumulation in HSCs was associated with broad attenuation of DNA repair and response pathways that was dependent upon HSC quiescence. Accordingly, cycling fetal HSCs and adult HSCs driven into cycle upregulated these pathways leading to repair of strand breaks. Our results demonstrate that HSCs are not comprehensively geno-protected during aging. Rather, HSC quiescence and concomitant attenuation of DNA repair and response pathways underlies DNA damage accumulation in HSCs during aging. These results provide a potential mechanism through which premalignant mutations accrue in HSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.016

    View details for PubMedID 24813857

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4082747

  • Existing cardiomyocytes generate cardiomyocytes at a low rate after birth in mice PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ali, S. R., Hippenmeyer, S., Saadat, L. V., Luo, L., Weissman, I. L., Ardehali, R. 2014; 111 (24): 8850-8855
  • Existing cardiomyocytes generate cardiomyocytes at a low rate after birth in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Ali, S. R., Hippenmeyer, S., Saadat, L. V., Luo, L., Weissman, I. L., Ardehali, R. 2014; 111 (24): 8850-8855

    Abstract

    The mammalian heart has long been considered a postmitotic organ, implying that the total number of cardiomyocytes is set at birth. Analysis of cell division in the mammalian heart is complicated by cardiomyocyte binucleation shortly after birth, which makes it challenging to interpret traditional assays of cell turnover [Laflamme MA, Murray CE (2011) Nature 473(7347):326-335; Bergmann O, et al. (2009) Science 324(5923):98-102]. An elegant multi-isotope imaging-mass spectrometry technique recently calculated the low, discrete rate of cardiomyocyte generation in mice [Senyo SE, et al. (2013) Nature 493(7432):433-436], yet our cellular-level understanding of postnatal cardiomyogenesis remains limited. Herein, we provide a new line of evidence for the differentiated α-myosin heavy chain-expressing cardiomyocyte as the cell of origin of postnatal cardiomyogenesis using the "mosaic analysis with double markers" mouse model. We show limited, life-long, symmetric division of cardiomyocytes as a rare event that is evident in utero but significantly diminishes after the first month of life in mice; daughter cardiomyocytes divide very seldom, which this study is the first to demonstrate, to our knowledge. Furthermore, ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, which causes a myocardial infarction in the mosaic analysis with double-marker mice, did not increase the rate of cardiomyocyte division above the basal level for up to 4 wk after the injury. The clonal analysis described here provides direct evidence of postnatal mammalian cardiomyogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1408233111

    View details for PubMedID 24876275

  • Clonal Origins of the Hematopoietic System: The Single Most Elegant Experiment JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Weissman, I. L. 2014; 192 (11): 4943-4944

    View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1400902

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337171800003

    View details for PubMedID 24837150

  • In Vivo clonal analysis reveals lineage-restricted progenitor characteristics in Mammalian kidney development, maintenance, and regeneration. Cell reports Rinkevich, Y., Montoro, D. T., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Harari-Steinberg, O., Newman, A. M., Tsai, J. M., Lim, X., Van-Amerongen, R., Bowman, A., Januszyk, M., Pleniceanu, O., Nusse, R., Longaker, M. T., Weissman, I. L., Dekel, B. 2014; 7 (4): 1270-1283

    Abstract

    The mechanism and magnitude by which the mammalian kidney generates and maintains its proximal tubules, distal tubules, and collecting ducts remain controversial. Here, we use long-term in vivo genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis of individual cells from kidneys undergoing development, maintenance, and regeneration. We show that the adult mammalian kidney undergoes continuous tubulogenesis via expansions of fate-restricted clones. Kidneys recovering from damage undergo tubulogenesis through expansions of clones with segment-specific borders, and renal spheres developing in vitro from individual cells maintain distinct, segment-specific fates. Analysis of mice derived by transfer of color-marked embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into uncolored blastocysts demonstrates that nephrons are polyclonal, developing from expansions of singly fated clones. Finally, we show that adult renal clones are derived from Wnt-responsive precursors, and their tracing in vivo generates tubules that are segment specific. Collectively, these analyses demonstrate that fate-restricted precursors functioning as unipotent progenitors continuously maintain and self-preserve the mouse kidney throughout life.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.04.018

    View details for PubMedID 24835991

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4425291

  • Identification of Multipotent Progenitors that Emerge Prior to Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Embryonic Development. Stem cell reports Inlay, M. A., Serwold, T., Mosley, A., Fathman, J. W., Dimov, I. K., Seita, J., Weissman, I. L. 2014; 2 (4): 457-472

    Abstract

    Hematopoiesis in the embryo proceeds in a series of waves, with primitive erythroid-biased waves succeeded by definitive waves, within which the properties of hematopoietic stem cells (multilineage potential, self-renewal, and engraftability) gradually arise. Whereas self-renewal and engraftability have previously been examined in the embryo, multipotency has not been thoroughly addressed, especially at the single-cell level or within well-defined populations. To identify when and where clonal multilineage potential arises during embryogenesis, we developed a single-cell multipotency assay. We find that, during the initiation of definitive hematopoiesis in the embryo, a defined population of multipotent, engraftable progenitors emerges that is much more abundant within the yolk sac (YS) than the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) or fetal liver. These experiments indicate that multipotent cells appear in concert within both the YS and AGM and strongly implicate YS-derived progenitors as contributors to definitive hematopoiesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stemcr.2014.02.001

    View details for PubMedID 24749071

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3986503

  • Clonal Tracking of Rhesus Macaque Hematopoiesis Highlights a Distinct Lineage Origin for Natural Killer Cells CELL STEM CELL Wu, C., Li, B., Lu, R., Koelle, S. J., Yang, Y., Jares, A., Krouse, A. E., Metzger, M., Liang, F., Lore, K., Wu, C. O., Donahue, R. E., Chen, I. S., Weissman, I., Dunbar, C. E. 2014; 14 (4): 486-499

    Abstract

    Analysis of hematopoietic stem cell function in nonhuman primates provides insights that are relevant for human biology and therapeutic strategies. In this study, we applied quantitative genetic barcoding to track the clonal output of transplanted autologous rhesus macaque hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells over a time period of up to 9.5 months. We found that unilineage short-term progenitors reconstituted myeloid and lymphoid lineages at 1 month but were supplanted over time by multilineage clones, initially myeloid restricted, then myeloid-B clones, and then stable myeloid-B-T multilineage, long-term repopulating clones. Surprisingly, reconstitution of the natural killer (NK) cell lineage, and particularly the major CD16(+)/CD56(-) peripheral blood NK compartment, showed limited clonal overlap with T, B, or myeloid lineages, and therefore appears to be ontologically distinct. Thus, in addition to providing insights into clonal behavior over time, our analysis suggests an unexpected paradigm for the relationship between NK cells and other hematopoietic lineages in primates.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2014.01.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334766400012

    View details for PubMedID 24702997

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3979461

  • Abstract 140: identification, characterization, and prospective isolation of a fibroblast lineage contributing to dermal development, cutaneous scarring, radiation fibrosis, and cancer stroma. Plastic and reconstructive surgery Walmsley, G. G., Rinkevich, Y., Hu, M. S., McArdle, A., Maan, Z. N., Lorenz, H. P., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2014; 133 (3): 157-?

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.prs.0000444968.20280.4d

    View details for PubMedID 25942251

  • Abstract 161: identification of cell-intrinsic mechanisms and differentially regulated genetic pathways responsible for the age-related functional decline in aged skeletal stem cells. Plastic and reconstructive surgery McArdle, A., Chan, C., Seita, J., Senarath-Yapa, K., Hu, M., Walmsley, G. G., Zielins, E., Atashroo, D., Tevlin, R., Weissman, I., Longaker, M. T. 2014; 133 (3): 178-?

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.prs.0000444990.75431.f1

    View details for PubMedID 25942271

  • Preleukemic mutations in human acute myeloid leukemia affect epigenetic regulators and persist in remission. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Corces-Zimmerman, M. R., Hong, W., Weissman, I. L., Medeiros, B. C., Majeti, R. 2014; 111 (7): 2548-2553

    Abstract

    Cancer is widely characterized by the sequential acquisition of genetic lesions in a single lineage of cells. Our previous studies have shown that, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), mutation acquisition occurs in functionally normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These preleukemic HSCs harbor some, but not all, of the mutations found in the leukemic cells. We report here the identification of patterns of mutation acquisition in human AML. Our findings support a model in which mutations in "landscaping" genes, involved in global chromatin changes such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin looping, occur early in the evolution of AML, whereas mutations in "proliferative" genes occur late. Additionally, we analyze the persistence of preleukemic mutations in patients in remission and find CD34+ progenitor cells and various mature cells that harbor preleukemic mutations. These findings indicate that preleukemic HSCs can survive induction chemotherapy, identifying these cells as a reservoir for the reevolution of relapsed disease. Finally, through the study of several cases of relapsed AML, we demonstrate various evolutionary patterns for the generation of relapsed disease and show that some of these patterns are consistent with involvement of preleukemic HSCs. These findings provide key insights into the monitoring of minimal residual disease and the identification of therapeutic targets in human AML.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1324297111

    View details for PubMedID 24550281

  • Transcriptional activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in myeloid cells promotes angiogenesis through VEGF and S100A8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ahn, G., Seita, J., Hong, B., Kim, Y., Bok, S., Lee, C., Kim, K. S., Lee, J. C., Leeper, N. J., Cooke, J. P., Kim, H. J., Kim, I. H., Weissman, I. L., Brown, J. M. 2014; 111 (7): 2698-2703

    Abstract

    Emerging evidence indicates that myeloid cells are essential for promoting new blood vessel formation by secreting various angiogenic factors. Given that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a critical regulator for angiogenesis, we questioned whether HIF in myeloid cells also plays a role in promoting angiogenesis. To address this question, we generated a unique strain of myeloid-specific knockout mice targeting HIF pathways using human S100A8 as a myeloid-specific promoter. We observed that mutant mice where HIF-1 is transcriptionally activated in myeloid cells (by deletion of the von Hippel-Lindau gene) resulted in erythema, enhanced neovascularization in matrigel plugs, and increased production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the bone marrow, all of which were completely abrogated by either genetic or pharmacological inactivation of HIF-1. We further found that monocytes were the major effector producing VEGF and S100A8 proteins driving neovascularization in matrigel. Moreover, by using a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia we observed significantly improved blood flow in mice intramuscularly injected with HIF-1-activated monocytes. This study therefore demonstrates that HIF-1 activation in myeloid cells promotes angiogenesis through VEGF and S100A8 and that this may become an attractive therapeutic strategy to treat diseases with vascular defects.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1320243111

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331396500062

    View details for PubMedID 24497508

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3932909

  • Efficient endoderm induction from human pluripotent stem cells by logically directing signals controlling lineage bifurcations. Cell stem cell Loh, K. M., Ang, L. T., Zhang, J., Kumar, V., Ang, J., Auyeong, J. Q., Lee, K. L., Choo, S. H., Lim, C. Y., Nichane, M., Tan, J., Noghabi, M. S., Azzola, L., Ng, E. S., Durruthy-Durruthy, J., Sebastiano, V., Poellinger, L., Elefanty, A. G., Stanley, E. G., Chen, Q., Prabhakar, S., Weissman, I. L., Lim, B. 2014; 14 (2): 237-252

    Abstract

    Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) differentiation typically yields heterogeneous populations. Knowledge of signals controlling embryonic lineage bifurcations could efficiently yield desired cell types through exclusion of alternate fates. Therefore, we revisited signals driving induction and anterior-posterior patterning of definitive endoderm to generate a coherent roadmap for endoderm differentiation. With striking temporal dynamics, BMP and Wnt initially specified anterior primitive streak (progenitor to endoderm), yet, 24 hr later, suppressed endoderm and induced mesoderm. At lineage bifurcations, cross-repressive signals separated mutually exclusive fates; TGF-β and BMP/MAPK respectively induced pancreas versus liver from endoderm by suppressing the alternate lineage. We systematically blockaded alternate fates throughout multiple consecutive bifurcations, thereby efficiently differentiating multiple hPSC lines exclusively into endoderm and its derivatives. Comprehensive transcriptional and chromatin mapping of highly pure endodermal populations revealed that endodermal enhancers existed in a surprising diversity of "pre-enhancer" states before activation, reflecting the establishment of a permissive chromatin landscape as a prelude to differentiation.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2013.12.007

    View details for PubMedID 24412311

  • Isolation and mutational analysis of circulating tumor cells from lung cancer patients with magnetic sifters and biochips LAB ON A CHIP Earhart, C. M., Hughes, C. E., Gaster, R. S., Ooi, C. C., Wilson, R. J., Zhou, L. Y., Humke, E. W., Xu, L., Wong, D. J., Willingham, S. B., Schwartz, E. J., Weissman, I. L., Jeffrey, S. S., Neal, J. W., Rohatgi, R., Wakeleebe, H. A., Wang, S. X. 2014; 14 (1): 78-88

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3lc50580d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327669000008

  • Discriminating cellular heterogeneity using microwell-based RNA cytometry. Nature communications Dimov, I. K., Lu, R., Lee, E. P., Seita, J., Sahoo, D., Park, S., Weissman, I. L., Lee, L. P. 2014; 5: 3451-?

    Abstract

    Discriminating cellular heterogeneity is important for understanding cellular physiology. However, it is limited by the technical difficulties of single-cell measurements. Here we develop a two-stage system to determine cellular heterogeneity. In the first stage, we perform multiplex single-cell RNA cytometry in a microwell array containing over 60,000 reaction chambers. In the second stage, we use the RNA cytometry data to determine cellular heterogeneity by providing a heterogeneity likelihood score (HLS). Moreover, we use Monte-Carlo simulation and RNA cytometry data to calculate the minimum number of cells required for detecting heterogeneity. We apply this system to characterize the RNA distributions of ageing-related genes in a highly purified mouse haematopoietic stem cell population. We identify genes that reveal novel heterogeneity of these cells. We also show that changes in expression of genes such as Birc6 during ageing can be attributed to the shift of relative portions of cells in the high-expressing subgroup versus low-expressing subgroup.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms4451

    View details for PubMedID 24667995

  • Discriminating cellular heterogeneity using microwell-based RNA cytometry. Nature communications Dimov, I. K., Lu, R., Lee, E. P., Seita, J., Sahoo, D., Park, S., Weissman, I. L., Lee, L. P. 2014; 5: 3451-?

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms4451

    View details for PubMedID 24667995

  • Learning from host-defense peptides: cationic, amphipathic peptoids with potent anticancer activity. PloS one Huang, W., Seo, J., Willingham, S. B., Czyzewski, A. M., Gonzalgo, M. L., Weissman, I. L., Barron, A. E. 2014; 9 (2)

    Abstract

    Cationic, amphipathic host defense peptides represent a promising group of agents to be developed for anticancer applications. Poly-N-substituted glycines, or peptoids, are a class of biostable, peptidomimetic scaffold that can display a great diversity of side chains in highly tunable sequences via facile solid-phase synthesis. Herein, we present a library of anti-proliferative peptoids that mimics the cationic, amphipathic structural feature of the host defense peptides and explore the relationships between the structure, anticancer activity and selectivity of these peptoids. Several peptoids are found to be potent against a broad range of cancer cell lines at low-micromolar concentrations including cancer cells with multidrug resistance (MDR), causing cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. They can penetrate into cells, but their cytotoxicity primarily involves plasma membrane perturbations. Furthermore, peptoid 1, the most potent peptoid synthesized, significantly inhibited tumor growth in a human breast cancer xenotransplantation model without any noticeable acute adverse effects in mice. Taken together, our work provided important structural information for designing host defense peptides or their mimics for anticancer applications. Several cationic, amphipathic peptoids are very attractive for further development due to their high solubility, stability against protease degradation, their broad, potent cytotoxicity against cancer cells and their ability to overcome multidrug resistance.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0090397

    View details for PubMedID 24587350

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3938723

  • Osteoclast derivation from mouse bone marrow. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE Tevlin, R., McArdle, A., Chan, C. K., Pluvinage, J., Walmsley, G. G., Wearda, T., Marecic, O., Hu, M. S., Paik, K. J., Senarath-Yapa, K., Atashroo, D. A., Zielins, E. R., Wan, D. C., Weissman, I. L., Longaker, M. T. 2014

    Abstract

    Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that are derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage of the bone marrow. Their unique ability to resorb both the organic and inorganic matrices of bone means that they play a key role in regulating skeletal remodeling. Together, osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the dynamic coupling process that involves both bone resorption and bone formation acting together to maintain the normal skeleton during health and disease. As the principal bone-resorbing cell in the body, changes in osteoclast differentiation or function can result in profound effects in the body. Diseases associated with altered osteoclast function can range in severity from lethal neonatal disease due to failure to form a marrow space for hematopoiesis, to more commonly observed pathologies such as osteoporosis, in which excessive osteoclastic bone resorption predisposes to fracture formation. An ability to isolate osteoclasts in high numbers in vitro has allowed for significant advances in the understanding of the bone remodeling cycle and has paved the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies that combat these diseases. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate and cultivate osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow that will yield large numbers of osteoclasts.

    View details for DOI 10.3791/52056

    View details for PubMedID 25407120

  • BLT-humanized C57BL/6 Rag2(-/-)gamma(-/-)(c)CD47(-/-) mice are resistant to GVHD and develop B- and T-cell immunity to HIV infection BLOOD Lavender, K. J., Pang, W. W., Messer, R. J., Duley, A. K., Race, B., Phillips, K., Scott, D., Peterson, K. E., Chan, C. K., Dittmer, U., Dudek, T., Allen, T. M., Weissman, I. L., Hasenkrug, K. J. 2013; 122 (25): 4013-4020

    Abstract

    The use of C57BL/6 Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) mice as recipients for xenotransplantation with human immune systems (humanization) has been problematic because C57BL/6 SIRPα does not recognize human CD47, and such recognition is required to suppress macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of transplanted human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We show that genetic inactivation of CD47 on the C57BL/6 Rag2(-/-)γc(-/-) background negates the requirement for CD47-signal recognition protein α (SIRPα) signaling and induces tolerance to transplanted human HSCs. These triple-knockout, bone marrow, liver, thymus (TKO-BLT) humanized mice develop organized lymphoid tissues including mesenteric lymph nodes, splenic follicles and gut-associated lymphoid tissue that demonstrate high levels of multilineage hematopoiesis. Importantly, these mice have an intact complement system and showed no signs of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) out to 29 weeks after transplantation. Sustained, high-level HIV-1 infection was observed via either intrarectal or intraperitoneal inoculation. TKO-BLT mice exhibited hallmarks of human HIV infection including CD4(+) T-cell depletion, immune activation, and development of HIV-specific B- and T-cell responses. The lack of GVHD makes the TKO-BLT mouse a significantly improved model for long-term studies of pathogenesis, immune responses, therapeutics, and vaccines to human pathogens.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2013-06-506949

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329739100009

    View details for PubMedID 24021673

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3862274

  • Isolation and mutational analysis of circulating tumor cells from lung cancer patients with magnetic sifters and biochips. Lab on a chip Earhart, C. M., Hughes, C. E., Gaster, R. S., Ooi, C. C., Wilson, R. J., Zhou, L. Y., Humke, E. W., Xu, L., Wong, D. J., Willingham, S. B., Schwartz, E. J., Weissman, I. L., Jeffrey, S. S., Neal, J. W., Rohatgi, R., Wakelee, H. A., Wang, S. X. 2013; 14 (1): 78-88

    Abstract

    Detection and characterization of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may reveal insights into the diagnosis and treatment of malignant disease. Technologies for isolating CTCs developed thus far suffer from one or more limitations, such as low throughput, inability to release captured cells, and reliance on expensive instrumentation for enrichment or subsequent characterization. We report a continuing development of a magnetic separation device, the magnetic sifter, which is a miniature microfluidic chip with a dense array of magnetic pores. It offers high efficiency capture of tumor cells, labeled with magnetic nanoparticles, from whole blood with high throughput and efficient release of captured cells. For subsequent characterization of CTCs, an assay, using a protein chip with giant magnetoresistive nanosensors, has been implemented for mutational analysis of CTCs enriched with the magnetic sifter. The use of these magnetic technologies, which are separate devices, may lead the way to routine preparation and characterization of "liquid biopsies" from cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/c3lc50580d

    View details for PubMedID 23969419

  • Parabiosis in Mice: A Detailed Protocol JOVE-JOURNAL OF VISUALIZED EXPERIMENTS Kamran, P., Sereti, K., Zhao, P., Ali, S. R., Weissman, I. L., Ardehali, R. 2013

    View details for DOI 10.3791/50556

    View details for Web of Science ID 000209228800009

  • Tumorigenicity as a clinical hurdle for pluripotent stem cell therapies. Nature medicine Lee, A. S., Tang, C., Rao, M. S., Weissman, I. L., Wu, J. C. 2013; 19 (8): 998-1004

    Abstract

    Human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are a leading candidate for cell-based therapies because of their capacity for unlimited self renewal and pluripotent differentiation. These advances have recently culminated in the first-in-human PSC clinical trials by Geron, Advanced Cell Technology and the Kobe Center for Developmental Biology for the treatment of spinal cord injury and macular degeneration. Despite their therapeutic promise, a crucial hurdle for the clinical implementation of human PSCs is their potential to form tumors in vivo. In this Perspective, we present an overview of the mechanisms underlying the tumorigenic risk of human PSC-based therapies and discuss current advances in addressing these challenges.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.3267

    View details for PubMedID 23921754

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3967018

  • Clonal precursor of bone, cartilage, and hematopoietic niche stromal cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Chan, C. K., Lindau, P., Jiang, W., Chen, J. Y., Zhang, L. F., Chen, C., Seita, J., Sahoo, D., Kim, J., Lee, A., Park, S., Nag, D., Gong, Y., Kulkarni, S., Luppen, C. A., Theologis, A. A., Wan, D. C., DeBoer, A., Seo, E. Y., Vincent-Tompkins, J. D., Loh, K., Walmsley, G. G., Kraft, D. L., Wu, J. C., Longaker, M. T., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 110 (31): 12643-12648

    Abstract

    Organs are composites of tissue types with diverse developmental origins, and they rely on distinct stem and progenitor cells to meet physiological demands for cellular production and homeostasis. How diverse stem cell activity is coordinated within organs is not well understood. Here we describe a lineage-restricted, self-renewing common skeletal progenitor (bone, cartilage, stromal progenitor; BCSP) isolated from limb bones and bone marrow tissue of fetal, neonatal, and adult mice. The BCSP clonally produces chondrocytes (cartilage-forming) and osteogenic (bone-forming) cells and at least three subsets of stromal cells that exhibit differential expression of cell surface markers, including CD105 (or endoglin), Thy1 [or CD90 (cluster of differentiation 90)], and 6C3 [ENPEP glutamyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase A)]. These three stromal subsets exhibit differential capacities to support hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem and progenitor cells. Although the 6C3-expressing subset demonstrates functional stem cell niche activity by maintaining primitive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) renewal in vitro, the other stromal populations promote HSC differentiation to more committed lines of hematopoiesis, such as the B-cell lineage. Gene expression analysis and microscopic studies further reveal a microenvironment in which CD105-, Thy1-, and 6C3-expressing marrow stroma collaborate to provide cytokine signaling to HSCs and more committed hematopoietic progenitors. As a result, within the context of bone as a blood-forming organ, the BCSP plays a critical role in supporting hematopoiesis through its generation of diverse osteogenic and hematopoietic-promoting stroma, including HSC supportive 6C3(+) niche cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1310212110

    View details for PubMedID 23858471

  • Identification of a colonial chordate histocompatibility gene. Science Voskoboynik, A., Newman, A. M., Corey, D. M., Sahoo, D., Pushkarev, D., Neff, N. F., Passarelli, B., Koh, W., Ishizuka, K. J., Palmeri, K. J., Dimov, I. K., Keasar, C., Fan, H. C., Mantalas, G. L., Sinha, R., Penland, L., Quake, S. R., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 341 (6144): 384-387

    Abstract

    Histocompatibility is the basis by which multicellular organisms of the same species distinguish self from nonself. Relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying histocompatibility reactions in lower organisms. Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate, a sister group of vertebrates, that exhibits a genetically determined natural transplantation reaction, whereby self-recognition between colonies leads to formation of parabionts with a common vasculature, whereas rejection occurs between incompatible colonies. Using genetically defined lines, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and genomics, we identified a single gene that encodes self-nonself and determines "graft" outcomes in this organism. This gene is significantly up-regulated in colonies poised to undergo fusion and/or rejection, is highly expressed in the vasculature, and is functionally linked to histocompatibility outcomes. These findings establish a platform for advancing the science of allorecognition.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1238036

    View details for PubMedID 23888037

  • Engineered SIRPa variants as immunotherapeutic adjuvants to anticancer antibodies. Science Weiskopf, K., Ring, A. M., Ho, C. C., Volkmer, J., Levin, A. M., Volkmer, A. K., Ozkan, E., Fernhoff, N. B., van de Rijn, M., Weissman, I. L., Garcia, K. C. 2013; 341 (6141): 88-91

    Abstract

    CD47 is an antiphagocytic signal that cancer cells employ to inhibit macrophage-mediated destruction. Here, we modified the binding domain of human SIRPα, the receptor for CD47, for use as a CD47 antagonist. We engineered high-affinity SIRPα variants with approximately 50,000-fold increased affinity for human CD47 relative to wild-type SIRPα. As high-affinity SIRPα monomers, they potently antagonized CD47 on cancer cells but did not induce macrophage phagocytosis on their own. Instead, they exhibited remarkable synergy with all tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies tested by increasing phagocytosis in vitro and enhancing antitumor responses in vivo. This "one-two punch" directs immune responses against tumor cells while lowering the threshold for macrophage activation, thereby providing a universal method for augmenting the efficacy of therapeutic anticancer antibodies.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1238856

    View details for PubMedID 23722425

  • Anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer by macrophages primes an effective antitumor T-cell response PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Tseng, D., Volkmer, J., Willingham, S. B., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Fathman, J. W., Fernhoff, N. B., Seita, J., Inlay, M. A., Weiskopf, K., Miyanishi, M., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 110 (27): 11103-11108

    Abstract

    Mobilization of the T-cell response against cancer has the potential to achieve long-lasting cures. However, it is not known how to harness antigen-presenting cells optimally to achieve an effective antitumor T-cell response. In this study, we show that anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer by macrophages can initiate an antitumor T-cell immune response. Using the ovalbumin model antigen system, anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis of cancer cells by macrophages resulted in increased priming of OT-I T cells [cluster of differentiation 8-positive (CD8(+))] but decreased priming of OT-II T cells (CD4(+)). The CD4(+) T-cell response was characterized by a reduction in forkhead box P3-positive (Foxp3(+)) regulatory T cells. Macrophages following anti-CD47-mediated phagocytosis primed CD8(+) T cells to exhibit cytotoxic function in vivo. This response protected animals from tumor challenge. We conclude that anti-CD47 antibody treatment not only enables macrophage phagocytosis of cancer but also can initiate an antitumor cytotoxic T-cell immune response.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1305569110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321978000057

    View details for PubMedID 23690610

  • Use of a KIT-specific monoclonal antibody to bypass imatinib resistance in gastrointestinal stromal tumors ONCOIMMUNOLOGY Edris, B., Willingham, S., Weiskopf, K., Volkmer, A. K., Volkmer, J., Muehlenberg, T., Weissman, I. L., van de Rijn, M. 2013; 2 (6)

    Abstract

    Acquired resistance to imatinib is a significant problem for the clinical management of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients, and second-line small molecules have shown limited efficacy in this setting. We have recently demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody targeting KIT could potentially bypass imatinib resistance in preclinical models of GIST.

    View details for DOI 10.4161/onci.24452

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322060900007

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3716740

  • Brain Tumor Stem Cell Multipotency Correlates with Nanog Expression and Extent of Passaging in Human Glioblastoma Xenografts ONCOTARGET Higgins, D. M., Wang, R., Milligan, B., Schroeder, M., Carlson, B., Pokorny, J., Cheshier, S. H., Meyer, F. B., Weissman, I. L., Sarkaria, J. N., Henley, J. R. 2013; 4 (5): 792-801

    Abstract

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor, with a median survival of only 15 months. A subpopulation of cells, the brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), may be responsible for the malignancy of this disease. Xenografts have proven to be a robust model of human BTSCs, but the effects of long-term passaging have yet to be determined. Here we present a study detailing changes in BTSC multipotency, invasive migration, and proliferation after serial passaging of human GBM xenografts. Immunocytochemistry and tumorsphere formation assays demonstrated the presence of BTSCs in both early generation (EG-BTSCs; less than 15 passages) and late generation (LG-BTSCs; more than 24 passages) xenografts. The EG-BTSCs upregulated expression of lineage markers for neurons and oligodendrocytes upon differentiation, indicating multipotency. In contrast, the LG-BTSCs were restricted to an astrocytic differentiation. Quantitative migration and proliferation assays showed that EG-BTSCs are more migratory and proliferative than LG-BTSCs. However, both populations respond similarly to the chemokine SDF-1 by increasing invasive migration. These differences between the EG- and LG-BTSCs were correlated with a significant decrease in nanog expression as determined by qRT-PCR. Mice implanted intracranially with EG-BTSCs showed shorter survival when compared to LG-BTSCs. Moreover, differentiation prior to implantation of EG-BTSCs, but not LG-BTSCs, led to increased survival. Thus, nanog may identify multipotent BTSCs. Furthermore, limited passaging of xenografts preserves these multipotent BTSCs, which may be an essential underlying feature of GBM lethality.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322580000015

    View details for PubMedID 23801022

  • Azacitidine fails to eradicate leukemic stem/progenitor cell populations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia LEUKEMIA Craddock, C., Quek, L., Goardon, N., Freeman, S., Siddique, S., Raghavan, M., Aztberger, A., Schuh, A., Grimwade, D., IVEY, A., Virgo, P., Hills, R., McSkeane, T., Arrazi, J., Knapper, S., Brookes, C., Davies, B., Price, A., Wall, K., Griffiths, M., Cavenagh, J., Majeti, R., Weissman, I., Burnett, A., Vyas, P. 2013; 27 (5): 1028-1036

    Abstract

    Epigenetic therapies demonstrate significant clinical activity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplasia (MDS) and constitute an important new class of therapeutic agents. However hematological responses are not durable and disease relapse appears inevitable. Experimentally, leukemic stem/progenitor cells (LSC) propagate disease in animal models of AML and it has been postulated that their relative chemo-resistance contributes to disease relapse. We serially measured LSC numbers in patients with high-risk AML and MDS treated with 5'-azacitidine and sodium valproate (VAL-AZA). Fifteen out of seventy-nine patients achieved a complete remission (CR) or complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi) with VAL-AZA therapy. There was no significant reduction in the size of the LSC-containing population in non-responders. While the LSC-containing population was substantially reduced in all patients achieving a CR/CRi it was never eradicated and expansion of this population antedated morphological relapse. Similar studies were performed in seven patients with newly diagnosed AML treated with induction chemotherapy. Eradication of the LSC-containing population was observed in three patients all of whom achieved a durable CR in contrast to patients with resistant disease where LSC persistence was observed. LSC quantitation provides a novel biomarker of disease response and relapse in patients with AML treated with epigenetic therapies. New drugs that target this cellular population in vivo are required.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2012.312

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318698300005

    View details for PubMedID 23223186

  • Anti-KIT monoclonal antibody inhibits imatinib-resistant gastrointestinal stromal tumor growth PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Edris, B., Willingham, S. B., Weiskopf, K., Volkmer, A. K., Volkmer, J., Muehlenberg, T., Montgomery, K. D., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Czechowicz, A., Fletcher, J. A., West, R. B., Weissman, I. L., van de Rijn, M. 2013; 110 (9): 3501-3506

    Abstract

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and arises from the interstitial cells of Cajal. It is characterized by expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase CD117 (KIT). In 70-80% of GIST cases, oncogenic mutations in KIT are present, leading to constitutive activation of the receptor, which drives the proliferation of these tumors. Treatment of GIST with imatinib, a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, inhibits KIT-mediated signaling and initially results in disease control in 70-85% of patients with KIT-positive GIST. However, the vast majority of patients eventually develop resistance to imatinib treatment, leading to disease progression and posing a significant challenge in the clinical management of these tumors. Here, we show that an anti-KIT monoclonal antibody (mAb), SR1, is able to slow the growth of three human GIST cell lines in vitro. Importantly, these reductions in cell growth were equivalent between imatinib-resistant and imatinib-sensitive GIST cell lines. Treatment of GIST cell lines with SR1 reduces cell-surface KIT expression, suggesting that mAb-induced KIT down-regulation may be a mechanism by which SR1 inhibits GIST growth. Furthermore, we also show that SR1 treatment enhances phagocytosis of GIST cells by macrophages, indicating that treatment with SR1 may enhance immune cell-mediated tumor clearance. Finally, using two xenotransplantation models of imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant GIST, we demonstrate that SR1 is able to strongly inhibit tumor growth in vivo. These results suggest that treatment with mAbs targeting KIT may represent an alternative, or complementary, approach for treating GIST.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1222893110

    View details for PubMedID 23382202

  • Prospective isolation of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitors that integrate into human fetal heart tissue PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ardehali, R., Ali, S. R., Inlay, M. A., Abilez, O. J., Chen, M. Q., Blauwkamp, T. A., Yazawa, M., Gong, Y., Nusse, R., Drukker, M., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 110 (9): 3405-3410

    Abstract

    A goal of regenerative medicine is to identify cardiovascular progenitors from human ES cells (hESCs) that can functionally integrate into the human heart. Previous studies to evaluate the developmental potential of candidate hESC-derived progenitors have delivered these cells into murine and porcine cardiac tissue, with inconclusive evidence regarding the capacity of these human cells to physiologically engraft in xenotransplantation assays. Further, the potential of hESC-derived cardiovascular lineage cells to functionally couple to human myocardium remains untested and unknown. Here, we have prospectively identified a population of hESC-derived ROR2(+)/CD13(+)/KDR(+)/PDGFRα(+) cells that give rise to cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro at a clonal level. We observed rare clusters of ROR2(+) cells and diffuse expression of KDR and PDGFRα in first-trimester human fetal hearts. We then developed an in vivo transplantation model by transplanting second-trimester human fetal heart tissues s.c. into the ear pinna of a SCID mouse. ROR2(+)/CD13(+)/KDR(+)/PDGFRα(+) cells were delivered into these functioning fetal heart tissues: in contrast to traditional murine heart models for cell transplantation, we show structural and functional integration of hESC-derived cardiovascular progenitors into human heart.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1220832110

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315841900046

    View details for PubMedID 23391730

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3587189

  • Hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell mechanisms in myelodysplastic syndromes PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Pang, W. W., Pluvinage, J. V., Price, E. A., Sridhar, K., Arber, D. A., Greenberg, P. L., Schrier, S. L., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 110 (8): 3011-3016

    Abstract

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders characterized by variable cytopenias and ineffective hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors in MDS have not been extensively characterized. We transplanted purified human HSCs from MDS samples into immunodeficient mice and show that HSCs are the disease-initiating cells in MDS. We identify a recurrent loss of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) in the bone marrow of low risk MDS patients that can distinguish low risk MDS from clinical mimics, thus providing a simple diagnostic tool. The loss of GMPs is likely due to increased apoptosis and increased phagocytosis, the latter due to the up-regulation of cell surface calreticulin, a prophagocytic marker. Blocking calreticulin on low risk MDS myeloid progenitors rescues them from phagocytosis in vitro. However, in the high-risk refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) stages of MDS, the GMP population is increased in frequency compared with normal, and myeloid progenitors evade phagocytosis due to up-regulation of CD47, an antiphagocytic marker. Blocking CD47 leads to the selective phagocytosis of this population. We propose that MDS HSCs compete with normal HSCs in the patients by increasing their frequency at the expense of normal hematopoiesis, that the loss of MDS myeloid progenitors by programmed cell death and programmed cell removal are, in part, responsible for the cytopenias, and that up-regulation of the "don't eat me" signal CD47 on MDS myeloid progenitors is an important transition step leading from low risk MDS to high risk MDS and, possibly, to acute myeloid leukemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1222861110

    View details for PubMedID 23388639

  • Repeated, Long-Term Cycling of Putative Stem Cells between Niches in a Basal Chordate DEVELOPMENTAL CELL Rinkevich, Y., Voskoboynik, A., Rosner, A., Rabinowitz, C., Paz, G., Oren, M., Douek, J., Alfassi, G., Moiseeva, E., Ishizuka, K. J., Palmeri, K. J., Weissman, I. L., Rinkevich, B. 2013; 24 (1): 76-88

    Abstract

    The mechanisms that sustain stem cells are fundamental to tissue maintenance. Here, we identify "cell islands" (CIs) as a niche for putative germ and somatic stem cells in Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial chordate that undergoes weekly cycles of death and regeneration. Cells within CIs express markers associated with germ and somatic stem cells and gene products that implicate CIs as signaling centers for stem cells. Transplantation of CIs induced long-term germline and somatic chimerism, demonstrating self-renewal and pluripotency of CI cells. Cell labeling and in vivo time-lapse imaging of CI cells reveal waves of migrations from degrading CIs into developing buds, contributing to soma and germline development. Knockdown of cadherin, which is highly expressed within CIs, elicited the migration of CI cells to circulation. Piwi knockdown resulted in regeneration arrest. We suggest that repeated trafficking of stem cells allows them to escape constraints imposed by the niche, enabling self-preservation throughout life.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.devcel.2012.11.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316305200007

    View details for PubMedID 23260626

  • Immunogenicity of in vitro maintained and matured populations: potential barriers to engraftment of human pluripotent stem cell derivatives. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Tang, C., Weissman, I. L., Drukker, M. 2013; 1029: 17-31

    Abstract

    The potential to develop into any cell type makes human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) one of the most promising sources for regenerative treatments. Hurdles to their clinical applications include (1) formation of heterogeneously differentiated cultures, (2) the risk of teratoma formation from residual undifferentiated cells, and (3) immune rejection of engrafted cells. The recent production of human isogenic (genetically identical) induced PSCs (hiPSCs) has been proposed as a "solution" to the histocompatibility barrier. In theory, differentiated cells derived from patient-specific hiPSC lines should be histocompatible to their donor/recipient. However, propagation, maintenance, and non-physiologic differentiation of hPSCs in vitro may produce other, likely less powerful, immune responses. In light of recent progress towards the clinical application of hPSCs, this review focuses on two antigen presentation phenomena that may lead to rejection of isogenic hPSC derivates: namely, the expression of aberrant antigens as a result of long-term in vitro maintenance conditions or incomplete somatic cell reprogramming, and the unbalanced presentation of receptors and ligands involved in immune recognition due to accelerated differentiation. Finally, we discuss immunosuppressive approaches that could potentially address these immunological concerns.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-62703-478-4_2

    View details for PubMedID 23756939

  • Do pluripotent stem cells exist in adult mice as very small embryonic stem cells? Stem cell reports Miyanishi, M., Mori, Y., Seita, J., Chen, J. Y., Karten, S., Chan, C. K., Nakauchi, H., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 1 (2): 198-208

    Abstract

    Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) isolated from bone marrow (BM) have been reported to be pluripotent. Given their nonembryonic source, they could replace blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells in research and medicine. However, their multiple-germ-layer potential has been incompletely studied. Here, we show that we cannot find VSELs in mouse BM with any of the reported stem cell potentials, specifically for hematopoiesis. We found that: (1) most events within the "VSEL" flow-cytometry gate had little DNA and the cells corresponding to these events (2) could not form spheres, (3) did not express Oct4, and (4) could not differentiate into blood cells. These results provide a failure to confirm the existence of pluripotent VSELs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stemcr.2013.07.001

    View details for PubMedID 24052953

  • Use of a KIT-specific monoclonal antibody to bypass imatinib resistance in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Oncoimmunology Edris, B. n., Willingham, S. n., Weiskopf, K. n., Volkmer, A. K., Volkmer, J. P., Mühlenberg, T. n., Weissman, I. L., van de Rijn, M. n. 2013; 2 (6): e24452

    Abstract

    Acquired resistance to imatinib is a significant problem for the clinical management of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients, and second-line small molecules have shown limited efficacy in this setting. We have recently demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody targeting KIT could potentially bypass imatinib resistance in preclinical models of GIST.

    View details for PubMedID 23894705

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3716740

  • Improving macrophage responses to therapeutic antibodies by molecular engineering of SIRPα variants. Oncoimmunology Weiskopf, K. n., Ring, A. M., Schnorr, P. J., Volkmer, J. P., Volkmer, A. K., Weissman, I. L., Garcia, K. C. 2013; 2 (9): e25773

    Abstract

    CD47 transduces inhibitory signals through signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα), a plasma membrane receptor expressed by macrophages. Many cancers upregulate CD47 to evade immunosurveillance. We have recently engineered SIRPα variants that potently antagonize CD47 for use as anticancer immunotherapeutics. These high-affinity SIRPα variants synergize with antineoplastic antibodies by lowering the threshold for macrophage-mediated destruction of malignant cells.

    View details for PubMedID 24319639

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3850276

  • The genome sequence of the colonial chordate, Botryllus schlosseri. eLife Voskoboynik, A., Neff, N. F., Sahoo, D., Newman, A. M., Pushkarev, D., Koh, W., Passarelli, B., Fan, H. C., Mantalas, G. L., Palmeri, K. J., Ishizuka, K. J., Gissi, C., Griggio, F., Ben-Shlomo, R., Corey, D. M., Penland, L., White, R. A., Weissman, I. L., Quake, S. R. 2013; 2

    Abstract

    Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial urochordate that follows the chordate plan of development following sexual reproduction, but invokes a stem cell-mediated budding program during subsequent rounds of asexual reproduction. As urochordates are considered to be the closest living invertebrate relatives of vertebrates, they are ideal subjects for whole genome sequence analyses. Using a novel method for high-throughput sequencing of eukaryotic genomes, we sequenced and assembled 580 Mbp of the B. schlosseri genome. The genome assembly is comprised of nearly 14,000 intron-containing predicted genes, and 13,500 intron-less predicted genes, 40% of which could be confidently parceled into 13 (of 16 haploid) chromosomes. A comparison of homologous genes between B. schlosseri and other diverse taxonomic groups revealed genomic events underlying the evolution of vertebrates and lymphoid-mediated immunity. The B. schlosseri genome is a community resource for studying alternative modes of reproduction, natural transplantation reactions, and stem cell-mediated regeneration. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00569.001.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.00569

    View details for PubMedID 23840927

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3699833

  • Do pluripotent stem cells exist in adult mice as very small embryonic stem cells? Stem cell reports Miyanishi, M., Mori, Y., Seita, J., Chen, J. Y., Karten, S., Chan, C. K., Nakauchi, H., Weissman, I. L. 2013; 1 (2): 198-208

    Abstract

    Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) isolated from bone marrow (BM) have been reported to be pluripotent. Given their nonembryonic source, they could replace blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells in research and medicine. However, their multiple-germ-layer potential has been incompletely studied. Here, we show that we cannot find VSELs in mouse BM with any of the reported stem cell potentials, specifically for hematopoiesis. We found that: (1) most events within the "VSEL" flow-cytometry gate had little DNA and the cells corresponding to these events (2) could not form spheres, (3) did not express Oct4, and (4) could not differentiate into blood cells. These results provide a failure to confirm the existence of pluripotent VSELs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stemcr.2013.07.001

    View details for PubMedID 24052953

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3757755

  • E. Donnall Thomas (1920-2012) PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Blume, K. G., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 109 (51): 20777-20778

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1218913109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313123700017

    View details for PubMedID 23197829

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3529056

  • In vivo directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells for skeletal regeneration PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Levi, B., Hyun, J. S., Montoro, D. T., Lo, D. D., Chan, C. K., Hu, S., Sun, N., Lee, M., Grova, M., Connolly, A. J., Wu, J. C., Gurtner, G. C., Weissman, I. L., Wan, D. C., Longaker, M. T. 2012; 109 (50): 20379-20384

    Abstract

    Pluripotent cells represent a powerful tool for tissue regeneration, but their clinical utility is limited by their propensity to form teratomas. Little is known about their interaction with the surrounding niche following implantation and how this may be applied to promote survival and functional engraftment. In this study, we evaluated the ability of an osteogenic microniche consisting of a hydroxyapatite-coated, bone morphogenetic protein-2-releasing poly-L-lactic acid scaffold placed within the context of a macroenvironmental skeletal defect to guide in vivo differentiation of both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. In this setting, we found de novo bone formation and participation by implanted cells in skeletal regeneration without the formation of a teratoma. This finding suggests that local cues from both the implanted scaffold/cell micro- and surrounding macroniche may act in concert to promote cellular survival and the in vivo acquisition of a terminal cell fate, thereby allowing for functional engraftment of pluripotent cells into regenerating tissue.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1218052109

    View details for PubMedID 23169671

  • Identification and prospective isolation of a mesothelial precursor lineage giving rise to smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts for mammalian internal organs, and their vasculature NATURE CELL BIOLOGY Rinkevich, Y., Mori, T., Sahoo, D., Xu, P., Bermingham, J. R., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 14 (12): 1251-?

    Abstract

    Fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells (FSMCs) are principal cell types of connective and adventitial tissues that participate in the development, physiology and pathology of internal organs, with incompletely defined cellular origins. Here, we identify and prospectively isolate from the mesothelium a mouse cell lineage that is committed to FSMCs. The mesothelium is an epithelial monolayer covering the vertebrate thoracic and abdominal cavities and internal organs. Time-lapse imaging and transplantation experiments reveal robust generation of FSMCs from the mesothelium. By targeting mesothelin (MSLN), a surface marker expressed on mesothelial cells, we identify and isolate precursors capable of clonally generating FSMCs. Using a genetic lineage tracing approach, we show that embryonic and adult mesothelium represents a common lineage to trunk FSMCs, and trunk vasculature, with minimal contributions from neural crest, or circulating cells. The isolation of FSMC precursors enables the examination of multiple aspects of smooth muscle and fibroblast biology as well as the prospective isolation of these precursors for potential regenerative medicine purposes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncb2610

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311890300007

    View details for PubMedID 23143399

  • CD19(-)CD45(low/-)CD38(high)/CD138(+) plasma cells enrich for human tumorigenic myeloma cells LEUKEMIA Kim, D., Park, C. Y., Medeiros, B. C., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 26 (12): 2530-2537

    Abstract

    Multiple myeloma is a hematological neoplasm characterized by the accumulation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Its frequent relapse following achievement of clinical remissions implicates the existence of therapy-resistant myeloma-initiating cells. To date, results on the identity of myeloma-initiating cells have differed. Here, we prospectively identified a myeloma-initiating population by fractionating and transplanting patient bone marrow cells into human bone-bearing immunocompromised mice. Xenotransplantation of fractionated CD138(+)/CD38(high) cells from 40% of patients (8/20) led to a repopulation of CD19(+)CD38(low) or CD138(+)CD38(+) B-lineage cells in human bone grafts; and these grafts were clonally derived from patient myeloma cells. Meanwhile, CD19(+)CD38(low) xenografts were detected in human bone-bearing mice transplanted with CD19(+)CD38(low/-) B cells from 8 of 22 samples but were not clonally related to patient myeloma cells. Further fractionation and xenotransplantation of CD138(+)CD38(high) cells demonstrated that (CD45(low/-) or CD19(-)) CD38(high)/CD138(+) plasma cells, but not (CD45(high) or CD19(+)) CD38(high)/CD138(+) plasmablasts enrich for myeloma-initiating cells. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of two serially transplantable xenografts, which were CD19(-)CD138(+), revealed that they were Pax5 (a B-cell-specific transactivator)-negative. These results suggest that CD19(-)CD45(low/-) fully differentiated plasma cells enrich for long-lived and tumor-initiating cells whereas B cells or plasmablasts do not.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2012.140

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312186000012

    View details for PubMedID 22733078

  • Anti-CD47 antibodies promote phagocytosis and inhibit the growth of human myeloma cells LEUKEMIA Kim, D., Wang, J., Willingham, S. B., Martin, R., Wernig, G., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 26 (12): 2538-2545

    Abstract

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell neoplasm residing in bone marrow. Despite advances in myeloma therapies, novel therapies are required to improve patient outcomes. CD47 is highly expressed on myeloma cells and a potential therapeutic candidate for myeloma therapies. Flow cytometric analysis of patient bone marrow cells revealed that myeloma cells overexpress CD47 when compared with non-myeloma cells in 73% of patients (27/37). CD47 expression protects cells from phagocytosis by transmitting an inhibitory signal to macrophages. Here we show that blocking CD47 with an anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody increased phagocytosis of myeloma cells in vitro. In xenotransplantation models, anti-CD47 antibodies inhibited the growth of RPMI 8226 myeloma cells and led to tumor regression (42/57 mice), implicating the eradication of myeloma-initiating cells. Moreover, anti-CD47 antibodies retarded the growth of patient myeloma cells and alleviated bone resorption in human bone-bearing mice. Irradiation of mice before myeloma cell xenotransplantation abolished the therapeutic efficacy of anti-CD47 antibodies delivered 2 weeks after radiation, and coincided with a reduction of myelomonocytic cells in spleen, bone marrow and liver. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that anti-CD47 blocking antibodies inhibit myeloma growth, in part, by increasing phagocytosis of myeloma cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2012.141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312186000013

    View details for PubMedID 22648449

  • Clonal Level Lineage Commitment of Mouse Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Vivo 54th Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American-Society-of-Hematology (ASH) Lu, R., Czechowicz, A., Seita, J., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2012
  • Reply to Soto-Pantoja et al. and Zhao et al.: Targeting CD47 on human solid tumors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Willingham, S. B., Volkmer, J., Weiskopf, K., Ring, A. M., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 109 (42): E2844-E2845
  • Human Neural Stem Cells Induce Functional Myelination in Mice with Severe Dysmyelination SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Uchida, N., Chen, K., Dohse, M., Hansen, K. D., Dean, J., Buser, J. R., Riddle, A., Beardsley, D. J., Wan, Y., Gong, X., Thuan Nguyen, T., Cummings, B. J., Anderson, A. J., Tamaki, S. J., Tsukamoto, A., Weissman, I. L., Matsumoto, S. G., Sherman, L. S., Kroenke, C. D., Back, S. A. 2012; 4 (155)

    Abstract

    Shiverer-immunodeficient (Shi-id) mice demonstrate defective myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) and significant ataxia by 2 to 3 weeks of life. Expanded, banked human neural stem cells (HuCNS-SCs) were transplanted into three sites in the brains of neonatal or juvenile Shi-id mice, which were asymptomatic or showed advanced hypomyelination, respectively. In both groups of mice, HuCNS-SCs engrafted and underwent preferential differentiation into oligodendrocytes. These oligodendrocytes generated compact myelin with normalized nodal organization, ultrastructure, and axon conduction velocities. Myelination was equivalent in neonatal and juvenile mice by quantitative histopathology and high-field ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging, which, through fractional anisotropy, revealed CNS myelination 5 to 7 weeks after HuCNS-SC transplantation. Transplanted HuCNS-SCs generated functional myelin in the CNS, even in animals with severe symptomatic hypomyelination, suggesting that this strategy may be useful for treating dysmyelinating diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3004371

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309966800003

    View details for PubMedID 23052293

  • Remodeling of Endogenous Mammary Epithelium by Breast Cancer Stem Cells STEM CELLS Parashurama, N., Lobo, N. A., Ito, K., Mosley, A. R., Habte, F. G., Zabala, M., Smith, B. R., Lam, J., Weissman, I. L., Clarke, M. F., Gambhir, S. S. 2012; 30 (10): 2114-2127

    Abstract

    Poorly regulated tissue remodeling results in increased breast cancer risk, yet how breast cancer stem cells (CSC) participate in remodeling is unknown. We performed in vivo imaging of changes in fluorescent, endogenous duct architecture as a metric for remodeling. First, we quantitatively imaged physiologic remodeling of primary branches of the developing and regenerating mammary tree. To assess CSC-specific remodeling events, we isolated CSC from MMTV-Wnt1 (mouse mammary tumor virus long-term repeat enhancer driving Wnt1 oncogene) breast tumors, a well studied model in which tissue remodeling affects tumorigenesis. We confirm that CSC drive tumorigenesis, suggesting a link between CSC and remodeling. We find that normal, regenerating, and developing gland maintain a specific branching pattern. In contrast, transplantation of CSC results in changes in the branching patterns of endogenous ducts while non-CSC do not. Specifically, in the presence of CSC, we identified an increased number of branches, branch points, ducts which have greater than 40 branches (5/33 for CSC and 0/39 for non-CSC), and histological evidence of increased branching. Moreover, we demonstrate that only CSC implants invade into surrounding stroma with structures similar to developing mammary ducts (nine for CSC and one for non-CSC). Overall, we demonstrate a novel approach for imaging physiologic and pathological remodeling. Furthermore, we identify unique, CSC-specific, remodeling events. Our data suggest that CSC interact with the microenvironment differently than non-CSC, and that this could eventually be a therapeutic approach for targeting CSC.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/stem.1205

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308928300005

    View details for PubMedID 22899386

  • The road to purified hematopoietic stem cell transplants is paved with antibodies. Current opinion in immunology Logan, A. C., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2012; 24 (5): 640-648

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic progenitor cell replacement therapy remains a surprisingly unrefined process. In general, unmanipulated bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) grafts which carry potentially harmful passenger cells are administered after treating recipients with high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to eradicate malignant disease, eliminate immunologic barriers to allogeneic cell engraftment, and to 'make space' for rare donor stem cells within the stem cell niche. The sequalae of such treatments are substantial, including direct organ toxicity and nonspecific inflammation that contribute to the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and poor immune reconstitution. Passenger tumor cells that contaminate autologous hematopoietic grafts may contribute to relapse post-transplant. Use of antibodies to rid grafts of unwanted cell populations, and to eliminate or minimize the need for nonspecifically cytotoxic therapies used to condition transplant recipients, will dramatically improve the safety profile of allogeneic and gene-modified autologous hematopoietic stem cell therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.coi.2012.08.002

    View details for PubMedID 22939368

  • Flipping the script on macrophages in leiomyosarcoma ONCOIMMUNOLOGY Edris, B., Weiskopf, K., Weissman, I. L., van de Rijn, M. 2012; 1 (7): 1202-1204

    Abstract

    Macrophages promote the growth of leiomyosarcoma (LMS), a malignant soft-tissue tumor. CD47 on tumor cells binds to the macrophagic receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) and prevents phagocytosis. We showed that anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) allow macrophages to engulf LMS cells and prevent tumor growth and metastases. Therefore, anti-CD47 mAbs represent a promising targeted immunotherapy for LMS.

    View details for DOI 10.4161/onci.20799

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316279900033

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3494646

  • Endogenous Wnt signalling in human embryonic stem cells generates an equilibrium of distinct lineage-specified progenitors NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Blauwkamp, T. A., Nigam, S., Ardehali, R., Weissman, I. L., Nusse, R. 2012; 3

    Abstract

    The pluripotent nature of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) makes them convenient for deriving therapeutically relevant cells. Here we show using Wnt reporter hESC lines that the cells are heterogeneous with respect to endogenous Wnt signalling activity. Moreover, the level of Wnt signalling activity in individual cells correlates with differences in clonogenic potential and lineage-specific differentiation propensity. The addition of Wnt protein or, conversely, a small-molecule Wnt inhibitor (IWP2) reduces heterogeneity, allowing stable expansion of Wnt(high) or Wnt(low) hESC populations, respectively. On differentiation, the Wnt(high) hESCs predominantly form endodermal and cardiac cells, whereas the Wnt(low) hESCs generate primarily neuroectodermal cells. Thus, heterogeneity with respect to endogenous Wnt signalling underlies much of the inefficiency in directing hESCs towards specific cell types. The relatively uniform differentiation potential of the Wnt(high) and Wnt(low) hESCs leads to faster and more efficient derivation of targeted cell types from these populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2064

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309338100037

    View details for PubMedID 22990866

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3657997

  • Clonal Evolution of Preleukemic Hematopoietic Stem Cells Precedes Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Jan, M., Snyder, T. M., Corces-Zimmerman, M. R., Vyas, P., Weissman, I. L., Quake, S. R., Majeti, R. 2012; 4 (149)

    Abstract

    Given that most bone marrow cells are short-lived, the accumulation of multiple leukemogenic mutations in a single clonal lineage has been difficult to explain. We propose that serial acquisition of mutations occurs in self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We investigated this model through genomic analysis of HSCs from six patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using exome sequencing, we identified mutations present in individual AML patients harboring the FLT3-ITD (internal tandem duplication) mutation. We then screened the residual HSCs and detected some of these mutations including mutations in the NPM1, TET2, and SMC1A genes. Finally, through single-cell analysis, we determined that a clonal progression of multiple mutations occurred in the HSCs of some AML patients. These preleukemic HSCs suggest the clonal evolution of AML genomes from founder mutations, revealing a potential mechanism contributing to relapse. Such preleukemic HSCs may constitute a cellular reservoir that should be targeted therapeutically for more durable remissions.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3004315

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308491600005

    View details for PubMedID 22932223

  • Cardiomyocytes Undergo Division Postnatally to Generate New Cardiomyocytes in Mouse Models of Aging and Cardiac Injury Basic Cardiovascular Sciences Scientific Session Ali, S. R., Saadat, L. S., Hippenmeyer, S., Luo, L., Weissman, I. L., Ardehali, R. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2012
  • Gene Expression Commons: An Open Platform for Absolute Gene Expression Profiling PLOS ONE Seita, J., Sahoo, D., Rossi, D. J., Bhattacharya, D., Serwold, T., Inlay, M. A., Ehrlich, L. I., Fathman, J. W., Dill, D. L., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 7 (7)

    Abstract

    Gene expression profiling using microarrays has been limited to comparisons of gene expression between small numbers of samples within individual experiments. However, the unknown and variable sensitivities of each probeset have rendered the absolute expression of any given gene nearly impossible to estimate. We have overcome this limitation by using a very large number (>10,000) of varied microarray data as a common reference, so that statistical attributes of each probeset, such as the dynamic range and threshold between low and high expression, can be reliably discovered through meta-analysis. This strategy is implemented in a web-based platform named "Gene Expression Commons" (https://gexc.stanford.edu/) which contains data of 39 distinct highly purified mouse hematopoietic stem/progenitor/differentiated cell populations covering almost the entire hematopoietic system. Since the Gene Expression Commons is designed as an open platform, investigators can explore the expression level of any gene, search by expression patterns of interest, submit their own microarray data, and design their own working models representing biological relationship among samples.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0040321

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306548900020

    View details for PubMedID 22815738

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3399844

  • Janus-like opposing roles of CD47 in autoimmune brain inflammation in humans and mice JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Han, M. H., Lundgren, D. H., Jaiswal, S., Chao, M., Graham, K. L., Garris, C. S., Axtell, R. C., Ho, P. P., Lock, C. B., Woodard, J. I., Brownell, S. E., Zoudilova, M., Hunt, J. F., Baranzini, S. E., Butcher, E. C., Raine, C. S., Sobel, R. A., Han, D. K., Weissman, I., Steinman, L. 2012; 209 (7): 1325-1334

    Abstract

    Comparison of transcriptomic and proteomic data from pathologically similar multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions reveals down-regulation of CD47 at the messenger RNA level and low abundance at the protein level. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrate that CD47 is expressed in normal myelin and in foamy macrophages and reactive astrocytes within active MS lesions. We demonstrate that CD47(-/-) mice are refractory to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), primarily as the result of failure of immune cell activation after immunization with myelin antigen. In contrast, blocking with a monoclonal antibody against CD47 in mice at the peak of paralysis worsens EAE severity and enhances immune activation in the peripheral immune system. In vitro assays demonstrate that blocking CD47 also promotes phagocytosis of myelin and that this effect is dependent on signal regulatory protein α (SIRP-α). Immune regulation and phagocytosis are mechanisms for CD47 signaling in autoimmune neuroinflammation. Depending on the cell type, location, and disease stage, CD47 has Janus-like roles, with opposing effects on EAE pathogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20101974

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306174300008

    View details for PubMedID 22734047

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3405500

  • Stem Cell Therapies Could Change Medicine ... If They Get the Chance CELL STEM CELL Weissman, I. 2012; 10 (6): 663-665

    Abstract

    Stem cell therapies have the potential to revolutionize the way we practice medicine. However, in the current climate several barriers and false assumptions stand in the way of achieving that goal.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2012.05.014

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305768400011

    View details for PubMedID 22704505

  • Cyclin-A1 represents a new immunogenic targetable antigen expressed in acute myeloid leukemia stem cells with characteristics of a cancer-testis antigen BLOOD Ochsenreither, S., Majeti, R., Schmitt, T., Stirewalt, D., Keilholz, U., Loeb, K. R., Wood, B., Choi, Y. E., Bleakley, M., Warren, E. H., Hudecek, M., Akatsuka, Y., Weissman, I. L., Greenberg, P. D. 2012; 119 (23): 5492-5501

    Abstract

    Targeted T-cell therapy is a potentially less toxic strategy than allogeneic stem cell transplantation for providing a cytotoxic antileukemic response to eliminate leukemic stem cells (LSCs) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, this strategy requires identification of leukemia-associated antigens that are immunogenic and exhibit selective high expression in AML LSCs. Using microarray expression analysis of LSCs, hematopoietic cell subpopulations, and peripheral tissues to screen for candidate antigens, cyclin-A1 was identified as a candidate gene. Cyclin-A1 promotes cell proliferation and survival, has been shown to be leukemogenic in mice, is detected in LSCs of more than 50% of AML patients, and is minimally expressed in normal tissues with exception of testis. Using dendritic cells pulsed with a cyclin-A1 peptide library, we generated T cells against several cyclin-A1 oligopeptides. Two HLA A*0201-restricted epitopes were further characterized, and specific CD8 T-cell clones recognized both peptide-pulsed target cells and the HLA A*0201-positive AML line THP-1, which expresses cyclin-A1. Furthermore, cyclin-A1-specific CD8 T cells lysed primary AML cells. Thus, cyclin-A1 is the first prototypic leukemia-testis-antigen to be expressed in AML LSCs. The pro-oncogenic activity, high expression levels, and multitude of immunogenic epitopes make it a viable target for pursuing T cell-based therapy approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-07-365890

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307391400023

    View details for PubMedID 22529286

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3369684

  • Isolation of primitive endoderm, mesoderm, vascular endothelial and trophoblast progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Drukker, M., Tang, C., Ardehali, R., Rinkevich, Y., Seita, J., Lee, A. S., Mosley, A. R., Weissman, I. L., Soen, Y. 2012; 30 (6): 531-?

    Abstract

    To identify early populations of committed progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), we screened self-renewing, BMP4-treated and retinoic acid-treated cultures with >400 antibodies recognizing cell-surface antigens. Sorting of >30 subpopulations followed by transcriptional analysis of developmental genes identified four distinct candidate progenitor groups. Subsets detected in self-renewing cultures, including CXCR4(+) cells, expressed primitive endoderm genes. Expression of Cxcr4 in primitive endoderm was confirmed in visceral endoderm of mouse embryos. BMP4-induced progenitors exhibited gene signatures of mesoderm, trophoblast and vascular endothelium, suggesting correspondence to gastrulation-stage primitive streak, chorion and allantois precursors, respectively. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo confirmed that ROR2(+) cells produce mesoderm progeny, APA(+) cells generate syncytiotrophoblasts and CD87(+) cells give rise to vasculature. The same progenitor classes emerged during the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). These markers and progenitors provide tools for purifying human tissue-regenerating progenitors and for studying the commitment of pluripotent stem cells to lineage progenitors.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.2239

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305158600023

    View details for PubMedID 22634564

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3672406

  • Cyclin-A1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia stem cells and its representation as an immunogenic antigen that can be targeted by cytotoxic T cells. 48th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Clinical-Oncology (ASCO) Ochsenreither, S., Majeti, R., Loeb, K., Stirewalt, D. L., Keilholz, U., Weissman, I. L., Greenberg, P. D. AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY. 2012
  • Mechanisms of targeting CD47-SIRP alpha in hematologic malignancies Response BLOOD Chao, M. P., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. 2012; 119 (18): 4334-4335
  • The CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) interaction is a therapeutic target for human solid tumors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Willingham, S. B., Volkmer, J., Gentles, A. J., Sahoo, D., Dalerba, P., Mitra, S. S., Wang, J., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Martin, R., Cohen, J. D., Lovelace, P., Scheeren, F. A., Chao, M. P., Weiskopf, K., Tang, C., Volkmer, A. K., Naik, T. J., Storm, T. A., Mosley, A. R., Edris, B., Schmid, S. M., Sun, C. K., Chua, M., Murillo, O., Rajendran, P., Cha, A. C., Chin, R. K., Kim, D., Adorno, M., Raveh, T., Tseng, D., Jaiswal, S., Enger, P. O., Steinberg, G. K., Li, G., So, S. K., Majeti, R., Harsh, G. R., van de Rijn, M., Teng, N. N., Sunwoo, J. B., Alizadeh, A. A., Clarke, M. F., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 109 (17): 6662-6667

    Abstract

    CD47, a "don't eat me" signal for phagocytic cells, is expressed on the surface of all human solid tumor cells. Analysis of patient tumor and matched adjacent normal (nontumor) tissue revealed that CD47 is overexpressed on cancer cells. CD47 mRNA expression levels correlated with a decreased probability of survival for multiple types of cancer. CD47 is a ligand for SIRPα, a protein expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells. In vitro, blockade of CD47 signaling using targeted monoclonal antibodies enabled macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells that were otherwise protected. Administration of anti-CD47 antibodies inhibited tumor growth in orthotopic immunodeficient mouse xenotransplantation models established with patient tumor cells and increased the survival of the mice over time. Anti-CD47 antibody therapy initiated on larger tumors inhibited tumor growth and prevented or treated metastasis, but initiation of the therapy on smaller tumors was potentially curative. The safety and efficacy of targeting CD47 was further tested and validated in immune competent hosts using an orthotopic mouse breast cancer model. These results suggest all human solid tumor cells require CD47 expression to suppress phagocytic innate immune surveillance and elimination. These data, taken together with similar findings with other human neoplasms, show that CD47 is a commonly expressed molecule on all cancers, its function to block phagocytosis is known, and blockade of its function leads to tumor cell phagocytosis and elimination. CD47 is therefore a validated target for cancer therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1121623109

    View details for PubMedID 22451913

  • Antibody therapy targeting the CD47 protein is effective in a model of aggressive metastatic leiomyosarcoma PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Edris, B., Weiskopf, K., Volkmer, A. K., Volkmer, J., Willingham, S. B., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Liu, J., Majeti, R., West, R. B., Fletcher, J. A., Beck, A. H., Weissman, I. L., van de Rijn, M. 2012; 109 (17): 6656-6661

    Abstract

    Antibodies against CD47, which block tumor cell CD47 interactions with macrophage signal regulatory protein-α, have been shown to decrease tumor size in hematological and epithelial tumor models by interfering with the protection from phagocytosis by macrophages that intact CD47 bestows upon tumor cells. Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a tumor of smooth muscle that can express varying levels of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF1), the expression of which correlates with the numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that are found in these tumors. We have previously shown that the presence of TAMs in LMS is associated with poor clinical outcome and the overall effect of TAMs in LMS therefore appears to be protumorigenic. However, the use of inhibitory antibodies against CD47 offers an opportunity to turn TAMs against LMS cells by allowing the phagocytic behavior of resident macrophages to predominate. Here we show that interference with CD47 increases phagocytosis of two human LMS cell lines, LMS04 and LMS05, in vitro. In addition, treatment of mice bearing subcutaneous LMS04 and LMS05 tumors with a novel, humanized anti-CD47 antibody resulted in significant reductions in tumor size. Mice bearing LMS04 tumors develop large numbers of lymph node and lung metastases. In a unique model for neoadjuvant treatment, mice were treated with anti-CD47 antibody starting 1 wk before resection of established primary tumors and subsequently showed a striking decrease in the size and number of metastases. These data suggest that treatment with anti-CD47 antibodies not only reduces primary tumor size but can also be used to inhibit the development of, or to eliminate, metastatic disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1121629109

    View details for PubMedID 22451919

  • Effect of nucleophosmin1 haploinsufficiency on hematopoietic stem cells LEUKEMIA Raval, A., Kusler, B., Pang, W. W., Weissman, I. L., Mitchell, B. S., Park, C. Y. 2012; 26 (4): 853-855

    View details for DOI 10.1038/leu.2011.270

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302788300040

    View details for PubMedID 21979879

  • The CD47-SIRP alpha pathway in cancer immune evasion and potential therapeutic implications CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY Chao, M. P., Weissman, I. L., Majeti, R. 2012; 24 (2): 225-232

    Abstract

    Multiple lines of investigation have demonstrated that the immune system plays an important role in preventing tumor initiation and controlling tumor growth. Accordingly, many cancers have evolved diverse mechanisms to evade such monitoring. While multiple immune cell types mediate tumor surveillance, recent evidence demonstrates that macrophages, and other phagocytic cells, play a key role in regulating tumor growth through phagocytic clearance. In this review we highlight the role of tumor immune evasion through the inhibition of phagocytosis, specifically through the CD47-signal-regulatory protein-α pathway, and discuss how targeting this pathway might lead to more effective cancer immunotherapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.coi.2012.01.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303187600017

    View details for PubMedID 22310103

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3319521

  • Perturbation of the Hematopoietic System during Embryonic Liver Development Due to Disruption of Polyubiquitin Gene Ubc in Mice PLOS ONE Ryu, K., Park, H., Rossi, D. J., Weissman, I. L., Kopito, R. R. 2012; 7 (2)

    Abstract

    Disruption of the polyubiquitin gene Ubc leads to a defect in fetal liver development, which can be partially rescued by increasing the amount of ubiquitin. However, it is still not known why Ubc is required for fetal liver development and the nature of the defective cell types responsible for embryonic lethality have not been characterized. In this study, we assessed the cause of embryonic lethality with respect to the fetal liver hematopoietic system. We found that Ubc was highly expressed in the embryonic liver, and the proliferation capacity of fetal liver cells was reduced in Ubc(-/-) embryos. Specifically, Ubc was most highly expressed in hematopoietic cells, and the proliferation capacity of hematopoietic cells was significantly impaired in Ubc(-/-) embryos. While hematopoietic cell and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) frequency was maintained in Ubc(-/-) embryos, the absolute number of these cells was diminished because of reduced total liver cell number in Ubc(-/-) embryos. Transplantations of fetal liver cells into lethally irradiated recipient mice by non-competitive and competitive reconstitution methods indicated that disruption of Ubc does not significantly impair the intrinsic function of fetal liver HSCs. These findings suggest that disruption of Ubc reduces the absolute number of HSCs in embryonic livers, but has no significant effect on the autonomous function of HSCs. Thus, the lethality of Ubc(-/-) embryos is not the result of intrinsic HSC failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0032956

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303003500114

    View details for PubMedID 22393459

  • Three differentiation states risk-stratify bladder cancer into distinct subtypes PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Volkmer, J., Sahoo, D., Chin, R. K., Ho, P. L., Tang, C., Kurtova, A. V., Willingham, S. B., Pazhanisamy, S. K., Contreras-Trujillo, H., Storm, T. A., Lotan, Y., Beck, A. H., Chung, B. I., Alizadeh, A. A., Godoy, G., Lerner, S. P., van de Rijng, M., Shortliffe, L. D., Weissman, I. L., Chan, K. S. 2012; 109 (6): 2078-2083

    Abstract

    Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a molecular classification of tumor cell differentiation, based on a developmental biology approach, can provide additional prognostic information. Exploiting large preexisting gene-expression databases, we developed a biologically supervised computational model to predict markers that correspond with BC differentiation. To provide mechanistic insight, we assessed relative tumorigenicity and differentiation potential via xenotransplantation. We then correlated the prognostic utility of the identified markers to outcomes within gene expression and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue datasets. Our data indicate that BC can be subclassified into three subtypes, on the basis of their differentiation states: basal, intermediate, and differentiated, where only the most primitive tumor cell subpopulation within each subtype is capable of generating xenograft tumors and recapitulating downstream populations. We found that keratin 14 (KRT14) marks the most primitive differentiation state that precedes KRT5 and KRT20 expression. Furthermore, KRT14 expression is consistently associated with worse prognosis in both univariate and multivariate analyses. We identify here three distinct BC subtypes on the basis of their differentiation states, each harboring a unique tumor-initiating population.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1120605109

    View details for PubMedID 22308455

  • CD47 Is a Therapeutic Antibody Target in Leiomyosarcoma 101st Annual Meeting of United-States-and-Canadian-Academy-of-Pathology (USCAP) Edris, B., Weiskopf, K., Volkmer, J., Willingham, S., Volkmer, A., Fletcher, J., Beck, A., Weissman, I., van de Rijn, M. NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. 2012: 12A–12A
  • Programmed cell removal: a new obstacle in the road to developing cancer. Nature reviews. Cancer Chao, M. P., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 12 (1): 58-67

    Abstract

    The development of cancer involves mechanisms by which aberrant cells overcome normal regulatory pathways that limit their numbers and their migration. The evasion of programmed cell death is one of several key early events that need to be overcome in the progression from normal cellular homeostasis to malignant transformation. Recently, we provided evidence in mouse and human cancers that successful cancer clones must also overcome programmed cell removal. In this Opinion article, we explore the role of programmed cell removal in both normal and neoplastic cells, and we place this pathway in the context of the initiation of programmed cell death.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nrc3171

    View details for PubMedID 22158022

  • Flipping the script on macrophages in leiomyosarcoma. Oncoimmunology Edris, B. n., Weiskopf, K. n., Weissman, I. L., van de Rijn, M. n. 2012; 1 (7): 1202–4

    Abstract

    Macrophages promote the growth of leiomyosarcoma (LMS), a malignant soft-tissue tumor. CD47 on tumor cells binds to the macrophagic receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) and prevents phagocytosis. We showed that anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) allow macrophages to engulf LMS cells and prevent tumor growth and metastases. Therefore, anti-CD47 mAbs represent a promising targeted immunotherapy for LMS.

    View details for PubMedID 23170280

  • Programmed cell removal: a new obstacle in the road to developing cancer NATURE REVIEWS CANCER Chao, M. P., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2012; 12 (1): 58-67

    Abstract

    The development of cancer involves mechanisms by which aberrant cells overcome normal regulatory pathways that limit their numbers and their migration. The evasion of programmed cell death is one of several key early events that need to be overcome in the progression from normal cellular homeostasis to malignant transformation. Recently, we provided evidence in mouse and human cancers that successful cancer clones must also overcome programmed cell removal. In this Opinion article, we explore the role of programmed cell removal in both normal and neoplastic cells, and we place this pathway in the context of the initiation of programmed cell death.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nrc3171

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298369300014

  • FREQUENCY OF CELLS EXPRESSING CD44, A HEAD AND NECK CANCER STEM CELL MARKER: CORRELATION WITH TUMOR AGGRESSIVENESS HEAD AND NECK-JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES AND SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK Joshua, B., Kaplan, M. J., Doweck, I., Pai, R., Weissman, I. L., Prince, M. E., Ailles, L. E. 2012; 34 (1): 42-49

    Abstract

    We previously identified by flow cytometry a Lineage-CD44+ (Lin-CD44+) subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell properties in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). We now correlate clinical and histologic factors with Lin-CD44+ cell frequency.The study included 31 patients with HNSCC, of whom 87% had stage IV disease. The frequency of Lin-CD44+ cells and the success of xenografting patient tumors in mice were correlated with clinical and pathologic data.The mean frequency of Lin-CD44+ cells was 25% (0.4%-81%). It was 36% in patients who had recurrence versus 15% for those without recurrence (p = .04). Successful xenograft implantation occurred in 53%. Seventy-five percent of patients with successful xenografts had recurrence versus 21% of patients with unsuccessful xenografts (p = .003).Successful xenograft implantation and a high frequency of Lin-CD44+ cells correlate with known poor prognostic factors such as advanced T classification and recurrence. These findings may support the stem cell concept in HNSCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hed.21699

    View details for PubMedID 21322081

  • The Safety of Embryonic Stem Cell Therapy Relies on Teratoma Removal ONCOTARGET Tang, C., Weissman, I. L., Drukker, M. 2012; 3 (1): 7-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303914000004

    View details for PubMedID 22294556

  • Long-Term Outcome of Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer Treated with High-Dose Chemotherapy and Transplantation of Purified Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Mueller, A. M., Kohrt, H. E., Cha, S., Laport, G., Klein, J., Guardino, A. E., Johnston, L. J., Stockerl-Goldstein, K. E., Hanania, E., Juttner, C., Blume, K. G., Negrin, R. S., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2012; 18 (1): 125-133

    Abstract

    Metastatic breast cancer remains a major treatment challenge. The use of high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with rescue by autologous mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) is controversial, in part because of contamination of MPB by circulating tumor cells. CD34(+)Thy-1(+) selected hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) represent a graft source with a greater than 250,000-fold reduction in cancer cells. Here, we present the long-term outcome of a pilot study to determine feasibility and engraftment using HDCT and purified HSC in patients with metastatic breast cancer. Twenty-two patients who had been treated with standard chemotherapy were enrolled into a phase I/II trial between December 1996 and February 1998, and underwent HDCT followed by rescue with CD34(+)Thy-1(+) HSC isolated from autologous MPB. More than 12 years after the end of the study, 23% (5 of 22) of HSC recipients are alive, and 18% (4 of 22) are free of recurrence with normal hematopoietic function. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 16 months, and median overall survival (OS) was 60 months. Retrospective comparison with 74 patients transplanted between February 1995 and June 1999 with the identical HDCT regimen but rescue with unmanipulated MPB indicated that 9% of patients are alive, and 7% are without disease. Median PFS was 10 months, and median OS was 28 months. In conclusion, cancer-depleted HSC following HDCT resulted in better than expected 12- to 14-year PFS and OS in a cohort of metastatic breast cancer patients. These data prompt us to look once again at purified HSC transplantation in a protocol powered to test for efficacy in advanced-stage breast cancer patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2011.07.009

    View details for PubMedID 21767515

  • Human bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells are increased in frequency and myeloid-biased with age PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Pang, W. W., Price, E. A., Sahoo, D., Beerman, I., Maloney, W. J., Rossi, D. J., Schrier, S. L., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 108 (50): 20012-20017

    Abstract

    In the human hematopoietic system, aging is associated with decreased bone marrow cellularity, decreased adaptive immune system function, and increased incidence of anemia and other hematological disorders and malignancies. Recent studies in mice suggest that changes within the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population during aging contribute significantly to the manifestation of these age-associated hematopoietic pathologies. Though the mouse HSC population has been shown to change both quantitatively and functionally with age, changes in the human HSC and progenitor cell populations during aging have been incompletely characterized. To elucidate the properties of an aged human hematopoietic system that may predispose to age-associated hematopoietic dysfunction, we evaluated immunophenotypic HSC and other hematopoietic progenitor populations from healthy, hematologically normal young and elderly human bone marrow samples. We found that aged immunophenotypic human HSC increase in frequency, are less quiescent, and exhibit myeloid-biased differentiation potential compared with young HSC. Gene expression profiling revealed that aged immunophenotypic human HSC transcriptionally up-regulate genes associated with cell cycle, myeloid lineage specification, and myeloid malignancies. These age-associated alterations in the frequency, developmental potential, and gene expression profile of human HSC are similar to those changes observed in mouse HSC, suggesting that hematopoietic aging is an evolutionarily conserved process.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1116110108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298034800040

    View details for PubMedID 22123971

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3250139

  • Identification of Cardiovascular Progenitors From Human Embryonic Stem Cells Scientific Sessions of the American-Heart-Association/Resuscitation Science Symposium Ardehali, R., Ali, S., Drukker, M., Abilez, O., Blauwkamp, T., Nusse, R., Weissman, I. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2011
  • Quantitation of Leukemic Stem Cell Populations Predicts Clinical Outcome in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia 53rd Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American-Society-of-Hematology (ASH) Craddock, C. F., Goardon, N., Quek, L., Freeman, S., Siddique, S., Raghavan, M., Schuh, A., Grimwade, D., Hills, R. K., Brookes, C., Griffiths, M., Cavenagh, J. D., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L., Burnett, A. K., Vyas, P. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2011: 292–92
  • Identification of the earliest natural killer cell-committed progenitor in murine bone marrow BLOOD Fathman, J. W., Bhattacharya, D., Inlay, M. A., Seita, J., Karsunky, H., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 118 (20): 5439-5447

    Abstract

    Natural killer (NK) cells develop in the bone marrow and are known to gradually acquire the ability to eliminate infected and malignant cells, yet the cellular stages of NK lineage commitment and maturation are incompletely understood. Using 12-color flow cytometry, we identified a novel NK-committed progenitor (pre-NKP) that is a developmental intermediate between the upstream common lymphoid progenitor and the downstream NKP, previously assumed to represent the first stage of NK lineage commitment. Our analysis also refined the purity of NKPs (rNKP) by 6-fold such that 50% of both pre-NKP and rNKP cells gave rise to NKp46+ NK cells at the single-cell level. On transplantation into unconditioned Rag2-/-Il2rγc-/- recipients, both pre-NKPs and rNKPs generated mature NK cells expressing a repertoire of Ly49 family members that degranulated on stimulation ex vivo. Intrathymic injection of these progenitors, however, yielded no NK cells, suggesting a separate origin of thymic NK cells. Unlike the rNKP, the pre-NKP does not express IL-2Rβ (CD122), yet it is lineage committed toward the NK cell fate, adding support to the theory that IL-15 signaling is not required for NK commitment. Taken together, our data provide a high-resolution in vivo analysis of the earliest steps of NK cell commitment and maturation.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-04-348912

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297265400014

    View details for PubMedID 21931117

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3217348

  • Extranodal dissemination of non-Hodgkin lymphoma requires CD47 and is inhibited by anti-CD47 antibody therapy BLOOD Chao, M. P., Tang, C., Pachynski, R. K., Chin, R., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 118 (18): 4890-4901

    Abstract

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) presents as both localized and disseminated disease with spread to secondary sites carrying a worse prognosis. Although pathways driving NHL dissemination have been identified, there are few therapies capable of inhibiting them. Here, we report a novel role for the immunomodulatory protein CD47 in NHL dissemination, and we demonstrate that therapeutic targeting of CD47 can prevent such spread. We developed 2 in vivo lymphoma metastasis models using Raji cells, a human NHL cell line, and primary cells from a lymphoma patient. CD47 expression was required for Raji cell dissemination to the liver in mouse xenotransplants. Targeting of CD47 with a blocking antibody inhibited Raji cell dissemination to major organs, including the central nervous system, and inhibited hematogenous dissemination of primary lymphoma cells. We hypothesized that anti-CD47 antibody-mediated elimination of circulating tumor cells occurred through phagocytosis, a previously described mechanism for blocking anti-CD47 antibodies. As predicted, inhibition of dissemination by anti-CD47 antibodies was dependent on blockade of phagocyte SIRPα and required macrophage effector cells. These results demonstrate that CD47 is required for NHL dissemination, which can be therapeutically targeted with a blocking anti-CD47 antibody. Ultimately, these findings are potentially applicable to the dissemination and metastasis of other solid tumors.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-02-338020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296714500018

    View details for PubMedID 21828138

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3208297

  • In vivo Molecular MRI of Cell Survival and Teratoma Formation Following Embryonic Stem Cell Transplantation Into the Injured Murine Myocardium MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Chung, J., Kee, K., Barral, J. K., Dash, R., Kosuge, H., Wang, X., Weissman, I., Robbins, R. C., Nishimura, D., Quertermous, T., Reijo-Pera, R. A., Yang, P. C. 2011; 66 (5): 1374-1381

    Abstract

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have shown the potential to restore cardiac function after myocardial injury. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO) have been widely employed to label ESCs for cellular MRI. However, nonspecific intracellular accumulation of SPIO limits long-term in vivo assessment of the transplanted cells. To overcome this limitation, a novel reporter gene (RG) has been developed to express antigens on the ESC surface. By employing SPIO-conjugated monoclonal antibody against these antigens (SPIO-MAb), the viability of transplanted ESCs can be detected in vivo. This study aims to develop a new molecular MRI method to assess in vivo ESC viability, proliferation, and teratoma formation. The RG is designed to express 2 antigens (hemagglutinin A and myc) and luciferase on the ESC surface. The two antigens serve as the molecular targets for SPIO-MAb. The human and mouse ESCs were transduced with the RG (ESC-RGs) and transplanted into the peri-infarct area using the murine myocardial injury model. In vivo MRI was performed following serial intravenous administration of SPIO-MAb. Significant hypointense signal was generated from the viable and proliferating ESCs and subsequent teratoma. This novel molecular MRI technique enabled in vivo detection of early ESC-derived teratoma formation in the injured murine myocardium.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.22929

    View details for PubMedID 21604295

  • COMPARISON OF DIPG NEUROSPHERE CELL LINES FROM THREE PATIENTS 16th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Neuro-Oncology (SNO)/AANS/CNS Section on Tumors Monje, M., Mitra, S. S., Freret, M. E., Edwards, M. S., Weissman, I. L., Beachy, P. A. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2011: 165–165
  • Novel Hematopoietic Progenitor Populations Revealed by Direct Assessment of GATA1 Protein Expression and cMPL Signaling Events STEM CELLS Heffner, G. C., Clutter, M. R., Nolan, G. P., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 29 (11): 1774-1782

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must exhibit tight regulation of both self-renewal and differentiation to maintain homeostasis of the hematopoietic system as well as to avoid aberrations in growth that may result in leukemias or other disorders. In this study, we sought to understand the molecular basis of lineage determination, with particular focus on factors that influence megakaryocyte/erythrocyte-lineage commitment, in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We used intracellular flow cytometry to identify two novel hematopoietic progenitor populations within the mouse bone-marrow cKit(+) Lineage (-) Sca1(+) (KLS) Flk2 (+) compartment that differ in their protein-level expression of GATA1, a critical megakaryocyte/erythrocyte-promoting transcription factor. GATA1-high repopulating cells exhibited the cell surface phenotype KLS Flk2(+ to int), CD150(int), CD105(+), cMPL(+), and were termed "FSE cells." GATA1-low progenitors were identified as KLS Flk2(+), CD150(-), and cMPL(-), and were termed "Flk(+) CD150(-) cells." FSE cells had increased megakaryocyte/platelet potential in culture and transplant settings and exhibited a higher clonal frequency of colony-forming unit-spleen activity compared with Flk(+) CD150(-) cells, suggesting functional consequences of GATA1 upregulation in promoting megakaryocyte and erythroid lineage priming. Activation of ERK and AKT signal-transduction cascades was observed by intracellular flow cytometry in long-term HSCs and FSE cells, but not in Flk(+) CD150(-) cells in response to stimulation with thrombopoietin, an important megakaryocyte-promoting cytokine. We provide a mechanistic rationale for megakaryocyte/erythroid bias within KLS Flk2(+) cells, and demonstrate how assessment of intracellular factors and signaling events can be used to refine our understanding of lineage commitment during early definitive hematopoiesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/stem.719

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296565500014

    View details for PubMedID 21898686

  • Tracking single hematopoietic stem cells in vivo using high-throughput sequencing in conjunction with viral genetic barcoding NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Lu, R., Neff, N. F., Quake, S. R., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 29 (10): 928-U229

    Abstract

    Disentangling cellular heterogeneity is a challenge in many fields, particularly in the stem cell and cancer biology fields. Here we demonstrate how to combine viral genetic barcoding with high-throughput sequencing to track single cells in a heterogeneous population. We use this technique to track the in vivo differentiation of unitary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The results are consistent with single-cell transplantation studies but require two orders of magnitude fewer mice. In addition to its high throughput, the high sensitivity of the technique allows for a direct examination of the clonality of sparse cell populations such as HSCs. We show how these capabilities offer a clonal perspective of the HSC differentiation process. In particular, our data suggest that HSCs do not equally contribute to blood cells after irradiation-mediated transplantation, and that two distinct HSC differentiation patterns co-exist in the same recipient mouse after irradiation. This technique can be applied to any virus-accessible cell type for both in vitro and in vivo processes.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.1977

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296273000020

    View details for PubMedID 21964413

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3196379

  • Reduced ribosomal protein gene dosage and p53 activation in low-risk myelodysplastic syndrome BLOOD McGowan, K. A., Pang, W. W., Bhardwaj, R., Perez, M. G., Pluvinage, J. V., Glader, B. E., Malek, R., Mendrysa, S. M., Weissman, I. L., Park, C. Y., Barsh, G. S. 2011; 118 (13): 3622-3633

    Abstract

    Reduced gene dosage of ribosomal protein subunits has been implicated in 5q- myelodysplastic syndrome and Diamond Blackfan anemia, but the cellular and pathophysiologic defects associated with these conditions are enigmatic. Using conditional inactivation of the ribosomal protein S6 gene in laboratory mice, we found that reduced ribosomal protein gene dosage recapitulates cardinal features of the 5q- syndrome, including macrocytic anemia, erythroid hypoplasia, and megakaryocytic dysplasia with thrombocytosis, and that p53 plays a critical role in manifestation of these phenotypes. The blood cell abnormalities are accompanied by a reduction in the number of HSCs, a specific defect in late erythrocyte development, and suggest a disease-specific ontogenetic pathway for megakaryocyte development. Further studies of highly purified HSCs from healthy patients and from those with myelodysplastic syndrome link reduced expression of ribosomal protein genes to decreased RBC maturation and suggest an underlying and common pathophysiologic pathway for additional subtypes of myelodysplastic syndrome.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-11-318584

    View details for PubMedID 21788341

  • An antibody against SSEA-5 glycan on human pluripotent stem cells enables removal of teratoma-forming cells NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Tang, C., Lee, A. S., Volkmer, J., Sahoo, D., Nag, D., Mosley, A. R., Inlay, M. A., Ardehali, R., Chavez, S. L., Pera, R. R., Behr, B., Wu, J. C., Weissman, I. L., Drukker, M. 2011; 29 (9): 829-U86

    Abstract

    An important risk in the clinical application of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and hiPSCs), is teratoma formation by residual undifferentiated cells. We raised a monoclonal antibody against hESCs, designated anti-stage-specific embryonic antigen (SSEA)-5, which binds a previously unidentified antigen highly and specifically expressed on hPSCs--the H type-1 glycan. Separation based on SSEA-5 expression through fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) greatly reduced teratoma-formation potential of heterogeneously differentiated cultures. To ensure complete removal of teratoma-forming cells, we identified additional pluripotency surface markers (PSMs) exhibiting a large dynamic expression range during differentiation: CD9, CD30, CD50, CD90 and CD200. Immunohistochemistry studies of human fetal tissues and bioinformatics analysis of a microarray database revealed that concurrent expression of these markers is both common and specific to hPSCs. Immunodepletion with antibodies against SSEA-5 and two additional PSMs completely removed teratoma-formation potential from incompletely differentiated hESC cultures.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.1947

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294718400024

    View details for PubMedID 21841799

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3537836

  • From immunological tolerance to stem cell therapy and back: an interview with Irving Weissman. Interview by Sarah Allan. Disease models & mechanisms Weissman, I. 2011; 4 (5): 559-561

    View details for DOI 10.1242/dmm.008532

    View details for PubMedID 21878457

  • Germ-layer and lineage-restricted stem/progenitors regenerate the mouse digit tip NATURE Rinkevich, Y., Lindau, P., Ueno, H., Longaker, M. T., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 476 (7361): 409-U53

    Abstract

    The regrowth of amputated limbs and the distal tips of digits represent models of tissue regeneration in amphibians, fish and mice. For decades it had been assumed that limb regeneration derived from the blastema, an undifferentiated pluripotent cell population thought to be derived from mature cells via dedifferentiation. Here we show that a wide range of tissue stem/progenitor cells contribute towards the restoration of the mouse distal digit. Genetic fate mapping and clonal analysis of individual cells revealed that these stem cells are lineage restricted, mimicking digit growth during development. Transplantation of cyan-fluorescent-protein-expressing haematopoietic stem cells, and parabiosis between genetically marked mice, confirmed that the stem/progenitor cells are tissue resident, including the cells involved in angiogenesis. These results, combined with those from appendage regeneration in other vertebrate subphyla, collectively demonstrate that tissue stem cells rather than pluripotent blastema cells are an evolutionarily conserved cellular mode for limb regeneration after amputation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature10346

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294209400027

    View details for PubMedID 21866153

  • Enhanced survival of pluripotent stem cells under stressful conditions CELL CYCLE Ardehali, R., Ali, S. R., Inlay, M. A., Mosley, A. R., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 10 (16): 2610-2611

    View details for DOI 10.4161/cc.10.16.16527

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294155600003

    View details for PubMedID 21791974

  • Isolation of Cardiovascular Progenitors from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Capable of Integration into Human Fetal Hearts 15th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Heart-Failure-Society-of-America Ardehali, R., Ali, S. R., Drukker, M., Weissman, I. L. CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE INC MEDICAL PUBLISHERS. 2011: S32–S32
  • CLONAL STABILITY OF MURINE HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS IN VIVO ISEH 40th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society-for-Hematology-and-Stem-Cells Lu, R., Czechowicz, A., Seita, J., Weissman, I. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2011: S51–S52
  • Single-cell phospho-specific flow cytometric analysis demonstrates biochemical and functional heterogeneity in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor compartments BLOOD Gibbs, K. D., Gilbert, P. M., Sachs, K., Zhao, F., Blau, H. M., Weissman, I. L., Nolan, G. P., Majeti, R. 2011; 117 (16): 4226-4233

    Abstract

    The low frequency of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in human BM has precluded analysis of the direct biochemical effects elicited by cytokines in these populations, and their functional consequences. Here, single-cell phospho-specific flow cytometry was used to define the signaling networks active in 5 previously defined human HSPC subsets. This analysis revealed that the currently defined HSC compartment is composed of biochemically distinct subsets with the ability to respond rapidly and directly in vitro to a broader array of cytokines than previously appreciated, including G-CSF. The G-CSF response was physiologically relevant-driving cell-cycle entry and increased proliferation in a subset of single cells within the HSC compartment. The heterogeneity in the single-cell signaling and proliferation responses prompted subfractionation of the adult BM HSC compartment by expression of CD114 (G-CSF receptor). Xenotransplantation assays revealed that HSC activity is significantly enriched in the CD114(neg/lo) compartment, and almost completely absent in the CD114(pos) subfraction. The single-cell analyses used here can be adapted for further refinement of HSPC surface immunophenotypes, and for examining the direct regulatory effects of other factors on the homeostasis of stem and progenitor populations in normal or diseased states.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-07-298232

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289807600012

    View details for PubMedID 21357764

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3087474

  • Prospective separation of normal and leukemic stem cells based on differential expression of TIM3, a human acute myeloid leukemia stem cell marker PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Jan, M., Chao, M. P., Cha, A. C., Alizadeh, A. A., Gentles, A. J., Weissman, I. L., Majeti, R. 2011; 108 (12): 5009-5014

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic tissues in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients contain both leukemia stem cells (LSC) and residual normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). The ability to prospectively separate residual HSC from LSC would enable important scientific and clinical investigation including the possibility of purged autologous hematopoietic cell transplants. We report here the identification of TIM3 as an AML stem cell surface marker more highly expressed on multiple specimens of AML LSC than on normal bone marrow HSC. TIM3 expression was detected in all cytogenetic subgroups of AML, but was significantly higher in AML-associated with core binding factor translocations or mutations in CEBPA. By assessing engraftment in NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ-null mice, we determined that HSC function resides predominantly in the TIM3-negative fraction of normal bone marrow, whereas LSC function from multiple AML specimens resides predominantly in the TIM3-positive compartment. Significantly, differential TIM3 expression enabled the prospective separation of HSC from LSC in the majority of AML specimens with detectable residual HSC function.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1100551108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288712200061

    View details for PubMedID 21383193

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3064328

  • Hedgehog-responsive candidate cell of origin for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Monje, M., Mitra, S. S., Freret, M. E., Raveh, T. B., Kim, J., Masek, M., Attema, J. L., Li, G., Haddix, T., Edwards, M. S., Fisher, P. G., Weissman, I. L., Rowitch, D. H., Vogel, H., Wong, A. J., Beachy, P. A. 2011; 108 (11): 4453-4458

    Abstract

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) are highly aggressive tumors of childhood that are almost universally fatal. Our understanding of this devastating cancer is limited by a dearth of available tissue for study and by the lack of a faithful animal model. Intriguingly, DIPGs are restricted to the ventral pons and occur during a narrow window of middle childhood, suggesting dysregulation of a postnatal neurodevelopmental process. Here, we report the identification of a previously undescribed population of immunophenotypic neural precursor cells in the human and murine brainstem whose temporal and spatial distributions correlate closely with the incidence of DIPG and highlight a candidate cell of origin. Using early postmortem DIPG tumor tissue, we have established in vitro and xenograft models and find that the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway implicated in many developmental and oncogenic processes is active in DIPG tumor cells. Modulation of Hh pathway activity has functional consequences for DIPG self-renewal capacity in neurosphere culture. The Hh pathway also appears to be active in normal ventral pontine precursor-like cells of the mouse, and unregulated pathway activity results in hypertrophy of the ventral pons. Together, these findings provide a foundation for understanding the cellular and molecular origins of DIPG, and suggest that the Hh pathway represents a potential therapeutic target in this devastating pediatric tumor.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1101657108

    View details for PubMedID 21368213

  • In vitro assays misrepresent in vivo lineage potentials of murine lymphoid progenitors. Blood Richie Ehrlich, L. I., Serwold, T., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 117 (9): 2618-2624

    Abstract

    The identity of T-cell progenitors that seed the thymus has remained controversial, largely because many studies differ over whether these progenitors retain myeloid potential. Contradictory reports diverge in their use of various in vitro and in vivo assays. To consolidate these discordant findings, we compared the myeloid potential of 2 putative thymus seeding populations, common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and multipotent progenitors (MPPs), and the earliest intrathymic progenitor (DN1), using 2 in vitro assays and in vivo readouts. These assays gave contradictory results: CLP and DN1 displayed surprisingly robust myeloid potential on OP9-DL1 in vitro stromal cocultures but displayed little myeloid potential in vivo, as well as in methylcellulose cultures. MPP, on the other hand, displayed robust myeloid potential in all settings. We conclude that stromal cocultures reveal cryptic, but nonphysiologic, myeloid potentials of lymphoid progenitors, providing an explanation for contradictory findings in the field and underscoring the importance of using in vivo assays for the determination of physiologic lineage potentials.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2010-05-287102

    View details for PubMedID 21163922

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3062354

  • In vitro assays misrepresent in vivo lineage potentials of murine lymphoid progenitors BLOOD Ehrlich, L. I., Serwold, T., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 117 (9): 2618-2624
  • Irv Weissman. Nature biotechnology Weissman, I. 2011; 29 (3): 194-?

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.1816

    View details for PubMedID 21390013

  • Overexpression of BCL2 enhances survival of human embryonic stem cells during stress and obviates the requirement for serum factors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ardehali, R., Inlay, M. A., Ali, S. R., Tang, C., Drukker, M., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 108 (8): 3282-3287

    Abstract

    The promise of pluripotent stem cells as a research and therapeutic tool is partly undermined by the technical challenges of generating and maintaining these cells in culture. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are exquisitely sensitive to culture conditions, and require constant signaling by growth factors and cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions to prevent apoptosis, senescence, and differentiation. Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that overexpression of the prosurvival gene BCL2 in mouse embryonic stem cells overrode the requirement of serum factors and feeder cells to maintain mESCs in culture. To determine whether this prosurvival gene could similarly protect hESCs, we generated hESC lines that constitutively or inducibly express BCL2. We find that BCL2 overexpression significantly decreases dissociation-induced apoptosis, resulting in enhanced colony formation from sorted single cells, and enhanced embryoid body formation. In addition, BCL2-hESCs exhibit normal growth in the absence of serum, but require basic fibroblast growth factor to remain undifferentiated. Furthermore, they maintain their pluripotency markers, form teratomas in vivo, and differentiate into all three germ layers. Our data suggest that the BCL2 signaling pathway plays an important role in inhibiting hESC apoptosis, such that its overexpression in hESCs offers both a survival benefit in conditions of stress by resisting apoptosis and obviates the requirement for serum or a feeder layer for maintenance.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1019047108

    View details for PubMedID 21300885

  • Therapeutic Antibody Targeting of CD47 Eliminates Human Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia CANCER RESEARCH Chao, M. P., Alizadeh, A. A., Tang, C., Jan, M., Weissman-Tsukamoto, R., Zhao, F., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L., Majeti, R. 2011; 71 (4): 1374-1384

    Abstract

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric malignancy and constitutes 15% of adult leukemias. Although overall prognosis for pediatric ALL is favorable, high-risk pediatric patients and most adult patients have significantly worse outcomes. Multiagent chemotherapy is standard of care for both pediatric and adult ALL, but is associated with systemic toxicity and long-term side effects and is relatively ineffective against certain ALL subtypes. Recent efforts have focused on the development of targeted therapies for ALL including monoclonal antibodies. Here, we report the identification of CD47, a protein that inhibits phagocytosis, as an antibody target in standard and high-risk ALL. CD47 was found to be more highly expressed on a subset of human ALL patient samples compared with normal cell counterparts and to be an independent predictor of survival and disease refractoriness in several ALL patient cohorts. In addition, a blocking monoclonal antibody against CD47 enabled phagocytosis of ALL cells by macrophages in vitro and inhibited tumor engraftment in vivo. Significantly, anti-CD47 antibody eliminated ALL in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, and liver of mice engrafted with primary human ALL. These data provide preclinical support for the development of an anti-CD47 antibody therapy for treatment of human ALL.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2238

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287352600020

    View details for PubMedID 21177380

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3041855

  • Purified Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: The Next Generation of Blood and Immune Replacement HEMATOLOGY-ONCOLOGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Czechowicz, A., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 25 (1): 75-?

    Abstract

    Replacement of disease-causing stem cells with healthy ones has been achieved clinically via hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for the last 40 years, as a treatment modality for a variety of cancers and immunodeficiencies with moderate, but increasing, success. This procedure has traditionally included transplantation of mixed hematopoietic populations that include hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and other cells, such as T cells. This article explores and delineates the potential expansion of this technique to treat a variety of inherited diseases of immune function, the current barriers in HCT and pure HSC transplantation, and the up-and-coming strategies to combat these obstacles.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hoc.2010.11.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287333600007

    View details for PubMedID 21236391

  • IL-1 beta-driven neutrophilia preserves antibacterial defense in the absence of the kinase IKK beta NATURE IMMUNOLOGY Hsu, L., Enzler, T., Seita, J., Timmer, A. M., Lee, C., Lai, T., Yu, G., Lai, L., Temkin, V., Sinzig, U., Aung, T., Nizet, V., Weissman, I. L., Karin, M. 2011; 12 (2): 144-U54

    Abstract

    Transcription factor NF-κB and its activating kinase IKKβ are associated with inflammation and are believed to be critical for innate immunity. Despite the likelihood of immune suppression, pharmacological blockade of IKKβ-NF-κB has been considered as a therapeutic strategy. However, we found neutrophilia in mice with inducible deletion of IKKβ (Ikkβ(Δ) mice). These mice had hyperproliferative granulocyte-macrophage progenitors and pregranulocytes and a prolonged lifespan of mature neutrophils that correlated with the induction of genes encoding prosurvival molecules. Deletion of interleukin 1 receptor 1 (IL-1R1) in Ikkβ(Δ) mice normalized blood cellularity and prevented neutrophil-driven inflammation. However, Ikkβ(Δ)Il1r1(-/-) mice, unlike Ikkβ(Δ) mice, were highly susceptible to bacterial infection, which indicated that signaling via IKKβ-NF-κB or IL-1R1 can maintain antimicrobial defenses in each other's absence, whereas inactivation of both pathways severely compromises innate immunity.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ni.1976

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286378400008

    View details for PubMedID 21170027

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3677078

  • VHL loss in renal cell carcinoma leads to up-regulation of CUB domain-containing protein 1 to stimulate PKC delta-driven migration PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Razorenova, O. V., Finger, E. C., Colavitti, R., Chernikova, S. B., Boiko, A. D., Chan, C. K., Krieg, A., Bedogni, B., LaGory, E., Weissman, I. L., Broome-Powell, M., Giaccia, A. J. 2011; 108 (5): 1931-1936

    Abstract

    A common genetic mutation found in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) is the loss of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene, which results in stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), and contributes to cancer progression and metastasis. CUB-domain-containing protein 1 (CDCP1) was shown to promote metastasis in scirrhous and lung adenocarcinomas as well as in prostate cancer. In this study, we established a molecular mechanism linking VHL loss to induction of the CDCP1 gene through the HIF-1/2 pathway in renal cancer. Also, we report that Fyn, which forms a complex with CDCP1 and mediates its signaling to PKCδ, is a HIF-1 target gene. Mechanistically, we found that CDCP1 specifically regulates phosphorylation of PKCδ, but not of focal adhesion kinase or Crk-associated substrate. Signal transduction from CDCP1 to PKCδ leads to its activation, increasing migration of CC-RCC. Furthermore, patient survival can be stratified by CDCP1 expression at the cell surface of the tumor. Taken together, our data indicates that CDCP1 protein might serve as a therapeutic target for CC-RCC.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1011777108

    View details for PubMedID 21233420

  • 50 Years Later: Remembering the Paper RADIATION RESEARCH Weissman, I. L. 2011; 175 (2): 143-144

    View details for DOI 10.1667/RRXX29.1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287113500001

    View details for PubMedID 21268706

  • Human Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Stem Cells Revisited: There's More Than Meets the Eye CANCER CELL Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2011; 19 (1): 9-10

    Abstract

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Goardon et al. revise earlier conclusions regarding acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) stem cells by demonstrating that in the majority of patients, they reside in two hierarchically related populations most similar to normal hematopoietic progenitors. These findings have implications for therapeutic targeting of these cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ccr.2011.01.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287290300005

    View details for PubMedID 21251611

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3045274

  • Activated canonical Wnt signaling in GBM is associated with increased expression of stem cell surface markers PeerEmed Cheshier, S., Ailles, L., Weissman, I., Tse, V., Skirboll, S. 2011
  • Calreticulin Is the Dominant Pro-Phagocytic Signal on Multiple Human Cancers and Is Counterbalanced by CD47 SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE Chao, M. P., Jaiswal, S., Weissman-Tsukamoto, R., Alizadeh, A. A., Gentles, A. J., Volkmer, J., Weiskopf, K., Willingham, S. B., Raveh, T., Park, C. Y., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 2 (63)

    Abstract

    Under normal physiological conditions, cellular homeostasis is partly regulated by a balance of pro- and anti-phagocytic signals. CD47, which prevents cancer cell phagocytosis by the innate immune system, is highly expressed on several human cancers including acute myeloid leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and bladder cancer. Blocking CD47 with a monoclonal antibody results in phagocytosis of cancer cells and leads to in vivo tumor elimination, yet normal cells remain mostly unaffected. Thus, we postulated that cancer cells must also display a potent pro-phagocytic signal. Here, we identified calreticulin as a pro-phagocytic signal that was highly expressed on the surface of several human cancers, but was minimally expressed on most normal cells. Increased CD47 expression correlated with high amounts of calreticulin on cancer cells and was necessary for protection from calreticulin-mediated phagocytosis. Blocking the interaction of target cell calreticulin with its receptor, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, on phagocytic cells prevented anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis. Furthermore, increased calreticulin expression was an adverse prognostic factor in diverse tumors including neuroblastoma, bladder cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. These findings identify calreticulin as the dominant pro-phagocytic signal on several human cancers, provide an explanation for the selective targeting of tumor cells by anti-CD47 antibody, and highlight the balance between pro- and anti-phagocytic signals in the immune evasion of cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001375

    View details for Web of Science ID 000288444900003

    View details for PubMedID 21178137

  • MicroRNA-125b expands hematopoietic stem cells and enriches for the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased subsets PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ooi, A. G., Sahoo, D., Adorno, M., Wang, Y., Weissman, I. L., Park, C. Y. 2010; 107 (50): 21505-21510

    Abstract

    MicroRNAs profoundly impact hematopoietic cells by regulating progenitor cell-fate decisions, as well as mature immune effector function. However to date, microRNAs that regulate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function have been less well characterized. Here we show that microRNA-125b (miR-125b) is highly expressed in HSCs and its expression decreases in committed progenitors. Overexpression of miR-125b in mouse HSC enhances their function, demonstrated through serial transplantation of highly purified HSC, and enriches for the previously described Slamf1(lo)CD34(-) lymphoid-balanced and the Slamf1(neg)CD34(-) lymphoid-biased cell subsets within the multipotent HSC (CD34-KLS) fraction. Mature peripheral blood cells derived from the miR-125b-overexpressing HSC are skewed toward the lymphoid lineage. Consistent with this observation, miR-125b overexpression significantly increases the number of early B-progenitor cells within the spleen and induces the expansion and enrichment of the lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC subset via an antiapoptotic mechanism, reducing the mRNA expression levels of two proapoptotic targets, Bmf and KLF13. The antiapoptotic effect of miR-125b is more pronounced in the lymphoid-biased HSC subset because of their intrinsic higher baseline levels of apoptosis. These effects of miR-125b are associated with the development of lymphoproliferative disease, marked by expansion of CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Taken together, these data reveal that miR-125b regulates HSC survival and can promote lymphoid-fate decisions at the level of the HSC by preferentially expanding lymphoid-balanced and lymphoid-biased HSC.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1016218107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285521500053

    View details for PubMedID 21118986

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3003003

  • Lymphocytes, Jim Gowans and in vivo veritas NATURE IMMUNOLOGY Weissman, I. 2010; 11 (12): 1073-1075

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ni1210-1073

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284262200003

    View details for PubMedID 21079628

  • Haploinsufficiency of Ribosomal Protein S6 In Mice Mimics Bone Marrow Failure Syndromes In Humans 52nd Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American-Society-of-Hematology (ASH) Park, C. Y., McGowan, K. A., Glader, B., Barsh, G. S., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2010: 89–89
  • ABT-737 Targets Leukemic Stem Cells In Mouse Models of Mutant NRASD12/hBCL-2-Mediated Acute Myeloid Leukemia progression with Increased Survival 52nd Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American-Society-of-Hematology (ASH) Padua, R. A., Beurlet, S., Krief, P., Omidvar, N., Le Pogam, C., Auboeuf, D., de la Grange, P., Soulie, A., Janin, A., Noguera, M., Merlet, P., Sarda-Mantel, L., Fenaux, P., Konopleva, M., Andreeff, M., Tu, A., Yang, P., Fan, A. C., Kogan, S. C., Weissman, I. L., Felsher, D. W., Pla, M., West, R., Chomienne, C. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2010: 1355–56
  • Mutant BCL2 Co-Operates with CBF beta/PEBP2 beta-MYH11 to Promote Expansion of Leukemia Initiating Cells with a Predominantly Pro-Apoptotic Mechanism Via Recruitment of Ras-GTP In a Mouse Model of Progressive Acute Myeloid Leukemia 52nd Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American-Society-of-Hematology (ASH) Omidvar, N., Le Pogam, C., Beurlet, S., Noguera, M., Janin, A., Kogan, S. C., Weissman, I. L., Pla, M., Chomienne, C., Padua, R. A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2010: 461–61
  • T-cell receptor-driven lymphomagenesis in mice derived from a reprogrammed T cell PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Serwold, T., Hochedlinger, K., Swindle, J., Hedgpeth, J., Jaenisch, R., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 107 (44): 18939-18943

    Abstract

    The conversion of mature somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, both by nuclear transfer and transduction with specific "reprogramming" genes, represents a major advance in regenerative medicine. Pluripotent stem cell lines can now be generated from an individual's own cells, facilitating the generation of immunologically acceptable stem cell-based therapeutics. Many cell types can undergo nuclear reprogramming, leading to the question of whether the identity of the reprogrammed cell of origin has a biological consequence. Peripheral blood, containing a mixture of T, B, NK, and myeloid cell types, represents one potential source of reprogrammable cells. In this study, we describe the unique case of mice derived from a reprogrammed T cell. These mice have prerearranged T-cell receptor (TCR) genes in all cells. Surprisingly, ≈50% of mice with prerearranged TCR genes develop spontaneous T cell lymphomas, which originate in the thymus. The lymphomas arise from developing T cells, and contain activated Notch1, similar to most human and mouse T-cell acute lymphoblastic lymphomas. Furthermore, lymphomagenesis requires the expression of both prerearranged TCRα and TCRβ genes, indicating a critical role for TCR signaling. Furthermore, inhibitors of multiple branches of TCR signaling suppress lymphoma growth, implicating TCR signaling as an essential component in lymphoma proliferation. The lymphomagenesis in mice derived from a reprogrammed T cell demonstrates the deleterious consequences of misregulation of the TCR rearrangement and signaling pathways and illustrates one case of cellular reprogramming where the identity of the cell of origin has profound consequences.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1013230107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283749000039

    View details for PubMedID 20956329

  • Hematopoietic stem cell: self-renewal versus differentiation WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-SYSTEMS BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE Seita, J., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 2 (6): 640-653

    Abstract

    The mammalian blood system, containing more than 10 distinct mature cell types, stands on one specific cell type, hematopoietic stem cell (HSC). Within the system, only HSCs possess the ability of both multipotency and self-renewal. Multipotency is the ability to differentiate into all functional blood cells. Self-renewal is the ability to give rise to HSC itself without differentiation. Since mature blood cells (MBCs) are predominantly short-lived, HSCs continuously provide more differentiated progenitors while properly maintaining the HSC pool size throughout life by precisely balancing self-renewal and differentiation. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of self-renewal and differentiation of HSC has been a central issue. In this review, we focus on the hierarchical structure of the hematopoietic system, the current understanding of microenvironment and molecular cues regulating self-renewal and differentiation of adult HSCs, and the currently emerging systems approaches to understand HSC biology.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/wsbm.86

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283713500002

    View details for PubMedID 20890962

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2950323

  • Cholinergic activation of hematopoietic stem cells: role in tobacco-related disease? VASCULAR MEDICINE Chang, E., Forsberg, E. C., Wu, J., Wang, B., Prohaska, S. S., Allsopp, R., Weissman, I. L., Cooke, J. P. 2010; 15 (5): 375-385

    Abstract

    Tobacco use is associated with an increase in the white blood cell (WBC) count. This association has been attributed to bronchopulmonary inflammation and/or infection. It is not known if nicotine itself may play a role. The objective of this study was to determine whether nicotine itself could affect the WBC count, and to determine whether this was due to a direct effect on hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). C57Bl6J mice received nicotine orally, and measurements of the WBC count, bone marrow and spleen cellularity, and HSC count were made. To determine the functionality of HSCs, irradiated animals received bone marrow transplants from vehicle or nicotine-treated mice. Nicotine increased leukocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow and spleen. The peripheral red cell and platelet count were unaffected. Nicotine increased the frequency of HSC in the bone marrow. Isolated long-term HSCs from nicotine-treated mice transplanted into irradiated mice regenerated all hematopoietic cell lineages, demonstrating the functional competence of those HSCs. HSCs expressed nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), as documented by FITC-conjugated alpha-bungarotoxin binding. Nicotine increased soluble Kit ligand, consistent with stem cell activation. In conclusion, the data suggest a new mechanism for the increased WBC associated with tobacco use. The effect of nicotine to activate hematopoiesis may contribute to tobacco-related diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1358863X10378377

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282582300004

    View details for PubMedID 20926497

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3110740

  • Epigenetic memory in induced pluripotent stem cells NATURE Kim, K., Doi, A., Wen, B., Ng, K., Zhao, R., Cahan, P., Kim, J., Aryee, M. J., Ji, H., Ehrlich, L. I., Yabuuchi, A., Takeuchi, A., Cunniff, K. C., Hongguang, H., McKinney-Freeman, S., Naveiras, O., Yoon, T. J., Irizarry, R. A., Jung, N., Seita, J., Hanna, J., Murakami, P., Jaenisch, R., Weissleder, R., Orkin, S. H., Weissman, I. L., Feinberg, A. P., Daley, G. Q. 2010; 467 (7313): 285-U60

    Abstract

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer and transcription-factor-based reprogramming revert adult cells to an embryonic state, and yield pluripotent stem cells that can generate all tissues. Through different mechanisms and kinetics, these two reprogramming methods reset genomic methylation, an epigenetic modification of DNA that influences gene expression, leading us to hypothesize that the resulting pluripotent stem cells might have different properties. Here we observe that low-passage induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived by factor-based reprogramming of adult murine tissues harbour residual DNA methylation signatures characteristic of their somatic tissue of origin, which favours their differentiation along lineages related to the donor cell, while restricting alternative cell fates. Such an 'epigenetic memory' of the donor tissue could be reset by differentiation and serial reprogramming, or by treatment of iPSCs with chromatin-modifying drugs. In contrast, the differentiation and methylation of nuclear-transfer-derived pluripotent stem cells were more similar to classical embryonic stem cells than were iPSCs. Our data indicate that nuclear transfer is more effective at establishing the ground state of pluripotency than factor-based reprogramming, which can leave an epigenetic memory of the tissue of origin that may influence efforts at directed differentiation for applications in disease modelling or treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature09342

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281824900030

    View details for PubMedID 20644535

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3150836

  • Comprehensive methylome map of lineage commitment from haematopoietic progenitors NATURE Ji, H., Ehrlich, L. I., Seita, J., Murakami, P., Doi, A., Lindau, P., Lee, H., Aryee, M. J., Irizarry, R. A., Kim, K., Rossi, D. J., Inlay, M. A., Serwold, T., Karsunky, H., Ho, L., Daley, G. Q., Weissman, I. L., Feinberg, A. P. 2010; 467 (7313): 338-U120

    Abstract

    Epigenetic modifications must underlie lineage-specific differentiation as terminally differentiated cells express tissue-specific genes, but their DNA sequence is unchanged. Haematopoiesis provides a well-defined model to study epigenetic modifications during cell-fate decisions, as multipotent progenitors (MPPs) differentiate into progressively restricted myeloid or lymphoid progenitors. Although DNA methylation is critical for myeloid versus lymphoid differentiation, as demonstrated by the myeloerythroid bias in Dnmt1 hypomorphs, a comprehensive DNA methylation map of haematopoietic progenitors, or of any multipotent/oligopotent lineage, does not exist. Here we examined 4.6 million CpG sites throughout the genome for MPPs, common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMPs), and thymocyte progenitors (DN1, DN2, DN3). Marked epigenetic plasticity accompanied both lymphoid and myeloid restriction. Myeloid commitment involved less global DNA methylation than lymphoid commitment, supported functionally by myeloid skewing of progenitors following treatment with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Differential DNA methylation correlated with gene expression more strongly at CpG island shores than CpG islands. Many examples of genes and pathways not previously known to be involved in choice between lymphoid/myeloid differentiation have been identified, such as Arl4c and Jdp2. Several transcription factors, including Meis1, were methylated and silenced during differentiation, indicating a role in maintaining an undifferentiated state. Additionally, epigenetic modification of modifiers of the epigenome seems to be important in haematopoietic differentiation. Our results directly demonstrate that modulation of DNA methylation occurs during lineage-specific differentiation and defines a comprehensive map of the methylation and transcriptional changes that accompany myeloid versus lymphoid fate decisions.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature09367

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281824900041

    View details for PubMedID 20720541

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2956609

  • Position-Dependent Silencing of Germline V beta Segments on TCR beta Alleles Containing Preassembled V beta DJ beta C beta 1 Genes JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Brady, B. L., Oropallo, M. A., Yang-Iott, K. S., Serwold, T., Hochedlinger, K., Jaenisch, R., Weissman, I. L., Bassing, C. H. 2010; 185 (6): 3564-3573

    Abstract

    The genomic organization of TCRbeta loci enables Vbeta-to-DJbeta2 rearrangements on alleles with assembled VbetaDJbetaCbeta1 genes, which could have deleterious physiologic consequences. To determine whether such Vbeta rearrangements occur and, if so, how they might be regulated, we analyzed mice with TCRbeta alleles containing preassembled functional VbetaDJbetaCbeta1 genes. Vbeta10 segments were transcribed, rearranged, and expressed in thymocytes when located immediately upstream of a Vbeta1DJbetaCbeta1 gene, but not on alleles with a Vbeta14DJbetaCbeta1 gene. Germline Vbeta10 transcription was silenced in mature alphabeta T cells. This allele-dependent and developmental stage-specific silencing of Vbeta10 correlated with increased CpG methylation and decreased histone acetylation over the Vbeta10 promoter and coding region. Transcription, rearrangement, and expression of the Vbeta4 and Vbeta16 segments located upstream of Vbeta10 were silenced on alleles containing either VbetaDJbetaCbeta1 gene; sequences within Vbeta4, Vbeta16, and the Vbeta4/Vbeta16-Vbeta10 intergenic region exhibited constitutive high CpG methylation and low histone acetylation. Collectively, our data indicate that the position of Vbeta segments relative to assembled VbetaDJbetaCbeta1 genes influences their rearrangement and suggest that DNA sequences between Vbeta segments may form boundaries between active and inactive Vbeta chromatin domains upstream of VbetaDJbetaCbeta genes.

    View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.0903098

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281559300050

    View details for PubMedID 20709953

  • Anti-CD47 Antibody Synergizes with Rituximab to Promote Phagocytosis and Eradicate Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma CELL Chao, M. P., Alizadeh, A. A., Tang, C., Myklebust, J. H., Varghese, B., Gill, S., Jan, M., Cha, A. C., Chan, C. K., Tan, B. T., Park, C. Y., Zhao, F., Kohrt, H. E., Malumbres, R., Briones, J., Gascoyne, R. D., Lossos, I. S., Levy, R., Weissman, I. L., Majeti, R. 2010; 142 (5): 699-713

    Abstract

    Monoclonal antibodies are standard therapeutics for several cancers including the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab for B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Rituximab and other antibodies are not curative and must be combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy for clinical benefit. Here we report the eradication of human NHL solely with a monoclonal antibody therapy combining rituximab with a blocking anti-CD47 antibody. We identified increased expression of CD47 on human NHL cells and determined that higher CD47 expression independently predicted adverse clinical outcomes in multiple NHL subtypes. Blocking anti-CD47 antibodies preferentially enabled phagocytosis of NHL cells and synergized with rituximab. Treatment of human NHL-engrafted mice with anti-CD47 antibody reduced lymphoma burden and improved survival, while combination treatment with rituximab led to elimination of lymphoma and cure. These antibodies synergized through a mechanism combining Fc receptor (FcR)-dependent and FcR-independent stimulation of phagocytosis that might be applicable to many other cancers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2010.07.044

    View details for PubMedID 20813259

  • Cancer stem cells in bladder cancer: a revisited and evolving concept CURRENT OPINION IN UROLOGY Chan, K. S., Volkmer, J., Weissman, I. 2010; 20 (5): 393-397

    Abstract

    Recently, the prospective isolation and characterization of cancer stem cells (CSCs) from various human malignancies revealed that they are resistant to radiation and chemotherapies. Therefore, CSCs may be the 'roots' and ideal target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we will focus on reviewing the historical perspective, recent literatures on bladder cancer stem cells and their clinical implications.CSCs have been prospectively isolated from bladder cancer tissues from patient specimens, established cancer cell lines and xenografts, based on the expression of a combination of cell surface receptors, cytokeratin markers, drug transporters and the efficient efflux of the Hoechst 33,342 dye (side population). Further, global gene expression profiling of CSCs revealed an activated gene signature of CSCs similar to that of aggressive bladder cancer, supporting the concept that a tumor cell subpopulation is contributing to bladder cancer progression. Finally, our studies on the preclinical targeting of bladder CSCs in vitro and in xenografts using a blocking antibody for CD47 reveal promising efficacy.Functionally distinct CSCs exist in human bladder cancer and can be prospectively isolated. Continuing research will be important to identify their cell of origin, programs balancing self-renewal and differentiation and to identify additional therapeutic options to target bladder CSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/MOU.0b013e32833cc9df

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280552100009

    View details for PubMedID 20657288

  • Differential DNA Damage Response in Stem and Progenitor Cells CELL STEM CELL Seita, J., Rossi, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 7 (2): 145-147

    Abstract

    The long lifespan of tissue-specific stem cells suggests that they may respond differently to DNA damage than downstream cells. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, two groups address this hypothesis by examining DNA damage responses in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (Milyavsky et al., 2010; Mohrin et al., 2010).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.07.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281107400006

    View details for PubMedID 20682442

  • Patients Beware: Commercialized Stem Cell Treatments on the Web CELL STEM CELL Taylor, P. L., Barker, R. A., Blume, K. G., Cattaneo, E., Colman, A., Deng, H., Edgar, H., Fox, I. J., Gerstle, C., Goldstein, L. S., High, K. A., Lyall, A., Parkman, R., Pitossi, F. J., Prentice, E. D., Rooke, H. M., Sipp, D. A., Srivastava, A., Stayn, S., Steinberg, G. K., Wagers, A. J., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 7 (1): 43-49

    Abstract

    A report by the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR)'s Task Force on Unproven Stem Cell Treatments outlines development of resources for patients, their families, and physicians seeking information on stem cell treatments.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.06.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280222300012

    View details for PubMedID 20621049

  • Human melanoma-initiating cells express neural crest nerve growth factor receptor CD271 NATURE Boiko, A. D., Razorenova, O. V., van de Rijn, M., Swetter, S. M., Johnson, D. L., Ly, D. P., Butler, P. D., Yang, G. P., Joshua, B., Kaplan, M. J., Longaker, M. T., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 466 (7302): 133-U155

    Abstract

    The question of whether tumorigenic cancer stem cells exist in human melanomas has arisen in the last few years. Here we show that in melanomas, tumour stem cells (MTSCs, for melanoma tumour stem cells) can be isolated prospectively as a highly enriched CD271(+) MTSC population using a process that maximizes viable cell transplantation. The tumours sampled in this study were taken from a broad spectrum of sites and stages. High-viability cells isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and re-suspended in a matrigel vehicle were implanted into T-, B- and natural-killer-deficient Rag2(-/-)gammac(-/-) mice. The CD271(+) subset of cells was the tumour-initiating population in 90% (nine out of ten) of melanomas tested. Transplantation of isolated CD271(+) melanoma cells into engrafted human skin or bone in Rag2(-/-)gammac(-/-) mice resulted in melanoma; however, melanoma did not develop after transplantation of isolated CD271(-) cells. We also show that in mice, tumours derived from transplanted human CD271(+) melanoma cells were capable of metastatsis in vivo. CD271(+) melanoma cells lacked expression of TYR, MART1 and MAGE in 86%, 69% and 68% of melanoma patients, respectively, which helps to explain why T-cell therapies directed at these antigens usually result in only temporary tumour shrinkage.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature09161

    View details for PubMedID 20596026

  • Macrophages as mediators of tumor immunosurveillance TRENDS IN IMMUNOLOGY Jaiswal, S., Chao, M. P., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 31 (6): 212-219

    Abstract

    Tumor immunosurveillance is a well-established mechanism for regulation of tumor growth. In this regard, most studies have focused on the role of T- and NK-cells as the critical immune effector cells. However, macrophages play a major role in the recognition and clearance of foreign, aged, and damaged cells. Macrophage phagocytosis is negatively regulated via the receptor SIRPalpha upon binding to CD47, a ubiquitously expressed protein. We recently showed that CD47 is up-regulated in myeloid leukemia and migrating hematopoietic progenitors, and that the level of protein expression correlates with the ability to evade phagocytosis. These results implicate macrophages in the immunosurveillance of hematopoietic cells and leukemias. The ability of macrophages to phagocytose tumor cells might be exploited therapeutically by blocking the CD47-SIRPalpha interaction.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.it.2010.04.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279427000002

    View details for PubMedID 20452821

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3646798

  • Purified Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: The Next Generation of Blood and Immune Replacement IMMUNOLOGY AND ALLERGY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Czechowicz, A., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 30 (2): 159-?

    Abstract

    Replacement of disease-causing stem cells with healthy ones has been achieved clinically via hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for the last 40 years, as a treatment modality for a variety of cancers and immunodeficiencies with moderate, but increasing, success. This procedure has traditionally included transplantation of mixed hematopoietic populations that include hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and other cells, such as T cells. This article explores and delineates the potential expansion of this technique to treat a variety of inherited diseases of immune function, the current barriers in HCT and pure HSC transplantation, and the up-and-coming strategies to combat these obstacles.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.iac.2010.03.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279115200003

    View details for PubMedID 20493393

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3071240

  • Distinguishing Mast Cell and Granulocyte Differentiation at the Single-Cell Level CELL STEM CELL Franco, C. B., Chen, C., Drukker, M., Weissman, I. L., Galli, S. J. 2010; 6 (4): 361-368

    Abstract

    The lineage restriction of prospectively isolated hematopoietic progenitors has been traditionally assessed by bulk in vitro culture and transplantation of large number of cells in vivo. These methods, however, cannot distinguish between homogenous multipotent or heterogeneous lineage-restricted populations. Using clonal assays of 1 or 5 cells in vitro, single-cell quantitative gene expression analyses, and transplantation of mice with low numbers of cells, we show that a common myeloid progenitor (CMP) is Sca-1(lo)lin(-)c-Kit(+)CD27(+)Flk-2(-) (SL-CMP; Sca-1(lo) CMP) and a granulocyte/macrophage progenitor (GMP) is Sca-1(lo)lin(-)c-Kit(+)CD27(+)Flk-2(+)CD150(-/lo) (SL-GMP; Sca-1(lo) GMP). We found that mast cell progenitor potential is present in the SL-CMP fraction, but not in the more differentiated SL-GMP population, and is more closely related to megakaryocyte/erythrocyte specification. Our data provide criteria for the prospective isolation of SL-CMP and SL-GMP and support the conclusion that mast cells are specified during hematopoiesis earlier than and independently from granulocytes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2010.02.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276823300014

    View details for PubMedID 20362540

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2852254

  • MiDReG: A method of mining developmentally regulated genes using Boolean implications PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Sahoo, D., Seita, J., Bhattacharya, D., Inlay, M. A., Weissman, I. L., Plevritis, S. K., Dill, D. L. 2010; 107 (13): 5732-5737

    Abstract

    We present a method termed mining developmentally regulated genes (MiDReG) to predict genes whose expression is either activated or repressed as precursor cells differentiate. MiDReG does not require gene expression data from intermediate stages of development. MiDReG is based on the gene expression patterns between the initial and terminal stages of the differentiation pathway, coupled with "if-then" rules (Boolean implications) mined from large-scale microarray databases. MiDReG uses two gene expression-based seed conditions that mark the initial and the terminal stages of a given differentiation pathway and combines the statistically inferred Boolean implications from these seed conditions to identify the relevant genes. The method was validated by applying it to B-cell development. The algorithm predicted 62 genes that are expressed after the KIT+ progenitor cell stage and remain expressed through CD19+ and AICDA+ germinal center B cells. qRT-PCR of 14 of these genes on sorted B-cell progenitors confirmed that the expression of 10 genes is indeed stably established during B-cell differentiation. Review of the published literature of knockout mice revealed that of the predicted genes, 63.4% have defects in B-cell differentiation and function and 22% have a role in the B cell according to other experiments, and the remaining 14.6% are not characterized. Therefore, our method identified novel gene candidates for future examination of their role in B-cell development. These data demonstrate the power of MiDReG in predicting functionally important intermediate genes in a given developmental pathway that is defined by a mutually exclusive gene expression pattern.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0913635107

    View details for PubMedID 20231483

  • Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells NATURE Red-Horse, K., Ueno, H., Weissman, I. L., Krasnow, M. A. 2010; 464 (7288): 549-U100

    Abstract

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Determining the coronary artery developmental program could aid understanding of the disease and lead to new treatments, but many aspects of the process, including their developmental origin, remain obscure. Here we show, using histological and clonal analysis in mice and cardiac organ culture, that coronary vessels arise from angiogenic sprouts of the sinus venosus-the vein that returns blood to the embryonic heart. Sprouting venous endothelial cells dedifferentiate as they migrate over and invade the myocardium. Invading cells differentiate into arteries and capillaries; cells on the surface redifferentiate into veins. These results show that some differentiated venous cells retain developmental plasticity, and indicate that position-specific cardiac signals trigger their dedifferentiation and conversion into coronary arteries, capillaries and veins. Understanding this new reprogramming process and identifying the endogenous signals should suggest more natural ways of engineering coronary bypass grafts and revascularizing the heart.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature08873

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275974200039

    View details for PubMedID 20336138

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2924433

  • Functionally distinct hematopoietic stem cells modulate hematopoietic lineage potential during aging by a mechanism of clonal expansion PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Beerman, I., Bhattacharya, D., Zandi, S., Sigvardsson, M., Weissman, I. L., Bryder, D., Rossi, D. J. 2010; 107 (12): 5465-5470

    Abstract

    Aging of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment is believed to contribute to the onset of a variety of age-dependent blood cell pathophysiologies. Mechanistic drivers of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) aging include DNA damage accumulation and induction of tumor suppressor pathways that combine to reduce the regenerative capacity of aged HSCs. Such mechanisms do not however account for the change in lymphoid and myeloid lineage potential characteristic of HSC aging, which is believed to be central to the decline of immune competence and predisposition to myelogenous diseases in the elderly. Here we have prospectively isolated functionally distinct HSC clonal subtypes, based on cell surface phenotype, bearing intrinsically different capacities to differentiate toward lymphoid and myeloid effector cells mediated by quantitative differences in lineage priming. Finally, we present data supporting a model in which clonal expansion of a class of intrinsically myeloid-biased HSCs with robust self-renewal potential is a central component of hematopoietic aging.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1000834107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275898300037

    View details for PubMedID 20304793

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2851806

  • microRNA-29a induces aberrant self-renewal capacity in hematopoietic progenitors, biased myeloid development, and acute myeloid leukemia JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Han, Y., Park, C. Y., Bhagat, G., Zhang, J., Wang, Y., Fan, J., Liu, M., Zou, Y., Weissman, I. L., Gu, H. 2010; 207 (3): 475-489

    Abstract

    The function of microRNAs (miRNAs) in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), committed progenitors, and leukemia stem cells (LSCs) is poorly understood. We show that miR-29a is highly expressed in HSC and down-regulated in hematopoietic progenitors. Ectopic expression of miR-29a in mouse HSC/progenitors results in acquisition of self-renewal capacity by myeloid progenitors, biased myeloid differentiation, and the development of a myeloproliferative disorder that progresses to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). miR-29a promotes progenitor proliferation by expediting G1 to S/G2 cell cycle transitions. miR-29a is overexpressed in human AML and, like human LSC, miR-29a-expressing myeloid progenitors serially transplant AML. Our data indicate that miR-29a regulates early hematopoiesis and suggest that miR-29a initiates AML by converting myeloid progenitors into self-renewing LSC.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20090831

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275593900005

    View details for PubMedID 20212066

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2839143

  • Molecular Signatures of Quiescent, Mobilized and Leukemia-Initiating Hematopoietic Stem Cells PLOS ONE Forsberg, E. C., Passegue, E., Prohaska, S. S., Wagers, A. J., Koeva, M., Stuart, J. M., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 5 (1)

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are rare, multipotent cells capable of generating all specialized cells of the blood system. Appropriate regulation of HSC quiescence is thought to be crucial to maintain their lifelong function; however, the molecular pathways controlling stem cell quiescence remain poorly characterized. Likewise, the molecular events driving leukemogenesis remain elusive. In this study, we compare the gene expression profiles of steady-state bone marrow HSC to non-self-renewing multipotent progenitors; to HSC treated with mobilizing drugs that expand the HSC pool and induce egress from the marrow; and to leukemic HSC in a mouse model of chronic myelogenous leukemia. By intersecting the resulting lists of differentially regulated genes we identify a subset of molecules that are downregulated in all three circumstances, and thus may be particularly important for the maintenance and function of normal, quiescent HSC. These results identify potential key regulators of HSC and give insights into the clinically important processes of HSC mobilization for transplantation and leukemic development from cancer stem cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0008785

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273779000014

    View details for PubMedID 20098702

  • The origin and fate of yolk sac hematopoiesis: application of chimera analyses to developmental studies INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Ueno, H., Weissman, I. L. 2010; 54 (6-7): 1019-1031

    Abstract

    During mammalian development, as exemplified by mice, hematopoietic cells first appear in the yolk sac blood islands, then in the dorsal aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region and the placenta, eventually seeding into liver, spleen and then bone marrow. The formation of hematopoietic stem cells from mesodermal precursors has finished by mid-fetal life. Once established, the hematopoietic system must supply blood cells to host circulation and tissues for the entire life of the animal. Easy access to hematopoietic cells has enabled a vast number of studies over the last several decades, and much is now understood about the different hematopoietic lineages, how they differentiate, and their derivation from immature progenitors. Yet to be elucidated are the following two intriguing questions: do yolk sac and AGM hematopoietic cells arise from a common precursor or from distinct precursor cells?; and what is the lineage relationship between blood and endothelial cells. In this review, we will survey the state of our current knowledge in these areas, and discuss the potential use of multicolor chimera analyses to elucidate unresolved questions.

    View details for DOI 10.1387/ijdb.093039hu

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282481100008

    View details for PubMedID 20711980

  • Identification of the Earliest Committed Natural Killer Cell Progenitor in Murine Bone Marrow 10th Annual Meeting of the Federation-of-Clinical-Immunology-Societies Fathman, J., Bhattacharya, D., Inlay, M., Seita, J., Weissman, I. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2010: S133–S133
  • Functional and Transcriptional Characterization of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells for Treatment of Myocardial Infarction PLOS ONE Li, Z., Wilson, K. D., Smith, B., Kraft, D. L., Jia, F., Huang, M., Xie, X., Robbins, R. C., Gambhir, S. S., Weissman, I. L., Wu, J. C. 2009; 4 (12)

    Abstract

    Differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into endothelial cells (hESC-ECs) has the potential to provide an unlimited source of cells for novel transplantation therapies of ischemic diseases by supporting angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. However, the endothelial differentiation efficiency of the conventional embryoid body (EB) method is low while the 2-dimensional method of co-culturing with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) require animal product, both of which can limit the future clinical application of hESC-ECs. Moreover, to fully understand the beneficial effects of stem cell therapy, investigators must be able to track the functional biology and physiology of transplanted cells in living subjects over time.In this study, we developed an extracellular matrix (ECM) culture system for increasing endothelial differentiation and free from contaminating animal cells. We investigated the transcriptional changes that occur during endothelial differentiation of hESCs using whole genome microarray, and compared to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We also showed functional vascular formation by hESC-ECs in a mouse dorsal window model. Moreover, our study is the first so far to transplant hESC-ECs in a myocardial infarction model and monitor cell fate using molecular imaging methods.Taken together, we report a more efficient method for derivation of hESC-ECs that express appropriate patterns of endothelial genes, form functional vessels in vivo, and improve cardiac function. These studies suggest that hESC-ECs may provide a novel therapy for ischemic heart disease in the future.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0008443

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273180200002

    View details for PubMedID 20046878

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2795856

  • Differential Contribution of Chemotaxis and Substrate Restriction to Segregation of Immature and Mature Thymocytes IMMUNITY Ehrlich, L. I., Oh, D. Y., Weissman, I. L., Lewis, R. S. 2009; 31 (6): 986-998

    Abstract

    T cell development requires sequential localization of thymocyte subsets to distinct thymic microenvironments. To address mechanisms governing this segregation, we used two-photon microscopy to visualize migration of purified thymocyte subsets in defined microenvironments within thymic slices. Double-negative (CD4(-)8(-)) and double-positive (CD4(+)8(+)) thymocytes were confined to cortex where they moved slowly without directional bias. DP cells accumulated and migrated more rapidly in a specialized inner-cortical microenvironment, but were unable to migrate on medullary substrates. In contrast, CD4 single positive (SP) thymocytes migrated directionally toward the medulla, where they accumulated and moved very rapidly. Our results revealed a requisite two-step process governing CD4 SP cell medullary localization: the chemokine receptor CCR7 mediated chemotaxis of CD4 SP cells towards medulla, whereas a distinct pertussis-toxin sensitive pathway was required for medullary entry. These findings suggest that developmentally regulated responses to both chemotactic signals and specific migratory substrates guide thymocytes to specific locations in the thymus.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2009.09.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273616400018

    View details for PubMedID 19962328

  • Self-Renewal of the Long-Term Reconstituting Subset of Hematopoietic Stem Cells is Regulated by Ikaros STEM CELLS Papathanasiou, P., Attema, J. L., Karsunky, H., Hosen, N., Sontani, Y., Hoyne, G. F., Tunningley, R., Smale, S. T., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 27 (12): 3082-3092

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare, ancestral cells that underlie the development, homeostasis, aging, and regeneration of the blood. Here we show that the chromatin-associated protein Ikaros is a crucial self-renewal regulator of the long-term (LT) reconstituting subset of HSCs. Ikaros, and associated family member proteins, are highly expressed in self-renewing populations of stem cells. Ikaros point mutant mice initially develop LT-HSCs with the surface phenotype cKit+Thy1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca1+Flk2-CD150+ during fetal ontogeny but are unable to maintain this pool, rapidly losing it within two days of embryonic development. A synchronous loss of megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitors results, along with a fatal, fetal anemia. At this time, mutation of Ikaros exerts a differentiation defect upon common lymphoid progenitors that cannot be rescued with an ectopic Notch signal in vitro, with hematopoietic cells preferentially committing to the NK lineage. Althoughdispensable for the initial embryonic development of blood, Ikaros is clearly needed for maintenance of this tissue. Achieving successful clinical tissue regeneration necessitates understanding degeneration, and these data provide a striking example by a discrete genetic lesion in the cells underpinning tissue integrity during a pivotal timeframe of organogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/stem.232

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273569800021

    View details for PubMedID 19816952

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3401049

  • Niche recycling through division-independent egress of hematopoietic stem cells JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Bhattacharya, D., Czechowicz, A., Ooi, A. G., Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 206 (12): 2837-2850

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are thought to reside in discrete niches through stable adhesion, yet previous studies have suggested that host HSCs can be replaced by transplanted donor HSCs, even in the absence of cytoreductive conditioning. To explain this apparent paradox, we calculated, through cell surface phenotyping and transplantation of unfractionated blood, that approximately 1-5% of the total pool of HSCs enters into the circulation each day. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) feeding experiments demonstrated that HSCs in the peripheral blood incorporate BrdU at the same rate as do HSCs in the bone marrow, suggesting that egress from the bone marrow to the blood can occur without cell division and can leave behind vacant HSC niches. Consistent with this, repetitive daily transplantations of small numbers of HSCs administered as new niches became available over the course of 7 d led to significantly higher levels of engraftment than did large, single-bolus transplantations of the same total number of HSCs. These data provide insight as to how HSC replacement can occur despite the residence of endogenous HSCs in niches, and suggest therapeutic interventions that capitalize upon physiological HSC egress.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20090778

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272079300020

    View details for PubMedID 19887396

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2806613

  • Single Cell Phospho-Flow Analysis of Cytokine Stimulation in Human Hematopoietic Progenitors Reveals That G-CSF Acts Directly On Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells. 51st Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American-Society-of-Hematology Gibbs, K., Gilbert, P., Weissman, I. L., Blau, H. M., Nolan, G. P., Majeti, R. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2009: 1398–98
  • NPM1 Haploinsufficiency Results in Increased Numbers of Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Progenitor Cells 51st Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American-Society-of-Hematology Raval, A., Park, C. Y., Pang, W. W., Kusler, B., Sridhar, K. J., Gotlib, J. R., Greenberg, P. L., Weissman, I. L., Mitchell, B. S. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2009: 307–
  • Niche Recycling through Division-Independent Egress of Hematopoietic Stem Cells. 51st Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American-Society-of-Hematology Czechowicz, A., Bhattacharya, D., Ooi, L., Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2009: 37–37
  • In vivo Kinetics of Embryonic Stem Cell Viability Following Transplantation Into the Injured Murine Myocardium 82nd National Conference and Exhibitions and Scientific Sessions of the American-Heart-Association Chung, J., Kee, K., Barral, J. K., Dash, R., Weissman, I., Quertermous, T., Robbins, R. C., Nishimura, D. G., Reijo-Pera, R. A., Yang, P. C. LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. 2009: S310–S311
  • Ly6d marks the earliest stage of B-cell specification and identifies the branchpoint between B-cell and T-cell development GENES & DEVELOPMENT Inlay, M. A., Bhattacharya, D., Sahoo, D., Serwold, T., Seita, J., Karsunky, H., Plevritis, S. K., Dill, D. L., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 23 (20): 2376-2381

    Abstract

    Common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) clonally produce both B- and T-cell lineages, but have little myeloid potential in vivo. However, some studies claim that the upstream lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor (LMPP) is the thymic seeding population, and suggest that CLPs are primarily B-cell-restricted. To identify surface proteins that distinguish functional CLPs from B-cell progenitors, we used a new computational method of Mining Developmentally Regulated Genes (MiDReG). We identified Ly6d, which divides CLPs into two distinct populations: one that retains full in vivo lymphoid potential and produces more thymocytes at early timepoints than LMPP, and another that behaves essentially as a B-cell progenitor.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.1836009

    View details for PubMedID 19833765

  • Evaluation of the Long-Term Reconstituting Subset of Hematopoietic Stem Cells with CD150 STEM CELLS Papathanasiou, P., Attema, J. L., Karsunky, H., Xu, J., Smale, S. T., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 27 (10): 2498-2508

    Abstract

    Blood is a tissue with a high cell turnover rate that is constantly being replenished by bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) seeded during fetal ontogeny from the liver. Here we show that the long-term (LT) reconstituting subset of cKit(+)Thy1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca1(+)Flk2(-) HSCs is CD150(+). HSCs sourced from the fetal liver show LT, multilineage engraftment from E14.5 onward, and the CD150 cell surface molecule can readily substitute Thy1.1 as a positive marker of LT-HSCs in this tissue. From both fetal liver and adult bone marrow, cKit(+)Thy1.1(lo)Lin(-/lo)Sca1(+)Flk2(-) CD150(+) cells exhibit robust LT competitive engraftment, self-renewal, multilineage differentiation capacity, and an accessible chromatin configuration consistent with high expression of erythroid/megakaryoid genes in purified cell subsets. Our data show that, with appropriate combinations of cell surface markers, stem cells can be accurately isolated to high purity and characterized. This is important for the clarification of lineage relationships and the identification of bona fide regulators of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation both in normal and neoplastic tissues.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/stem.170

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271830200013

    View details for PubMedID 19593793

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2783507

  • Manganese-Guided Cellular MRI of Human Embryonic Stem Cell and Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Viability MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Yamada, M., Gurney, P. T., Chung, J., Kundu, P., Drukker, M., Smith, A. K., Weissman, I. L., Nishimura, D., Robbins, R. C., Yang, P. C. 2009; 62 (4): 1047-1054

    Abstract

    This study investigated the ability of MnCl(2) as a cellular MRI contrast agent to determine the in vitro viability of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC). Basic MRI parameters including T(1) and T(2) values of MnCl(2)-labeled hESC and hBMSC were measured and viability signal of manganese (Mn(2+))-labeled cells was validated. Furthermore, the biological activity of Ca(2+)-channels was modulated utilizing both Ca(2+)-channel agonist and antagonist to evaluate concomitant signal changes. Metabolic effects of MnCl(2)-labeling were also assessed using assays for cell viability, proliferation, and apoptosis. Finally, in vivo Mn(2+)-guided MRI of the transplanted hESC was successfully achieved and validated by bioluminescence imaging.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.22071

    View details for PubMedID 19526508

  • Neuroprotection of Host Cells by Human Central Nervous System Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Infantile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis CELL STEM CELL Tamaki, S. J., Jacobs, Y., Dohse, M., Capela, A., Cooper, J. D., Reitsma, M., He, D., Tushinski, R., Belichenko, P. V., Salehi, A., Mobley, W., Gage, F. H., Huhn, S., Tsukamoto, A. S., Weissman, I. L., Uchida, N. 2009; 5 (3): 310-319

    Abstract

    Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (INCL) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by a deficiency in the lysosomal enzyme palmitoyl protein thioesterase-1 (PPT1). Ppt1 knockout mice display hallmarks of INCL and mimic the human pathology: accumulation of lipofuscin, degeneration of CNS neurons, and a shortened life span. Purified non-genetically modified human CNS stem cells, grown as neurospheres (hCNS-SCns), were transplanted into the brains of immunodeficient Ppt1(-/)(-) mice where they engrafted robustly, migrated extensively, and produced sufficient levels of PPT1 to alter host neuropathology. Grafted mice displayed reduced autofluorescent lipofuscin, significant neuroprotection of host hippocampal and cortical neurons, and delayed loss of motor coordination. Early intervention with cellular transplants of hCNS-SCns into the brains of INCL patients may supply a continuous and long-lasting source of the missing PPT1 and provide some therapeutic benefit through protection of endogenous neurons. These data provide the experimental basis for human clinical trials with these banked hCNS-SCns.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2009.05.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272545700017

    View details for PubMedID 19733542

  • Identification, molecular characterization, clinical prognosis, and therapeutic targeting of human bladder tumor-initiating cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Chan, K. S., Espinosa, I., Chao, M., Wong, D., Ailles, L., Diehn, M., Gill, H., Presti, J., Chang, H. Y., van de Rijn, M., Shortliffe, L., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 106 (33): 14016-14021

    Abstract

    Major clinical issues in bladder cancer include the identification of prediction markers and novel therapeutic targets for invasive bladder cancer. In the current study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a tumor-initiating cell (T-IC) subpopulation in primary human bladder cancer, based on the expression of markers similar to that of normal bladder basal cells (Lineage-CD44(+)CK5(+)CK20(-)). The bladder T-IC subpopulation was defined functionally by its enriched ability to induce xenograft tumors in vivo that recapitulated the heterogeneity of the original tumor. Further, molecular analysis of more than 300 bladder cancer specimens revealed heterogeneity among activated oncogenic pathways in T-IC (e.g., 80% Gli1, 45% Stat3, 10% Bmi-1, and 5% beta-catenin). Despite this molecular heterogeneity, we identified a unique bladder T-IC gene signature by gene chip analysis. This T-IC gene signature, which effectively distinguishes muscle-invasive bladder cancer with worse clinical prognosis from non-muscle-invasive (superficial) cancer, has significant clinical value. It also can predict the progression of a subset of recurring non-muscle-invasive cancers. Finally, we found that CD47, a protein that provides an inhibitory signal for macrophage phagocytosis, is highly expressed in bladder T-ICs compared with the rest of the tumor. Blockade of CD47 by a mAb resulted in macrophage engulfment of bladder cancer cells in vitro. In summary, we have identified a T-IC subpopulation with potential prognostic and therapeutic value for invasive bladder cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0906549106

    View details for PubMedID 19666525

  • The ISSCR: who are we and where are we going? Cell stem cell Weissman, I. 2009; 5 (2): 151-153

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2009.07.013

    View details for PubMedID 19664988

  • A NEUROSURGEON'S GUIDE TO STEM CELLS, CANCER STEM CELLS, AND BRAIN TUMOR STEM CELLS NEUROSURGERY Cheshier, S. H., Kalani, M. Y., Lim, M., Ailles, L., Huhn, S. L., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 65 (2): 237-249

    Abstract

    Stem cells and their potential applications have become the forefront of scientific, political, and ethical discourse. Whereas stem cells were long accepted as units of development and evolution, it is now becoming increasingly clear that they are also units of oncogenesis. Although the field of stem cell biology is expanding at an astounding rate, the data attained are not readily translatable for the physicians who may eventually deliver these tools to patients. Herein, we provide a brief review of stem cell and cancer stem cell biology and highlight the scientific and clinical implications of recent findings regarding the presence of cancer-forming stem cells in brain tumors.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000349921.14519.2A

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268523200005

    View details for PubMedID 19625901

  • CD47 Is an Adverse Prognostic Factor and Therapeutic Antibody Target on Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells CELL Majeti, R., Chao, M. P., Alizadeh, A. A., Pang, W. W., Jaiswal, S., Gibbs, K. D., van Rooijen, N., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 138 (2): 286-299

    Abstract

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is organized as a cellular hierarchy initiated and maintained by a subset of self-renewing leukemia stem cells (LSC). We hypothesized that increased CD47 expression on human AML LSC contributes to pathogenesis by inhibiting their phagocytosis through the interaction of CD47 with an inhibitory receptor on phagocytes. We found that CD47 was more highly expressed on AML LSC than their normal counterparts, and that increased CD47 expression predicted worse overall survival in three independent cohorts of adult AML patients. Furthermore, blocking monoclonal antibodies directed against CD47 preferentially enabled phagocytosis of AML LSC and inhibited their engraftment in vivo. Finally, treatment of human AML LSC-engrafted mice with anti-CD47 antibody depleted AML and targeted AML LSC. In summary, increased CD47 expression is an independent, poor prognostic factor that can be targeted on human AML stem cells with blocking monoclonal antibodies capable of enabling phagocytosis of LSC.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2009.05.045

    View details for PubMedID 19632179

  • CD47 Is Upregulated on Circulating Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Leukemia Cells to Avoid Phagocytosis CELL Jaiswal, S., Jamieson, C. H., Pang, W. W., Park, C. Y., Chao, M. P., Majeti, R., Traver, D., van Rooijen, N., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 138 (2): 271-285

    Abstract

    Macrophages clear pathogens and damaged or aged cells from the blood stream via phagocytosis. Cell-surface CD47 interacts with its receptor on macrophages, SIRPalpha, to inhibit phagocytosis of normal, healthy cells. We find that mobilizing cytokines and inflammatory stimuli cause CD47 to be transiently upregulated on mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors just prior to and during their migratory phase, and that the level of CD47 on these cells determines the probability that they are engulfed in vivo. CD47 is also constitutively upregulated on mouse and human myeloid leukemias, and overexpression of CD47 on a myeloid leukemia line increases its pathogenicity by allowing it to evade phagocytosis. We conclude that CD47 upregulation is an important mechanism that provides protection to normal HSCs during inflammation-mediated mobilization, and that leukemic progenitors co-opt this ability in order to evade macrophage killing.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2009.05.046

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268277000010

    View details for PubMedID 19632178

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2775564

  • Expression of AA4.1 marks lymphohematopoietic progenitors in early mouse development PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Yamane, T., Hosen, N., Yamazaki, H., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 106 (22): 8953-8958

    Abstract

    The hematopoietic system of mice is established during the early to midgestational stage of development. However, the earliest lymphohematopoietic progenitors that appear during mouse development have been less well characterized compared with the hematopoietic stem cell compartment of fetal liver and bone marrow. We isolated the earliest lymphohematopoietic progenitors by using embryonic stem (ES) cell culture in vitro. Cells with the c-Kit(+)Lin(-) cell surface phenotype were present abundantly in ES cells cocultured with stromal cell lines. We further separated the cells into two distinct cell subsets based on AA4.1 expression. Although AA4.1(+) and AA4.1(-) cells had equivalent potency to generate myeloid cell lineages, the lymphoid potential in ES-cell-derived cells was largely restricted to the cells expressing AA4.1. The same cell type was present abundantly in the early yolk sac and in fewer numbers (approximately 5% of that in the yolk sac) in the caudal half of the developing embryos. These data suggest that AA4.1 is a cell surface marker that can identify the earliest lymphohematopoietic progenitors in mouse development.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0904090106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266580500033

    View details for PubMedID 19458045

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2690003

  • Sustained in vitro intestinal epithelial culture within a Wnt-dependent stem cell niche. Nature medicine Ootani, A., Li, X., Sangiorgi, E., Ho, Q. T., Ueno, H., Toda, S., Sugihara, H., Fujimoto, K., Weissman, I. L., Capecchi, M. R., Kuo, C. J. 2009; 15 (6): 701-706

    Abstract

    The in vitro analysis of intestinal epithelium has been hampered by a lack of suitable culture systems. Here we describe robust long-term methodology for small and large intestinal culture, incorporating an air-liquid interface and underlying stromal elements. These cultures showed prolonged intestinal epithelial expansion as sphere-like organoids with proliferation and multilineage differentiation. The Wnt growth factor family positively regulates proliferation of the intestinal epithelium in vivo. Accordingly, culture growth was inhibited by the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) and markedly stimulated by a fusion protein between the Wnt agonist R-spondin-1 and immunoglobulin Fc (RSpo1-Fc). Furthermore, treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine and neurogenin-3 overexpression induced goblet cell and enteroendocrine cell differentiation, respectively, consistent with endogenous Notch signaling and lineage plasticity. Epithelial cells derived from both leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor-5-positive (Lgr5(+)) and B lymphoma moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region homolog-1-positive (Bmi1(+)) lineages, representing putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) populations, were present in vitro and were expanded by treatment with RSpo1-Fc; this increased number of Lgr5(+) cells upon RSpo1-Fc treatment was subsequently confirmed in vivo. Our results indicate successful long-term intestinal culture within a microenvironment accurately recapitulating the Wnt- and Notch-dependent ISC niche.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.1951

    View details for PubMedID 19398967

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2919216

  • Sustained in vitro intestinal epithelial culture within a Wnt-dependent stem cell niche NATURE MEDICINE Ootani, A., Li, X., Sangiorgi, E., Ho, Q. T., Ueno, H., Toda, S., Sugihara, H., Fujimoto, K., Weissman, I. L., Capecchi, M. R., Kuo, C. J. 2009; 15 (6): 1-U140

    Abstract

    The in vitro analysis of intestinal epithelium has been hampered by a lack of suitable culture systems. Here we describe robust long-term methodology for small and large intestinal culture, incorporating an air-liquid interface and underlying stromal elements. These cultures showed prolonged intestinal epithelial expansion as sphere-like organoids with proliferation and multilineage differentiation. The Wnt growth factor family positively regulates proliferation of the intestinal epithelium in vivo. Accordingly, culture growth was inhibited by the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) and markedly stimulated by a fusion protein between the Wnt agonist R-spondin-1 and immunoglobulin Fc (RSpo1-Fc). Furthermore, treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor dibenzazepine and neurogenin-3 overexpression induced goblet cell and enteroendocrine cell differentiation, respectively, consistent with endogenous Notch signaling and lineage plasticity. Epithelial cells derived from both leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor-5-positive (Lgr5(+)) and B lymphoma moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region homolog-1-positive (Bmi1(+)) lineages, representing putative intestinal stem cell (ISC) populations, were present in vitro and were expanded by treatment with RSpo1-Fc; this increased number of Lgr5(+) cells upon RSpo1-Fc treatment was subsequently confirmed in vivo. Our results indicate successful long-term intestinal culture within a microenvironment accurately recapitulating the Wnt- and Notch-dependent ISC niche.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.1951

    View details for Web of Science ID 000266731600031

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2919216

  • Automated microfluidic chromatin immunoprecipitation from 2,000 cells LAB ON A CHIP Wu, A. R., Hiatt, J. B., Lu, R., Attema, J. L., Lobo, N. A., Weissman, I. L., Clarke, M. F., Quake, S. R. 2009; 9 (10): 1365-1370

    Abstract

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful assay used to probe DNA-protein interactions. Traditional methods of implementing this assay are lengthy, cumbersome and require a large number of cells, making it difficult to study rare cell types such as certain cancer and stem cells. We have designed a microfluidic device to perform sensitive ChIP analysis on low cell numbers in a rapid, automated fashion while preserving the specificity of the assay. Comparing ChIP results for two modified histone protein targets, we showed our automated microfluidic ChIP (AutoChIP) from 2,000 cells to be comparable to that of conventional ChIP methods using 50,000-500,000 cells. This technology may provide a solution to the need for a high sensitivity, rapid, and automated ChIP assay, and in doing so facilitate the use of ChIP for many interesting and valuable applications.

    View details for DOI 10.1039/b819648f

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268227400008

    View details for PubMedID 19417902

  • Association of reactive oxygen species levels and radioresistance in cancer stem cells NATURE Diehn, M., Cho, R. W., Lobo, N. A., Kalisky, T., Dorie, M. J., Kulp, A. N., Qian, D., Lam, J. S., Ailles, L. E., Wong, M., Joshua, B., Kaplan, M. J., Wapnir, I., Dirbas, F. M., Somlo, G., Garberoglio, C., Paz, B., Shen, J., Lau, S. K., Quake, S. R., Brown, J. M., Weissman, I. L., Clarke, M. F. 2009; 458 (7239): 780-U123

    Abstract

    The metabolism of oxygen, although central to life, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have been implicated in processes as diverse as cancer, cardiovascular disease and ageing. It has recently been shown that central nervous system stem cells and haematopoietic stem cells and early progenitors contain lower levels of ROS than their more mature progeny, and that these differences are critical for maintaining stem cell function. We proposed that epithelial tissue stem cells and their cancer stem cell (CSC) counterparts may also share this property. Here we show that normal mammary epithelial stem cells contain lower concentrations of ROS than their more mature progeny cells. Notably, subsets of CSCs in some human and murine breast tumours contain lower ROS levels than corresponding non-tumorigenic cells (NTCs). Consistent with ROS being critical mediators of ionizing-radiation-induced cell killing, CSCs in these tumours develop less DNA damage and are preferentially spared after irradiation compared to NTCs. Lower ROS levels in CSCs are associated with increased expression of free radical scavenging systems. Pharmacological depletion of ROS scavengers in CSCs markedly decreases their clonogenicity and results in radiosensitization. These results indicate that, similar to normal tissue stem cells, subsets of CSCs in some tumours contain lower ROS levels and enhanced ROS defences compared to their non-tumorigenic progeny, which may contribute to tumour radioresistance.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature07733

    View details for PubMedID 19194462

  • Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta missplicing contributes to leukemia stem cell generation PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Abrahamsson, A. E., Geron, I., Gotlib, J., Dao, K. T., Barroga, C. F., Newton, I. G., Giles, F. J., Durocher, J., Creusot, R. S., Karimi, M., Jones, C., Zehnder, J. L., Keating, A., Negrin, R. S., Weissman, I. L., Jamieson, C. H. 2009; 106 (10): 3925-3929

    Abstract

    Recent evidence suggests that a rare population of self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSC) is responsible for cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) represents an important paradigm for understanding the genetic and epigenetic events involved in CSC production. CML progresses from a chronic phase (CP) in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that harbor the BCR-ABL translocation, to blast crisis (BC), characterized by aberrant activation of beta-catenin within granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMP). A major barrier to predicting and inhibiting blast crisis transformation has been the identification of mechanisms driving beta-catenin activation. Here we show that BC CML myeloid progenitors, in particular GMP, serially transplant leukemia in immunocompromised mice and thus are enriched for leukemia stem cells (LSC). Notably, cDNA sequencing of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway regulatory genes, including adenomatous polyposis coli, GSK3beta, axin 1, beta-catenin, lymphoid enhancer factor-1, cyclin D1, and c-myc, revealed a novel in-frame splice deletion of the GSK3beta kinase domain in the GMP of BC samples that was not detectable by sequencing in blasts or normal progenitors. Moreover, BC CML progenitors with misspliced GSK3beta have enhanced beta-catenin expression as well as serial engraftment potential while reintroduction of full-length GSK3beta reduces both in vitro replating and leukemic engraftment. We propose that CP CML is initiated by BCR-ABL expression in an HSC clone but that progression to BC may include missplicing of GSK3beta in GMP LSC, enabling unphosphorylated beta-catenin to participate in LSC self-renewal. Missplicing of GSK3beta represents a unique mechanism for the emergence of BC CML LSC and might provide a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0900189106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264036900051

    View details for PubMedID 19237556

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2646624

  • Dysregulated gene expression networks in human acute myelogenous leukemia stem cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Majetl, R., Becker, M. W., Tian, Q., Lee, T. M., Yan, X., Liu, R., Chiang, J., Hood, L., Clarke, M. F., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 106 (9): 3396-3401

    Abstract

    We performed the first genome-wide expression analysis directly comparing the expression profile of highly enriched normal human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and leukemic stem cells (LSC) from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Comparing the expression signature of normal HSC to that of LSC, we identified 3,005 differentially expressed genes. Using 2 independent analyses, we identified multiple pathways that are aberrantly regulated in leukemic stem cells compared with normal HSC. Several pathways, including Wnt signaling, MAP Kinase signaling, and Adherens Junction, are well known for their role in cancer development and stem cell biology. Other pathways have not been previously implicated in the regulation of cancer stem cell functions, including Ribosome and T Cell Receptor Signaling pathway. This study demonstrates that combining global gene expression analysis with detailed annotated pathway resources applied to highly enriched normal and malignant stem cell populations, can yield an understanding of the critical pathways regulating cancer stem cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0900089106

    View details for PubMedID 19218430

  • Imaging of STAT3 Signaling Pathway During Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT Xie, X., Chan, K. S., Cao, F., Huang, M., Li, Z., Lee, A., Weissman, I. L., Wu, J. C. 2009; 18 (2): 205-214

    Abstract

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a pleiotropic transcription factor involved in a variety of physiological processes. STAT3 acts as a key transcriptional determinant of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell self-renewal and plays a pivotal function in early mammalian embryogenesis because the development of many organs requires STAT3 activation. However, little is known about the role of STAT3 function during ES cell differentiation. To answer this question, we built a lentiviral construct with 7-repeat STAT3-binding sequence (enhancer) and minimal TA (promoter) driving renilla luciferase and monomeric red fluorescence protein (Rluc-mRFP), followed by a constitutive cytomegalovirus promoter driving green fluorescent protein as a selection marker. The specificity of our custom-designed 7-repeat STAT3 reporter construct was first confirmed by cotransfection with constitutively active version of STAT3 (STAT3C) into human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Next, a mouse ES cell line stably transduced with STAT3 reporter construct was isolated. This ES cell line showed a tight response in reporter gene expression with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induction and was chosen as a developmental model for the STAT3 functional study. Using serial noninvasive bioluminescence imaging, we showed that the onset of embryoid body (EB) formation involved inhibition of STAT3 activity. However, during differentiation, STAT3 activity steadily increased from day 5 to 14 and was reduced by day 21. STAT3 activity was also confirmed separately by Western blots. Finally, phosphorylation of STAT3 was also found to correspond with cardiomyocyte differentiation. In summary, this is the first study to monitor real-time STAT3 activity during ES cell differentiation. This genetically modified line can be used to study the biological role of STAT3 during ES cell differentiation into different derivatives.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/scd.2008.0152

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264171300002

    View details for PubMedID 18576943

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3133564

  • E2A proteins maintain the hematopoietic stem cell pool and promote the maturation of myelolymphoid and myeloerythroid progenitors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Semerad, C. L., Mercer, E. M., Inlay, M. A., Weissman, I. L., Murre, C. 2009; 106 (6): 1930-1935

    Abstract

    Hematopoiesis is a tightly controlled process maintained by a small pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Here, we demonstrate that the LT-HSC, MPP, premegakaryocytic/erythroid, Pre CFU-E, Pre GM, MkP, and granulocyte-macrophage compartments were all significantly reduced in E2A-deficient bone marrow. Despite a severe depletion of erythroid progenitors, the erythrocyte and megakaryocyte compartments were equivalent in E2A-deficient bone marrow as compared with wild-type mice. E2A-deficient HSCs also failed to efficiently maintain the HSC pool on serial transplantation, and we demonstrate that the E2A proteins regulate cell cycle progression of HSCs by regulating the expression of p21(Cip1), p27(Kip1), and the thrombopoietin receptor, known regulators of HSC self-renewal activity. Based on these observations, we propose that the E2A proteins promote the developmental progression of the entire spectrum of early hematopoietic progenitors and to suppress an erythroid specific program of gene expression in alternative cell lineages. Last, the data mechanistically link E2A, cell cycle regulators, and the maintenance of the HSC pool in a common pathway.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0808866106

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263252500048

    View details for PubMedID 19181846

  • Cancer Stem Cell-Directed Therapies: Recent Data From the Laboratory and Clinic MOLECULAR THERAPY Park, C. Y., Tseng, D., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 17 (2): 219-230

    Abstract

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined by their ability to (i) fully recapitulate the tumor of origin when transplanted into immunodeficient mouse hosts, and (ii) self-renew, demonstrated by their ability to be serially transplanted. These properties suggest that CSCs are required for tumor maintenance and metastasis; thus, it has been predicted that CSC elimination is required for cure. This prediction has profoundly altered paradigms for cancer research, compelling investigators to prospectively isolate CSCs to characterize the molecular pathways regulating their behavior. Many potential strategies for CSC-directed therapy have been proposed, but few studies have rigorously demonstrated their efficacy using in vivo models. Herein, we highlight recent studies that demonstrate the utility of CSC-directed therapies and discuss the implications of the CSC hypothesis to experimental design and therapeutic strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/mt.2008.254

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263287100008

    View details for PubMedID 19066601

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2835048

  • Reductive isolation from bone marrow and blood implicates common lymphoid progenitors as the major source of thymopoiesis BLOOD Serwold, T., Ehrlich, L. I., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 113 (4): 807-815

    Abstract

    Ongoing thymopoiesis requires continual seeding from progenitors that reside within the bone marrow (BM), but the identity of the most proximate prethymocytes has remained controversial. Here we take a comprehensive approach to prospectively identify the major source of thymocyte progenitors that reside within the BM and blood, and find that all thymocyte progenitor activity resides within a rare Flk2(+)CD27(+) population. The BM Flk2(+)CD27(+) subset is predominantly composed of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and multipotent progenitors. Of these 2 populations, only CLPs reconstitute thymopoiesis rapidly after intravenous injection. In contrast, multipotent progenitor-derived cells reconstitute the thymus with delayed kinetics only after they have reseeded the BM, self-renewed, and generated CLPs. These results identify CLPs as the major source of thymocyte progenitors within the BM.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-08-173682

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262646200009

    View details for PubMedID 18927436

  • CX(3)CR1 is required for monocyte homeostasis and atherogenesis by promoting cell survival BLOOD Landsman, L., Bar-On, L., Zernecke, A., Kim, K., Krauthgamer, R., Shagdarsuren, E., Lira, S. A., Weissman, I. L., Weber, C., Jung, S. 2009; 113 (4): 963-972

    Abstract

    CX(3)CR1 is a chemokine receptor with a single ligand, the membrane-tethered chemokine CX(3)CL1 (fractalkine). All blood monocytes express CX(3)CR1, but its levels differ between the main 2 subsets, with human CD16(+) and murine Gr1(low) monocytes being CX(3)CR1(hi). Here, we report that absence of either CX(3)CR1 or CX(3)CL1 results in a significant reduction of Gr1(low) blood monocyte levels under both steady-state and inflammatory conditions. Introduction of a Bcl2 transgene restored the wild-type phenotype, suggesting that the CX(3)C axis provides an essential survival signal. Supporting this notion, we show that CX(3)CL1 specifically rescues cultured human monocytes from induced cell death. Human CX(3)CR1 gene polymorphisms are risk factors for atherosclerosis and mice deficient for the CX(3)C receptor or ligand are relatively protected from atherosclerosis development. However, the mechanistic role of CX(3)CR1 in atherogenesis remains unclear. Here, we show that enforced survival of monocytes and plaque-resident phagocytes, including foam cells, restored atherogenesis in CX(3)CR1-deficent mice. The fact that CX(3)CL1-CX(3)CR1 interactions confer an essential survival signal, whose absence leads to increased death of monocytes and/or foam cells, might provide a mechanistic explanation for the role of the CX(3)C chemokine family in atherogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-07-170787

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262646200027

    View details for PubMedID 18971423

  • Endochondral ossification is required for haematopoietic stem-cell niche formation NATURE Chan, C. K., Chen, C., Luppen, C. A., Kim, J., DeBoer, A. T., Wei, K., Helms, J. A., Kuo, C. J., Kraft, D. L., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 457 (7228): 490-U9

    Abstract

    Little is known about the formation of niches, local micro-environments required for stem-cell maintenance. Here we develop an in vivo assay for adult haematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) niche formation. With this assay, we identified a population of progenitor cells with surface markers CD45(-)Tie2(-)alpha(V)(+)CD105(+)Thy1.1(-) (CD105(+)Thy1(-)) that, when sorted from 15.5 days post-coitum fetal bones and transplanted under the adult mouse kidney capsule, could recruit host-derived blood vessels, produce donor-derived ectopic bones through a cartilage intermediate and generate a marrow cavity populated by host-derived long-term reconstituting HSC (LT-HSC). In contrast, CD45(-)Tie2(-)alpha(V)(+)CD105(+)Thy1(+) (CD105(+)Thy1(+)) fetal bone progenitors form bone that does not contain a marrow cavity. Suppressing expression of factors involved in endochondral ossification, such as osterix and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), inhibited niche generation. CD105(+)Thy1(-) progenitor populations derived from regions of the fetal mandible or calvaria that do not undergo endochondral ossification formed only bone without marrow in our assay. Collectively, our data implicate endochondral ossification, bone formation that proceeds through a cartilage intermediate, as a requirement for adult HSC niche formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature07547

    View details for PubMedID 19078959

  • Two-step oligoclonal development of male germ cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Ueno, H., Turnbull, B. B., Weissman, I. L. 2009; 106 (1): 175-180

    Abstract

    During mouse development, primordial germ cells (PGCs) that give rise to the entire germ line are first identified within the proximal epiblast. However, long-term tracing of the fate of the cells has not been done wherein all cells in and around the germ-cell lineage are identified. Also, quantitative estimates of the number of founder PGCs using different models have come up with various numbers. Here, we use tetrachimeric mice to show that the progenitor numbers for the entire germ line in adult testis, and for the initiating embryonic PGCs, are both 4 cells. Although they proliferate to form polyclonal germ-cell populations in fetal and neonatal testes, germ cells that actually contribute to adult spermatogenesis originate from a small number of secondary founder cells that originate in the fetal period. The rest of the "deciduous" germ cells are lost, most likely by apoptosis, before the reproductive period. The second "actual" founder germ cells generally form small numbers of large monoclonal areas in testes by the reproductive period. Our results also demonstrate that there is no contribution of somatic cells to the male germ cell pool during development or in adulthood. These results suggest a model of 2-step oligoclonal development of male germ cells in mice, the second step distinguishing the heritable germ line from cells selected not to participate in forming the next generation.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0810325105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262263900034

    View details for PubMedID 19098099

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2629224

  • The Adhesion Molecule Esam1 Is a Novel Hematopoietic Stem Cell Marker STEM CELLS Ooi, A. G., Karsunky, H., Majeti, R., Butz, S., Vestweber, D., Ishida, T., Quertermous, T., Weissman, I. L., Forsberg, E. C. 2009; 27 (3): 653-661

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been highly enriched using combinations of 12-14 surface markers. Genes specifically expressed by HSCs as compared with other multipotent progenitors may yield new stem cell enrichment markers, as well as elucidate self-renewal and differentiation mechanisms. We previously reported that multiple cell surface molecules are enriched on mouse HSCs compared with more differentiated progeny. Here, we present a definitive expression profile of the cell adhesion molecule endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (Esam1) in hematopoietic cells using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry studies. We found Esam1 to be highly and selectively expressed by HSCs from mouse bone marrow (BM). Esam1 was also a viable positive HSC marker in fetal, young, and aged mice, as well as in mice of several different strains. In addition, we found robust levels of Esam1 transcripts in purified human HSCs. Esam1(-/-) mice do not exhibit severe hematopoietic defects; however, Esam1(-/-) BM has a greater frequency of HSCs and fewer T cells. HSCs from Esam1(-/-) mice give rise to more granulocyte/monocytes in culture and a higher T cell:B cell ratio upon transplantation into congenic mice. These studies identify Esam1 as a novel, widely applicable HSC-selective marker and suggest that Esam1 may play roles in both HSC proliferation and lineage decisions.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stemcells.2008-0824

    View details for PubMedID 19074415

  • Biology of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells Thomas' Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Prohaska, S., Weissman, I. Wiley-Blackwell. 2009; 4: 36–63
  • Identification of Conserved Gene Expression Programs in Epithelial Cancer Stem Cells 51st Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Radiation-Oncology (ASTRO) Diehn, M., Cho, R. W., Ailles, L., Lam, J. S., Kaplan, M. J., Somlo, G., Weissman, I. L., Clarke, M. F. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2009: S544–S545
  • Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells and the Inflammatory Response 6th International Cancer Vaccine Symposium Jaiswal, S., Weissman, I. L. BLACKWELL PUBLISHING. 2009: 118–121

    Abstract

    Cells of the vertebrate immune system are continuously regenerated by division of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into differentiated effector cells. Classically, HSCs were thought to reside primarily in the bone marrow niche where they produced mature progeny that migrated from the marrow to repopulate the peripheral immune system. However, emerging evidence has established that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are themselves mobile and able to repopulate ectopic niches and contribute more directly to inflammatory responses in the periphery. How the HSPCs remain immune to destruction in a toxic inflammatory milieu is unknown.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271828500015

    View details for PubMedID 19769744

  • Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency leads to disrupted response to acute stress in stem cells and progenitors BLOOD Cao, Y., Wagers, A. J., Karsunky, H., Zhao, H., Reeves, R., Wong, R. J., Stevenson, D. K., Weissman, I. L., Contag, C. H. 2008; 112 (12): 4494-4502

    Abstract

    An effective response to extreme hematopoietic stress requires an extreme elevation in hematopoiesis and preservation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). These diametrically opposed processes are likely to be regulated by genes that mediate cellular adaptation to physiologic stress. Herein, we show that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the inducible isozyme of heme degradation, is a key regulator of these processes. Mice lacking one allele of HO-1 (HO-1(+/-)) showed accelerated hematopoietic recovery from myelotoxic injury, and HO-1(+/-) HSCs repopulated lethally irradiated recipients with more rapid kinetics. However, HO-1(+/-) HSCs were ineffective in radioprotection and serial repopulation of myeloablated recipients. Perturbations in key stem cell regulators were observed in HO-1(+/-) HSCs and hematopoietic progenitors (HPCs), which may explain the disrupted response of HO-1(+/-) HPCs and HPCs to acute stress. Control of stem cell stress response by HO-1 presents opportunities for metabolic manipulation of stem cell-based therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2007-12-127621

    View details for PubMedID 18509090

  • In Vivo Serial Evaluation of Superparamagnetic Iron-Oxide Labeled Stem Cells by Off-Resonance Positive Contrast MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN MEDICINE Suzuki, Y., Cunningham, C. H., Noguchi, K., Chen, I. Y., Weissman, I. L., Yeung, A. C., Robbins, R. C., Yang, P. C. 2008; 60 (6): 1269-1275

    Abstract

    MRI is emerging as a diagnostic modality to track iron-oxide-labeled stem cells. This study investigates whether an off-resonance (OR) pulse sequence designed to generate positive contrast at 1.5T can assess the location, quantity, and viability of delivered stem cells in vivo. Using mouse embryonic stem cell transfected with luciferase reporter gene (luc-mESC), multimodality validation of OR signal was conducted to determine whether engraftment parameters of superparamagnetic iron-oxide labeled luc-mESC (SPIO-luc-mESC) could be determined after cell transplantation into the mouse hindlimb. A significant increase in signal- and contrast-to-noise of the SPIO-luc-mESC was achieved with the OR technique when compared to a gradient recalled echo (GRE) sequence. A significant correlation between the quantity of SPIO-luc-mESC and OR signal was observed immediately after transplantation (R(2) = 0.74, P < 0.05). The assessment of transplanted cell viability by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) showed a significant increase of luciferase activities by day 16, while the MRI signal showed no difference. No significant correlation between BLI and MRI signals of cell viability was observed. In conclusion, using an OR sequence the precise localization and quantitation of SPIO-labeled stem cells in both space and time were possible. However, the OR sequence did not allow evaluation of cell viability.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/mrm.21816

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261225100001

    View details for PubMedID 19030159

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2597338

  • ABT-737 Targets Intrinsic Apoptosis during Cooperation of BCL-2 and Oncogenic NRAS in An in Vivo Progression Model of Myelodysplasia/Acute Myeloid Leukaemia 50th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology/ASH/ASCO Joint Symposium Omidvar, N., Beurlet, S., Le Pogam, C., Janin, A., Leboeuf, C., Soulie, A., Setterblad, N., Noguera, M., Sarda-Mantel, L., Merlet, P., Pla, M., Kogan, S. C., Weissman, I. L., Konopleva, M., Bormann, W., Andreeff, M., Chomienne, C., Padua, R. A. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2008: 314–14
  • Wnt-mediated self-renewal of neural stem/progenitor cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Kalani, M. Y., Cheshier, S. H., Cord, B. J., Bababeygy, S. R., Vogel, H., Weissman, I. L., Palmer, T. D., Nusse, R. 2008; 105 (44): 16970-16975

    Abstract

    In this work we have uncovered a role for Wnt signaling as an important regulator of stem cell self-renewal in the developing brain. We identified Wnt-responsive cells in the subventricular zone of the developing E14.5 mouse brain. Responding cell populations were enriched for self-renewing stem cells in primary culture, suggesting that Wnt signaling is a hallmark of self-renewing activity in vivo. We also tested whether Wnt signals directly influence neural stem cells. Using inhibitors of the Wnt pathway, we found that Wnt signaling is required for the efficient cloning and expansion of single-cell derived populations that are able to generate new stem cells as well as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. The addition of exogenous Wnt3a protein enhances clonal outgrowth, demonstrating not only a critical role for the Wnt pathway for the regulation of neurogenesis but also its use for the expansion of neural stem cells in cell culture and in tissue engineering.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0808616105

    View details for PubMedID 18957545

  • The origins of the identification and isolation of hematopoietic stem cells, and their capability to induce donor-specific transplantation tolerance and treat autoimmune diseases BLOOD Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A. 2008; 112 (9): 3543-3553

    Abstract

    Advances in the understanding of the cells of the hematopoietic system have provided a rich basis for improving clinical hematopoietic cell transplants; finding and using proteins and molecules to amplify or suppress particular blood cell types; understanding the stepwise progression of preleukemic stages leading first to chronic myeloid disorders, then the emergence of acute blastic leukemias; and treating malignant and nonmalignant diseases with cell subsets. As a result of intense scientific investigation, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have been isolated and their key functional characteristics revealed-self-renewal and multilineage differentiation. These characteristics are now found to be present in all tissue/organ stem cell studies, and even in the analysis of pluripotent embryonic, nuclear transfer, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Studies on HSC have identified hematopoiesis as one of the best systems for studying developmental cell lineages and as the best for understanding molecular changes in cell fate decision-making and for finding preclinical and clinical platforms for tissue and organ replacement, regeneration, and oncogenesis. Here we review the steps, from our viewpoint, that led to HSC isolation and its importance in self-nonself immune recognition.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-08-078220

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260301800011

    View details for PubMedID 18948588

  • Cancer Stem Cells: On the Verge of Clinical Translation LABMEDICINE Chao, M. P., Weissman, I. L., Park, C. Y. 2008; 39 (11): 679-686
  • Transcriptional and Functional Profiling of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes PLOS ONE Cao, F., Wagner, R. A., Wilson, K. D., Xie, X., Fu, J., Drukker, M., Lee, A., Li, R. A., Gambhir, S. S., Weissman, I. L., Robbins, R. C., Wu, J. C. 2008; 3 (10)

    Abstract

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can serve as a potentially limitless source of cells that may enable regeneration of diseased tissue and organs. Here we investigate the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in promoting recovery from cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury in a mouse model. Using microarrays, we have described the hESC-CM transcriptome within the spectrum of changes that occur between undifferentiated hESCs and fetal heart cells. The hESC-CMs expressed cardiomyocyte genes at levels similar to those found in 20-week fetal heart cells, making this population a good source of potential replacement cells in vivo. Echocardiographic studies showed significant improvement in heart function by 8 weeks after transplantation. Finally, we demonstrate long-term engraftment of hESC-CMs by using molecular imaging to track cellular localization, survival, and proliferation in vivo. Taken together, global gene expression profiling of hESC differentiation enables a systems-based analysis of the biological processes, networks, and genes that drive hESC fate decisions, and studies such as this will serve as the foundation for future clinical applications of stem cell therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0003474

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265126100005

    View details for PubMedID 18941512

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2565131

  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Quiescence Is Maintained by Compound Contributions of the Retinoblastoma Gene Family CELL STEM CELL Viatour, P., Somervaille, T. C., Venkatasubrahmanyam, S., Kogan, S., McLaughlin, M. E., Weissman, I. L., Butte, A. J., Passegue, E., Sage, J. 2008; 3 (4): 416-428

    Abstract

    Individual members of the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene family serve critical roles in the control of cellular proliferation and differentiation, but the extent of their contributions is masked by redundant and compensatory mechanisms. Here we employed a conditional knockout strategy to simultaneously inactivate all three members, Rb, p107, and p130, in adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Rb family triple knockout (TKO) mice develop a cell-intrinsic myeloproliferation that originates from hyperproliferative early hematopoietic progenitors and is accompanied by increased apoptosis in lymphoid progenitor populations. Loss of quiescence in the TKO HSC pool is associated with an expansion of these mutant stem cells but also with an enhanced mobilization and an impaired reconstitution potential upon transplantation. The presence of a single p107 allele is sufficient to largely rescue these defects. Thus, Rb family members collectively maintain HSC quiescence and the balance between lymphoid and myeloid cell fates in the hematopoietic system.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260149800012

    View details for PubMedID 18940733

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2646421

  • Identification of the Endostyle as a Stem Cell Niche in a Colonial Chordate CELL STEM CELL Voskoboynik, A., Soen, Y., Rinkevich, Y., Rosner, A., Ueno, H., Reshef, R., Ishizuka, K. J., Palmeri, K. J., Moiseeva, E., Rinkevich, B., Weissman, I. L. 2008; 3 (4): 456-464

    Abstract

    Stem cell populations exist in "niches" that hold them and regulate their fate decisions. Identification and characterization of these niches is essential for understanding stem cell maintenance and tissue regeneration. Here we report on the identification of a novel stem cell niche in Botryllus schlosseri, a colonial urochordate with high stem cell-mediated developmental activities. Using in vivo cell labeling, engraftment, confocal microscopy, and time-lapse imaging, we have identified cells with stemness capabilities in the anterior ventral region of the Botryllus' endostyle. These cells proliferate and migrate to regenerating organs in developing buds and buds of chimeric partners but do not contribute to the germ line. When cells are transplanted from the endostyle region, they contribute to tissue development and induce long-term chimerism in allogeneic tissues. In contrast, cells from other Botryllus' regions do not show comparable stemness capabilities. Cumulatively, these results define the Botryllus' endostyle region as an adult somatic stem cell niche.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260149800015

    View details for PubMedID 18940736

  • Multimodal evaluation of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial restoration by mouse embryonic stem cells JOURNAL OF THORACIC AND CARDIOVASCULAR SURGERY Hendry, S. L., van der Bogt, K. E., Sheikh, A. Y., Arai, T., Dylla, S. J., Drukker, M., McConnell, M. V., Kutschka, I., Hoyt, G., Cao, F., Weissman, I. L., Connolly, A. J., Pelletier, M. P., Wu, J. C., Robbins, R. C., Yang, P. C. 2008; 136 (4): 1028-U14

    Abstract

    Mouse embryonic stem cells have demonstrated potential to restore infarcted myocardium after acute myocardial infarction. Although the underlying mechanism remains controversial, magnetic resonance imaging has provided reliable in vivo assessment of functional recovery after cellular transplants. Multimodal comparison of the restorative effects of mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts was performed to validate magnetic resonance imaging data and provide mechanistic insight.SCID-beige mice (n = 55) underwent coronary artery ligation followed by injection of 2.5 x 10(5) mouse embryonic stem cells, 2.5 x 10(5) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, or normal saline solution. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial restoration by mouse embryonic stem cells was evaluated by (1) in vivo pressure-volume loops, (2) in vivo bioluminescence imaging, and (3) ex vivo TaqMan (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Pleasanton, Calif) polymerase chain reaction and immunohistologic examination.In vivo magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction at 1 week in the mouse embryonic stem cell group. This finding was validated with (1) pressure-volume loop analysis demonstrating significantly improved systolic and diastolic functions, (2) bioluminescence imaging and polymerase chain reaction showing superior posttransplant survival of mouse embryonic stem cells, (3) immunohistologic identification of cardiac phenotype within engrafted mouse embryonic stem cells, and (4) polymerase chain reaction measuring increased expressions of angiogenic and antiapoptotic genes and decreased expressions of antifibrotic genes.This study validates in vivo magnetic resonance imaging as an effective means of evaluating the restorative potential of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2007.12.053

    View details for PubMedID 18954646

  • ISOLATION OF BRAIN CANCER STEM CELLS FROM GLIOBLASTOMA USING AN ANTIBODY LIBRARY 13th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Neuro-Oncology (SNO) Raveh, T., Luppen, C., Cox, D., Higgins, D., Cheshier, S., Ailles, L., Edwards, M. S., Harsh, G., Weissman, I. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2008: 904–
  • Hematopoietic stem cells and the aging hematopoietic system SEMINARS IN HEMATOLOGY Gazit, R., Weissman, I. L., Rossi, D. J. 2008; 45 (4): 218-224

    Abstract

    The etiology of the age-associated pathophysiological changes of the hematopoietic system including the onset of anemia, diminished adaptive immune competence, and myelogenous disease development are underwritten by the loss of normal homeostatic control. As tissue and organ homeostasis in adults is primarily mediated by the activity of stem and progenitor cells, it has been suggested that the imbalances accompanying aging of the hematopoietic system may stem from alterations in the prevalence and/or functional capacity of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors. In this review, we examine evidence implicating a role for stem cells in the aging of the hematopoietic system, and focus on the mechanisms suggested to contribute to stem cell aging.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/j.seminhematol.2008.07.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259584000003

    View details for PubMedID 18809091

  • The E. Donnall Thomas lecture: Normal and neoplastic stem cells BIOLOGY OF BLOOD AND MARROW TRANSPLANTATION Weissman, I. L. 2008; 14 (8): 849-858

    Abstract

    Dr. Irving Weissman was the honored E. Donnall Thomas lecturer at the Tandem BMT Meetings, held on February 10, 2007, at Keystone, Colorado. Dr. Weissman has been a major player, and has provided us with enormous insight into many areas of biology, dating back to his high school days in Montana. He led an enormously productive career at Stanford University where he has taught us many lessons involving our understanding of lymphocyte homing, stem cell biology, both of the hematopoietic system and other types of stem cells, and also now, about cancer stem cells. Dr. Weissman has made enormous contributions to this burgeoning field that has provided us new insights and new opportunities for treatment strategies. In addition to a very productive laboratory career, he is also currently the director of both the Stem Cell Institute, as well as the Cancer Center at Stanford University. The following text is a modified transcribed version of the presentation made by Dr. Weissman.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.bbmt.2008.05.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258228200001

    View details for PubMedID 18640567

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2821216

  • Space-time considerations for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Bhattacharya, D., Ehrlich, L. I., Weissman, I. L. 2008; 38 (8): 2060-2067

    Abstract

    The mammalian blood system contains a multitude of distinct mature cell lineages adapted to serving diverse functional roles. Mutations that abrogate the development or function of one or more of these lineages can lead to profound adverse consequences, such as immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, or anemia. Replacement of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that carry such mutations with HSC from a healthy donor can reverse such disorders, but because the risks associated with the procedure are often more serious than the blood disorders themselves, bone marrow transplantation is generally not used to treat a number of relatively common inherited blood diseases. Aside from a number of other problems, risks associated with cytoreductive treatments that create "space" for donor HSC, and the slow kinetics with which immune competence is restored following transplantation hamper progress. This review will focus on how recent studies using experimental model systems may direct future efforts to implement routine use of HSC transplantation to cure inherited blood disorders.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/eji.200838383

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258680100001

    View details for PubMedID 18651698

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2727747

  • Multimodality Evaluation of the Viability of Stem Cells Delivered Into Different Zones of Myocardial Infarction CIRCULATION-CARDIOVASCULAR IMAGING Hung, T., Suzuki, Y., Urashima, T., Caffarelli, A., Hoyt, G., Sheikh, A. Y., Yeung, A. C., Weissman, I., Robbins, R. C., Bulte, J. W., Yang, P. C. 2008; 1 (1): 6-13

    Abstract

    We tested the hypothesis that multimodality imaging of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) provides accurate assessment of cellular location, viability, and restorative potential after transplantation into different zones of myocardial infarction.Mice underwent left anterior descending artery ligation followed by transplantation of dual-labeled mESCs with superparamagnetic iron oxide and luciferase via direct injection into 3 different zones of myocardial infarction: intra-infarction, peri-infarction, and normal (remote). One day after transplantation, magnetic resonance imaging enabled assessment of the precise anatomic locations of mESCs. Bioluminescence imaging allowed longitudinal analysis of cell viability through detection of luciferase activity. Subsequent evaluation of myocardial regeneration and functional restoration was performed by echocardiography and pressure-volume loop analysis. Using 16-segment analysis, we demonstrated precise localization of dual-labeled mESCs. A strong correlation between histology and magnetic resonance imaging was established (r=0.962, P=0.002). Bioluminescent imaging data demonstrated that cell viability in the remote group was significantly higher than in other groups. Echocardiography and pressure-volume loop analysis revealed improved functional restoration in animals treated with mESCs, although myocardial regeneration was not observed.Multimodality evaluation of mESC engraftment in the heterogeneous tissue of myocardial infarction is possible. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated accurate anatomic localization of dual-labeled mESCs. Bioluminescent imaging enabled assessment of variable viability of mESCs transplanted into the infarcted myocardium. Echocardiography and pressure-volume loop analysis validated the restorative potential of mESCs. Although mESCs transplanted into the remote zone demonstrated the highest viability, precise delivery of mESCs into the peri-infarction region might be equally critical in restoring the injured myocardium.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.108.767343

    View details for PubMedID 19808509

  • Flk2(+) common lymphoid progenitors possess equivalent differentiation potential for the B and T lineages BLOOD Karsunky, H., Inlay, M. A., Serwold, T., Bhattacharya, D., Weissman, I. L. 2008; 111 (12): 5562-5570

    Abstract

    Mature blood cells develop from multipotent hematopoietic stem cells through a series of sequential intermediates in which the developmental potential for particular blood lineages is progressively extinguished. We previously reported the identification of one of these developmental intermediates, the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP), which can give rise to T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and natural killer cells (NKs), but lacks myeloid and erythroid potential. Recently, several studies have suggested that the T-cell and DC potential of CLP is limited or absent, and/or that CLP contains significant myeloid potential. Here, we show that the originally identified CLP population can be divided into functionally distinct subsets based on the expression of the tyrosine kinase receptor, Flk2. The Flk2(+) subset contains robust in vivo and in vitro T-cell, B-cell, DC, and NK potential, but lacks myeloid potential and, therefore, represents an oligopotent, lymphoid-restricted progenitor. This population of cells does not appear to be B cell-biased and robustly reconstitutes both B and T lineages in vivo, consistent with its being a physiologic progenitor of both of these subsets. Thus, Flk2 expression defines a homogeneous, readily obtainable subset of bone marrow CLP that is completely lymphoid-committed and can differentiate equivalently well into both B and T lineages.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2007-11-126219

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256786500028

    View details for PubMedID 18424665

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2424154

  • Isolation of human fetal liver progenitors and their enhanced proliferation by three-dimensional coculture with endothelial cells TISSUE ENGINEERING PART A Xiong, A., Austin, T. W., Lagasse, E., Uchida, N., Tamaki, S., Bordier, B. B., Weissman, I. L., Glenn, J. S., Millan, M. T. 2008; 14 (6): 995-1006

    Abstract

    Liver progenitor cells, characterized by the coexpression of biliary and hepatocyte lineage markers and the ability to form colonies in culture, were isolated by flow cytometry from primary human fetal livers. These prospectively isolated liver progenitor cells supported hepatitis D virus infection, expressed, and produced albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, as tracked by albumin- and alpha-fetoprotein-driven lentiviral promoter reporter constructs and measured by ELISA, respectively. Coculture in three-dimensional (3D) fibrin gel with endothelial cells resulted in the formation of vascular structures by the endothelial cells and increased proliferation of liver progenitors. The enhanced proliferation of liver progenitors that was observed when liver progenitors and endothelial cells were cultured in direct contact was not achieved when liver progenitors and endothelial cells were cultured on adjacent but separate matrices and when they were cultured across transwell membranes. In conclusion, coculture of liver progenitors and endothelial cells in three-dimensional matrix resulted in enhanced liver progenitor proliferation and function. This coculture methodology offers a novel coculture system that could be applied for the development of engineered liver tissues.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/ten.tea.2007.0087

    View details for PubMedID 19230124

  • Bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial precursors do not contribute to vascular endothelium and are not needed for tumor growth PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Purhonen, S., Palm, J., Rossi, D., Kaskenpaa, N., Rajantie, I., Yla-Herttuala, S., Alitalo, K., Weissman, I. L., Salven, P. 2008; 105 (18): 6620-6625

    Abstract

    The mechanisms by which bone marrow (BM)-derived stem cells might contribute to angiogenesis and the origin of neovascular endothelial cells (ECs) are controversial. Neovascular ECs have been proposed to originate from VEGF receptor 2-expressing (VEGFR-2+) stem cells mobilized from the BM by VEGF or tumors, and it is thought that angiogenesis and tumor growth may depend on such endothelial precursors or progenitors. We studied the mobilization of BM cells to circulation by inoculating mice with VEGF polypeptides, adenoviral vectors expressing VEGF, or tumors. We induced angiogenesis by syngeneic melanomas, APCmin adenomas, adenoviral VEGF delivery, or matrigel plugs in four different genetically tagged universal or endothelial cell-specific chimeric mouse models, and subsequently analyzed the contribution of BM-derived cells to endothelium in a wide range of time points. To study the existence of circulating ECs in a nonmyeloablative setting, pairs of genetically marked parabiotic mice with a shared anastomosed circulatory system were created. We did not observe specific mobilization of VEGFR-2+ cells to circulation by VEGF or tumors. During angiogenesis, abundant BM-derived perivascular cells were recruited close to blood vessel wall ECs but did not form part of the endothelium. No circulation-derived vascular ECs were observed in the parabiosis experiments. Our results show that no BM-derived VEGFR-2+ or other EC precursors contribute to vascular endothelium and that cancer growth does not require BM-derived endothelial progenitors. Endothelial differentiation is not a typical in vivo function of normal BM-derived stem cells in adults, and it has to be an extremely rare event if it occurs at all.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0710516105

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255841600021

    View details for PubMedID 18443294

  • SIRT1 acts as a nutrient-sensitive growth suppressor and its loss is associated with increased AMPK and telomerase activity MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL Narala, S. R., Allsopp, R. C., Wells, T. B., Zhang, G., Prasad, P., Coussens, M. J., Rossi, D. J., Weissman, I. L., Vaziri, H. 2008; 19 (3): 1210-1219

    Abstract

    SIRT1, the mammalian homolog of SIR2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is an NAD-dependent deacetylase implicated in regulation of lifespan. By designing effective short hairpin RNAs and a silent shRNA-resistant mutant SIRT1 in a genetically defined system, we show that efficient inhibition of SIRT1 in telomerase-immortalized human cells enhanced cell growth under normal and nutrient limiting conditions. Hematopoietic stem cells obtained from SIRT1-deficient mice also showed increased growth capacity and decreased dependency on growth factors. Consistent with this, SIRT1 inhibition was associated with increased telomerase activity in human cells. We also observed a significant increase in AMPK levels up on SIRT1 inhibition under glucose limiting conditions. Although SIRT1 suppression cooperated with hTERT to promote cell growth, either overexpression or suppression of SIRT1 alone had no effect on life span of human diploid fibroblasts. Our findings challenge certain models and connect nutrient sensing enzymes to the immortalization process. Furthermore, they show that in certain cell lineages, SIRT1 can act as a growth suppressor gene.

    View details for DOI 10.1091/mbc.E07-09-0965

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258951400038

    View details for PubMedID 18184747

  • Stems cells and the pathways to aging and cancer CELL Rossi, D. J., Jamieson, C. H., Weissman, I. L. 2008; 132 (4): 681-696

    Abstract

    The aging of tissue-specific stem cell and progenitor cell compartments is believed to be central to the decline of tissue and organ integrity and function in the elderly. Here, we examine evidence linking stem cell dysfunction to the pathophysiological conditions accompanying aging, focusing on the mechanisms underlying stem cell decline and their contribution to disease pathogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.036

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253817900025

    View details for PubMedID 18295583

  • Hematopoietic stem cell-derived pericytic cells in brain tumor angio-architecture STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT Bababeygy, S. R., Cheshier, S. H., Hou, L. C., Higgins, D. M., Weissman, I. L., Tse, V. C. 2008; 17 (1): 11-18

    Abstract

    Bone marrow-derived cells are recruited into tumor vasculature in response to angiogenic signals, and some of the cells within the newly forming tumor vessels are hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in origin. Previous studies suggest that bone marrow-derived pericytes are associated with newly formed vessels in tumors. In this study, we used an orthotopic rat glioma model (RT-2/RAG) to examine the contribution of long-term hematopoietic stem cell (LT-HSC)-derived pericytic cells to brain tumor angiogenesis. Mice (RAG-2/KO5.2) were lethally irradiated, and their hematopoietic cells were repopulated by transplantation of double fluorescence-activated cell-sorted LT-HSCs that express green fluorescent protein (GFP+). RT-2/RAG cells were then injected into the striatum of the chimeric mice 6 weeks post-transplantation. The animals were sacrificed 9 days after tumor implantation, and the incorporation and lineage-specific marker expression profile of the GFP+ cells within the growing tumor and tumor periphery were analyzed. LT-HSC-derived GFP+ cells were noted to incorporate onto the surface of tumor vessels within the perivascular space. LT-HSC-derived GFP+ cells express the pericyte progenitor marker, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR beta), as well as mature perictyte markers such as nerve/glial antigen 2 proteoglycan (NG2), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA), and desmin. These LT-HSC-derived cells may represent a population of progenitor or committed pericytes within the neovascular tree and may play a role in shaping the angio-architecture in the vascular niche of brain tumors.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/scd.2007.0117

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253628600002

    View details for PubMedID 18240955

  • Establishment of a Normal Hematopoietic and Leukemia Stem Cell Hierarchy 73rd Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology Chao, M. P., Seita, J., Weissman, I. L. COLD SPRING HARBOR LABORATORY PRESS. 2008: 439–449

    Abstract

    Many types of adult tissues, especially for high turnover tissues such as the blood and intestinal system, stand on a hierarchical tissue-specific stem cell system. Tissue-specific stem cells concurrently have self-renewal capacity and potential to give rise to all types of mature cells in their tissue. The differentiation process of the tissue-specific stem cell is successive restriction of these capacities. The first progeny of tissue-specific stem cells are multipotent progenitors (MPPs) that lose long-term self-renewal capacity yet have full lineage potential. MPPs in turn give rise to oligopotent progenitors, which then commit into lineage-restricted progenitors. This hierarchical system enables a lifelong supply of matured functional cells that generally have a short life span and a relatively high turnover rate. In this chapter, we review our findings and other key experiments that have led to the establishment of the current cellular stem and progenitor hierarchy in the blood-forming systems of mice and humans for both normal and leukemic hematopoiesis. We also review select signaling pathways intrinsic to normal hematopoietic and leukemic stem cell populations as well our recent findings elucidating the possible origin of the leukemia stem cell.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267135700050

    View details for PubMedID 19022770

  • Investigating mechanisms of cancer stern cell radioresistance 50th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Therapeutic-Radiology-and-Oncology (ASTRO) Diehn, M., Cho, R. W., Dorie, M., KULP, A., Weissman, I. L., Brown, M., Clarke, M. F. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2008: S29–S29
  • In vivo evaluation of human hematopoiesis through xenotransplantation of purified hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood NATURE PROTOCOLS Park, C. Y., Majeti, R., Weissman, I. L. 2008; 3 (12): 1932-1940

    Abstract

    Establishment of robust xenograft models is critical to studying human hematopoiesis in a physiologic setting. Using a recently developed immunodeficient mouse strain, we have established long-term multilineage human grafts and demonstrated their serially transplantability using limited numbers of purified human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Herein, we describe our protocol for the isolation of human HSC (Lin-CD34+CD38-CD90+) from umbilical cord blood (CB) as well as the xenotransplantation system that allows stable engraftment of human hematopoietic cells with as few as ten HSCs. Isolation of CB mononuclear cells requires 2-3 h, and cells may be cryopreserved before transplantation. Isolation of HSC requires approximately 2-3 h, and transplantation requires 1 h. Short-term and long-term engraftment is assessed 4-6 weeks and 10-12 weeks post-transplantation, respectively, with preparation and analysis time requiring 4-8 h at each time point.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nprot.2008.194

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265781700012

    View details for PubMedID 19180077

  • The PIAS-like protein Zimp10 is essential for embryonic viability and proper vascular development MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY Beliakoff, J., Lee, J., Ueno, H., Aiyer, A., Weissman, I. L., Barsh, G. S., Cardiff, R. D., Sun, Z. 2008; 28 (1): 282-292

    Abstract

    Members of the PIAS (for protein inhibitor of activated STAT) family play critical roles in modulating the activity of a variety of transcriptional regulators. Zimp10, a novel PIAS-like protein, is a transcriptional coregulator and may be involved in the modification of chromatin through interactions with the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes. Here, we investigate the biological role of Zimp10 in zimp10-deficient mice. Homozygosity for the Zimp10-targeted allele resulted in developmental arrest at approximately embryonic day 10.5. Analysis of knockout embryos revealed severe defects in the reorganization of the yolk sac vascular plexus. No significant abnormality in hematopoietic potential was observed in zimp10 null mice. Microarray and quantified reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that the expression of the Fos family member Fra-1, which is involved in extraembryonic vascular development, was reduced in yolk sac tissues of zimp10 null embryos. Using fra-1 promoter/reporter constructs, we further demonstrate the regulatory role of Zimp10 on the transcription of Fra-1. This study provides evidence to demonstrate a crucial role for Zimp10 in vasculogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/MCB.00771-07

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251925300024

    View details for PubMedID 17967885

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2223308

  • BCL-2 and mutant NRAS interact physically and functionally in a mouse model of progressive myelodysplasia CANCER RESEARCH Omidvar, N., Kogan, S., Beurlet, S., Pogam, C. I., Janin, A., West, R., Noguera, M., Reboul, M., Soulie, A., Leboeuf, C., Setterblad, N., Felsher, D., Lagasse, E., Mohamedali, A., Thomas, N. S., Fenaux, P., Fontenay, M., Pla, M., Mufti, G. J., Weissman, I., Chomienne, C., Padua, R. A. 2007; 67 (24): 11657-11667

    Abstract

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal stem cell hematologic disorders that evolve to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and thus model multistep leukemogenesis. Activating RAS mutations and overexpression of BCL-2 are prognostic features of MDS/AML transformation. Using NRASD12 and BCL-2, we created two distinct models of MDS and AML, where human (h)BCL-2 is conditionally or constitutively expressed. Our novel transplantable in vivo models show that expression of hBCL-2 in a primitive compartment by mouse mammary tumor virus-long terminal repeat results in a disease resembling human MDS, whereas the myeloid MRP8 promoter induces a disease with characteristics of human AML. Expanded leukemic stem cell (Lin(-)/Sca-1(+)/c-Kit(+)) populations and hBCL-2 in the increased RAS-GTP complex within the expanded Sca-1(+) compartment are described in both MDS/AML-like diseases. Furthermore, the oncogenic compartmentalizations provide the proapoptotic versus antiapoptotic mechanisms, by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT signaling, in determination of the neoplastic phenotype. When hBCL-2 is switched off with doxycycline in the MDS mice, partial reversal of the phenotype was observed with persistence of bone marrow blasts and tissue infiltration as RAS recruits endogenous mouse (m)BCL-2 to remain active, thus demonstrating the role of the complex in the disease. This represents the first in vivo progression model of MDS/AML dependent on the formation of a BCL-2:RAS-GTP complex. The colocalization of BCL-2 and RAS in the bone marrow of MDS/AML patients offers targeting either oncogene as a therapeutic strategy.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-0196

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251857900025

    View details for PubMedID 18089795

  • Identification of a hierarchy of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors in human cord blood CELL STEM CELL Majeti, R., Park, C. Y., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 1 (6): 635-645

    Abstract

    Mouse hematopoiesis is initiated by long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that differentiate into a series of multipotent progenitors that exhibit progressively diminished self-renewal ability. In human hematopoiesis, populations enriched for HSC activity have been identified, as have downstream lineage-committed progenitors, but multipotent progenitor activity has not been uniquely isolated. Previous reports indicate that human HSC are enriched in Lin-CD34+CD38- cord blood and bone marrow and express CD90. We demonstrate that the Lin-CD34+CD38- fraction of cord blood and bone marrow can be subdivided into three subpopulations: CD90+CD45RA-, CD90-CD45RA-, and CD90-CD45RA+. Utilizing in vivo transplantation studies and complementary in vitro assays, we demonstrate that the Lin-CD34+CD38-CD90+CD45RA- cord blood fraction contains HSC and isolate this activity to as few as 10 purified cells. Furthermore, we report the first prospective isolation of a population of candidate human multipotent progenitors, Lin-CD34+CD38-CD90-CD45RA- cord blood.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.10.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251784300010

    View details for PubMedID 18371405

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2292126

  • Cancer stem cells in head and neck squamous carcinoma Ailles, L., Prince, M., Joshua, B., Doweck, I., Kaplan, M., Clarke, M., Weissman, I. AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. 2007: 3630S–3630S
  • Transcriptional instability is not a universal attribute of aging AGING CELL Warren, L. A., Rossi, D. J., Schiebinger, G. R., Weissman, I. L., Kim, S. K., Quake, S. R. 2007; 6 (6): 775-782

    Abstract

    It has been proposed that cumulative somatic mutations contribute to the aging process by disrupting the transcriptional networks that regulate cell structure and function. Experimental support for this model emerged from a recent study of cardiomyocytes that showed a dramatic increase in the transcriptional heterogeneity of these long-lived postmitotic cells with age. To determine if regulatory instability is a hallmark of aging in renewing tissues, we evaluated gene expression noise in four hematopoietic cell types: stem cells, granulocytes, naïve B cells and naïve T cells. We used flow cytometry to purify phenotypically equivalent cells from young and old mice, and applied multiplexed quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to measure the copy number of six different mRNA transcripts in 324 individual cells. There was a trend toward higher transcript levels in cells isolated from old animals, but no significant increase in transcriptional heterogeneity with age was found in the surveyed populations. Flow cytometric analysis of membrane protein expression also indicated that cell-to-cell variability was unaffected by age. We conclude that large-scale regulatory destabilization is not a universal concomitant of aging, and may be of significance as an aging mechanism primarily in nonrenewing tissues.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2007.00337.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250938400007

    View details for PubMedID 17925006

  • Efficient transplantation via antibody-based clearance of hematopoietic stem cell niches SCIENCE Czechowicz, A., Kraft, D., Weissman, I. L., Bhattacharya, D. 2007; 318 (5854): 1296-1299

    Abstract

    Upon intravenous transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can home to specialized niches, yet most HSCs fail to engraft unless recipients are subjected to toxic preconditioning. We provide evidence that, aside from immune barriers, donor HSC engraftment is restricted by occupancy of appropriate niches by host HSCs. Administration of ACK2, an antibody that blocks c-kit function, led to the transient removal of >98% of endogenous HSCs in immunodeficient mice. Subsequent transplantation of these mice with donor HSCs led to chimerism levels of up to 90%. Extrapolation of these methods to humans may enable mild but effective conditioning regimens for transplantation.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1149726

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251086600042

    View details for PubMedID 18033883

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2527021

  • Missplicing of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta: A potential mechanism of blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell generation 49th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Abrahamsson, A., Geron, I., Gotlib, J., Dao, K., Giles, F., Newton, I., Kavaterchik, E., Durocher, J., Creusot, R., Karimi, M., Jones, C., Zehnder, J., Keating, A., Negrin, R., Weissman, I. L., Jamieson, C. H. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2007: 238A–239A
  • Transcriptional profiling of antigen-dependent murine B cell differentiation and memory formation JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Bhattacharya, D., Cheah, M. T., Franco, C. B., Hosen, N., Pin, C. L., Sha, W. C., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 179 (10): 6808-6819

    Abstract

    Humoral immunity is characterized by the generation of Ab-secreting plasma cells and memory B cells that can more rapidly generate specific Abs upon Ag exposure than their naive counterparts. To determine the intrinsic differences that distinguish naive and memory B cells and to identify pathways that allow germinal center B cells to differentiate into memory B cells, we compared the transcriptional profiles of highly purified populations of these three cell types along with plasma cells isolated from mice immunized with a T-dependent Ag. The transcriptional profile of memory B cells is similar to that of naive B cells, yet displays several important differences, including increased expression of activation-induced deaminase and several antiapoptotic genes, chemotactic receptors, and costimulatory molecules. Retroviral expression of either Klf2 or Ski, two transcriptional regulators specifically enriched in memory B cells relative to their germinal center precursors, imparted a competitive advantage to Ag receptor and CD40-engaged B cells in vitro. These data suggest that humoral recall responses are more rapid than primary responses due to the expression of a unique transcriptional program by memory B cells that allows them to both be maintained at high frequencies and to detect and rapidly respond to antigenic re-exposure.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250792700049

    View details for PubMedID 17982071

  • Hematopoietic stem cell quiescence attenuates DNA damage response and permits DNA damage accumulation during aging CELL CYCLE Rossi, D. J., Seita, J., Czechowicz, A., Bhattacharya, D., Bryder, D., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 6 (19): 2371-2376

    Abstract

    The aging of tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells is believed to be central to the pathophysiological conditions arising in aged individuals. While the mechanisms driving stem cell aging are poorly understood, mounting evidence points to age-dependent DNA damage accrual as an important contributing factor. While it has been postulated that DNA damage may deplete stem cell numbers with age, recent studies indicate that murine hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) reserves are in fact maintained despite the accrual of genomic damage with age. Evidence suggests this to be a result of the quiescent (G0) cell cycle status of HSC, which results in an attenuation of checkpoint control and DNA damage responses for repair or apoptosis. When aged stem cells that have acquired damage are called into cycle under conditions of stress or tissue regeneration however, their functional capacity was shown to be severely impaired. These data suggest that age-dependent DNA damage accumulation may underlie the diminished capacity of aged stem cells to mediate a return to homeostasis after acute stress or injury. Moreover, the cytoprotection afforded by stem cell quiescence in stress-free, steady-state conditions suggests a mechanism through which potentially dangerous lesions can accumulate in the stem cell pool with age.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251085700012

    View details for PubMedID 17700071

  • Elucidation of the phenotypic, functional, and molecular topography of a myeloerythroid progenitor cell hierarchy CELL STEM CELL Pronk, C. J., Rossi, D. J., Mansson, R., Attema, J. L., Norddahl, G. L., Chan, C. K., Sigvardsson, M., Weissman, I. L., Bryder, D. 2007; 1 (4): 428-442

    Abstract

    The major myeloid blood cell lineages are generated from hematopoietic stem cells by differentiation through a series of increasingly committed progenitor cells. Precise characterization of intermediate progenitors is important for understanding fundamental differentiation processes and a variety of disease states, including leukemia. Here, we evaluated the functional in vitro and in vivo potentials of a range of prospectively isolated myeloid precursors with differential expression of CD150, Endoglin, and CD41. Our studies revealed a hierarchy of myeloerythroid progenitors with distinct lineage potentials. The global gene expression signatures of these subsets were consistent with their functional capacities, and hierarchical clustering analysis suggested likely lineage relationships. These studies provide valuable tools for understanding myeloid lineage commitment, including isolation of an early erythroid-restricted precursor, and add to existing models of hematopoietic differentiation by suggesting that progenitors of the innate and adaptive immune system can separate late, following the divergence of megakaryocytic/erythroid potential.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.stem.2007.07.005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251055300012

    View details for PubMedID 18371379

  • Isolation of brain cancer stem cells using signaling pathway reporters 12th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Neuro-Oncology Ailles, L., Cheshier, S., Raveh, T., Higgins, D., Harsh, G., Edwards, M., Weissman, I. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2007: 593–93
  • Cancer stem cells in solid tumors CURRENT OPINION IN BIOTECHNOLOGY Ailles, L. E., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 18 (5): 460-466

    Abstract

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are cells that drive tumorigenesis, as well as giving rise to a large population of differentiated progeny that make up the bulk of the tumor, but that lack tumorigenic potential. CSCs have been identified in a variety of human tumors, as assayed by their ability to initiate tumor growth in immunocompromised mice. Further characterization studies have demonstrated that gene expression profiles in breast cancer correlate with patient prognosis, and brain CSCs are specifically resistant to radiation through DNA damage repair. In addition, specific signaling pathways play a functional role in CSC self renewal and/or differentiation, and early studies indicate that CSCs are associated with a microenvironmental niche. Thus the biological properties of CSCs are just beginning to be revealed, and the continuation of these studies should lead to the development of CSC-targeted therapies for cancer treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.copbio.2007.10.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251512700013

    View details for PubMedID 18023337

  • The effect of bleeding on hematopoietic stem cell cycling and self-renewal STEM CELLS AND DEVELOPMENT Cheshier, S. H., Prohaska, S. S., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 16 (5): 707-717

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) divide and give rise to more committed progenitors, which ultimately produce all lineages of blood cells. HSCs can be induced to enter the cell cycle in vitro and in vivo by stimulatory cytokines and in vivo by ablation of bone marrow (BM) cells with irradiation or chemotherapeutic agents. Although it has been postulated that rates of HSC proliferation increase with normal hematopoietic stresses, such as infection or hemorrhage, this hypothesis has never been directly tested. The ability to analyze HSCs prospectively by cell-surface phenotype c-kit(+), Thy1.1(lo), Sca-1(+), Linage(neg/lo) has allowed us to perform a detailed examination of the effects of bleeding on the cell cycle kinetics of HSCs. Our results demonstrate for the first time that HSCs in both the BM and the spleen proliferate and self-renew in response to tail-vein bleeding in mice. This response was suppressed when red blood cells, but not when white blood cells, were transferred after bleeding. Thus, regulators of HSC proliferation can sense and respond to red blood cell levels.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/scd.2007.0017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251266900003

    View details for PubMedID 17999593

  • Toward understanding the molecular mechanisms of lineage determination in hematopoietic stem cells 36th Annual Meeting of the International-Society-for-Experimental-Hematology Heffner, G. C., Clutter, M. R., Nolan, G. P., Weissman, I. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2007: 19–19
  • Reversal of autoimmune disease in lupus-prone New Zealand black/New Zealand white mice by nom-nyeloablative transplantation of purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells Tandem BMT Meeting 2007 Smith-Berdan, S., Gille, D., Weissman, I. L., Christensen, J. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2007: 1370–78

    Abstract

    Patients with severe systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) refractory to conventional treatment are candidates for autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation if the intent is to reset the immunologic clock. These patients might be candidates for allotransplantation with (SLE)-resistant major histocompatibility complex (MHC) haplotype-matched HSC if partial or complete replacement of an autoimmune-prone system is the intent. Using lupus-prone New Zealand black x New Zealand white (NZBW) mice, we investigated the use of highly enriched, haplomismatched, allogeneic HSC to prevent development of or to treat established autoimmune pathology. Young NZBW mice receiving purified allogeneic HSC transplants had improved survival, decreased proteinuria, circulating immune complexes, and autoantibodies to nuclear antigens than did untreated mice or mice given NZBW HSCs. NZBW mice with established lupus-like disease that received nonmyeloablative conditioning and transplants of (MHC) haplomismatched allogeneic HSCs also had greatly increased overall survival. Mice that received transplants exhibited stabilization or reversal of their lupus symptoms; stabilized or decreased proteinuria, and a lower frequency of elevated circulating immune complexes or autoantibodies than did control mice. Induction of durable mixed chimerism by transplantation of purified allogeneic HSCs after nonmyeloablative conditioning has the potential to reverse symptoms of established NZBW lupus.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2007-03-081497

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248655300046

    View details for PubMedID 17435112

  • The Wilms' tumor gene WT1-GFP knock-in mouse reveals the dynamic regulation of WT1 expression in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis LEUKEMIA Hosen, N., Shirakata, T., Nishida, S., Yanagihara, M., Tsuboi, A., Kawakami, M., Oji, Y., Oka, Y., Okabe, M., Tan, B., Sugiyama, H., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 21 (8): 1783-1791

    Abstract

    The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is overexpressed in most of human leukemias regardless of disease subtypes. To characterize the expression pattern of WT1 during normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis, we generated a knock-in reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP) mouse (WT1(GFP/+)) and assayed for WT1 expression in normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells. In normal hematopoietic cells, WT1 was expressed in none of the long-term (LT) hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and very few (<1%) of the multipotent progenitor cells. In contrast, in murine leukemias induced by acute myeloid leukemia 1 (AML1)/ETO+TEL/PDGFbetaR or BCR/ABL, WT1 was expressed in 40.5 or 38.9% of immature c-kit(+)lin(-)Sca-1(+) (KLS) cells, which contained a subset, but not all, of transplantable leukemic stem cells (LSCs). WT1 expression was minimal in normal fetal liver HSCs and mobilized HSCs, both of which are stimulated for proliferation. In addition, overexpression of WT1 in HSCs did not result in proliferation or expansion of HSCs and their progeny in vivo. Thus, the mechanism by which expansion of WT1-expressing cells occurs in leukemia remains unclear. Nevertheless, our results demonstrate that the WT1(GFP/+) mouse is a powerful tool for analyzing WT1-expressing cells, and they highlight the potential of WT1, as a specific therapeutic target that is expressed in LSCs but not in normal HSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.leu.2404752

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248170100021

    View details for PubMedID 17525726

  • Epigenetic characterization of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation using miniChIP and bisulfite sequencing analysis PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Attema, J. L., Papathanasiou, P., Forsberg, E. C., Xu, J., Smale, S. T., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 104 (30): 12371-12376

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) produce all blood cell lineages by virtue of their capacity to self-renew and differentiate into progenitors with decreasing cellular potential. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in controlling stem cell potency and cell fate decisions. To investigate this hypothesis in HSC, we have modified the conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation assay allowing for the analysis of 50,000 prospectively purified stem and progenitor cells. Together with bisulfite sequencing analysis, we found that methylated H3K4 and AcH3 and unmethylated CpG dinucleotides colocalize across defined regulatory regions of lineage-affiliated genes in HSC. These active epigenetic histone modifications either accumulated or were replaced by increased DNA methylation and H3K27 trimethylation in committed progenitors consistent with gene expression. We also observed bivalent histone modifications at a lymphoid-affiliated gene in HSC and downstream transit-amplifying progenitors. Together, these data support a model in which epigenetic modifications serve as an important mechanism to control HSC multipotency.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0704468104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248472100026

    View details for PubMedID 17640913

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1924790

  • Pioneer factor interactions and unmethylated CpG dinucleotides mark silent tissue-specific enhancers in embryonic stem cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Xu, J., Pope, S. D., Jazirehi, A. R., Attema, J. L., Papathanasiou, P., Watts, J. A., Zaret, K. S., Weissman, I. L., Smale, S. T. 2007; 104 (30): 12377-12382

    Abstract

    Recent studies have suggested that, in ES cells, inactive genes encoding early developmental regulators possess bivalent histone modification domains and are therefore poised for activation. However, bivalent domains were not observed at typical tissue-specific genes. Here, we show that windows of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides and putative pioneer factor interactions mark enhancers for at least some tissue-specific genes in ES cells. The unmethylated windows expand in cells that express the gene and contract, disappear, or remain unchanged in nonexpressing tissues. However, in ES cells, they do not always coincide with common histone modifications. Genomic footprinting and chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that transcription factor binding underlies the unmethylated windows at enhancers for the Ptcra and Alb1 genes. After stable integration of premethylated Ptcra enhancer constructs into the ES cell genome, the unmethylated windows readily appeared. In contrast, the premethylated constructs remained fully methylated and silent after introduction into Ptcra-expressing thymocytes. These findings provide initial functional support for a model in which pioneer factor interactions in ES cells promote the assembly of a chromatin structure that is permissive for subsequent activation, and in which differentiated tissues lack the machinery required for gene activation when these ES cell marks are absent. The enhancer marks may therefore represent important features of the pluripotent state.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0704579104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248472100027

    View details for PubMedID 17640912

  • Early TCR expression and aberrant T cell development in mice with endogenous prerearranged T cell receptor genes JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Serwold, T., Hochedlinger, K., Inlay, M. A., Jaenisch, R., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 179 (2): 928-938

    Abstract

    The factors that regulate the rate of production of T cells by the thymus remain incompletely defined. To test whether generation of functional T cell receptors limits the rate of thymic T cell export, we made use of a line of mice, LN3alphabeta, that have endogenously prerearranged TCR genes. The prerearranged TCR genes were expressed abnormally early in hemopoietic development, indicating that RAG-mediated recombination, rather than transcription factor expression, is the key determinant of the initiation of robust TCR transcription. Thymic T cell export rates were similar between wild-type (wt) and LN3alphabeta mice, indicating that T cell maturation rates in these mice are determined by factors other than TCR gene rearrangement. In competitive bone marrow chimeras, however, LN3alphabeta thymocytes were out-competed by wt cells and failed to develop beyond the double-negative 4 stage. Furthermore, wt progenitors transplanted intrathymically into LN3alphabeta mice proliferated excessively, suggesting that increased proliferative signals in the LN3alphabeta thymus compensate for faulty T cell development driven by early TCR expression.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247752100029

    View details for PubMedID 17617584

  • Bmi-1-green fluorescent protein-knock-in mice reveal the dynamic regulation of Bmi-1 expression in normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells STEM CELLS Hosen, N., Yamane, T., Muijtjens, M., Pham, K., Clarke, M. F., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 25 (7): 1635-1644

    Abstract

    The ability to self-renew is essential for all kinds of stem cells regardless of tissue type. One of the best candidate genes involved in conferring self-renewal capacity is Bmi-1, which has been proven to be essential for the maintenance of both normal adult hematopoietic and leukemia stem cells, as well as adult neural stem cells. To investigate the possible role of Bmi-1 in other cell types that also self-renew, we generated Bmi-1-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-knock-in mice, in which GFP was expressed under the endogenous transcriptional regulatory elements of the Bmi-1 gene. Using these targeted reporter mice, we demonstrated that Bmi-1 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) at its highest levels and downregulated upon commitment to differentiation. An in vivo reconstitution assay revealed that the frequency of HSCs was 1/16 in Bmi-1high c-kit+ lin -Sca-1+ bone marrow (BM) cells and 1/49 in Bmi-1 high lin- BM cells, suggesting that Bmi-1 may serve as a marker for normal HSCs. In murine leukemia models induced by P210BCR/ABL or TEL/PDGFbetaR + AML1/ETO, Bmi-1 was not overexpressed in leukemic HSCs, despite the increase in the HSC numbers. Bmi-1 was expressed at its highest levels in undifferentiated leukemia cells. Furthermore, in several other nonhematopoietic tissues, cells could be separated into distinct subpopulations with differential Bmi-1 expression. Thus, these mice allow for the isolation of viable Bmi-1-expressing cells and have the potential to become a useful tool for understanding the role of Bmi-1 in normal and cancer stem cells in multiple tissue types. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stemcells.2006-0229

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247722100006

    View details for PubMedID 17395774

  • CD96 is a leukemic stem cell-specific marker in human acute myeloid leukemia PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Hosen, N., Park, C. Y., Tatsumi, N., Oji, Y., Sugiyama, H., Gramatzki, M., Krensky, A. M., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 104 (26): 11008-11013

    Abstract

    Permanent cure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by chemotherapy alone remains elusive for most patients because of the inability to effectively eradicate leukemic stem cells (LSCs), the self-renewing component of the leukemia. To develop therapies that effectively target LSC, one potential strategy is to identify cell surface markers that can distinguish LSC from normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In this study, we employ a signal sequence trap strategy to isolate cell surface molecules expressed on human AML-LSC and find that CD96, which is a member of the Ig gene superfamily, is a promising candidate as an LSC-specific antigen. FACS analysis demonstrates that CD96 is expressed on the majority of CD34(+)CD38(-) AML cells in many cases (74.0 +/- 25.3% in 19 of 29 cases), whereas only a few (4.9 +/- 1.6%) cells in the normal HSC-enriched population (Lin(-)CD34(+)CD38(-)CD90(+)) expressed CD96 weakly. To examine whether CD96(+) AML cells are enriched for LSC activity, we separated AML cells into CD96(+) and CD96(-) fractions and transplanted them into irradiated newborn Rag2(-/-) gamma(c)(-/-) mice. In four of five samples, only CD96(+) cells showed significant levels of engraftment in bone marrow of the recipient mice. These results demonstrate that CD96 is a cell surface marker present on many AML-LSC and may serve as an LSC-specific therapeutic target.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0704271104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247641900048

    View details for PubMedID 17576927

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1904175

  • Deficiencies in DNA damage repair limit the function of haematopoietic stem cells with age NATURE Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Seita, J., Nussenzweig, A., Hoeijmakers, J., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 447 (7145): 725-U15

    Abstract

    A diminished capacity to maintain tissue homeostasis is a central physiological characteristic of ageing. As stem cells regulate tissue homeostasis, depletion of stem cell reserves and/or diminished stem cell function have been postulated to contribute to ageing. It has further been suggested that accumulated DNA damage could be a principal mechanism underlying age-dependent stem cell decline. We have tested these hypotheses by examining haematopoietic stem cell reserves and function with age in mice deficient in several genomic maintenance pathways including nucleotide excision repair, telomere maintenance and non-homologous end-joining. Here we show that although deficiencies in these pathways did not deplete stem cell reserves with age, stem cell functional capacity was severely affected under conditions of stress, leading to loss of reconstitution and proliferative potential, diminished self-renewal, increased apoptosis and, ultimately, functional exhaustion. Moreover, we provide evidence that endogenous DNA damage accumulates with age in wild-type stem cells. These data are consistent with DNA damage accrual being a physiological mechanism of stem cell ageing that may contribute to the diminished capacity of aged tissues to return to homeostasis after exposure to acute stress or injury.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature05862

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247030700046

    View details for PubMedID 17554309

  • B-cell development fails in the absence of the Pbx1 proto-oncogene BLOOD Sanyal, M., Tung, J. W., Karsunky, H., Zeng, H., Selleri, L., Weissman, I. L., Herzenberg, L. A., Cleary, M. L. 2007; 109 (10): 4191-4199

    Abstract

    Pbx1, a homeodomain transcription factor that was originally identified as the product of a proto-oncogene in acute pre-B-cell leukemia, is a global regulator of embryonic development. However, embryonic lethality in its absence has prevented an assessment of its role in B-cell development. Here, using Rag1-deficient blastocyst complementation assays, we demonstrate that Pbx1 null embryonic stem (ES) cells fail to generate common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) resulting in a complete lack of B and NK cells, and a partial impairment of T-cell development in chimeric mice. A critical role for Pbx1 was confirmed by rescue of B-cell development from CLPs following restoration of its expression in Pbx1-deficient ES cells. In adoptive transfer experiments, B-cell development from Pbx1-deficient fetal liver cells was also severely compromised, but not erased, since transient B lymphopoiesis was detected in Rag-deficient recipients. Conditional inactivation of Pbx1 in pro-B (CD19(+)) cells and thereafter revealed that Pbx1 is not necessary for B-cell development to proceed from the pro-B-cell stage. Thus, Pbx1 critically functions at a stage between hematopoietic stem cell development and B-cell commitment and, therefore, is one of the earliest-acting transcription factors that regulate de novo B-lineage lymphopoiesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2006-10-054213

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246609100023

    View details for PubMedID 17244677

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1885499

  • Striving for normality: whole body regeneration through a series of abnormal generations FASEB JOURNAL Voskoboynik, A., Simon-Blecher, N., Soen, Y., Rinkevich, B., De Tomaso, A. W., Ishizuka, K. J., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 21 (7): 1335-1344

    Abstract

    Embryogenesis and asexual reproduction are commonly considered to be coordinated developmental processes, which depend on accurate progression through a defined sequence of developmental stages. Here we report a peculiar developmental scenario in a simple chordate, Botryllus schlosseri, wherein a normal colony of individuals (zooids and buds) is regenerated from the vasculature (vascular budding) through a sequence of morphologically abnormal developmental stages. Vascular budding was induced by surgically removing buds and zooids from B. schlosseri colonies, leaving only the vasculature and the tunic that connects them. In vivo imaging and histological sections showed that the timing and morphology of developing structures during vascular budding deviated significantly from other asexual reproduction modes (the regular asexual reproduction mode in this organism and vascular budding in other botryllid species). Subsequent asexual reproduction cycles exhibited gradual regaining of normal developmental patterns, eventually leading to regeneration of a normal colony. The conversion into a normal body form suggests the activation of an alternative pathway of asexual reproduction, which involves gradual regaining of normal positional information. It presents a powerful model for studying the specification of the same body plan by different developmental programs.

    View details for DOI 10.1096/fj.06-7337com

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246117000009

    View details for PubMedID 17289924

  • Hematopoietic stem cell aging: Mechanism and consequence 1st European Congress of Aging Research in Immunology - Impact of Genomics Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Weissman, I. L. PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD. 2007: 385–90

    Abstract

    Advancing age is frequented by the onset of a variety of hematological conditions characterized by diminished homeostatic control of blood cell production. The fact that upstream hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are obligate mediators of homeostatic control of all blood lineages, has implicated the involvement of these cells in the pathophysiology of these conditions. Indeed, evidence from our group and others has suggested that two of the most clinically significant age-associated hematological conditions, namely, the diminution of the adaptive immune system and the elevated incidence of myeloproliferative diseases, have their origin in cell autonomous changes in the functional capacity of hematopoietic stem cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exger.2006.11.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246532900002

    View details for PubMedID 17275237

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1892213

  • Stem cells - Blood lines from embryo to adult NATURE Ueno, H., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 446 (7139): 996-997

    View details for DOI 10.1038/446996a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245950400033

    View details for PubMedID 17460657

  • Molecular imaging of embryonic stem cell misbehavior and suicide gene ablation CLONING AND STEM CELLS Cao, F., Drukker, M., Lin, S., Sheikh, A. Y., Xie, X., Li, Z., Connolly, A. J., Weissman, I. L., Wu, J. C. 2007; 9 (1): 107-117

    Abstract

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of stem cells for the repair and regeneration of injured tissues. However, tracking transplanted stem cell fate and function in vivo remains problematic. To address these issues, murine embryonic stem (ES) cells were stably transduced with self-inactivating lentiviral vectors carrying either a triple fusion (TF) or double fusion (DF) reporter gene construct. The TF consisted of monomeric red fluorescence protein (mrfp), firefly luciferase (Fluc), and herpes simplex virus truncated thymidine kinase (HSV-ttk) reporter genes. The DF consisted of enhanced green fluorescence protein (egfp) and Fluc reporter genes but lacked HSV-ttk. Stably transduced ES-TF or ES-DF cells were selected by fluorescence activated cell sorting based on either mrfp (TF) or egfp (DF) expression. Afterwards, cells were injected subcutaneously into the right (ES-TF cells) and left (ES-DF cells) shoulders of adult female nude mice. Cell survival was tracked noninvasively by bioluminescence and positron emission tomography imaging of Fluc and HSV-ttk reporter genes, respectively. Imaging signals progressively increased from day 2 to day 14, consistent with ES cell survival and proliferation in vivo. However, teratoma formation occurred in all nude mice after 5 weeks. Administration of ganciclovir (GCV), targeting the HSV-ttk gene, resulted in selective ablation of teratomas arising from the ES-TF cells but not ES-DF cells. These data demonstrate the novel use of multimodality imaging techniques to (1) monitor transplanted ES cell survival and proliferation in vivo and (2) assess the efficacy of suicide gene therapy as a backup safety measure against teratoma formation.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/clo.2006.0016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245390300015

    View details for PubMedID 17386018

  • The ISSCR guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research SCIENCE Daley, G. Q., Ahrlund-Richter, L., Auerbach, J. M., Benvenisty, N., Charo, R. A., Chen, G., Deng, H., Goldstein, L. S., Hudson, K. L., Hyun, I., Junn, S. C., Love, J., Lee, E. H., McLaren, A., Mummery, C. L., Nakatsuji, N., Racowsky, C., Rooke, H., Rossant, J., Schoeler, H. R., Solbakk, J. H., Taylor, P., Trounson, A. O., Weissman, I. L., Wilmut, I., Yu, J., Zoloth, L. 2007; 315 (5812): 603-604

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1139337

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243909400027

    View details for PubMedID 17272706

  • Hematopoietic reconstitution by multipotent adult progenitor cells: precursors to long-term hematopoietic stem cells JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Serafini, M., Dylla, S. J., Oki, M., Heremans, Y., Tolar, J., Jiang, Y., Buckley, S. M., Pelacho, B., Burns, T. C., Frommer, S., Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Panoskaltsis-Mortari, A., O'Shaughnessy, M. J., Nelson-Holte, M., Fine, G. C., Weissman, I. L., Blazar, B. R., Verfaillie, C. M. 2007; 204 (1): 129-139

    Abstract

    For decades, in vitro expansion of transplantable hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been an elusive goal. Here, we demonstrate that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice and expanded in vitro for >40-80 population doublings, are capable of multilineage hematopoietic engraftment of immunodeficient mice. Among MAPC-derived GFP+CD45.2+ cells in the bone marrow of engrafted mice, HSCs were present that could radioprotect and reconstitute multilineage hematopoiesis in secondary and tertiary recipients, as well as myeloid and lymphoid hematopoietic progenitor subsets and functional GFP+ MAPC-derived lymphocytes that were functional. Although hematopoietic contribution by MAPCs was comparable to control KTLS HSCs, approximately 10(3)-fold more MAPCs were required for efficient engraftment. Because GFP+ host-derived CD45.1+ cells were not observed, fusion is not likely to account for the generation of HSCs by MAPCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20061115

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243753600017

    View details for PubMedID 17227908

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2118428

  • Identification of a subpopulation of cells with cancer stem cell properties in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Prince, M. E., Sivanandan, R., Kaczorowski, A., Wolf, G. T., Kaplan, M. J., Dalerba, P., Weissman, I. L., Clarke, M. F., Ailles, L. E. 2007; 104 (3): 973-978

    Abstract

    Like many epithelial tumors, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) contains a heterogeneous population of cancer cells. We developed an immunodeficient mouse model to test the tumorigenic potential of different populations of cancer cells derived from primary, unmanipulated human HNSCC samples. We show that a minority population of CD44(+) cancer cells, which typically comprise <10% of the cells in a HNSCC tumor, but not the CD44(-) cancer cells, gave rise to new tumors in vivo. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the CD44(+) cancer cells have a primitive cellular morphology and costain with the basal cell marker Cytokeratin 5/14, whereas the CD44(-) cancer cells resemble differentiated squamous epithelium and express the differentiation marker Involucrin. The tumors that arose from purified CD44(+) cells reproduced the original tumor heterogeneity and could be serially passaged, thus demonstrating the two defining properties of stem cells: ability to self-renew and to differentiate. Furthermore, the tumorigenic CD44(+) cells differentially express the BMI1 gene, at both the RNA and protein levels. By immunohistochemical analysis, the CD44(+) cells in the tumor express high levels of nuclear BMI1, and are arrayed in characteristic tumor microdomains. BMI1 has been demonstrated to play a role in self-renewal in other stem cell types and to be involved in tumorigenesis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that cells within the CD44(+) population of human HNSCC possess the unique properties of cancer stem cells in functional assays for cancer stem cell self-renewal and differentiation and form unique histological microdomains that may aid in cancer diagnosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0610117104

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243761100053

    View details for PubMedID 17210912

  • Generation of a monoclonal antibody library against human embryonic stem cells. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Drukker, M., Muscat, C., Weissman, I. L. 2007; 407: 63-81

    Abstract

    Differentiated cell types derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) may serve in the future to treat various human diseases and to model early human embryonic development in vitro. Fulfilling this potential, however, requires extensive development of methods and reagents for studying hESCs self-renewal and differentiation. One of the most widely used experimental approaches in the field of stem cell research is the identification of cell surface markers that can be used to prospectively define and isolate specific populations of stem cells and their progenitors. Here, we review an efficient method for generating monoclonal antibodies against cell surface antigens expressed by hESCs and stem cells at different stages of differentiation. This method may have profound implications for many aspects of hESC research and therapeutics.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-59745-536-7_6

    View details for PubMedID 18453249

  • Stem cells; lessons from the past, lessons for the future Stem Cell Technology and Other Innovative Therapies Weissman, I. Pontificia Academia Scientiarum. 2007
  • The cancer stem cell hypothesis: a work in progress LABORATORY INVESTIGATION Tan, B. T., Park, C. Y., Ailles, L. E., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 86 (12): 1203-1207

    Abstract

    There is a growing body of evidence that supports the idea that malignant tumors are initiated and maintained by a population of tumor cells that share similar biologic properties to normal adult stem cells. This model, the cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis, is based on the observation that tumors, like adult tissues, arise from cells that exhibit the ability to self-renew as well as give rise to differentiated tissue cells. Although the concept of the CSC is not entirely new, advances made over the past two decades in our understanding of normal stem cell biology in conjunction with the recent application of these concepts to experimentally define CSCs have resulted in the identification of CSCs in several human malignancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/labinvest.3700488

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242442400001

    View details for PubMedID 17075578

  • Transcription factor profiling in individual hematopoietic progenitors by digital RT-PCR PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Warren, L., Bryder, D., Weissman, I. L., Quake, S. R. 2006; 103 (47): 17807-17812

    Abstract

    We report here a systematic, quantitative population analysis of transcription factor expression within developmental progenitors, made possible by a microfluidic chip-based "digital RT-PCR" assay that can count template molecules in cDNA samples prepared from single cells. In a survey encompassing five classes of early hematopoietic precursor, we found markedly heterogeneous expression of the transcription factor PU.1 in hematopoietic stem cells and divergent patterns of PU.1 expression within flk2- and flk2+ common myeloid progenitors. The survey also revealed significant differences in the level of the housekeeping transcript GAPDH across the surveyed populations, which demonstrates caveats of normalizing expression data to endogenous controls and underscores the need to put gene measurement on an absolute, copy-per-cell basis.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0608512103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242464900042

    View details for PubMedID 17098862

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1693828

  • Heme oxygenase 1 deficiency compromises stress responses of hematopoietic stem cells. 48th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Cao, Y., Wagers, A. J., Karsunky, H., Zhao, H., Reeves, R., Wang, R. J., Stevenson, D. K., Weissman, I. L., Contag, C. H. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2006: 395A–395A
  • Aberrant regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin pathway mediators in chronic myelogenous leukemia stem cells 48th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Abrahamsson, A., Geron, I., Gotlib, J., Durocher, J., Creusot, R., Kavalerchik, E., Goff, D., Fathman, C. G., Lilleberg, S. L., Giles, F., Weissman, I., Jamieson, C. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2006: 605A–605A
  • The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is over-expressed in immature leukemia cells but not necessary for leukemia development in mouse leukemia models. 48th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Hosen, N., Sugiyama, H., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2006: 415A–415A
  • AML1/ETO and PML/RAR alpha can immortalize committed myeloid progenitor cells in-vitro but not expand them in-vivo. 48th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Hosen, N., Passegue, E., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2006: 719A–719A
  • Cancer stem cells--perspectives on current status and future directions: AACR Workshop on cancer stem cells. Cancer research Clarke, M. F., Dick, J. E., Dirks, P. B., Eaves, C. J., Jamieson, C. H., Jones, D. L., Visvader, J., Weissman, I. L., Wahl, G. M. 2006; 66 (19): 9339-9344

    View details for PubMedID 16990346

  • CD90 expression segregates tumor-sphere forming cells in human glioblastoma multiforme 7th Congress of the European-Association-for-Neuro-Oncology (EANO) Cheshier, S. H., Ailles, L., Higgins, D. M., Lim, M., Kalani, M. Y., Bababeygy, S., Weissman, I. L. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2006: 471–71
  • Flow cytometric analysis of neural stem cell markers on pediatric brain tumors 7th Congress of the European-Association-for-Neuro-Oncology (EANO) Cheshier, S. H., Ailles, L. E., Lim, M., Laddis, P., Tse, V., Weissman, I. L., Huhn, S. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2006: 466–66
  • Clonal analysis of mouse development reveals a polyclonal origin for yolk sac blood islands DEVELOPMENTAL CELL Ueno, H., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 11 (4): 519-533

    Abstract

    Direct clonal analysis of tissue and organ maturation in vivo is a critical step in the interpretation of in vitro cell precursor-progeny relationships. We have developed a method to analyze clonal progenitor contributions in vivo using ES cells stably expressing separate fluorescent proteins and placed into normal blastocysts to form tetrachimeras. Here we applied this method to the analysis of embryonic yolk sac blood islands. In most vertebrates, yolk sac blood islands are the initial sites of appearance of hematopoietic and endothelial cells. It has been proposed that these lineages arise from a common clonal progenitor, the hemangioblast, but this hypothesis has not been tested directly in physiological development in vivo. Our analysis shows that each island has contributions from multiple progenitors. Moreover, contribution by individual hemangioblast progenitors to both endothelial and hematopoietic lineages within an island, if it happens at all, is an infrequent event.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.devcel.2006.08.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000241123300013

    View details for PubMedID 17011491

  • Proliferation and differentiation of brain cancer stem cells in organotypic slices 16th International Congress of Neuropathology D'Apuzzo, M. M., Cheshier, S., Ailles, L., Vogel, H., Weissman, I. WILEY-BLACKWELL. 2006: S117–S117
  • Incorporation of bone marrow-derived Flk-1-expressing CD34+ cells in the endothelium of tumor vessels in the mouse brain NEUROSURGERY Santarelli, J. G., Udani, V., Yung, Y. C., Cheshier, S., Wagers, A., Brekken, R. A., Weissman, I., Tse, V. 2006; 59 (2): 374-381

    Abstract

    Neoangiogenesis is a prerequisite for the full phenotypic expression and growth of a malignant tumor mass. It is believed to be triggered by tissue hypoxia and involves proliferation and sprouting of the preexisting vessels and the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells from bone marrow.A chimeric mouse model was used to examine the contribution of these progenitor cells to the neovasculature of brain tumor. T-cell knockout (RAG/KO5.2) mice were irradiated lethally, and their bone marrow was repopulated with T-cell depleted green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing bone marrow cells. RAG/RT-2 glioma cells were implanted into the striatum of the animals. Neovascular formation at various times of tumor growth was monitored together with the extent of incorporation of GFP+ bone marrow-derived cells within the vascular tree, in particular, cells carrying the endothelial progenitor markers CD34 and Flk-1.The recruitment of GFP+ cells to the growing tumor and their incorporation into the vascular network occurred during the period of increasing vascular density and preceded the expansion of the tumor. The number of marrow-derived cells with endothelial morphology and phenotype was small but significant (4% of all endothelial cells at Day 12); 54% of all tumor vessels contained at least one GFP+ cell.Our results suggest that bone marrow cells are recruited to newly formed and remodeled tumor vessels. Their recruitment may occur in response to signals from a highly proliferating milieu, and their role is to support the neovascular complex and to promote tumor growth.

    View details for DOI 10.1227/01.NEU.0000222658.66878.CC

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239763800047

    View details for PubMedID 16883178

  • Hematopoietic stem cells - The paradigmatic tissue-specific stem cell AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Bryder, D., Rossi, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 169 (2): 338-346

    Abstract

    The recent prospective isolation of a wide variety of somatically derived stem cells has affirmed the notion that homeostatic maintenance of most tissues and organs is mediated by tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells and fueled enthusiasm for the use of such cells in strategies aimed at repairing or replacing damaged, diseased, or genetically deficient tissues and organs. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are arguably the most well-characterized tissue-specific stem cell, with decades of basic research and clinical application providing not only a profound understanding of the principles of stem cell biology, but also of its potential pitfalls. It is our belief that emerging stem cell fields can benefit greatly from an understanding of the lessons learned from the study of HSCs. In this review we discuss some general concepts regarding stem cell biology learned from the study of HSCs with a highlight on recent work pertaining to emerging topics of interest for stem cell biology.

    View details for DOI 10.2353/jmoldx.2006.050079

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239471100002

    View details for PubMedID 16877336

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1698791

  • New evidence supporting megakaryocyte-erythrocyte potential of Flk2/Flt3(+) multipotent hematopoietic progenitors CELL Forsberg, E. C., Serwold, T., Kogan, S., Weissman, I. L., Passegue, E. 2006; 126 (2): 415-426

    Abstract

    A model of hematopoietic development wherein multipotentiality is conserved until segregation of myeloid and lymphoid potential has recently been challenged, proposing that megakaryocyte/erythrocyte (MegE) potential is lost in Flk2/Flt3-expressing early progenitors. Here, we used sensitive in vivo approaches to quantitatively and kinetically assess the MegE potential of hematopoietic stem cells and various Flk2(+) early progenitors and compared it with the MegE potential of downstream committed myeloid and lymphoid progenitors and with their ability to give rise to mature myelomonocytic and lymphoid cells. We demonstrate that Flk2(+) early progenitors retain MegE potential in vivo both at the population and clonal levels. These results indicate that Flk2 expression by early progenitors is not at the expense of full multipotency and support the current model of hematopoietic development with segregation of myeloid and lymphoid lineages from multipotent progenitors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239552600025

    View details for PubMedID 16873070

  • fester, a Candidate allorecognition receptor from a primitive chordate IMMUNITY Nyholm, S. V., Passegue, E., Ludington, W. B., Voskoboynik, A., Mitchel, K., Weissman, I. L., De Tomaso, A. W. 2006; 25 (1): 163-173

    Abstract

    Histocompatibility in the primitive chordate, Botryllus schlosseri, is controlled by a single, highly polymorphic locus, the FuHC. By taking a forward genetic approach, we have identified a locus encoded near the FuHC, called fester, which is polymorphic, polygenic, and inherited in distinct haplotypes. Somatic diversification occurs through extensive alternative splicing, with each individual expressing a unique repertoire of splice forms, both membrane bound and potentially secreted, all expressed in tissues intimately associated with histocompatibility. Functional studies, via both siRNA-mediated knockdown and direct blocking by monoclonal antibodies raised against fester, were able to disrupt predicted histocompatibility outcomes. The genetic and somatic diversity, coupled to the expression and functional data, suggests that fester is a receptor involved in histocompatibility.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.immuni.2006.04.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239713000019

    View details for PubMedID 16860765

  • Rapid lymphocyte reconstitution of unconditioned immunodeficient mice with non-self-renewing multipotent hematopoietic progenitors CELL CYCLE Bhattacharya, D., Bryder, D., Rossi, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 5 (11): 1135-1139

    Abstract

    The replacement of abnormal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) with normal transplanted HSCs can correct a wide range of hematologic disorders. Here, we provide evidence that transplantation of more differentiated progenitor cells can be used to more rapidly correct lymphoid deficiencies in unconditioned immunocompromised mice. Transplantation of flk2+ multipotent progenitors led to robust B and T cell reconstitution that was maintained for at least 16 weeks. Antigenic challenge at 16 weeks post-transplantation revealed that reconstituted lymphocytes maintained a functional repertoire. In contrast to the persistent lymphocytic engraftment, myeloid chimerism was lost by 12 weeks post-transplantation consistent with the fact that flk2+ progenitors are non-self-renewing. Thus, while more differentiated progenitors are capable of rescuing lymphoid deficiencies, transplantation of HSCs must be used for the correction of non-lymphoid disorders, and, we propose, very long-term immune reconstitution. Based on recent evidence, we discuss novel strategies to achieve the replacement of abnormal HSCs without the use of cytotoxic conditioning regimens.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238581100003

    View details for PubMedID 16760650

  • Pten, tumorigenesis, and stem cell self-renewal CELL Rossi, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 125 (2): 229-231

    Abstract

    Self-renewal pathways crucial for maintaining stem cells are deregulated in cancer, raising the spectre that cancer therapies targeting such pathways might also ablate normal stem cells. As Yilmaz et al. (2006) report in a recent Nature paper, this may not be the case for the tumor suppressor protein Pten, which drives the self-renewal of normal hematopoietic stem cells and the formation of leukemia cells through different mechanisms.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2006.04.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237241500013

    View details for PubMedID 16630811

  • The JAK2 V617F mutation occurs in hematopoietic stem cells in polycythemia vera and predisposes toward erythroid differentiation PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Jamieson, C. H., Gotlib, J., Durocher, J. A., Chao, M. P., Mariappan, M. R., Lay, M., Jones, C., Zehnder, J. L., Lilleberg, S. L., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 103 (16): 6224-6229

    Abstract

    Although a large proportion of patients with polycythemia vera (PV) harbor a valine-to-phenylalanine mutation at amino acid 617 (V617F) in the JAK2 signaling molecule, the stage of hematopoiesis at which the mutation arises is unknown. Here we isolated and characterized hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and myeloid progenitors from 16 PV patient samples and 14 normal individuals, testing whether the JAK2 mutation could be found at the level of stem or progenitor cells and whether the JAK2 V617F-positive cells had altered differentiation potential. In all PV samples analyzed, there were increased numbers of cells with a HSC phenotype (CD34+CD38-CD90+Lin-) compared with normal samples. Hematopoietic progenitor assays demonstrated that the differentiation potential of PV was already skewed toward the erythroid lineage at the HSC level. The JAK2 V617F mutation was detectable within HSC and their progeny in PV. Moreover, the aberrant erythroid potential of PV HSC was potently inhibited with a JAK2 inhibitor, AG490.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0601462103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236999000031

    View details for PubMedID 16603627

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1434515

  • Differential expression of alpha 2 integrin separates long-term and short-term reconstituting Lin(-/lo)Thy1.1(lo)c-kit(+)Sca-1(+) hematopoietic stem cells STEM CELLS Wagers, A. J., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 24 (4): 1087-1094

    Abstract

    Self-renewing, multipotent hematopoietic stem cells are highly enriched within the Lin- Thy1.1(lo)c-kit+ Sca-1+ subset of mouse bone marrow. However, heterogeneous expression within this population of certain cell surface markers raises the possibility that it may be further fractionated phenotypically and perhaps functionally. We previously identified alpha2-integrin (CD49b) as a surface marker with heterogeneous expression on Lin(-/lo)Thy1.1(lo)c-kit+ Sca-1+ stem cells. To determine whether differences in alpha2 expression were indicative of differences in stem cell function, we purified alpha2- and alpha2hi stem cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and analyzed their function in long- and short-term hematopoietic reconstitution assays. Both alpha2- and alpha2hi cells could give rise to mature lymphoid and myeloid cells after transplantation into lethally irradiated congenic recipients. However, alpha2hi cells supported hematopoiesis for only a short time (<4 weeks), whereas alpha2- cells reproducibly yielded robust, long-term (>20 weeks) reconstitution, suggesting that alpha2- cells represent a more primitive population than do alpha2hi cells. Consistent with this idea, alpha2- Lin(-/lo)Thy1.1(lo)c-kit+ Sca-1+ cells exhibited an approximately sixfold decreased frequency of spleen colony-forming units (day 12) versus alpha2hi cells. Furthermore, bone marrow cells isolated from animals transplanted >20 weeks previously with 20 alpha2- Lin(-/lo)Thy1.1(lo)c-kit+ Sca-1+ cells included both alpha2- and alpha2hi stem cells of donor origin, indicating that alpha2hi cells are likely lineal descendents of alpha2- cells. Interestingly, alpha2 integrin expression is significantly reduced on lineage-restricted oligopotent progenitors in the marrow, suggesting that high level expression of alpha2 selectively marks a subset of primitive hematopoietic cells which retains multilineage reconstitution potential but exhibits reduced self-renewal capacity.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stemcells.2005-0396

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240636300031

    View details for PubMedID 16373693

  • Memory T and memory B cells share a transcriptional program of self-renewal with long-term hematopoietic stem cells Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Immunologists Luckey, C. J., Bhattacharya, D., Goldrath, A. W., Weissman, I. L., Benoist, C., Mathis, D. AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS. 2006: S298–S299
  • Purified hematopoietic stem cell engraftment of rare niches corrects severe lymphoid deficiencies without host conditioning. Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Immunologists Bhattacharya, D., Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Weissman, I. L. AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS. 2006: S308–S308
  • Early TCR expression and aberrant T cell development in mice with clone-derived T cell receptor genes Annual Meeting of the American-Association-of-Immunologists Serwold, T., Hochedlinger, K., Inlay, M. A., Jaenisch, R., Weissman, I. L. AMER ASSOC IMMUNOLOGISTS. 2006: S314–S315
  • Stem cells: Biology, transplantation, and political ethics PROCEEDINGS OF THE AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY Weissman, I. L. 2006; 150 (1): 121-147
  • Memory T and memory B cells share a transcriptional program of self-renewal with long-term hematopoietic stem cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Luckey, C. J., Bhattacharya, D., Goldrath, A. W., Weissman, I. L., Benoist, C., MATHIS, D. 2006; 103 (9): 3304-3309

    Abstract

    The only cells of the hematopoietic system that undergo self-renewal for the lifetime of the organism are long-term hematopoietic stem cells and memory T and B cells. To determine whether there is a shared transcriptional program among these self-renewing populations, we first compared the gene-expression profiles of naïve, effector and memory CD8(+) T cells with those of long-term hematopoietic stem cells, short-term hematopoietic stem cells, and lineage-committed progenitors. Transcripts augmented in memory CD8(+) T cells relative to naïve and effector T cells were selectively enriched in long-term hematopoietic stem cells and were progressively lost in their short-term and lineage-committed counterparts. Furthermore, transcripts selectively decreased in memory CD8(+) T cells were selectively down-regulated in long-term hematopoietic stem cells and progressively increased with differentiation. To confirm that this pattern was a general property of immunologic memory, we turned to independently generated gene expression profiles of memory, naïve, germinal center, and plasma B cells. Once again, memory-enriched and -depleted transcripts were also appropriately augmented and diminished in long-term hematopoietic stem cells, and their expression correlated with progressive loss of self-renewal function. Thus, there appears to be a common signature of both up- and down-regulated transcripts shared between memory T cells, memory B cells, and long-term hematopoietic stem cells. This signature was not consistently enriched in neural or embryonic stem cell populations and, therefore, appears to be restricted to the hematopoeitic system. These observations provide evidence that the shared phenotype of self-renewal in the hematopoietic system is linked at the molecular level.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0511137103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235780700055

    View details for PubMedID 16492737

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1413911

  • In vivo visualization of embryonic stem cell survival, proliferation, and migration after cardiac delivery CIRCULATION Cao, F., Lin, S., Xie, X. Y., Ray, P., Patel, M., Zhang, X. Z., Drukker, M., Dylla, S. J., Connolly, A. J., Chen, X. Y., Weissman, I. L., Gambhir, S. S., Wu, J. C. 2006; 113 (7): 1005-1014

    Abstract

    Recent studies have shown that stem cell therapy can promote tissue regeneration; however, monitoring stem cells in vivo remains problematic owing to limitations of conventional histological assays and imaging modalities.Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells were stably transduced with a lentiviral vector carrying a novel triple-fusion (TF) reporter gene that consists of firefly luciferase, monomeric red fluorescence protein, and truncated thymidine kinase (fluc-mrfp-ttk). ES cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation ability were not adversely affected by either reporter genes or reporter probes compared with nontransduced control cells (P=NS). Afterward, 1x10(7) of ES cells carrying the TF reporter gene (ES-TF) were injected into the myocardium of adult nude rats (n=20). Control animals received nontransduced ES cells (n=6). At day 4, the bioluminescence and positron emission tomography signals in study animals were 3.7x10(7)+/-5.8x10(6) photons.s(-1).cm(-2) per steradian (sr) and 0.08+/-0.03% injected dose/g, respectively (P<0.05 versus control). Both signals increased progressively from week 1 to week 4, which indicated ES cell survival and proliferation in the host. Histological analysis demonstrated the formation of intracardiac and extracardiac teratomas. Finally, animals (n=4) that were treated with intraperitoneal injection of ganciclovir (50 mg/kg) did not develop teratomas when compared with control animals (n=4) treated with saline (1 mL/kg).This is the first study to characterize ES cells that stably express fluorescence, bioluminescence, and positron emission tomography reporter genes and monitor the kinetics of ES cell survival, proliferation, and migration. This versatile imaging platform should have broad applications for basic research and clinical studies on stem cell therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCULATIONHA.105.588954

    View details for PubMedID 16476845

  • Flk2(+) myeloid progenitors are the main source of Langerhans cells BLOOD Mende, I., Karsunky, H., Weissman, I. L., Engleman, E. G., Merad, M. 2006; 107 (4): 1383-1390

    Abstract

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) residing in the epidermis that play a major role in skin immunity. Our earlier studies showed that when skin is inflamed LCs are replaced by bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, while during steady-state conditions LCs are able to self-renew in the skin. Identification of the LC progenitors in bone marrow would represent a critical step toward identifying the factors that regulate LC generation as well as their trafficking to the skin. To determine LC lineage origin, we reconstituted lethally irradiated CD45.2 mice with rigorously purified lymphoid and myeloid progenitors from CD45.1 congenic mice. Twenty-four hours later, we exposed the mice to UV light to deplete resident LCs and induce their replacement by progenitors. Reconstitution with common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), or early thymic progenitors led to LC generation within 2 to 3 weeks. CMPs were at least 20 times more efficient at generating LCs than CLPs. LCs from both lineages were derived almost entirely from fetal liver kinase-2+ (Flk-2+) progenitors, displayed typical dendritic-cell (DC) morphology, and showed long-term persistence in the skin. These results indicate that LCs are derived mainly from myeloid progenitors and are dependent on Flt3-ligand for their development.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2005-05-1878

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235296100026

    View details for PubMedID 16263793

  • Adult human hematopoietic cells differentiate into mature T cells via a CD3-4+8-intermediate within the mouse thymic microenvironment; A new model system for the study of human thymocyte development further enhanced by antimurine c-Kit mAB 32nd Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Blood-and-Marrow-Transplantation Kraft, D. L., Czechowicz, A., Weissman, I. J. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2006: 131–31
  • Differential amplification of murine bipotent megakaryocytic/erythroid progenitor and precursor cells during recovery from acute and chronic erythroid stress STEM CELLS Sanchez, M., Weissman, I. L., Pallavicini, M., Valeri, M., Guglielmelli, P., Vannucchi, A. M., Migliaccio, G., Migliaccio, A. R. 2006; 24 (2): 337-348

    Abstract

    Two murine bipotent erythroid/megakaryocytic cells, the progenitor (MEP) and precursor (PEM) cells, recently have been identified on the basis of the phenotypes of linnegc-kitposSca-1neg CD16/CD32lowCD34low and TER119pos4A5pos or 2D5pos, respectively. However, the functional relationship between these two subpopulations and their placement in the hemopoietic hierarchy is incompletely understood. We compared the biological properties of these subpopulations in marrow and spleen of mice with and without acute or chronic erythroid stress. MEP cells, but not PEM cells, express c-kit, respond to stem cell factor in vitro, and form spleen colonies in vivo. PEM cells comprise up to 50%-70% of the cells in BFU-E-derived colonies but are not present among the progeny of purified MEP cells cultured under erythroid and megakaryocytic permissive conditions. PEM cells increase 10- to 20-fold under acute and chronic stress, whereas MEP cell increases (21%-84%) are observed only in acutely stressed animals. These data suggest that MEP and PEM cells represent distinct cell populations that may exist in an upstream-downstream differentiation relationship under conditions of stress. Whereas the dynamics of both populations are altered by stress induction, the differential response to acute and chronic stress suggests different regulatory mechanisms. A model describing the relationship between MEP, PEM, and common myeloid progenitor cells is presented.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stemcells.2005-0023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240635900016

    View details for PubMedID 16144876

  • Purified hematopoietic stem cell engraftment of rare niches corrects severe lymphoid deficiencies without host conditioning JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Bhattacharya, D., Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 203 (1): 73-85

    Abstract

    In the absence of irradiation or other cytoreductive conditioning, endogenous hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are thought to fill the unique niches within the bone marrow that allow maintenance of full hematopoietic potential and thus prevent productive engraftment of transplanted donor HSCs. By transplantation of purified exogenous HSCs into unconditioned congenic histocompatible strains of mice, we show that approximately 0.1-1.0% of these HSC niches are available for engraftment at any given point and find no evidence that endogenous HSCs can be displaced from the niches they occupy. We demonstrate that productive engraftment of HSCs within these empty niches is inhibited by host CD4+ T cells that recognize very subtle minor histocompatibility differences. Strikingly, transplantation of purified HSCs into a panel of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice leads to a rapid and complete rescue of lymphoid deficiencies through engraftment of these very rare niches and expansion of donor lymphoid progenitors. We further demonstrate that transient antibody-mediated depletion of CD4+ T cells allows short-term HSC engraftment and regeneration of B cells in a mouse model of B(-) non-SCID. These experiments provide a general mechanism by which transplanted HSCs can correct hematopoietic deficiencies without any host conditioning or with only highly specific and transient lymphoablation.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20051714

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235003600011

    View details for PubMedID 16380511

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2118067

  • Medicine: Politic stem cells NATURE Weissman, I. L. 2006; 439 (7073): 145-?

    View details for DOI 10.1038/439145a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234538400025

    View details for PubMedID 16407938

  • Hematopoietic stem cells - Expression profiling and beyond STEM CELL REVIEWS Forsberg, E. C., Bhattacharya, D., Weissman, I. L. 2006; 2 (1): 23-30

    Abstract

    This review focuses on the genomics of mouse hematopoiesis, but also draws parallels to other systems and discusses issues common to the analysis of rare populations such as stem cells. As examples from the mouse blood forming system are used to illustrate several points, the authors first give a brief introduction to mouse hematopoiesis as a model system. We review the multiple microarray analyses that have been performed on various mouse hematopoietic subpopulations and comment on both technical and biological aspects of such experiments. The concept of stemness is discussed, and the importance of biological function of gene products, protein-protein interactions and molecular pathways highlighted. Finally, the authors discuss some major unresolved issues in hematopoiesis and discuss the potential uses of future microarray analysis as well as other genomic and functional approaches that might prove useful to further our understanding of hematopoiesis and other stem cell systems.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240469100005

    View details for PubMedID 17142883

  • Stem cells are units of natural selection in a colonial ascidian CELL Laird, D. J., De Tomaso, A. W., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 123 (7): 1351-1360

    Abstract

    Stem cells are highly conserved biological units of development and regeneration. Here we formally demonstrate that stem cell lineages are also legitimate units of natural selection. In a colonial ascidian, Botryllus schlosseri, vascular fusion between genetically distinct individuals results in cellular parasitism of somatic tissues, gametes, or both. We show that genetic hierarchies of somatic and gametic parasitism following fusion can be replicated by transplanting cells between colonies. We prospectively isolate a population of multipotent, self-renewing stem cells that retain their competitive phenotype upon transplantation. Their single-cell contribution to either somatic or germline fates, but not to both, is consistent with separate lineages of somatic and germline stem cells or pluripotent stem cells that differentiate according to the niche in which they land. Since fusion is restricted to individuals that share a fusion/histocompatibility allele, these data suggest that histocompatibility genes in Botryllus evolved to protect the body from parasitic stem cells usurping asexual or sexual inheritance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2005.10.026

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234584500021

    View details for PubMedID 16377573

  • Global analysis of proliferation and cell cycle gene expression in the regulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell fates JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Passegue, E., Wagers, A. J., Giuriato, S., Anderson, W. C., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 202 (11): 1599-1611

    Abstract

    Knowledge of the molecular networks controlling the proliferation and fate of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is essential to understand their function in maintaining blood cell production during normal hematopoiesis and upon clinical transplantation. Using highly purified stem and progenitor cell populations, we define the proliferation index and status of the cell cycle machinery at discrete stages of hematopoietic differentiation and during cytokine-mediated HSC mobilization. We identify distinct sets of cell cycle proteins that specifically associate with differentiation, self-renewal, and maintenance of quiescence in HSC and progenitor cells. Moreover, we describe a striking inequality of function among in vivo cycling and quiescent HSC by demonstrating that their long-term engraftment potential resides predominantly in the G(0) fraction. These data provide a direct link between HSC proliferation and function and identify discrete molecular targets in regulating HSC cell fate decisions that could have implications for both the therapeutic use of HSC and the understanding of leukemic transformation.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20050967

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233753900015

    View details for PubMedID 16330818

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2213324

  • Identification of a novel gene involved in asexual organogenesis in the budding ascidian Botryllus schlosseri DEVELOPMENTAL DYNAMICS Laird, D. J., Chang, W. T., Weissman, I. L., Lauzon, R. J. 2005; 234 (4): 997-1005

    Abstract

    Development via regeneration or budding shares some known genetic pathways with embryogenesis, but no concerted effort has been made to identify genes unique to asexual development. We have identified a novel gene that plays a role in cyclical bud formation and asexual organogenesis in the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri. Athena mRNA is transcribed at high levels during the 24- to 36-hr interval of programmed cell death and new bud initiation at the conclusion of the budding cycle (takeover). Knockdown of Athena by RNAi and antisense morpholinos induced defects in the development of new buds ranging from retardation in growth and abnormal organogenesis to hollow buds lacking organs. As genetic intervention in this organism has not been possible, this study establishes the use of RNAi and morpholinos in Botryllus as well as describing the knockdown phenotype of a new gene.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/dvdy.20583

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233715500018

    View details for PubMedID 16193502

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2821222

  • Loss of expression of the Hoxa-9 homeobox gene impairs the proliferation and repopulating ability of hematopoietic stem cells BLOOD Lawrence, H. J., Christensen, J., Fong, S., Hu, Y. L., Weissman, I., Sauvageau, G., Humphries, R. K., Largman, C. 2005; 106 (12): 3988-3994

    Abstract

    The homeobox gene Hoxa-9 is normally expressed in primitive bone marrow cells, and overexpression of Hoxa-9 markedly expands hematopoietic stem cells, suggesting a function in early hematopoiesis. We present evidence for major functional defects in Hoxa-9-/- hematopoietic stem cells. Hoxa-9-/- marrow cells have normal numbers of immunophenotypic stem cells (Lin(-)c-kit(+)flk-2(-)Sca-1+ [KLFS] cells). However, sublethally irradiated Hoxa-9-/- mice develop persistent pancytopenia, indicating unusual sensitivity to ionizing irradiation. In competitive transplantation assays, Hoxa-9-/- cells showed an 8-fold reduction in multilineage long-term repopulating ability, a defect not seen in marrow cells deficient for the adjacent Hoxa-10 gene. Single-cell cultures of KLFS cells showed a 4-fold reduction in large high-proliferation potential colonies. In liquid cultures, Hoxa-9-deficient Lin(-)Sca-1(+) cells showed slowed proliferation (a 5-fold reduction in cell numbers at day 8) and delayed emergence of committed progenitors (a 5-fold decrease in colony-forming cells). Slowing of proliferation was accompanied by a delay in myeloid maturation, with a decrease in Gr-1hiMac-1hi cells at the end of the culture. Retroviral transduction with a Hoxa-9 expression vector dramatically enhanced the cytokine-driven proliferation and in vivo engraftment of Hoxa-9-/- marrow cells. Hoxa-9 appears to be specifically required for normal hematopoietic stem cell function both in vitro and in vivo.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2005-05-2003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233662400055

    View details for PubMedID 16091451

  • Isolation and characterization of a protochordate histocompatibility locus NATURE De Tomaso, A. W., Nyholm, S. V., Palmeri, K. J., Ishizuka, K. J., Ludington, W. B., Mitchel, K., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 438 (7067): 454-459

    Abstract

    Histocompatibility--the ability of an organism to distinguish its own cells and tissue from those of another--is a universal phenomenon in the Metazoa. In vertebrates, histocompatibility is a function of the immune system controlled by a highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which encodes proteins that target foreign molecules for immune cell recognition. The association of the MHC and immune function suggests an evolutionary relationship between metazoan histocompatibility and the origins of vertebrate immunity. However, the MHC of vertebrates is the only functionally characterized histocompatibility system; the mechanisms underlying this process in non-vertebrates are unknown. A primitive chordate, the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, also undergoes a histocompatibility reaction controlled by a highly polymorphic locus. Here we describe the isolation of a candidate gene encoding an immunoglobulin superfamily member that, by itself, predicts the outcome of histocompatibility reactions. This is the first non-vertebrate histocompatibility gene described, and may provide insights into the evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature04150

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233458200040

    View details for PubMedID 16306984

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1401502

  • Bioluminescent imaging of human leukemic stem cell engraftment. 47th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Jamieson, C., Karimi, M., Creusot, R., Negrin, R., Gotlib, J., Chao, M., Jones, C., Keating, A., Fathman, C. G., Zehnder, J., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2005: 205A–205A
  • Molecular progenitor profiling in human myeloproliferative disorders. 47th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Jamieson, C. H., Gotlib, J., Chao, M., Mariappan, M. R., LayRaj, M., Jones, C., Zehnder, J., Durocher, J., Lilleberg, S., Coutre, S., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2005: 38A–39A
  • Identification of phenotypic neural stem cells in a pediatric astroblastoma JOURNAL OF NEUROSURGERY Huhn, S. L., Yung, Y., Cheshier, S., Harsh, G., Ailles, L., Weissman, I., Vogel, H., Tse, V. 2005; 103 (5): 446-450

    Abstract

    The goal of this study was to illustrate the findings of a significant subpopulation of cells within a pediatric astroblastoma that have the specific cell surface phenotype found on known human neural stem cells.Cells with a cell surface marker profile characteristic of human neural stem cells were isolated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting from a mostly nonmitotic astroblastoma removed from the brain of an 11-year-old girl. An unusually high proportion (24%) of the cells were CD133 positive and CD24, CD34, and CD45 negative (CD133(+)CD24(-)CD34(-)CD45(-) cells), the phenotypic antigenic pattern associated with neural stem cells; very few CD133-positive cells were not also CD24, CD34, and CD45 negative. Some cells (12%) were CD34 positive, indicating the presence within the tumor of hematopoietic stem cells. Cells formed cytospheres that resembled neurospheres when seeded into stem cell media and coexpressed beta-tubulin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) but did not express the oligodendrocyte marker O4. Cell proliferation was demonstrated by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine. The cells lost their capacity for self-renewal in vitro after four to six passages, although they continued to coexpress beta-tubulin and GFAP. The cells did not differentiate into neurons or astrocytes when placed in differentiation medium.Although this astroblastoma contained a high proportion of phenotypic neural stemlike cells, the cells had limited proliferative capacity and multipotency. Their role in astroblastoma formation and growth is unknown.

    View details for PubMedID 16302618

  • Simple and efficient isolation of hematopoietic stem cells from H2K-zFP transgenic mice STEM CELLS Surdez, D., Kunz, B., Wagers, A. J., Weissman, I. L., Terskikh, A. V. 2005; 23 (10): 1617-1625

    Abstract

    We have generated a transgenic mouse line that allows for simple and highly efficient enrichment for mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The transgene expresses a green fluorescent protein variant (zFP) under the control of H2Kb promoter/enhancer element. Despite the broad zFP expression, transgenic HSCs express exceptionally high levels of zFP, allowing prospective isolation of a population highly enriched in HSCs by sorting the 0.2% of the brightest green cells from the enriched bone marrow of H2K-zFP mice. Up to 90% of zFP(bright) cells are also c-kit(high), Sca-1(high), Lin(neg), Flk-2(neg), which is a bona fide phenotype for long-term HSCs. Double-sorted zFP(bright) HSCs were capable of long-term multilineage reconstitution at a limiting dilution dose of approximately 12 cells, which is comparable to that of highly purified HSCs obtained by conventional multicolor flow cytometry. Thus, the H2K-zFP transgenic mice provide a straightforward and easy setup for the simple and highly efficient enrichment for genetically labeled HSCs without using fluorescence-conjugated monoclonal antibodies. This approach will greatly facilitate gene transfer, including short interfering RNA for gene knockdown, into HSCs and, consequently, into all other hematopoietic lineages.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233708700021

    View details for PubMedID 16091556

  • Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to perivascular endothelial-like cells during brain tumor angiogenesis 54th Annual Meeting of the Congress-of-Neurological-Surgeons Udani, M., Santarelli, G., Yung, Y. C., Wagers, A. J., Cheshier, S. H., Weissman, I. L., Tse, V. MARY ANN LIEBERT INC. 2005: 478–86

    Abstract

    Bone marrow (BM) cells have recently been shown to give rise to skeletal, hepatic, cardiac, neural, and vascular endothelial tissues. However, it has been shown that this is the result of cell fusion rather than transdifferentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). For this study, we established a mouse model of brain tumor growth to investigate the differentiation potential of HSC into endothelial cells during brain tumor-induced angiogenesis. Nontransgenic (GFP(neg)) recipient mice were lethally irradiated, and their hematopoietic cells were subsequently repopulated by transplantation of a single green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing HSC. Rat glioma (RT-2/RAG) cells were then injected into the striatum of the chimeric mice 6-8 weeks post-transplantation. The animals were sacrificed 3-9 days after tumor implantation, and the mobilization, temporal-spatial distribution, and lineage-specific marker expression profile of the GFP(+) cells within the growing tumor were analyzed. We saw that GFP(+) cells gave rise to elongated, CD34(+)/Flk-1(+) cells that incorporated into the endothelium of tumor blood vessels. However, all GFP(+) cells were also CD45(+), and the presence of CD45 on the HSC-derived endothelial-like cells supports the hypothesis that the hematopoietic cells were recruited into the tumor milieu. The fact that we failed to demonstrate the expression of von Willebrand factor in these cells argues against a true endothelial identity. Nevertheless, the recruitment of HSC-derived endothelial-like cells was an extremely rare event in normal brain parenchyma, and, thus, the permissive influence afforded by the growing tumor appeared to enhance the perivascular tropism and acquisition of an endothelial phenotypes by a population of HSC-derived cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233904500003

    View details for PubMedID 16305333

  • Stepwise development of committed progenitors in the bone marrow that generate functional T cells in the absence of the thymus JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Chatterjea-Matthes, D., Mukhopadhyay, A., Bitmansour, A., Weissman, I. L., Brown, J. M., Strober, S. 2005; 175 (7): 4363-4373

    Abstract

    We identified committed T cell progenitors (CTPs) in the mouse bone marrow that have not rearranged the TCRbeta gene; express a variety of genes associated with commitment to the T cell lineage, including GATA-3, T cell-specific factor-1, Cbeta, and Id2; and show a surface marker pattern (CD44+ CD25- CD24+ CD5-) that is similar to the earliest T cell progenitors in the thymus. More mature committed intermediate progenitors in the marrow have rearranged the TCR gene loci, express Valpha and Vbeta genes as well as CD3epsilon, but do not express surface TCR or CD3 receptors. CTPs, but not progenitors from the thymus, reconstituted the alphabeta T cells in the lymphoid tissues of athymic nu/nu mice. These reconstituted T cells vigorously secreted IFN-gamma after stimulation in vitro, and protected the mice against lethal infection with murine CMV. In conclusion, CTPs in wild-type bone marrow can generate functional T cells via an extrathymic pathway in athymic nu/nu mice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232092600027

    View details for PubMedID 16177077

  • Stem cell research - Paths to cancer therapies and regenerative medicine JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Weissman, I. 2005; 294 (11): 1359-1366

    Abstract

    Most tissues in complex metazoans contain a rare subset of cells that, at the single-cell level, can self-renew and also give rise to mature daughter cells. Such stem cells likely in development build tissues and are retained in adult life to regenerate them. Cancers and leukemias are apparently not an exception: rare leukemia stem cells and cancer stem cells have been isolated that contain all of the tumorigenicity of the whole tumor, and it is their properties that will guide future therapies. None of this was apparent just 20 years ago, yet this kind of stem cell thinking already provides new perspectives in medical science and could usher in new therapies. Today, political, religious, and ethical issues surround embryonic stem cell and patient-specific pluripotent stem cell research and are center stage in the attempts by governments to ban these fields for discovery and potential therapies. These interventions require physicians and physician-scientists to determine for themselves whether patient welfare or personal ethics will dominate in their practices, and whether all aspects of stem cell research can be pursued in a safe and regulated fashion.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231987800009

    View details for PubMedID 16174694

  • They are not stealthy in the heart: embryonic stem cells trigger cell infiltration, humoral and T- lymphocyte-based host immune response 18th Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-Cardiothoracic-Surgery/12th Annual Meeting of the European-Society-of-Thoracic-Surgeons Kofidis, T., deBruin, J. L., Tanaka, M., Zwierzchoniewska, M., Weissman, I., Fedoseyeva, E., Haverich, A., Robbins, R. C. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2005: 461–66

    Abstract

    The in vivo immunogenicity of Embryonic Stem Cells is controversial. At present, there is only in vitro evidence of MHC I expression by this cell population but vivid speculation about their immune-privileged state. The immunology aspect of ESC transplantation deserves thorough investigation.We injected mouse ESC (expressing Green Fluorescent Protein, GFP) into injured myocardium of syngeneic, allogeneic and SCID recipients. Furthermore, we monitored host response for up to 4 weeks post cell transfer. We determined local response (CD 3, CD 11c expression by host cells), MHC I expression by donor cells, MHC-II expression within and around the graft, humoral response of allogeneic hosts using Flow Cytometry and evaluated the hosts' cytokine response using stimulated spleenocytes by means of ELISPOT. Cell survival was estimated by morphometry, by calculating the area of the GFP+ graft over the area of infarction at multiple sections of the harvested heart.There was significant cellular infiltration into and around the graft consisting of T-lymphocytes (CD3+) and dendritic cells (CD 11c). Infiltration was detectable at 1 week and progressed through 4 weeks following cell transplantation. The humoral Ab response was moderate at 2 weeks but frank at 4 weeks. ELISPOT demonstrated a Th1 pathway of donor specific T-lymphocyte response with strong IFN-gamma and Il-2 production (figure A). MHC I expression was significant within the graft and maximal in the allogeneic groups.An immune response against transplanted ESC was demonstrated and the future use of ESC will likely require the use of systemic immunosuppression.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ejcts.2005.03.049

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232069300018

    View details for PubMedID 15990327

  • Differential expression of novel potential regulators in hematopoietic stem cells PLOS GENETICS Forsberg, E. C., Prohaska, S. S., Katzman, S., Heffner, G. C., Stuart, J. M., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 1 (3): 281-294

    Abstract

    The hematopoietic system is an invaluable model both for understanding basic developmental biology and for developing clinically relevant cell therapies. Using highly purified cells and rigorous microarray analysis we have compared the expression pattern of three of the most primitive hematopoietic subpopulations in adult mouse bone marrow: long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), short-term HSC, and multipotent progenitors. All three populations are capable of differentiating into a spectrum of mature blood cells, but differ in their self-renewal and proliferative capacity. We identified numerous novel potential regulators of HSC self-renewal and proliferation that were differentially expressed between these closely related cell populations. Many of the differentially expressed transcripts fit into pathways and protein complexes not previously identified in HSC, providing evidence for new HSC regulatory units. Extending these observations to the protein level, we demonstrate expression of several of the corresponding proteins, which provide novel surface markers for HSC. We discuss the implications of our findings for HSC biology. In particular, our data suggest that cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions are major regulators of long-term HSC, and that HSC themselves play important roles in regulating their immediate microenvironment.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pgen.0010028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234714300002

    View details for PubMedID 16151515

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1200425

  • Identification of mast cell progenitors in adult mice PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Chen, C. C., Grimbaldeston, M. A., Tsai, M., Weissman, I. L., Galli, S. J. 2005; 102 (32): 11408-11413

    Abstract

    It is well known that mast cells are derived from hematopoietic stem cells. However, in adult hematopoiesis, a committed mast cell progenitor has not yet been identified in any species, nor is it clear at what point during adult hematopoiesis commitment to the mast cell lineage occurs. We identified a cell population in adult mouse bone marrow, characterized as Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(-)-Ly6c(-)FcepsilonRIalpha(-)CD27(-)beta7(+)T1/ST2+, that gives rise only to mast cells in culture and that can reconstitute the mast cell compartment when transferred into c-kit mutant mast cell-deficient mice. In addition, our experiments strongly suggest that these adult mast cell progenitors are derived directly from multipotential progenitors instead of, as previously proposed, common myeloid progenitors or granulocyte/macrophage progenitors.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0504197102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231253400051

    View details for PubMedID 16006518

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1183570

  • Surface phenotype of Peyer's patch germinal center cells: Implications for the role of germinal centers in B cell differentiation (Reprinted) JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY BUTCHER, E. C., Rouse, R. V., Coffman, R. L., Nottenburg, C. N., Hardy, R. R., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 175 (3): 1363-1372

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233648000002

    View details for PubMedID 16034071

  • Cell intrinsic alterations underlie hematopoietic stem cell aging PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Rossi, D. J., Bryder, D., Zahn, J. M., Ahlenius, H., Sonu, R., Wagers, A. J., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 102 (26): 9194-9199

    Abstract

    Loss of immune function and an increased incidence of myeloid leukemia are two of the most clinically significant consequences of aging of the hematopoietic system. To better understand the mechanisms underlying hematopoietic aging, we evaluated the cell intrinsic functional and molecular properties of highly purified long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) from young and old mice. We found that LT-HSC aging was accompanied by cell autonomous changes, including increased stem cell self-renewal, differential capacity to generate committed myeloid and lymphoid progenitors, and diminished lymphoid potential. Expression profiling revealed that LT-HSC aging was accompanied by the systemic down-regulation of genes mediating lymphoid specification and function and up-regulation of genes involved in specifying myeloid fate and function. Moreover, LT-HSCs from old mice expressed elevated levels of many genes involved in leukemic transformation. These data support a model in which age-dependent alterations in gene expression at the stem cell level presage downstream developmental potential and thereby contribute to age-dependent immune decline, and perhaps also to the increased incidence of leukemia in the elderly.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0503280102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230191400021

    View details for PubMedID 15967997

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1153718

  • Stimulation of paracrine pathways with growth factors enhances embryonic stem cell engraftment and host-specific differentiation in the heart after ischemic myocardial injury CIRCULATION Kofidis, T., de Bruin, J. L., Yamane, T., Tanaka, M., Lebl, D. R., Swijnenburg, R. J., Weissman, I. L., Robbins, R. C. 2005; 111 (19): 2486-2493

    Abstract

    Growth factors play an essential role in organogenesis. We examine the potential of growth factors to enhance cell engraftment and differentiation and to promote functional improvement after transfer of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells into the injured heart.Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-positive embryonic stem cells derived from 129sv mice were injected into the ischemic area after left anterior descending artery ligation in allogenic (BALB/c) mice. Fifty nanograms of recombinant mouse vascular endothelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF) was added to the cell suspension. Separate control groups were formed in which only the growth factors were given. Echocardiography was performed 2 weeks later to evaluate heart function (fractional shortening [FS]), end-diastolic diameter, and left ventricular wall thickness). Hearts were harvested for histology (connexin 43, alpha-sarcomeric actin, CD3, CD11c, major histocompatability complex class I, hematoxylin-eosin). Degree of restoration (GFP-positive graft/infarct area ratio), expression of cardiac markers, host response, and tumorigenicity were evaluated. Cell transfer resulted in improved cardiac function. TGF-beta led to better restorative effect and a stronger expression of connexin 43, alpha-sarcomeric actin, and major histocompatability complex class I. TGF-beta and FGF retained left ventricular diameter. FS was better in the TGF-beta, FGF, and embryonic stem cells-only group compared with left anterior descending artery-ligated controls. Growth factors with cells (TGF-beta, FGF) resulted in higher FS and smaller end-diastolic diameter than growth factors alone.Growth factors can promote in vivo organ-specific differentiation of early embryonic stem cells and improve myocardial function after cell transfer into an area of ischemic lesion. TGF-beta should be considered as an adjuvant for myocardial restoration with the use of embryonic stem cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/01.CIR.0000165063.09283.A8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229126900012

    View details for PubMedID 15883216

  • Hematopoietic cells maintain hematopoietic fates upon entering the brain JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Massengale, M., Wagers, A. J., Vogel, H., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 201 (10): 1579-1589

    Abstract

    Several studies have reported that bone marrow (BM) cells may give rise to neurons and astrocytes in vitro and in vivo. To further test this hypothesis, we analyzed for incorporation of neural cell types expressing donor markers in normal or injured brains of irradiated mice reconstituted with whole BM or single, purified c-kit(+)Thy1.1(lo)Lin(-)Sca-1(+) (KTLS) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and of unirradiated parabionts with surgically anastomosed vasculature. Each model showed low-level parenchymal engraftment of donor-marker(+) cells with 96-100% immunoreactivity for panhematopoietic (CD45) or microglial (Iba1 or Mac1) lineage markers in all cases studied. Other than one arborizing structure in the olfactory bulb of one BM-transplanted animal, possibly representing a neuronal or glial cell process, we found no donor-marker-expressing astrocytes or non-Purkinje neurons among >10,000 donor-marker(+) cells from 21 animals. These data strongly suggest that HSCs and their progeny maintain lineage fidelity in the brain and do not adopt neural cell fates with any measurable frequency.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20050030

    View details for PubMedID 15897275

  • Frizzled 9 knock-out mice have abnormal B-cell development BLOOD Ranheim, E. A., Kwan, H. C., Reya, T., Wang, Y. K., Weissman, I. L., FRANCKE, U. 2005; 105 (6): 2487-2494

    Abstract

    The binding of frizzled (Fzd) receptors by their Wnt ligands results in the inhibition of beta-catenin degradation and subsequent transcription of beta-catenin/LEF-inducible genes. The beta-catenin pathway is known to be involved in development, tumorigenesis, and stem cell self-renewal. In humans, the FZD9 gene lies in the region of chromosome 7q11.23 deleted in the neurodevelopmental disorder, Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS). Fzd9-/- mice show no obvious features of WBS, but reveal a role for Fzd9 in lymphoid development and maturation. Fzd9-/- mice show pronounced splenomegaly, thymic atrophy, and lymphadenopathy with age, with accumulation of plasma cells in lymph nodes. There is a depletion of developing B cells in the bone marrow (BM), particularly in the pre-B stage where immunoglobulin heavy chains are expressed and the cells are undergoing clonal expansion prior to light chain rearrangement. The pre-B defect is partially intrinsic to the hematopoietic system; as in competitive BM reconstitution studies, Fzd9-/- -derived BM exhibits defective B-cell development when implanted into a wild-type host. Mature B cells are present in normal numbers in lymph node and spleen. These findings suggest a role for Fzd9 signaling in lymphoid development, particularly at points where B cells undergo self-renewal prior to further differentiation.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2004-06-2334

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227630500047

    View details for PubMedID 15572594

  • Enforced Bcl-2 expression overrides serum and feeder cell requirements for mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Yamane, T., Dylla, S. J., Muijtjens, M., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 102 (9): 3312-3317

    Abstract

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is required, but not sufficient, for pluripotent mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell expansion in vitro in the absence of serum or a feeder cell layer, suggesting that additional signals are provided by serum or feeders that are necessary to support self-renewal. Here we show that transgenic ES cell lines expressing Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, continue to self-renew in serum- and feeder-free conditions when supplemented with LIF; even in the absence of bone morphogenic proteins. Bcl-2-expressing clones sustain the characteristics of undifferentiated, pluripotent ES cells during long-term culture, and maintain their potential to differentiate into mature cell types. These results suggest that LIF and Bcl-2 overexpression are sufficient to expand these mouse pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0500167102

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227423700028

    View details for PubMedID 15728354

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC552922

  • Rejuvenation of aged progenitor cells by exposure to a young systemic environment NATURE Conboy, I. M., Conboy, M. J., Wagers, A. J., Girma, E. R., Weissman, I. L., Rando, T. A. 2005; 433 (7027): 760-764

    Abstract

    The decline of tissue regenerative potential is a hallmark of ageing and may be due to age-related changes in tissue-specific stem cells. A decline in skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cell) activity due to a loss of Notch signalling results in impaired regeneration of aged muscle. The decline in hepatic progenitor cell proliferation owing to the formation of a complex involving cEBP-alpha and the chromatin remodelling factor brahma (Brm) inhibits the regenerative capacity of aged liver. To examine the influence of systemic factors on aged progenitor cells from these tissues, we established parabiotic pairings (that is, a shared circulatory system) between young and old mice (heterochronic parabioses), exposing old mice to factors present in young serum. Notably, heterochronic parabiosis restored the activation of Notch signalling as well as the proliferation and regenerative capacity of aged satellite cells. The exposure of satellite cells from old mice to young serum enhanced the expression of the Notch ligand (Delta), increased Notch activation, and enhanced proliferation in vitro. Furthermore, heterochronic parabiosis increased aged hepatocyte proliferation and restored the cEBP-alpha complex to levels seen in young animals. These results suggest that the age-related decline of progenitor cell activity can be modulated by systemic factors that change with age.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature03260

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227039200043

    View details for PubMedID 15716955

  • Developmental origin of interferon-alpha-producing dendritic cells from hematopoietic precursors EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY Karsunky, H., Merad, M., Mende, I., Manz, M. G., Engleman, E. G., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 33 (2): 173-181

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to determine the lineage origin of interferon-alpha-producing cells (IPCs), also called plasmacytoid dendritic cells, in mice by evaluating the ability of common lymphoid (CLP) and myeloid (CMP) progenitors to give rise to IPCs.Sublethally irradiated C57Bl/6 mice were intravenously transplanted with rigorously purified lymphoid and myeloid progenitors from a congenic mouse strain. At various time points posttransplantation mice were analyzed for donor-derived cells by flow cytometry. The developmental potential of all progenitor populations was also tested in in vitro cultures. In addition, in vitro and in vivo derived IPCs were functionally assessed for their interferon-alpha production after virus challenge.Transplantation of 1 x 10(4) common myeloid progenitors, 1 x 10(4) common lymphoid progenitors or 2.5 x 10(4) granulocyte/macrophage progenitors all led to the generation of IPCs within 2 to 3 weeks. In general, IPC reconstitution in spleen and liver by CMPs was more efficient than by CLP. Adding Flt3L alone to in vitro cultures was sufficient to support the development of IPCs from myeloid progenitors whereas CLPs required additional survival factors provided either by stroma cells or by introduction of transgenic Bcl-2. Both myeloid- and lymphoid-derived IPC were indistinguishable by function, gene expression, and morphology.Surprisingly, our results clearly show that murine IPCs differentiate from both lineages but are mainly of myeloid origin. These results extend to IPCs the observation made originally in classical dendritic cells that cellular expression of so called lineage markers does not correlate with lineal origin.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exphem.2004.10.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227147000007

    View details for PubMedID 15676211

  • Prognostic progenitor profiling in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia Joint Meeting of the American-Society-for-Blood-and-Marrow-Transplantation/Center-for-International-Blood-and-Marrow-Transplant-Research Jamieson, C. H., Li, K., Gotlib, J., Coutre, S. E., Lagasse, E., Weissman, I. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2005: 59–59
  • Bioluminescent tracking of candidate leukemic stem cell engraftment in immunocompromised mice Joint Meeting of the American-Society-for-Blood-and-Marrow-Transplantation/Center-for-International-Blood-and-Marrow-Transplant-Research Jamieson, C. H., Karimi, M., Creusot, R., Fathman, C. G., Negrin, R., Weissman, I. L. ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. 2005: 86–86
  • Normal and neoplastic stem cells. Novartis Foundation symposium Weissman, I. L. 2005; 265: 35-50

    Abstract

    Stem cells are cells that at the single cell level both self-renew and give rise to differentiated progeny. Self renewal is the property that distinguishes stem cells and progenitors, and in the blood-forming system explains why haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), not progenitors, are the only cells capable of providing rapid and sustained regeneration of the blood-forming system after ablation by cancer chemo- and radiotherapies. Cancer-free prospectively purified HSCs regenerate the haematopoietic system of patients as rapidly as a marrow or mobilized blood transplant, but without the risk of re-seeding the body with cancer cells. Further, purified allogeneic HSCs can establish donor-specific tolerance to subsequent tissue grafts. However, in contrast to widely-publicized reports of HSC plasticity, we have not been able to show transdifferentiation of HSC to muscle, heart, brain or gut, and conclude that rare cell fusions and incomplete purifications are likely explanations for the other published results. The ability to self-renew is also potentially dangerous, as poorly regulated self renewal is, we believe, a central lesion in all cancers. We have recently shown that myeloid leukaemias in mouse and human are often driven by rare leukaemia (cancer) stem cells which are at the progenitor stage of differentiation, but have activated the self-renewing cell division pathway normally used only by HSCs. Similar cancer stem cells have been isolated in other tumours.

    View details for PubMedID 16050249

  • Preuss Resident Research Award: bone marrow-derived Flk-1-expressing CD34+ cells contribute to the endothelium of tumor vessels in mouse brain. Clinical neurosurgery Santarelli, J. G., Udani, V., Yung, C. Y., Cheshier, S., Wagers, A., Brekken, R. A., Weissman, I., Tse, V. 2005; 52: 384-388

    View details for PubMedID 16626098

  • Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells: Clinical and preclinical regeneration of the hematolymphoid system ANNUAL REVIEW OF MEDICINE Shizuru, J. A., Negrin, R. S., Weissman, I. L. 2005; 56: 509-538

    Abstract

    A vast literature exists on the biology of blood formation and regeneration under experimental and clinical conditions. The field of hematopoiesis was recently advanced by the capacity to purify to homogeneity primitive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Isolation of cells at defined maturational stages has enhanced the understanding of the fundamental nature of stem cells, including how cell fate decisions are made, and this understanding is relevant to the development of other normal as well as malignant tissues. This review updates the basic biology of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and progenitors, the evolving use of purified HSC as grafts for clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) including immune tolerance induction, and the application of HSC biology to other stem cell fields.

    View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev.med.54.101601.152334

    View details for PubMedID 15660525

  • Chronic versus acute myelogenous leukemia: A question of self-renewal CANCER CELL Jamieson, C. H., Weissman, I. L., Passegue, E. 2004; 6 (6): 531-533

    Abstract

    Leukemia stem cells are defined as transformed hematopoietic stem cells or committed progenitor cells that have amplified or acquired the stem cell capacity for self-renewal, albeit in a poorly regulated fashion. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Huntly and colleagues report a striking difference in the ability of two leukemia-associated fusion proteins, MOZ-TIF2 and BCR-ABL, to transform myeloid progenitor populations. This rigorous study supports the idea of a hierarchy among leukemia-associated protooncogenes for their ability to endow committed myeloid progenitors with the self-renewal capacity driving leukemic stem cell propagation, and sheds new light on the pathogenesis of chronic and acute myelogenous leukemias.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226076600002

    View details for PubMedID 15607956

  • Selection of aberrant class II restricted CD8(+) T cells in NOD mice expressing a glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65-specific T cell receptor transgene AUTOIMMUNITY Ranheim, E. A., Tarbell, K. V., Krogsgaard, M., Mallet-Designe, V., Teyton, L., McDevitt, H. O., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 37 (8): 555-567

    Abstract

    We previously described the generation of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice expressing a transgenic T cell receptor (TCR) specific for peptide epitope 286-300 of the diabetes related self antigen, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65 in the context of I-A(g7) class II MHC, that are paradoxically protected from diabetes. In this report, we examine the atypical CD8+ cells in these mice. Unlike typical class II restricted TCR transgenic mice, GAD286 mice have normal numbers of CD8+ cells, half of which express high levels of the transgenic TCR. These MHC mismatched CD8+ cells persist in the periphery and proliferate to GAD286-300 peptide in vitro and in vivo in a class II restricted fashion. Interestingly, the CD8+ tetramer(-) T cells that are expressing endogenous TCR can delay diabetes induction in a transfer model, as we previously showed for CD4+ tetramer+ T cells in these mice. The MHC mismatched CD8+ cells appear to be positively selected in an atypical fashion, in that they do not upregulate CD69 or reexpress CD44, and they escape negative selection. We find that production of these CD8+ cells is not dependent on NOD thymus or high affinity of the TCR, but is dependent on the atypical TCR transgenic thymic environment.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/08916930400020545

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228026000003

    View details for PubMedID 15763918

  • Incorporation of naive bone marrow derived cells into the vascular architecture of brain tumor MICROCIRCULATION Yung, Y. C., Cheshier, S., Santarelli, J. G., Huang, Z., Wagers, A., Weissman, I., Tse, V. 2004; 11 (8): 699-708

    Abstract

    Neovascularization is essential for tumor growth and invasion. Mounting evidence suggests that tumor cells recruit circulating endothelial progenitor cells to promote vasculogenesis to compliment tumor angiogenesis. This study examines the constitutive role of bone marrow-derived cells in this process.Rat glioma cells were implanted into brains of T-cell-depleted knockout mice. At various timepoints after tumor implantation, naïve bone marrow cells from ubiquitous transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were infused into these animals. The incorporation of GFP-positive cells into the vascular architecture was visualized by fluorescence confocal microscopy in conjunction with the transcription profiles of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 and -2 (Ang-1 and Ang-2).Of the cells infused, 8 days after tumor implantation, 0.49% were found exclusively sequestered in the vicinity of tumor vessels. This coincided with a decline in the expression of Ang-1 and a rise in the expression of VEGF and Ang-2. A few of these cells (0.66 of the 0.49%) localized onto the vascular wall. They resembled endothelial cells and expressed vWF.The incorporation of bone marrow-derived unpurified endothelial cells into the tumor vascular bed is both time-limited and infrequent. These cells may play a supportive rather than a constitutive role in tumor neovascularization.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/10739680490521005

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225641500007

    View details for PubMedID 15726837

  • Predictive progenitor profiling in chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. 46th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Jamieson, C., Gotlib, J., Coutre, S., Li, K., Weissman, I. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2004: 268B–268B
  • Isolation of adult mouse myogenic progenitors: Functional heterogeneity of cells within and engrafting skeletal muscle CELL Sherwood, R. I., Christensen, J. L., Conboy, I. M., Conboy, M. J., Rando, T. A., Weissman, I. L., Wagers, A. J. 2004; 119 (4): 543-554

    Abstract

    Skeletal muscle regeneration in adults is thought to occur through the action of myogenic satellite cells located in close association with mature muscle fibers; however, these precursor cells have not been prospectively isolated, and recent studies have suggested that additional muscle progenitors, including cells of bone marrow or hematopoietic origin, may exist. To clarify the origin(s) of adult myogenic cells, we used phenotypic, morphological, and functional criteria to identify and prospectively isolate a subset of myofiber-associated cells capable at the single cell level of generating myogenic colonies at high frequency. Importantly, although muscle-engrafted cells from marrow and/or circulation localized to the same anatomic compartment as myogenic satellite cells and expressed some though not all satellite cell markers, they displayed no intrinsic myogenicity. Together, these studies describe the clonal isolation of functional adult myogenic progenitors and demonstrate that these cells do not arise from hematopoietic or other bone marrow or circulating precursors.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225183200012

    View details for PubMedID 15537543

  • JunB deficiency leads to a myeloproliferative disorder arising from hematopoietic stem cells CELL Passegue, E., Wagner, E. F., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 119 (3): 431-443

    Abstract

    The AP-1 transcription factor JunB is a transcriptional regulator of myelopoiesis. Inactivation of JunB in postnatal mice results in a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) resembling early human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Here, we show that JunB regulates the numbers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). JunB overexpression decreases the frequency of long-term HSC (LT-HSC), while JunB inactivation specifically expands the numbers of LT-HSC and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMP) resulting in chronic MPD. Further, we demonstrate that junB inactivation must take place in LT-HSC, and not at later stages of myelopoiesis, to induce MPD and that only junB-deficient LT-HSC are capable of transplanting the MPD to recipient mice. These results demonstrate a stem cell-specific role for JunB in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis and provide experimental evidence that leukemic stem cells (LSC) can reside at the LT-HSC stage of development in a mouse model of MPD.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224908300013

    View details for PubMedID 15507213

  • Telomerase maintained in self-renewing tissues during serial regeneration of the urochordate Botryllus schlosseri DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Laird, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 273 (2): 185-194

    Abstract

    Telomerase is critical for the protection of germ line and stem cell chromosomes from fatal shortening during replication. In most organisms, telomerase activity is suppressed in progressively committed cells and falls to basal rates in terminally differentiated lineages. The colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri propagates asexually and sexually, presumably from pools of stem cells that self-renew throughout the 2- to 5-year colony life span. Asexual budding takes place continuously from the parental body wall. When the colony reaches a critical size, sexual reproduction commences with the generation of gonads. Here, we establish the existence of 6-15 kb telomeres on the ends of Botryllus chromosomes. We develop a real-time quantitative PCR telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay that reliably detects 0.2-100 TPG units in cells and tissues. We find highest levels of enzymatic activity in the gonads, developing embryos, and tissues containing the earliest asexual buds. Telomerase activity appears to be suppressed in later buds during organogenesis and falls to basal rates in mature zooids. We postulate that this pattern reflects maximum telomere restoration in somatic stem cells of early buds and suppression of telomerase activity in progenitors and terminally differentiated cells, indicative of an alternate role for stem cells as repeated body regenerators in colonial life histories.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ydbio.2004.05.029

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223681000002

    View details for PubMedID 15328006

  • Identification of hematopoietic cell populations with activated Wnt signaling using a lentiviral vector containing a reporter cassette Workshop on Malignant Stem Cells in Leukemia and Solid Tumors Ailles, L. E., Serwold, T., Weissman, I. L. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2004: 104–5
  • Similar MLL-associated leukemias arising from self-renewing stem cells and short-lived myeloid progenitors Workshop on Malignant Stem Cells in Leukemia and Solid Tumors Ayton, P. M., Cozzio, A., Passegue, E., Karsunky, H., Cleary, M. L., Weissman, I. L. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2004: 105–
  • Granulocyte-macrophage progenitors as candidate leukemic stem cells in blast-crisis CML NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Jamieson, C. H., Ailles, L. E., Dylla, S. J., Muijtjens, M., Jones, C., Zehnder, J. L., Gotlib, J., Li, K., Manz, M. G., Keating, A., Sawyers, C. L., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 351 (7): 657-667

    Abstract

    The progression of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) to blast crisis is supported by self-renewing leukemic stem cells. In normal mouse hematopoietic stem cells, the process of self-renewal involves the beta-catenin-signaling pathway. We investigated whether leukemic stem cells in CML also use the beta-catenin pathway for self-renewal.We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate hematopoietic stem cells, common myeloid progenitors, granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, and megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitors from marrow during several phases of CML and from normal marrow. BCR-ABL, beta-catenin, and LEF-1 transcripts were compared by means of a quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assay in normal and CML hematopoietic stem cells and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and a lymphoid enhancer factor/T-cell factor reporter assay were used to detect nuclear beta-catenin in these cells. In vitro replating assays were used to identify self-renewing cells as candidate leukemic stem cells, and the dependence of self-renewal on beta-catenin activation was tested by lentiviral transduction of hematopoietic progenitors with axin, an inhibitor of the beta-catenin pathway.The granulocyte-macrophage progenitor pool from patients with CML in blast crisis and imatinib-resistant CML was expanded, expressed BCR-ABL, and had elevated levels of nuclear beta-catenin as compared with the levels in progenitors from normal marrow. Unlike normal granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, CML granulocyte-macrophage progenitors formed self-renewing, replatable myeloid colonies, and in vitro self-renewal capacity was reduced by enforced expression of axin.Activation of beta-catenin in CML granulocyte-macrophage progenitors appears to enhance the self-renewal activity and leukemic potential of these cells.

    View details for PubMedID 15306667

  • Transplanted human fetal neural stem cells survive, migrate, and differentiate in ischemic rat cerebral cortex PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Kelly, S., Bliss, T. M., Shah, A. K., Sun, G. H., Ma, M., Foo, W. C., Masel, J., Yenari, M. A., Weissman, I. L., Uchida, N., Palmer, T., Steinberg, G. K. 2004; 101 (32): 11839-11844

    Abstract

    We characterize the survival, migration, and differentiation of human neurospheres derived from CNS stem cells transplanted into the ischemic cortex of rats 7 days after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Transplanted neurospheres survived robustly in naive and ischemic brains 4 wk posttransplant. Survival was influenced by proximity of the graft to the stroke lesion and was negatively correlated with the number of IB4-positive inflammatory cells. Targeted migration of the human cells was seen in ischemic animals, with many human cells migrating long distances ( approximately 1.2 mm) predominantly toward the lesion; in naive rats, cells migrated radially from the injection site in smaller number and over shorter distances (0.2 mm). The majority of migrating cells in ischemic rats had a neuronal phenotype. Migrating cells between the graft and the lesion expressed the neuroblast marker doublecortin, whereas human cells at the lesion border expressed the immature neuronal marker beta-tubulin, although a small percentage of cells at the lesion border also expressed glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). Thus, transplanted human CNS (hCNS)-derived neurospheres survived robustly in naive and ischemic brains, and the microenvironment influenced their migration and fate.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0404474101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223276700056

    View details for PubMedID 15280535

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC511061

  • Progress and prospects in hematopoietic stem cell expansion and transplantation EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY Brown, J. M., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 32 (8): 693-695

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.exphem.2004.07.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223584200003

    View details for PubMedID 15308317

  • Varicella-zoster virus infection of human neural cells in vivo PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Baiker, A., Fabel, K., Cozzio, A., Zerboni, L., Fabel, K., Sommer, M., Uchida, N., He, D. P., Weissman, I., Arvin, A. M. 2004; 101 (29): 10792-10797

    Abstract

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) establishes latency in sensory ganglia and causes herpes zoster upon reactivation. These investigations in a nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mouse-human neural cell model showed that VZV infected both neurons and glial cells and spread efficiently from cell to cell in vivo. Neural cell morphology and protein synthesis were preserved, in contrast to destruction of epithelial cells by VZV. Expression of VZV genes in neural cells was characterized by nuclear retention of the major viral transactivating protein and a block in synthesis of the predominant envelope glycoprotein. The attenuated VZV vaccine strain retained infectivity for neurons and glial cells in vivo. VZV gene expression in differentiated human neural cells in vivo differs from neural infection by herpes simplex virus, which is characterized by latency-associated transcripts, and from lytic VZV replication in skin. The chimeric nonobese diabetic severe combined immunodeficient mouse model may be useful for investigating other neurotropic human viruses.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0404016101

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222842700055

    View details for PubMedID 15247414

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC490013

  • Depletion of host Langerhans cells before transplantation of donor alloreactive T cells prevents skin graft-versus-host disease NATURE MEDICINE Merad, M., Hoffmann, P., Ranheim, E., Slaymaker, S., Manz, M. G., Lira, S. A., Charo, I., Cook, D. N., Weissman, I. L., Strober, S., Engleman, E. G. 2004; 10 (5): 510-517

    Abstract

    Skin is the most commonly affected organ in graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To explore the role of Langerhans cells in GVHD, the principal dendritic cells of the skin, we studied the fate of these cells in mice transplanted with allogeneic bone marrow. In contrast to other dendritic cells, host Langerhans cells were replaced by donor Langerhans cells only when donor T cells were administered along with bone marrow, and the extent of Langerhans cell chimerism correlated with the dose of donor T cells injected. Donor T cells depleted host Langerhans cells through a Fas-dependent pathway and induced the production in skin of CCL20, which was required for the recruitment of donor Langerhans cells. Administration of donor T cells to bone marrow-chimeric mice with persistent host Langerhans cells, but not to mice whose Langerhans cells had been replaced, resulted in marked skin GVHD. These findings indicate a crucial role for donor T cells in host Langerhans cell replacement, and show that host dendritic cells can persist in nonlymphoid tissue for the duration of an animal's life and can trigger GVHD despite complete blood chimerism.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm1038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221242400029

    View details for PubMedID 15098028

  • Leukemic transformation of hematopoietic progenitors by MLL-GAS7 in the absence of Hoxa7 or Hoxa9 BLOOD So, C. W., Karsunky, H., Wong, P., Weissman, I. L., Cleary, M. L. 2004; 103 (8): 3192-3199

    Abstract

    Differential expression of Hox genes is associated with normal hematopoiesis, whereas inappropriate maintenance of Hox gene expression, particularly Hoxa7 and Hoxa9, is a feature of leukemias harboring mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) mutations. To understand the pathogenic roles of Hox genes in MLL leukemias, we assessed the impact of Hoxa7 or Hoxa9 nullizygosity on hematopoietic progenitor compartments and their susceptibility to MLL-induced leukemias. Selective reductions in the absolute numbers of committed progenitors, but not of hematopoietic stem cells, distinguished Hoxa7- and Hoxa9-deficient mice. Megakaryocytic/erythroid progenitor (MEP) reductions in Hoxa7(-/-) mice correlated with reticulocytosis and thrombocytopenia without anemia. Conversely, Hoxa9(-/-) mice displayed marked lymphopenia and substantial reductions of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) and lymphoid precursors, in addition to significant reductions of common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) and granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (GMPs). In retroviral transduction/transplantation assays, Hoxa7- and Hoxa9-deficient progenitors remained susceptible to transformation by MLL-GAS7, which activates MLL through a dimerization-dependent mechanism. However, Hoxa7(-/-) or Hoxa9(-/-) progenitors were less efficient in generating transformed blast colony-forming units (CFUs) in vitro and induced leukemias with longer disease latencies, reduced penetrance, and less mature phenotypes. Thus, Hoxa7 and Hoxa9 contribute to hematopoietic progenitor homeostasis but are not necessary for MLL-GAS7-mediated leukemogenesis, yet they appear to affect disease latency, penetrance, and phenotypes consistent with their critical roles as downstream targets of MLL fusion proteins.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000222163500056

    View details for PubMedID 15070702

  • Haematopoietic stem cells adopt mature haematopoietic fates in ischaemic myocardium NATURE Balsam, L. B., Wagers, A. J., Christensen, J. L., Kofidis, T., Weissman, I. L., Robbins, R. C. 2004; 428 (6983): 668-673

    Abstract

    Under conditions of tissue injury, myocardial replication and regeneration have been reported. A growing number of investigators have implicated adult bone marrow (BM) in this process, suggesting that marrow serves as a reservoir for cardiac precursor cells. It remains unclear which BM cell(s) can contribute to myocardium, and whether they do so by transdifferentiation or cell fusion. Here, we studied the ability of c-kit-enriched BM cells, Lin- c-kit+ BM cells and c-kit+ Thy1.1(lo) Lin- Sca-1+ long-term reconstituting haematopoietic stem cells to regenerate myocardium in an infarct model. Cells were isolated from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and injected directly into ischaemic myocardium of wild-type mice. Abundant GFP+ cells were detected in the myocardium after 10 days, but by 30 days, few cells were detectable. These GFP+ cells did not express cardiac tissue-specific markers, but rather, most of them expressed the haematopoietic marker CD45 and myeloid marker Gr-1. We also studied the role of circulating cells in the repair of ischaemic myocardium using GFP+-GFP- parabiotic mice. Again, we found no evidence of myocardial regeneration from blood-borne partner-derived cells. Our data suggest that even in the microenvironment of the injured heart, c-kit-enriched BM cells, Lin- c-kit+ BM cells and c-kit+ Thy1.1(lo) Lin- Sca-1+ long-term reconstituting haematopoietic stem cells adopt only traditional haematopoietic fates.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature02460

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220697200048

    View details for PubMedID 15034594

  • Plasticity of adult stem cells CELL Wagers, A. J., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 116 (5): 639-648

    Abstract

    Recent years have seen much excitement over the possibility that adult mammalian stem cells may be capable of differentiating across tissue lineage boundaries, and as such may represent novel, accessible, and very versatile effectors of therapeutic tissue regeneration. Yet studies proposing such "plasticity" of adult somatic stem cells remain controversial, and in general, existing evidence suggests that in vivo such unexpected transformations are exceedingly rare and in some cases can be accounted for by equally unexpected alternative explanations.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221499700005

    View details for PubMedID 15006347

  • Circulation and chemotaxis of fetal hematopoietic stem cells. PLoS biology Christensen, J. L., Wright, D. E., Wagers, A. J., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 2 (3): E75-?

    Abstract

    The major site of hematopoiesis transitions from the fetal liver to the spleen and bone marrow late in fetal development. To date, experiments have not been performed to evaluate functionally the migration and seeding of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during this period in ontogeny. It has been proposed that developmentally timed waves of HSCs enter the bloodstream only during distinct windows to seed the newly forming hematopoietic organs. Using competitive reconstitution assays to measure HSC activity, we determined the localization of HSCs in the mid-to-late gestation fetus. We found that multilineage reconstituting HSCs are present at low numbers in the blood at all timepoints measured. Seeding of fetal bone marrow and spleen occurred over several days, possibly while stem cell niches formed. In addition, using dual-chamber migration assays, we determined that like bone marrow HSCs, fetal liver HSCs migrate in response to stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha); however, unlike bone marrow HSCs, the migratory response of fetal liver HSCs to SDF-1alpha is greatly increased in the presence of Steel factor (SLF), suggesting an important role for SLF in HSC homing to and seeding of the fetal hematopoietic tissues. Together, these data demonstrate that seeding of fetal organs by fetal liver HSCs does not require large fluxes of HSCs entering the fetal bloodstream, and that HSCs constitutively circulate at low levels during the gestational period from 12 to 17 days postconception. Newly forming hematopoietic tissues are seeded gradually by HSCs, suggesting initial seeding is occurring as hematopoietic niches in the spleen and bone marrow form and become capable of supporting HSC self-renewal. We demonstrate that fetal and adult HSCs exhibit specific differences in chemotactic behavior. While both migrate in response to SDF-1alpha, fetal HSCs also respond significantly to the cytokine SLF. In addition, the combination of SDF-1alpha and SLF results in substantially enhanced migration of fetal HSCs, leading to migration of nearly all fetal HSCs in this assay. This finding indicates the importance of the combined effects of SLF and SDF-1alpha in the migration of fetal HSCs, and is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a synergistic effect of two chemoattractive agents on HSCs.

    View details for PubMedID 15024423

  • Continuous development precludes radioprotection in a colonial ascidian DEVELOPMENTAL AND COMPARATIVE IMMUNOLOGY Laird, D. J., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 28 (3): 201-209

    Abstract

    Colonial organisms provide a unique experimental system for stem cell biology. The colonial Urochordate Botryllus schlosseri reproduces sexually as well as by continuous asexual budding. Adjacent colonies with a shared histocompatibility allele undergo vascular fusion and establish a common blood circulation, performing natural transplantation. Fused colonies become chimeras, often with complete somatic replacement of the host cell genotype by the fused parabiont. We attempted to establish a radioprotection assay for the somatic stem cells that induce long-term chimerism in Botryllus. We demonstrate over a range of radiation doses that neither autologous nor allogeneic cell transplantation enhances survival of host colonies. This suggests that high mitotic index associated with continuous asexual development leads to radiosensitivity of organs and structures essential to survival during engraftment. We observe that radiation induces uncontrolled epithelial cell proliferation in abnormally terminated buds, suggesting that stem cells are not required for the initial stages of bud development.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.dci.2003.08.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188375700003

    View details for PubMedID 14642887

  • Evolution of a protochordate allorecognition locus SCIENCE De Tomaso, A. W., Weissman, I. L. 2004; 303 (5660): 977-977

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188918000035

    View details for PubMedID 14963321

  • Therapeutic implications of cancer stem cells CURRENT OPINION IN GENETICS & DEVELOPMENT Al-Hajj, M., Becker, M. W., Wichal, M., Weissman, I., Clarke, M. F. 2004; 14 (1): 43-47

    Abstract

    Most cancers comprise a heterogenous population of cells with marked differences in their proliferative potential as well as the ability to reconstitute the tumor upon transplantation. Cancer stem cells are a minor population of tumor cells that possess the stem cell property of self-renewal. In addition, dysregulation of stem cell self-renewal is a likely requirement for the development of cancer. This new model for cancer will have significant ramifications for the way we study and treat cancer. In addition, through targeting the cancer stem cell and its dysregulated self-renewal, our therapies for treating cancer are likely to improve.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gde.2003.11.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188978200008

    View details for PubMedID 15108804

  • Shifting foci of hematopoiesis during reconstitution from single stem cells PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Cao, Y. A., Wagers, A. J., Beilhack, A., Dusich, J., Bachmann, M. H., Negrin, R. S., Weissman, I. L., Contag, C. H. 2004; 101 (1): 221-226

    Abstract

    To reveal the early events and dynamics of hematopoietic reconstitution in living animals in real-time, we used bioluminescence imaging to monitor engraftment from single luciferase-labeled hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in irradiated recipients. Transplanted HSC generated discrete foci in the spleen and bone marrow (BM), at a frequency that correlated with BM compartment size. Initially detected foci could expand locally, seed other sites in BM or spleen, and/or recede with different kinetics. These studies reveal dynamic and variable patterns of engraftment from highly purified HSC and indicate that the final overall contribution of individual HSC to hematopoietic chimerism does not depend on the specific site of initial engraftment and expansion.

    View details for PubMedID 14688412

  • Insulin-like growth factor promotes engraftment, differentiation, and functional improvement after transfer of embryonic stem cells for myocardial restoration STEM CELLS Kofidis, T., de Bruin, J. L., Yamane, T., Balsam, L. B., Lebl, D. R., Swijnenburg, R. J., Tanaka, M., Weissman, I. L., Robbins, R. C. 2004; 22 (7): 1239-1245

    Abstract

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes myocyte proliferation and can reverse cardiac abnormalities when it is administered in the early fetal stage. Supplementation of a mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) suspension with IGF-1 might enhance cellular engraftment and host organ-specific differentiation after injection in the area of acute myocardial injury. In the study reported here, we sought to enhance the restorative effect of ESCs in the injured heart by adding IGF-1 to the injected cell population. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled sv129 ESCs (2.5 x 10(5)) were injected into the ischemic area after left anterior descending (LAD) artery ligation in BalbC mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1 (25 ng) was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection (n = 5). Echocardiography was performed before organ harvest 2 weeks later. The degree of restoration (ratio of GFP+ to infarct area), expression of cardiac markers by GFP+ cells, inflammatory response, and tumorigenicity were evaluated. Mice with LAD ligation only (n = 5) and ESC transfer without IGF-1 (n = 5) served as controls. ESCs formed viable grafts and improved cardiac function. Left ventricular wall thickness was higher in the IGF-1 group (p = .025). There was a trend toward higher fractional shortening in the IGF-treated group. Histological analysis demonstrated that IGF-1 promoted expression of alpha-sarcomeric actin (p = .015) and major histocompatibility complex class I (p = .01). IGF did not affect the cellular response to the donor cells or tumorigenicity. IGF-1 promotes expression of cardiomyocyte phenotype in ESCs in vivo. It should be considered as an adjuvant to cell transfer for myocardial restoration.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stem-cells.2004-0127

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225759300011

    View details for PubMedID 15579642

  • Leukemia and leukemic stem cells Stem Cells in the Nervous System: Functional and clinical implications Jamieson, C., Passegue, E., Weissman, I. Springer-Verlag. 2004
  • Stem cells, cell differentiation and cancer Clinical Oncology Clarke, M., Weissman, I. Elsevier, Inc.. 2004
  • Biology of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells Thomas' Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Manz, M., Akashi, K., Weissman, I. Blackwell Publishing. 2004: 69–95
  • Determinants of skeletal muscle contributions from circulating cells, bone marrow cells, and hematopoietic stem cells STEM CELLS Sherwood, R. I., Christensen, J. L., Weissman, I. L., Wagers, A. J. 2004; 22 (7): 1292-1304

    Abstract

    To investigate the factors that regulate incorporation into uninjured or damaged skeletal muscle of donor markers derived from unfractionated bone marrow (BM) cells or from highly purified c-kit+ Thy1.1lo Lin- Sca-1+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we evaluated myofiber chimerism of multiple muscle groups in irradiated and transplanted recipient mice and in unirradiated parabiotic animals. Uninjured panniculus carnosus, diaphragm, and abdominal muscles infrequently incorporated donor markers into myofibers in a subset of animals after either BM or HSC transplantation; however, acute muscle injury was essential to elicit contributions to triceps surae (TS) and tibialis anterior muscles. The low level of incorporation of donor marker-expressing myofibers could not be enhanced either by transplantation into newborn recipients or by induced migration of HSCs into the periphery. Analysis of muscle chimerism in unirradiated animals joined surgically by parabiosis revealed that contributions of circulating cells to myofibers in the TS were injury dependent and that at least some circulating cells with the potential to contribute to regenerating muscle derive from BM, suggesting that hematoablative preconditioning is not required for such contributions. In all cases tested, donor-derived myofibers expressed both donor-specific and host-specific markers, suggesting that they arise by low-level fusion into skeletal muscle of cells that can include the progeny of HSCs. It is not yet clear whether such events represent a normal myogenic pathway or a pathological response to muscle damage.

    View details for DOI 10.1634/stemcells.2004-0090

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225759300016

    View details for PubMedID 15579647

  • Similar MLL-associated leukemias arising from self-renewing stem cells and short-lived myeloid progenitors GENES & DEVELOPMENT Cozzio, A., Passegue, E., Ayton, P. M., Karsunky, H., Cleary, M. L., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 17 (24): 3029-3035

    Abstract

    We have used the hematopoietic system as a model to investigate whether acute myeloid leukemia arises exclusively from self-renewing stem cells or also from short-lived myeloid progenitors. When transduced with a leukemogenic MLL fusion gene, prospectively isolated stem cells and myeloid progenitor populations with granulocyte/macrophage differentiation potential are efficiently immortalized in vitro and result in the rapid onset of acute myeloid leukemia with similar latencies following transplantation in vivo. Regardless of initiating cell, leukemias displayed immunophenotypes and gene expression profiles characteristic of maturation arrest at an identical late stage of myelomonocytic differentiation, putatively a monopotent monocytic progenitor stage. Our findings unequivocally establish the ability of transient repopulating progenitors to initiate myeloid leukemias in response to an MLL oncogene, and support the existence of cancer stem cells that do not necessarily overlap with multipotent stem cells of the tissue of origin.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.1143403

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187803000006

    View details for PubMedID 14701873

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC305255

  • Neural progenitor genes - Germinal zone expression and analysis of genetic overlap in stem cell populations DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Easterday, M. C., Dougherty, J. D., JACKSON, R. L., Ou, J., Nakano, I., Paucar, A. A., Roobini, B., Dianati, M., Irvin, D. K., Weissman, I. L., Terskikh, A. V., Geschwind, D. H., Kornblum, H. I. 2003; 264 (2): 309-322

    Abstract

    The identification of the genes regulating neural progenitor cell (NPC) functions is of great importance to developmental neuroscience and neural repair. Previously, we combined genetic subtraction and microarray analysis to identify genes enriched in neural progenitor cultures. Here, we apply a strategy to further stratify the neural progenitor genes. In situ hybridization demonstrates expression in the central nervous system germinal zones of 54 clones so identified, making them highly relevant for study in brain and neural progenitor development. Using microarray analysis we find 73 genes enriched in three neural stem cell (NSC)-containing populations generated under different conditions. We use the custom microarray to identify 38 "stemness" genes, with enriched expression in the three NSC conditions and present in both embryonic stem cells and hematopoietic stem cells. However, comparison of expression profiles from these stem cell populations indicates that while there is shared gene expression, the amount of genetic overlap is no more than what would be expected by chance, indicating that different stem cells have largely different gene expression patterns. Taken together, these studies identify many genes not previously associated with neural progenitor cell biology and also provide a rational scheme for stratification of microarray data for functional analysis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ydbio.2003.09.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000187216900001

    View details for PubMedID 14651920

  • Differential amplification of bipotent megakaryocytic/erythroid "progenitor" and "precursor" cells during the recovery from acute and chronic erythroid stress in mice. 45th Annual Meeting and Exhibition of the American-Society-of-Hematology Migliaccio, A. R., Sanchez, M., Vannucchi, A. M., Migliaccio, G., Nakorn, T. N., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2003: 565A–565A
  • Initial characterization of a protochordate histocompatibility locus IMMUNOGENETICS De Tomaso, A. W., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 55 (7): 480-490

    Abstract

    The colonial protochordate, Botryllus schlosseri, undergoes a natural transplantation reaction which is controlled by a single, highly polymorphic locus called the Fu/HC. We are using map-based cloning to identify Fu/HC gene(s), and have currently delineated their location to an approximately 1-cM region of the B. schlosseri genome. The Fu/HC physical map currently consists of 85 sequence-tagged sites mapped on a minimum tiling path of 800 kb which consists of five contigs, with four gaps remaining to be crossed, and is estimated to be 75% completed. Approximately half this region has been sequenced throughout the locus, allowing the first analysis of a metazoan histocompatibility locus outside of vertebrates. This has resulted in the identification of 18 predicted genes, a number of which have been found to be expressed. Several of these genes are well conserved among the chordates; however, none of the predicted or expressed genes are linked within the genome of any organism in the databases. In addition, the Fu/HC is one of the most polymorphic loci ever described, and physical mapping has revealed that the locus is quite dynamic, and includes features such as hotspots of recombination.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00251-003-0612-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186201200006

    View details for PubMedID 14520503

  • Effects of allogeneic contact on life-history traits of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri in Monterey Bay BIOLOGICAL BULLETIN Chadwick-Furman, N. E., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 205 (2): 133-143

    Abstract

    The formation of chimeric colonies following allogeneic contact between benthic invertebrates may strongly affect colony fitness. Here we show that, in a field population of the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri in Monterey Bay, California, more than 20% of all colonies occur in allogeneic contact with conspecifics. We experimentally assessed the effects of allogeneic contact on the following life-history traits under natural field conditions: growth, age and size at first reproduction, and egg production (fecundity). When compared with isolated colonies, and in some cohorts also with colonies that rejected allogeneic neighbors, colonies that fused with neighbors incurred reduced fitness in terms of most life-history traits measured. We propose that one of the benefits of precise allorecognition is that, in fused colonies, it limits the unit of selection to chimeric individuals composed of closely related kin.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186338800006

    View details for PubMedID 14583511

  • Normal and leukemic hematopoiesis: Are leukemias a stem cell disorder or a reacquisition of stem cell characteristics? Arthur M Sackler Colloquium of the National-Academy-of-Sciences on Regenerative Medicine Passegue, E., Jamieson, C. H., Ailles, L. E., Weissman, I. L. NATL ACAD SCIENCES. 2003: 11842–11849

    Abstract

    Leukemia can be viewed as a newly formed, abnormal hematopoietic tissue initiated by a few leukemic stem cells (LSCs) that undergo an aberrant and poorly regulated process of organogenesis analogous to that of normal hematopoietic stem cells. A hallmark of all cancers is the capacity for unlimited self-renewal, which is also a defining characteristic of normal stem cells. Given this shared attribute, it has been proposed that leukemias may be initiated by transforming events that take place in hematopoietic stem cells. Alternatively, leukemias may also arise from more committed progenitors caused by mutations and/or selective expression of genes that enhance their otherwise limited self-renewal capabilities. Identifying the LSCs for each type of leukemia is a current challenge and a critical step in understanding their respective biologies and may provide key insights into more effective treatments. Moreover, LSC identification and purification will provide a powerful diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tool in the clinic.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185805000006

    View details for PubMedID 14504387

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC304096

  • Over-expression of Bcl-2 provides protection in septic mice by a trans effect JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Iwata, A., Stevenson, V. M., Minard, A., Tasch, M., Tupper, J., Lagasse, E., Weissman, I., Harlan, J. M., Winn, R. K. 2003; 171 (6): 3136-3141

    Abstract

    Transgenic mice that over-express B cell leukemia/lymphomas (Bcl)-2 in myeloid cells under control of the human MRP8 promoter (hMRP8-Bcl-2) or in T lymphocytes under the E micro promoter (E micro -Bcl-2) were compared with C57BL/6 control mice following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). There was a significant difference in outcome between the hMRP8-Bcl-2 and control mice with 100% survival in the hMRP8-Bcl-2 mice vs 25% survival in the control mice. In separate experiments there was a significant difference between E micro -Bcl-2 and control mice with 87.5 and 22.2% survival, respectively. Adoptive transfer of CD11b-positive bone marrow cells from hMRP8-Bcl-2 or C57BL/6 mice to C57BL/6 mice subjected to CLP resulted in 100 and 0% survival, respectively. Adoptive transfer of CD11b-positive cells from either hMRP8-Bcl-2 or C57BL/6 mice to Rag-1(-/-) mice (no mature T or B cells) subjected to CLP resulted in survival of 87.5 and 12.5%, respectively. The hMRP8-Bcl-2 mice had significantly more neutrophils and fewer bacteria in the peritoneum compared with C57BL/6 mice 24 h after CLP. These experiments show that Bcl-2 over-expression is protective in CLP and that protection is independent of lymphocytes. We propose that over-expression of Bcl-2 in T cells or myeloid cells induce release of a molecule(s) that protects against death following CLP.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185247300050

    View details for PubMedID 12960340

  • Stem cells in clinical practice JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF SURGEONS Evers, B. M., Weissman, I. L., Flake, A. W., Tabar, V., Weisel, R. D. 2003; 197 (3): 458-478
  • Expression of BCR/ABL and BCL-2 in myeloid progenitors leads to myeloid leukemias PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Jaiswal, S., Traver, D., Miyamoto, T., Akashi, K., Lagasse, E., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 100 (17): 10002-10007

    Abstract

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD) that, over time, progresses to acute leukemia. Both processes are closely associated with the t(9;22) chromosomal translocation that creates the BCR/ABL fusion gene in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and their progeny. Chronic myelogenous leukemia is therefore classified as an HSC disorder in which a clone of multipotent HSCs is likely to be malignantly transformed, although direct evidence for malignant t(9;22)+ HSCs is lacking. To test whether HSC malignancy is required, we generated hMRP8p210BCR/ABL transgenic mice in which expression of BCR/ABL is absent in HSCs and targeted exclusively to myeloid progenitors and their myelomonocytic progeny. Four of 13 BCR/ABL transgenic founders developed a chronic MPD, but only one progressed to blast crisis. To address whether additional oncogenic events are required for progression to acute disease, we crossed hMRP8p210BCR/ABL mice to apoptosis-resistant hMRP8BCL-2 mice. Of 18 double-transgenic animals, 9 developed acute myeloid leukemias that were transplantable to wild-type recipients. Taken together, these data indicate that a MPD can arise in mice without expression of BCR/ABL in HSCs and that additional mutations inhibiting programmed cell death may be critical in the transition of this disease to blast-crisis leukemia.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1633833100

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184926000069

    View details for PubMedID 12890867

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC187741

  • Early defect prethymic in bone marrow T cell progenitors in athymic nu/nu mice JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Chatterjea-Matthes, D., Garcia-Ojeda, M. E., Dejbakhsh-Jones, S., Jerabek, L., Manz, M. G., Weissman, I. L., Strober, S. 2003; 171 (3): 1207-1215

    Abstract

    nu/nu mice fail to develop a thymus and mature T cells due to a defect in the whn gene encoding a transcription factor necessary for terminal epithelial cell differentiation. We investigated whether early T cell progenitor development in the nu/nu bone marrow is also defective. We demonstrated a maturation arrest of nu/nu marrow T cell progenitors associated with a lack of pTalpha gene expression and a failure to give rise to mature T cells in adoptive euthymic hosts. Wild-type hemopoietic stem cells rapidly matured into functional T cell progenitors in the marrow of euthymic or thymectomized but not nu/nu hosts. We show that defects in bone marrow prethymic T cell development can also contribute to T cell deficiency in nu/nu mice.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184327600012

    View details for PubMedID 12874207

  • Flt3 ligand regulates dendritic cell development from Flt3(+) lymphoid and myeloid-committed progenitors to Flt3(+) dendritic cells in vivo JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Karsunky, H., Merad, M., Cozzio, A., Weissman, I. L., Manz, M. G. 2003; 198 (2): 305-313

    Abstract

    Stimulation of Flt3 receptor tyrosine kinase through its cognate ligand expands early hematopoietic progenitor and dendritic cells (DCs) in humans and mice. The exact developmental stages at which hematopoietic progenitors express Flt3, are responsive to its ligand, and subsequently develop to DCs, are not known. Here we show that common lymphoid and common myeloid progenitors, as well as steady state DCs in thymus, spleen, and epidermis, express Flt3. The receptor is down-regulated once definitive B cell, T cell, and megakaryocyte/erythrocyte commitment occurs, and Flt3 is not detectable on other steady state hematopoietic cell populations. Upon in vivo Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) administration, Flt3+ progenitor cells and their progeny DCs are expanded, whereas Flt3- downstream progenitors are not, or are only slightly increased. Transplantation of common lymphoid and common myeloid progenitors and subsequent Flt3L injection increases progeny DCs of both precursor populations. These findings provide a definitive map of Flt3 expression in the hematopoietic hierarchy and directly demonstrate that Flt3L can drive DC development along both the lymphoid and myeloid developmental pathways from Flt3+ progenitors to Flt3+ DCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20030323

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184368200012

    View details for PubMedID 12874263

  • Common lymphoid progenitors rapidly engraft and protect against lethal murine cytomegalovirus infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation BLOOD Arber, C., Bitmansour, A., Sparer, T. E., Higgins, J. P., Mocarski, E. S., Weissman, I. L., Shizuru, J. A., Brown, J. M. 2003; 102 (2): 421-428

    Abstract

    Lymphoid deficiency after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) results in increased susceptibility to infection; however, transplantation of mature lymphocytes frequently results in a serious complication known as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Here we demonstrate in mice that both congenic as well as allogeneic transplantation of low numbers of highly purified common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs)-a rare population of lymphoid-lineage-committed bone marrow cells-accelerates immune reconstitution after lethal irradiation and rescue with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). After congenic transplantation, 3 x 10(3) CLPs protected against murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection at a level roughly equivalent to 107 unfractionated lymph node cells. In the allogeneic model of matched unrelated donor HSC transplantation, cotransplantation of 3 x 10(3) CLPs protected thymus-bearing as well as thymectomized hosts from MCMV infection and attenuated disease severity. Immunohistochemistry in combination with antibody depletion of T and natural killer (NK) cells confirmed that CLP-derived as well as residual host lymphocytes contribute to antiviral protection. Importantly, transplantation of allogeneic CLPs provided a durable antiviral immunity without inducing GVHD. These data support the potential for composing grafts with committed progenitors to reduce susceptibility to viral infection following HCT.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-12-3834

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184083500010

    View details for PubMedID 12663447

  • Telomerase is required to slow telomere shortening and extend replicative lifespan of HSCs during serial transplantation BLOOD Allsopp, R. C., Morin, G. B., DePinho, R., Harley, C. B., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 102 (2): 517-520

    Abstract

    Telomere shortening ultimately limits the replicative life span of cultured human somatic cells. Telomeres also shorten during replicative aging in vivo in hematopoietic cells, including early hematopoietic progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), from humans and mice, despite readily detectable levels of telomerase in these cells. To assess the relevance of telomerase to the long-term replicative capacity of HSCs in vivo, we serially transplanted HSCs from wild-type and telomerase-deficient mice until exhaustion and monitored telomere length in HSCs during this process. Telomerase-deficient HSCs could be serially transplanted for only 2 rounds, whereas wild-type HSCs could be serially transplanted for at least 4 rounds. Furthermore, the rate of telomere shortening was increased approximately 2-fold during serial transplantation of telomerase-deficient HSCs. These findings suggest that one role for telomerase in the HSC is to partially counter the rate of telomere shortening during division of HSCs, thereby preventing premature loss of telomere function and providing added replicative capacity.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-07-2334

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184083500024

    View details for PubMedID 12663456

  • Gene expression analysis of purified hematopoietic stem cells and committed progenitors BLOOD Terskikh, A. V., Miyamoto, T., Chang, C., Diatchenko, L., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 102 (1): 94-101

    Abstract

    Lifelong self-renewal is a unique property of somatic stem cells. Recently, several primitive multipotent yet committed (non-self-renewing) hematopoietic progenitor populations were identified in mouse bone marrow. We have characterized the expression of 1200 selected mouse genes using the Atlas cDNA array in highly purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and 6 closely related progenitor populations: common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs), megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEPs), common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), and pro-T and pro-B cells. Cluster analysis revealed that nearly half of all differentially expressed transcripts are associated with HSCs, supporting the notion of an active transcriptional status of HSCs. Genes found enriched in the HSC cluster encompass many developmentally regulated genes, some previously associated with HSC self-renewal. In contrast, genes that are enriched in committed progenitors are mostly associated with hematopoietic differentiation, immune regulation, and metabolism. Thus, the transition from HSCs toward committed progenitors correlates with the down-regulation of a large number of HSC-associated genes and progressive up-regulation of a limited number of lineage-specific genes. These genetic analyses revealed both quantitative and qualitative differences between the transcripts associated with HSCs versus downstream progenitors and produced a list of the candidate genes, potentially involved in HSC self-renewal.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-08-2509

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183820300023

    View details for PubMedID 12623852

  • Hematopoietic stem cells and other hematopoietic cells show broad resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in vivo when overexpressing bcl-2 EXPERIMENTAL HEMATOLOGY Domen, J., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 31 (7): 631-639

    Abstract

    Objective. Chemotherapeutic agents function by inducing apoptosis and their effectiveness depends on the balance of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins in cells. Due to the complicated interactions of the many proteins involved, it has been difficult to determine in tumors whether overexpression of single genes is prognostic for increased resistance. Therefore, we studied the influence of bcl-2 overexpression on resistance to chemotherapeutics in a transgenic mouse system. This allowed us to study a wide variety of cells, including important but rare populations such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSC).Methods. H2K-bcl-2 transgenic and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with several agents(5-fluoruracil, cyclophosphamide, and busulfan) to determine the contribution of increased amounts of bcl-2 to the response to these chemotherapeutics in vivo. Populations were enumerated using flow cytometry. HSC were studied by FACS purification and long-term reconstitution assays in vivo and resistance was confirmed by short-term proliferation assays with different amounts of chemotherapeutics in vitro.Results. bcl-2 overexpression alone protects many cell types, though protection levels differ between populations and agents. However, even sensitive populations return to pretreatment levels faster in transgenic mice. bcl-2 overexpression also prevents the dramatic changes in HSC following 5-FU treatment (downregulation of c-kit, upregulation of Lin, less efficient long-term reconstitution). In vitro studies directly demonstrate increased resistance of bcl-2 overexpressing HSC to chemotherapeutic agents.Conclusions. Increased expression of bcl-2 in HSC and their progeny endows these cells with broad resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. The ability to (differentially) regulate sensitivity to apoptosis of bystander and tumor cells is clinically important.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0301-472X(03)00084-5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184052300008

    View details for PubMedID 12842708

  • Wnt proteins are lipid-modified and can act as stem cell growth factors NATURE Willert, K., BROWN, J. D., Danenberg, E., Duncan, A. W., Weissman, I. L., Reya, T., Yates, J. R., Nusse, R. 2003; 423 (6938): 448-452

    Abstract

    Wnt signalling is involved in numerous events in animal development, including the proliferation of stem cells and the specification of the neural crest. Wnt proteins are potentially important reagents in expanding specific cell types, but in contrast to other developmental signalling molecules such as hedgehog proteins and the bone morphogenetic proteins, Wnt proteins have never been isolated in an active form. Although Wnt proteins are secreted from cells, secretion is usually inefficient and previous attempts to characterize Wnt proteins have been hampered by their high degree of insolubility. Here we have isolated active Wnt molecules, including the product of the mouse Wnt3a gene. By mass spectrometry, we found the proteins to be palmitoylated on a conserved cysteine. Enzymatic removal of the palmitate or site-directed and natural mutations of the modified cysteine result in loss of activity, and indicate that the lipid is important for signalling. The purified Wnt3a protein induces self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells, signifying its potential use in tissue engineering.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature01611

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183012000044

    View details for PubMedID 12717451

  • A role for Wnt signalling in self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells NATURE Reya, T., Duncan, A. W., Ailles, L., Domen, J., Scherer, D. C., Willert, K., Hintz, L., Nusse, R., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 423 (6938): 409-414

    Abstract

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the ability to renew themselves and to give rise to all lineages of the blood; however, the signals that regulate HSC self-renewal remain unclear. Here we show that the Wnt signalling pathway has an important role in this process. Overexpression of activated beta-catenin expands the pool of HSCs in long-term cultures by both phenotype and function. Furthermore, HSCs in their normal microenvironment activate a LEF-1/TCF reporter, which indicates that HCSs respond to Wnt signalling in vivo. To demonstrate the physiological significance of this pathway for HSC proliferation we show that the ectopic expression of axin or a frizzled ligand-binding domain, inhibitors of the Wnt signalling pathway, leads to inhibition of HSC growth in vitro and reduced reconstitution in vivo. Furthermore, activation of Wnt signalling in HSCs induces increased expression of HoxB4 and Notch1, genes previously implicated in self-renewal of HSCs. We conclude that the Wnt signalling pathway is critical for normal HSC homeostasis in vitro and in vivo, and provide insight into a potential molecular hierarchy of regulation of HSC development.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature01593

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183012000034

    View details for PubMedID 12717450

  • Bmi-1 is required for maintenance of adult self-renewing haematopoietic stem cells NATURE Park, I. K., Qian, D. L., Kiel, M., Becker, M. W., Pihalja, M., Weissman, I. L., Morrison, S. J., Clarke, M. F. 2003; 423 (6937): 302-305

    Abstract

    A central issue in stem cell biology is to understand the mechanisms that regulate the self-renewal of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are required for haematopoiesis to persist for the lifetime of the animal. We found that adult and fetal mouse and adult human HSCs express the proto-oncogene Bmi-1. The number of HSCs in the fetal liver of Bmi-1-/- mice was normal. In postnatal Bmi-1-/- mice, the number of HSCs was markedly reduced. Transplanted fetal liver and bone marrow cells obtained from Bmi-1-/- mice were able to contribute only transiently to haematopoiesis. There was no detectable self-renewal of adult HSCs, indicating a cell autonomous defect in Bmi-1-/- mice. A gene expression analysis revealed that the expression of stem cell associated genes, cell survival genes, transcription factors, and genes modulating proliferation including p16Ink4a and p19Arf was altered in bone marrow cells of the Bmi-1-/- mice. Expression of p16Ink4a and p19Arf in normal HSCs resulted in proliferative arrest and p53-dependent cell death, respectively. Our results indicate that Bmi-1 is essential for the generation of self-renewing adult HSCs.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature01587

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182853100046

    View details for PubMedID 12714971

  • A transgenic TCR recognizing a GAD peptide plus I-ag7 produces regulatory CD4+and aberrant, class II reactive CD8+T cells in NOD mice 90th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Immunologists Ranheim, E. A., Tarbell, K., McDevitt, H., Weissman, I. L. FEDERATION AMER SOC EXP BIOL. 2003: C259–C259
  • Did the molecules of adaptive immunity evolve from the innate immune system? Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Integrative-and-Comparative-Biology Bartl, S., Baish, M., Weissman, I. L., Diaz, M. OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. 2003: 338–46

    Abstract

    The antigen receptors on cells of innate immune systems recognize broadly expressed markers on non-host cells while the receptors on lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system display a higher level of specificity. Adaptive immunity, with its exquisite specificity and immunological memory, has only been found in the jawed vertebrates, which also display innate immunity. Jawless fishes and invertebrates only have innate immunity. In the adaptive immune response, T and B-lymphocytes detect foreign agents or antigens using T cell receptors (TCR) or immunoglobulins (Ig), respectively. While Ig can bind free intact antigens, TCR only binds processed antigenic fragments that are presented on molecules encoded in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). MHC molecules display variation through allelic polymorphism. A diverse repertoire of Ig and TCR molecules is generated by gene rearrangement and junctional diversity, processes carried out by the recombinase activating gene (RAG) products and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT). Thus, the molecules that define adaptive immunity are TCR, Ig, MHC molecules, RAG products and TdT. No direct predecessors of these molecules have been found in the jawless fishes or invertebrates. In contrast, the complement cascade can be activated by either adaptive or innate immune systems and contains examples of molecules that gradually evolved from non-immune functions to being part of the innate and then adaptive immune system. In this paper we examine the molecules of the adaptive immune system and speculate on the existence of direct predecessors that were part of innate immunity.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184416000016

    View details for PubMedID 21680442

  • Effect of TERT over-expression on the long-term transplantation capacity of hematopoietic stem cells NATURE MEDICINE Allsopp, R. C., Morin, G. B., Horner, J. W., DePinho, R., Harley, C. B., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 9 (4): 369-U6

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm0403-369

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181987400003

    View details for PubMedID 12669037

  • Construction and characterization of large-insert genomic libraries (BAC and fosmid) from the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri and initial physical mapping of a histocompatibility locus MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY De Tomaso, A. W., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 5 (2): 103-115

    Abstract

    The colonial protochordate Botryllus schlosseri is genetically manipulable and represents a potential model organism for a variety of biological disciplines, including immunology, stem cell biology and development. This article presents the construction and characterization of both BAC and fosmid genomic libraries of the 725-Mbp B. schlosseri genome. The BAC library currently consists of 2x genome coverage with an average insert size of 80 kb. The fosmid library is at 11x genome coverage with an average insert of 40 kb. B. schlosseri is a small organism containing a large number of compounds that hinder DNA purification. Thus a number of protocols had to be modified in order to make purified, high molecular weight inserts for cloning, including both gel purification and insert concentration techniques. Both libraries were characterized by using them in initial physical mapping of a single histocompatibility locus, and were found to be representative and functional. These libraries are important tools for physical mapping and positional cloning in the B. schlosseri genome, and the techniques adapted to make them are suitable for use on other organisms in which high molecular weight DNA is difficult to purify.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10126-002-0071-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182588700001

    View details for PubMedID 12876644

  • MLL-GAS7 transforms multipotent hematopoietic progenitors and induces mixed lineage leukemias in mice CANCER CELL So, C. W., Karsunky, H., Passegue, E., Cozzio, A., Weissman, I. L., Cleary, M. L. 2003; 3 (2): 161-171

    Abstract

    A specific association with mixed lineage leukemias suggests that MLL oncoproteins may selectively target early multipotent hematopoietic progenitors or stem cells. We demonstrate here that a representative MLL fusion protein, MLL-GAS7, impairs the differentiation and enhances the in vitro growth of murine hematopoietic cells with multipotent features. The multilineage differentiation potential of these cells was suggested by their immuno-phenotypes and transcriptional programs and confirmed by their ability to induce three pathologically distinct leukemias in mice, including an acute biphenotypic leukemia (ABL) that recapitulates the distinctive hallmark features of many MLL-associated leukemias in humans. This experimental modeling of ABL in mice highlights its origin from multipotential progenitors that arrest at a bipotential stage specifically targeted or induced by MLL oncogenes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181240100009

    View details for PubMedID 12620410

  • Characterization of mouse clonogenic megakaryocyte progenitors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Nakorn, T. N., Miyamoto, T., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 100 (1): 205-210

    Abstract

    Although it has been shown that unfractionated bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells, common myeloid progenitors, and bipotent megakaryocyteerythrocyte progenitors can give rise to megakaryocyte colonies in culture, monopotent megakaryocyte-committed progenitors (MKP) have never been prospectively isolated from the bone marrow of adult mice. Here, we use a monoclonal antibody to the megakaryocyte-associated surface protein, CD9, to purify MKPs from the c-kit(+)Sca-1(-)IL7Ralpha(-)Thy1.1(-)Lin(-) fraction of adult C57BLKa-Thy1.1 bone marrow. The CD9(+) fraction contained a subset of CD41(+)FcgammaR(lo)CD34(+)CD38(+) cells that represent approximately 0.01% of the total nucleated bone marrow cells. They give rise mainly to colony-forming unit-megakaryocytes and occasionally burst-forming unit-megakaryocytes, with a plating efficiency >60% at the single-cell level. In vivo, MKPs do not have spleen colony-forming activity nor do they contribute to long-term multilineage hematopoiesis; they give rise only to platelets for approximately 3 weeks. Common myeloid progenitors and megakaryocyteerythrocyte progenitors can differentiate into MKPs after 72 h in stromal cultures, indicating that MKPs are downstream of these two progenitors. These isolatable MKPs will be very useful for further studies of megakaryopoiesis as well as the elucidation of their gene expression patterns.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.262655099

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180307100038

    View details for PubMedID 12490656

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC140928

  • Purified allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation blocks diabetes pathogenesis in NOD mice DIABETES Beilhack, G. F., Scheffold, Y. C., Weissman, I. L., TAYLOR, C., Jerabek, L., Burge, M. J., Masek, M. A., Shizuru, J. A. 2003; 52 (1): 59-68

    Abstract

    Purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) were transplanted into NOD mice to test whether development of hyperglycemia could be prevented. Engraftment of major histocompatibility complex-mismatched HSCs was compared with bone marrow (BM) grafts. HSCs differed from BM because HSCs were more strongly resisted and HSC recipients retained significant levels of NOD T-cells, whereas BM recipients were full donor chimeras. Despite persistent NOD T-cells, all HSC chimeras were protected from hyperglycemia, and attenuation of islet lesions was observed. T-cell selection was altered in allogeneic HSC recipients as demonstrated by deletion of both donor and host superantigen-specific T-cells. Syngeneic and congenic hematopoietic cell transplants were also performed to differentiate the influence of the preparative regimen(s) versus the allografts. Unlike the allogeneic HSC transplantations, syngeneic or congenic grafts did not retard diabetes development. In a pilot study, overtly diabetic NOD mice were cured by co-transplantation of allogeneic HSCs and donor-matched islets. We conclude that allogeneic HSC transplants block allo- and autoimmunity, despite residual host T-cell presence. These data demonstrate for the first time that purified HSC grafts block development of autoimmune diabetes and illuminate how HSC grafts alter thymic and peripheral T-cell responses against auto- and alloantigens.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180157300009

    View details for PubMedID 12502494

  • Biology of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors: Implications for clinical application ANNUAL REVIEW OF IMMUNOLOGY Kondo, M., Wagers, A. J., Manz, M. G., Prohaska, S. S., Scherer, D. C., Beilhack, G. E., Shizuru, J. A., Weissman, I. L. 2003; 21: 759-806

    Abstract

    Stem cell biology is scientifically, clinically, and politically a current topic. The hematopoietic stem cell, the common ancestor of all types of blood cells, is one of the best-characterized stem cells in the body and the only stem cell that is clinically applied in the treatment of diseases such as breast cancer, leukemias, and congenital immunodeficiencies. Multicolor cell sorting enables the purification not only of hematopoietic stem cells, but also of their downstream progenitors such as common lymphoid progenitors and common myeloid progenitors. Recent genetic approaches including gene chip technology have been used to elucidate the gene expression profile of hematopoietic stem cells and other progenitors. Although the mechanisms that control self-renewal and lineage commitment of hematopoietic stem cells are still ambiguous, recent rapid advances in understanding the biological nature of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells have broadened the potential application of these cells in the treatment of diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1146/annurev.immunol.21.120601.141007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182523500023

    View details for PubMedID 12615892

  • Myeloid progenitors protect against invasive aspergillosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation BLOOD Bitmansour, A., Burns, S. M., Traver, D., Akashi, K., Contag, C. H., Weissman, I. L., Brown, J. M. 2002; 100 (13): 4660-4667

    Abstract

    Myelotoxic treatments for oncologic diseases are often complicated by neutropenia, which renders patients susceptible to potentially lethal infections. In these studies of murine hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), cotransplantation of lineage-restricted progenitors known as common myeloid progenitors (CMP) and granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMP) protects against death following otherwise lethal challenge with either of 2 pathogens associated with neutropenia: Aspergillus fumigatus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cotransplantation of CMP/GMP resulted in a significant and rapid increase in the absolute number of myeloid cells in the spleen, most of which were derived from the donor CMP/GMP. Despite persistent peripheral neutropenia, improved survival correlated with the measurable appearance of progenitor-derived myeloid cells in the spleen. A marked reduction or elimination of tissue pathogen load was confirmed by culture and correlated with survival. Localization of infection by P aeruginosa and extent of disease was also assessed by in vivo bioluminescent imaging using a strain of P aeruginosa engineered to constitutively express a bacterial luciferase. Imaging confirmed that transplantation with a graft containing hematopoietic stem cells and CMP/GMP reduced the bacterial load as early as 18 hours after infection. These results demonstrate that enhanced reconstitution of a tissue myeloid pool offers protection against lethal challenge with serious fungal and bacterial pathogens.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-05-1552

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179759800058

    View details for PubMedID 12393415

  • Telomerase activation and rejuvenation of telomere length in stimulated T cells derived from serially transplanted hematopoietic stem cells JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE Allsopp, R. C., Cheshier, S., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 196 (11): 1427-1433

    Abstract

    Telomeres shorten in hematopoietic cells, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), during aging and after transplantation, despite the presence of readily detectable levels of telomerase in these cells. In T cells, antigenic stimulation has been shown to result in a marked increase in the level of telomerase activity. We now show that stimulation of T cells derived from serially transplanted HSC results in a telomerase-dependent elongation of telomere length to a size similar to that observed in T cells isolated directly from young mice. Southern analysis of telomere length in resting and anti-CD3/CD28 stimulated donor-derived splenic T cells revealed an increase in telomere size by approximately 7 kb for the population as a whole. Stimulation of donor-derived T cells from recipients of HSCs from telomerase-deficient mice did not result in regeneration of telomere length, demonstrating a dependence on telomerase. Furthermore, clonal anti-CD3/CD28 stimulation of donor-derived T cells followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of telomeric signal intensity showed that telomeres had increased in size by approximately 50% for all clonal expansions. Together, these results imply that one role for telomerase in T cells may be to renew or extend replicative potential via the rejuvenation of telomere length.

    View details for DOI 10.1084/jem.20021003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179682000004

    View details for PubMedID 12461078

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2194261

  • Developmental plasticity of lymphoid progenitors SEMINARS IN IMMUNOLOGY Prohaska, S. S., Scherer, D. C., Weissman, I. L., Kondo, M. 2002; 14 (6): 377-384

    Abstract

    The identification of the common lymphoid progenitors in mouse bone marrow allows us to directly assess the regulatory mechanisms of lymphoid lineage commitment. The unexpected finding of a latent myeloid differentiation potential in lymphoid progenitors sheds light on the importance of cytokine receptor expression at this stage. We will discuss the biological nature of common lymphoid progenitors as a model of differentiation from multipotent to lineage committed progenitors. Elucidation of this hidden differentiation potential in progenitors will help further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control the cell fate determination of not only common lymphoid progenitors, but also their ancestors, hematopoietic stem cells, and their descendents such as committed T and B cell progenitors.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1044-5323(02)00072-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179881000004

    View details for PubMedID 12457610

  • Langerhans cells renew in the skin throughout life under steady-state conditions NATURE IMMUNOLOGY Merad, M., Manz, M. G., Karsunky, H., Wagers, A., Peters, W., Charo, I., Weissman, I. L., Cyster, J. G., Engleman, E. G. 2002; 3 (12): 1135-1141

    Abstract

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are bone marrow (BM)-derived epidermal dendritic cells (DCs) that represent a critical immunologic barrier to the external environment, but little is known about their life cycle. Here, we show that in lethally irradiated mice that had received BM transplants, LCs of host origin remained for at least 18 months, whereas DCs in other organs were almost completely replaced by donor cells within 2 months. In parabiotic mice with separate organs, but a shared blood circulation, there was no mixing of LCs. However, in skin exposed to ultraviolet light, LCs rapidly disappeared and were replaced by circulating LC precursors within 2 weeks. The recruitment of new LCs was dependent on their expression of the CCR2 chemokine receptor and on the secretion of CCR2-binding chemokines by inflamed skin. These data indicate that under steady-state conditions, LCs are maintained locally, but inflammatory changes in the skin result in their replacement by blood-borne LC progenitors.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ni852

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179467800010

    View details for PubMedID 12415265

  • Flk2/Flt3 receptor expression at defined stages of early hematopoietic development and expansion of progenitors and downstream dendritic cells through cognate ligand stimulation. 44th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Manz, M. M., Karsunky, H., Merad, M., Cozzio, A., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2002: 290A–290A
  • The role of Wnt signaling in myeloid leukemogenesis. 44th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Hematology Jamieson, C. H., Ailles, L. E., Reya, T., Muijtjens, M., Weissman, I. L. AMER SOC HEMATOLOGY. 2002: 26A–26A
  • Enforced expression of Bcl-2 restores the number of NK cells, but does not rescue the impaired development of NKT cells or intraepithelial lymphocytes, in IL-2/IL-15 receptor beta-chain-deficient mice JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Minagawa, M., Watanabe, H., Miyaji, C., Tomiyama, K., Shimura, H., Ito, A., Ito, M., Domen, J., Weissman, I. L., Kawai, K. 2002; 169 (8): 4153-4160

    Abstract

    IL-2/IL-15Rbeta-deficient mice display impaired development of NK cells, NKT cells, and intraepithelial lymphocytes of the intestine and skin. To determine the role of survival signals mediated by IL-2/IL-15R in the development of these innate lymphocytes, we introduced a bcl-2 transgene into IL-2/IL-15Rbeta-deficient mice. Enforced expression of Bcl-2 restored the number of NK cells in IL-2/IL-15Rbeta-deficient mice, but the rescued NK cells showed no cytotoxic activity. The numbers of NKT cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes did not increase significantly, and skin intraepithelial lymphocytes remained undetectable in the bcl-2 transgenic IL-2/IL-15Rbeta-deficient mice. These results indicate an essential role of IL-2/IL-15R-mediated survival signals in the development of NK cells, but they also show that additional nonsurvival signals from IL-2/IL-15R are necessary for innate lymphocyte development.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178512000014

    View details for PubMedID 12370344

  • Little evidence for developmental plasticity of adult hematopoietic stem cells SCIENCE Wagers, A. J., Sherwood, R. I., Christensen, J. L., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 297 (5590): 2256-2259

    Abstract

    To rigorously test the in vivo cell fate specificity of bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we generated chimeric animals by transplantation of a single green fluorescent protein (GFP)-marked HSC into lethally irradiated nontransgenic recipients. Single HSCs robustly reconstituted peripheral blood leukocytes in these animals, but did not contribute appreciably to nonhematopoietic tissues, including brain, kidney, gut, liver, and muscle. Similarly, in GFP+:GFP- parabiotic mice, we found substantial chimerism of hematopoietic but not nonhematopoietic cells. These data indicate that "transdifferentiation" of circulating HSCs and/or their progeny is an extremely rare event, if it occurs at all.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1074807

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178222000046

    View details for PubMedID 12215650

  • Cyclical generation and degeneration of organs in a colonial urochordate involves crosstalk between old and new: A model for development and regeneration DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY Lauzon, R. J., Ishizuka, K. J., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 249 (2): 333-348

    Abstract

    Botryllus schlosseri is a colonial marine urochordate in which all adult organisms (called zooids) in a colony die synchronously by apoptosis (programmed cell death) in cyclical fashion. During this death phase called takeover, cell corpses within the dying organism are engulfed by circulating phagocytic cells. The "old" zooids and their organs are resorbed within 24-36 h (programmed cell removal). This process coincides temporally with the growth of asexually derived primary buds, that harbor a small number of undifferentiated cells, into mature zooids containing functional organs and tissues with the same body plan as adult zooids from which they budded. Within these colonies, all zooids share a ramifying network of extracorporeal blood vessels embedded in a gelatinous tunic. The underlying mechanisms regulating programmed cell death and programmed cell removal in this organism are unknown. In this study, we extirpated buds or zooids from B. schlosseri colonies in order to investigate the interplay that exists between buds, zooids, and the vascular system during takeover. Our findings indicate that, in the complete absence of buds (budectomy), organs from adult zooids underwent programmed cell death but were markedly impaired in their ability to be resorbed despite engulfment of zooid-derived cell corpses by phagocytes. However, when buds were removed from only half of the flower-shaped systems of zooids in a colony (hemibudectomy), the budectomized zooids were completely resorbed within 36-48 h following onset of programmed cell death. Furthermore, if hemibudectomies were carried out by using small colonies, leaving only a single functional bud, zooids from the old generation were also resorbed, albeit delayed to 48-60 h following onset of programmed cell death. This bud eventually reached functional maturity, but grew significantly larger in size than any control zooid, and exhibited hyperplasia. This finding strongly suggested that components of the dying zooid viscera could be reutilized by the developing buds, possibly as part of a colony-wide recycling mechanism. In order to test this hypothesis, zooids were surgically removed (zooidectomy) at the onset of takeover, and bud growth was quantitatively determined. In these zooidectomized colonies, bud growth was severely curtailed. In most solitary, long-lived animals, organs and tissues are maintained by processes of continual death and removal of aging cells counterbalanced by regeneration with stem and progenitor cells. In the colonial tunicate B. schlosseri, the same kinds of processes ensure the longevity of the colony (an animal) by cycles of death and regeneration of its constituent zooids (also animals).

    View details for DOI 10.1006/dbio.2002.0772

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178133300010

    View details for PubMedID 12221010

  • Engraftment of sorted/expanded human central nervous system stem cells from fetal brain JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE RESEARCH Tamaki, S., Eckert, K., He, D. P., Sutton, R., Doshe, M., Jain, G., Tushinski, R., Reitsma, M., Harris, B., Tsukamoto, A., Gage, F., Weissman, I., Uchida, N. 2002; 69 (6): 976-986

    Abstract

    Direct isolation of human central nervous system stem cells (CNS-SC) based on cell surface markers yields a highly purified stem cell population that can extensively expand in vitro and exhibit multilineage differentiation potential both in vitro and in vivo. The CNS-SC were isolated from fetal brain tissue using the cell surface markers CD133(+), CD34(-), CD45(-), and CD24(-/lo) (CD133(+) cells). Fluorescence-activated cell sorted (FACS) CD133(+) cells continue to expand exponentially as neurospheres while retaining multipotential differentiation capacity for >10 passages. CD133(-), CD34(-), and CD45(-) sorted cells (approximately 95% of total fetal brain tissue) fail to initiate neurospheres. Neurosphere cells transplanted into neonatal immunodeficient NOD-SCID mice proliferated, migrated, and differentiated in a site-specific manner. However, it has been difficult to evaluate human cell engraftment, because many of the available monoclonal antibodies against neural cells (beta-tubulin III and glial fibrillary acidic protein) are not species specific. To trace the progeny of human cells after transplantation, CD133(+)-derived neurosphere cells were transduced with lentiviral vectors containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) expressed downstream of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. After transduction, GFP(+) cells were enriched by FACS, expanded, and transplanted into the lateral ventricular space of neonatal immunodeficient NOD-SCID brain. The progeny of transplanted cells were detected by either GFP fluorescence or antibody against GFP. GFP(+) cells were present in the subventricular zone-rostral migrating stream, olfactory bulb, and hippocampus as well as nonneurogenic sites, such as cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and striatum. Antibody against GFP revealed that some of the cells displayed differentiating dendrites and processes with neurons or glia cells. Thus, marking human CNS-SC with reporter genes introduced by lentiviral vectors is a useful tool with which to characterize migration and differentiation of human cells in this mouse transplantation model.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jnr.10412

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177792600031

    View details for PubMedID 12205691

  • Prospective isolation of human clonogenic common myeloid progenitors PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Manz, M. G., Miyamoto, T., Akashi, K., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 99 (18): 11872-11877

    Abstract

    The hierarchical development from hematopoietic stem cells to mature cells of the hematolymphoid system involves progressive loss of self-renewal capacity, proliferation ability, and lineage potentials. Here we show the prospective isolation of early developmental intermediates, the human clonogenic common myeloid progenitors and their downstream progeny, the granulocyte/macrophage and megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitors. All three populations reside in the lineage-negative (lin(-)) CD34(+)CD38(+) fraction of adult bone marrow as well as in cord blood. They are distinguishable by the expression of the IL-3R alpha chain, the receptor of an early-acting hematopoietic cytokine, and CD45RA, an isoform of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase involved in negative regulation of cytokine signaling. Multipotent progenitors, early lymphoid progenitors, and the here-defined myeloid progenitors express distinct profiles of hematopoiesis-affiliated genes. The isolation of highly purified hematopoietic intermediates provides tools to better understand developmental programs underlying normal and leukemic hematopoiesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.172384399

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177843100061

    View details for PubMedID 12193648

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC129361

  • The road ended up at stem cells IMMUNOLOGICAL REVIEWS Weissman, I. L. 2002; 185: 159-174

    Abstract

    For me the search for hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) actually started with the discovery by Till, McCulloch, and colleagues (1-3) that bone marrow contained single cells that could give rise to myeloerythroid colonies in the spleen, and sometimes these colonies contained cells that made more spleen colonies as well as radioprotected and reconstituted lethally irradiated mice (3). But in retrospect, it should have started with the remarkable observation of Ray Owen in 1945 that bovine fraternal twins sharing a single placenta and blood circulation retained production of blood cells genetically defined to be from both throughout their life (4). It could be argued that this was the experiment that began both modern experimental hematology as well as modern cellular immunology. The Till, McCulloch, Wu, Becker, and Simonovitch experiments were elegant demonstrations that single, genetically marked cells existed (random DNA breaks and translocations induced by sublethal irradiation of the donor bone marrow) that could both self-renew and differentiate (2, 5). But these experiments did not put the pure cells in the hands of scientists, and so most of their functions for the next 25 years were implied rather than directly analyzed. Just as genetics is the complement to biochemistry (when one considers genes and gene products), cell marking is the complement to cell purification in the fields of developmental and cellular biology. The first attempts at such cellular purification came from the 'school' of Till & McCulloch (6, 7), and independently the school of Van Bekkum in the Netherlands (8). But what was lacking in those experiments and at that time were both a comprehensive approach that would take into account the clonal activity of stem cells in both self-renewal and differentiation to all blood cell outcomes, and the tools with which one could separate what turned out to be an extremely rare population in the bone marrow. And, it wasn't known until much later that most day 8-10 spleen colonies were the progeny of progenitors, not stem cells (9). Two inventions facilitated the technology of purification of HSC: the advent of monoclonal antibody technology by Kohler & Milstein (10), and the development of the multiparameter fluorescence activated cell sorter by the Herzenberg group (11). My laboratory had established assays for the clonal precursors of T cells and B cells, and we had been using the Till-McCulloch spleen colony clonal assays since the mid-1960s. In the late 1970s and early 1980s we began in earnest the search for mouse early hematopoietic progenitors, including HSCs (12-16). The purification of HSCs proved to be much like the purification of an enzyme, or a cell surface receptor, or a gene. Successive enrichments finally led to the isolation of a population, which could no longer be subdivided and which contained precursors that read out in all clonal assays as well as in radioprotection of lethally irradiated hosts (17). Our first experiments transplanting single HSC in 1991 and 1992, led to the definitive demonstration that these were indeed HSCs (18-20). But these experiments and the ideas that led to them were developed in the context of immunology and experimental hematology as they were emerging in the 1950s and 60 s. This volume of Immunological Reviews is a rich testimony to the kinds of ideas and experiments that, at least in retrospect, turned out to be critical. Many roads were taken, but only one ended up at stem cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000177588900014

    View details for PubMedID 12190929

  • Myeloid or lymphoid promiscuity as a critical step in hematopoietic lineage commitment DEVELOPMENTAL CELL Miyamoto, T., Iwasaki, H., Reizis, B., Ye, M., Graf, T., Weissman, I. L., Akashi, K. 2002; 3 (1): 137-147

    Abstract

    We demonstrate here that "promiscuous" expression of myeloid or lymphoid genes precedes lineage commitment in hematopoiesis. Prospectively purified single common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) coexpress myelo-erythroid but not lymphoid genes, whereas single common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) coexpress T and B lymphoid but not myeloid genes. Genes unrelated to the adopted lineage are downregulated in bipotent and monopotent descendants of CMPs and CLPs. Promiscuous gene expression does not alter the biological potential of multipotent progenitors: CMPs with an activated endogenous M lysozyme locus yield normal proportions of myelo-erythroid colonies, and CLPs expressing the pre-T cell receptor alpha gene differentiate into normal numbers of B cells. Thus, the accessibility for multiple myeloid or lymphoid programs promiscuously may allow flexibility in fate commitments at these multipotent stages.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176769500016

    View details for PubMedID 12110174

  • Myeloerythroid-restricted progenitors are sufficient to confer radioprotection and provide the majority of day 8 CFU-S JOURNAL OF CLINICAL INVESTIGATION Nakorn, T. N., Traver, D., Weissman, I. L., Akashi, K. 2002; 109 (12): 1579-1585

    Abstract

    Whole-body irradiation at the minimal lethal dose causes bone marrow failure and death within 12-18 days. To identify the principal components of the hematopoietic system that are radioprotective, we transplanted lethally irradiated mice with purified progenitors: common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), megakaryocyte/erythrocyte-restricted progenitors (MEPs), or granulocyte/monocyte-restricted progenitors (GMPs). Transplanted CMPs gave rise to cells both of the granulocyte/monocyte (GM) series and the megakaryocyte/erythrocyte series, whereas GMPs or MEPs showed reconstitution of only GM or ME cells, respectively. CMPs and MEPs but not GMPs protected mice in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that erythrocytes, platelets, or both are the critical effectors of radioprotection. Accordingly, CMPs and MEPs formed robust colonies in recipient bone marrow and spleen, whereas GMPs formed small colonies that rapidly disappeared. Direct comparisons of spleen CFU (CFU-S) potentials among each progenitor subset showed that MEPs contain the vast majority of day 8 CFU-S activity, suggesting that day 8 CFU-S are the precursors of radioprotective cell subsets. All animals radioprotected for 30 days subsequently survived for at least 6 months post-transplant, and showed only host-derived hematopoiesis after 30 days. These findings suggest that rare hematopoietic stem cells survive myeloablation that can eventually repopulate irradiated hosts if myeloerythroid-restricted progenitors transiently rescue ablated animals through the critical window of bone marrow failure.

    View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI200215272

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176318600011

    View details for PubMedID 12070305

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC151014

  • Characterization of murine leukemic myeloid progenitors. Jamieson, C. H., Nanakorn, T., Jaiswal, S., Muijtjens, M., Weissman, I. L. ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE. 2002: S71–S71
  • Stem cells - Scientific, medical, and political issues NEW ENGLAND JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Weissman, I. L. 2002; 346 (20): 1576-1579

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175563900012

    View details for PubMedID 11994551

  • Replicative senescence of hematopoietic stem cells during serial transplantation: does telomere shortening play a role? ONCOGENE Allsopp, R. C., Weissman, I. L. 2002; 21 (21): 3270-3273

    Abstract

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have a finite proliferative lifespan, based upon the limited