Bio

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Research Director, Stanford Cancer Institute Community Partnership Program (2012 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Postdoctoral Fellow, Stanford Prevention Reserach Center, Stanford School of Medicine, CVD disease prevention (2012)
  • Doctor of Public Health (DrPH), School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley (2008)
  • Master of Public Health (MPH), UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, Health Education and Health Behavior (2002)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


Dr. Salvatore’s primary research interests include community-based participatory research (CBPR); immigrant and refugee health; occupational and environmental health promotion; the development and evaluation of ecologic interventions to reduce health disparities. Her work involves communities in the U.S., India, and Africa. Currently, Dr. Salvatore is using mixed-methods to examine the contextual effects of place on well-being among urban minority populations.

Publications

Journal Articles


  • Promoting Health Equity and Safety in San Francisco?s Chinatown Restaurants: Findings and Lessons Learned from a Pilot Observational Survey. Public Health Reports. In Press. Gaydos, M., Bhatia, R., Morales, A., Lee, P.T., Chang, C., Salvatore, A.L., Liu, S.S., Krause, N., Minkler, M.
  • Popular Education, Participatory Research, and Community Organizing with Immigrant Workers in Chinatown Restaurants: A Case Study In Minker, M. ed. Community Organizing and Community Building for Health. Rutgers University Press. Chang, C., Salvatore, A.L., Lee, P.T., Liu, S.S., Minkler, M. ; In press.
  • Adapting to Context in Community-Based Participatory Research: "Participatory Starting Points" in a Chinese Immigrant Worker Community AMERICAN JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY Chang, C., Salvatore, A. L., Lee, P. T., Liu, S. S., Tom, A. T., Morales, A., Baker, R., Minkler, M. 2013; 51 (3-4): 480-491

    Abstract

    Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasingly being used to better understand and improve the health of diverse communities. A key strength of this research orientation is its adaptability to community contexts and characteristics. To date, however, few studies explicitly discuss adaptations made to CBPR principles and processes in response to community context and partners' needs. Using data from our CBPR study, the San Francisco Chinatown Restaurant Worker Health and Safety Project, and drawing from literature on immigrant political incorporation, we examine the links between the contexts of the Chinese immigrant worker community, adaptations made by our collaborative, and study outcomes. In particular, we explore the concepts of contexts of reception and participatory starting points, which may be especially relevant for partnerships with immigrant communities whose members have historically had lower rates of civic and political participation in the US. We discuss contextual findings such as worker partner accounts of language barriers, economic and social marginalization, and civic skills and participation, as well as subsequent adaptations made by the partnership. We also describe the relative effectiveness of these adaptations in yielding equitable participation and building partners' capacity. We conclude by sharing lessons learned and their implications for CBPR and partnerships with immigrant communities more broadly.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10464-012-9565-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318308800013

    View details for PubMedID 23370942

  • Addressing food insecurity in a Native American reservation using community-based participatory research HEALTH EDUCATION RESEARCH Jernigan, V. B., Salvatore, A. L., Styne, D. M., Winkleby, M. 2012; 27 (4): 645-655

    Abstract

    The food insecurity faced by many Native American communities has numerous implications for the health and welfare of families. To identify and address upstream causes of food insecurity in a rural California reservation, we conducted a community assessment using the Tool for Health and Resilience in Vulnerable Environments (THRIVE). Guided by a community-based participatory research orientation, the THRIVE tool was adapted using digital storytelling and implemented in a series of focus groups. As a result of the THRIVE assessment, community members identified racial injustice and physical and financial barriers to accessing healthy and culturally appropriate foods as areas of greatest importance. Subsequently, the project partnership developed policies to reduce identified barriers which included an integrated community supported agriculture and commodity food program, the introduction of Electronic Benefits Transfer and culturally appropriate foods at the local farmers' market and reallocation of shelf space at the grocery store to include vegetables and fruits as well as special foods for diabetics. Results suggest that a participatory research orientation coupled with the use of a culturally adapted THRIVE tool may be an effective means for identifying structural determinants of food insecurity and initiating novel policy interventions to reduce health disparities experienced by Native American communities.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/her/cyr089

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306647900008

    View details for PubMedID 21994709

  • Participatory Approaches for Study Design and Analysis In Bronson, R., Coldditz, G., and Proctor, E. eds. Dissemination and Implementation Research in Health: Translating Science to Practice. Oxford University Press. In press. Minkler, M., Salvatore, A.L. 2012: 192-212
  • Addressing food insecurity in a native reservation using community-based participatory research Health Education Research Jernigan, V., Salvatore, A.L., Styne, D.M., Winkleby, M 2011: doi: 10.1093/her/cyr
  • Scaling Up Rural Sanitation: Findings from the Impact Evaluation Baseline Survey in Madhya Pradesh, India Water and Sanitation Program Technical Paper. The World Bank. Salvatore, A.L., Patil, S.R. 2011; March
  • Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Design and Initiate a Study on Immigrant Worker Health and Safety in San Francisco's Chinatown Restaurants AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE Minkler, M., Lee, P. T., Tom, A., Chang, C., Morales, A., Liu, S. S., Salvatore, A., Baker, R., Chen, F., Bhatia, R., Krause, N. 2010; 53 (4): 361-371

    Abstract

    Restaurant workers have among the highest rates of work-related illness and injury in the US, but little is known about the working conditions and occupational health status of Chinese immigrant restaurant workers.Community-based participatory research (CBPR) was employed to study restaurant working conditions and worker health in San Francisco's Chinatown. A community/academic/health department collaborative was formed and 23 restaurant workers trained on research techniques and worker health and safety. A worker survey instrument and a restaurant observational checklist were collaboratively developed. The checklist was piloted in 71 Chinatown restaurants, and the questionnaire administered to 433 restaurant workers.Restaurant workers, together with other partners, made substantial contributions to construction of the survey and checklist tools and improved their cultural appropriateness. The utility of the checklist tool for restaurant-level data collection was demonstrated.CBPR holds promise for both studying worker health and safety among immigrant Chinese restaurant workers and developing culturally appropriate research tools. A new observational checklist also has potential for restaurant-level data collection on worker health and safety conditions.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajim.20791

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276252200007

    View details for PubMedID 20066672

  • A community-based participatory worksite intervention to reduce pesticide exposures to farmworkers and their families. American journal of public health Salvatore, A. L., Chevrier, J., Bradman, A., Camacho, J., López, J., Kavanagh-Baird, G., Minkler, M., Eskenazi, B. 2009; 99: S578-81

    Abstract

    We evaluated a community-based participatory research worksite intervention intended to improve farmworkers' behaviors at work and after work to reduce occupational and take-home pesticide exposures. The workers received warm water and soap for hand washing, gloves, coveralls, and education. Self-reported assessments before and after the intervention revealed that glove use, wearing clean work clothes, and hand washing at the midday break and before going home improved significantly. Some behaviors, such as hand washing before eating and many targeted after-work behaviors, did not improve, indicating a need for additional intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2008.149146

    View details for PubMedID 19890160

  • Community-based intervention to reduce pesticide exposure to farmworkers and potential take-home exposure to their families JOURNAL OF EXPOSURE SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL EPIDEMIOLOGY Bradman, A., Salvatore, A. L., Boeniger, M., Castorina, R., Snyder, J., Barr, D. B., Jewell, N. P., Kavanagh-Baird, G., Striley, C., Eskenazi, B. 2009; 19 (1): 79-89

    Abstract

    The US EPA Worker Protection Standard requires pesticide safety training for farmworkers. Combined with re-entry intervals, these regulations are designed to reduce pesticide exposure. Little research has been conducted on whether additional steps may reduce farmworker exposure and the potential for take-home exposure to their families. We conducted an intervention with 44 strawberry harvesters (15 control and 29 intervention group members) to determine whether education, encouragement of handwashing, and the use of gloves and removable coveralls reduced exposure. Post-intervention, we collected foliage and urine samples, as well as hand rinse, lower-leg skin patch, and clothing patch samples. Post-intervention loading of malathion on hands was lower among workers who wore gloves compared to those who did not (median=8.2 vs. 777.2 microg per pair, respectively (P<0.001)); similarly, median MDA levels in urine were lower among workers who wore gloves (45.3 vs. 131.2 microg/g creatinine, P<0.05). Malathion was detected on clothing (median=0.13 microg/cm(2)), but not on skin. Workers who ate strawberries had higher malathion dicarboxylic acid levels in urine (median=114.5 vs. 39.4 microg/g creatinine, P<0.01). These findings suggest that wearing gloves reduces pesticide exposure to workers contacting strawberry foliage containing dislodgeable residues. Additionally, wearing gloves and removing work clothes before returning home could reduce transport of pesticides to worker homes. Behavioral interventions are needed to reduce consumption of strawberries in the field.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/jes.2008.18

    View details for Web of Science ID 000261779400007

    View details for PubMedID 18368011

  • Occupational behaviors and farmworkers' pesticide exposure: Findings from a study in Monterey County, California AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE Salvatore, A. L., Bradman, A., Castorina, R., Camacho, J., Lopez, J., Barr, D. B., Snyder, J., Jewell, N. P., Eskenazi, B. 2008; 51 (10): 782-794

    Abstract

    We studied the relationship between behaviors promoted through the US Environmental Protection Agency Worker Protection Standard (WPS) and other programs and agricultural pesticide exposures in 73 strawberry fieldworkers employed in Monterey County, California.Farmworkers' behaviors were assessed via self-report and organophosphorus (OP) pesticide exposure was measured using dimethyl alkylphosphate (DMAP) and malathion dicarboxylic acid (MDA) urinary metabolite levels.Wearing WPS-recommended clothing, wearing clean work clothes, and the combination of handwashing with soap and wearing gloves were associated with decreases in DMAP and MDA metabolite levels. Despite these protective behaviors, however, participants had significantly higher levels of exposure as compared with a national reference sample.Interventions that facilitate compliance with these behaviors may be effective in decreasing fieldworkers' pesticide exposures. However, further efforts are needed to reduce the exposure disparities experienced by farmworkers and decrease the potential for "take home" exposures to farmworkers' families.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajim.20622

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259248200008

    View details for PubMedID 18702096

  • Community-based participatory research: Lessons learned from the Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH PERSPECTIVES Israel, B. A., Parker, E. A., Rowe, Z., Salvatore, A., Minkler, M., Lopez, J., Butz, A., Mosley, A., Coates, L., Lambert, G., Potito, P. A., Brenner, B., Rivera, M., Romero, H., Thompson, B., Coronado, G., Halstead, S. 2005; 113 (10): 1463-1471

    Abstract

    Over the past several decades there has been growing evidence of the increase in incidence rates, morbidity, and mortality for a number of health problems experienced by children. The causation and aggravation of these problems are complex and multifactorial. The burden of these health problems and environmental exposures is borne disproportionately by children from low-income communities and communities of color. Researchers and funding institutions have called for increased attention to the complex issues that affect the health of children living in marginalized communities--and communities more broadly--and have suggested greater community involvement in processes that shape research and intervention approaches, for example, through community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships among academic, health services, public health, and community-based organizations. Centers for Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (Children's Centers) funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were required to include a CBPR project. The purpose of this article is to provide a definition and set of CBPR principles, to describe the rationale for and major benefits of using this approach, to draw on the experiences of six of the Children's Centers in using CBPR, and to provide lessons learned and recommendations for how to successfully establish and maintain CBPR partnerships aimed at enhancing our understanding and addressing the multiple determinants of children's health.

    View details for DOI 10.1289/ehp.7675

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232292600058

    View details for PubMedID 16203263

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