Bio

Professional Education


  • Doctor of Philosophy, University of Illinois Chicago (2012)
  • Master of Arts, University of Illinois Chicago, Clinical Psychology (2008)
  • Postbaccalaureate Fellow, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Clinical Pharmacology and Treatment (2006)
  • Bachelor of Arts, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (2004)

Stanford Advisors


Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


I am interested in cognitive and emotional mechanisms that contribute to initiation, development, maintenance and relapse to problematic alcohol and drug use. More specifically, I seek to understand why some individuals experiment with substances but eventually quit or moderate their use, while others go on to develop full blown substance use disorders (SUD). On the other end of the spectrum, I aim to identify and describe how these mechanisms influence treatment outcomes so as to help improve existing empirically supported treatments. My more recent interests involve how disruptions in attention, memory and higher order cognitive functions (executive functions; self-regulation; impulsivity) predispose individuals to SUD and associated risk behaviors (e.g.,violence) as well as impede recovery from SUD.

As a clinical psychologist, I have also developed a deep appreciation for the complex comorbidities that characterize SUD populations. Along this line, my work focuses on the co-occurrence of SUD and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - primarily because this subpopulation experiences far worse treatment and quality of life outcomes despite a higher utilization of services. My research is committed to understanding common "transdisease" processes and malleable risk factors (e.g., cognitive dysfunction, emotion dysregulation) that underlie and drive different SUD and commonly co-occurring mental health disorders. This information can then be used to translate research findings into targeted clinical interventions (e.g., computerized neuroscience-based cognitive training). The overarching goal is to examine the commonalities that transcend any one particular disorder, at multiple levels of analysis, so as to enhance scientific progress among all the disorders in which they operate.

Publications

Journal Articles


  • A Comprehensive Examination of Delay Discounting in a Clinical Sample of Cannabis-Dependent Military Veterans Making a Self-Guided Quit Attempt EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Heinz, A. J., Peters, E. N., Boden, M. T., Bonn-Miller, M. O. 2013; 21 (1): 55-65

    Abstract

    Delay discounting (DD), an index of impulsivity, reflects individuals' preference for smaller immediate rewards to larger delayed rewards. The current study examined (a) relations between DD and quantity, frequency, and severity of Cannabis use, as well as several other measures of co-occurring substance use and clinical severity, and (b) whether DD predicted Cannabis-cessation outcomes. Cannabis-dependent United States (U.S.) veterans (N = 72; 95% male) who were interested in making serious self-quit attempts were evaluated prior to their cessation attempts, during which they completed a computerized DD task, and were followed throughout six months postattempt. Results indicated that higher DD was significantly correlated with higher compulsive craving for Cannabis (? = .29, p < .05), younger age of first Cannabis use (r = -.32, p < .01), earlier commencement of regular Cannabis smoking (r = -.25, p < .05), and seeking professional help for a previous Cannabis quit attempt (? = .27, p < .05). DD did not significantly predict any Cannabis-cessation outcomes in the first week postattempt or during the 6-month follow-up. These results add to the literature on DD, which has focused on users of tobacco, alcohol, opioids, and cocaine, by demonstrating that DD is sensitive to developmental trajectories of Cannabis dependence, but does not reliably predict cessation outcomes. Results also suggest that DD may carry less relevance for Cannabis than for other substances of abuse.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0031192

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314537400007

    View details for PubMedID 23379614

  • Problematic alcohol use among individuals with HIV: Relations with everyday memory functioning and HIV symptom severity AIDS & Behavior Heinz, A. J., Fogler, K. A., Newcomb, M. E., Trafton, J. A., Bonn-Miller, M. O. 2013
  • The combined effects of alcohol, caffeine, and expectancies on subjective experience, impulsivity, and risk-taking Exp Clin Psychopharmacol Heinz, A., de Wit, H, Lilje, TC, Kassel, JD 2013; 21 (3): 222-234
  • Quantifying reinforcement value and demand for psychoactive substances in humans. Current drug abuse reviews Heinz, A. J., Lilje, T. C., Kassel, J. D., De Wit, H. 2012; 5 (4): 257-272

    Abstract

    Behavioral economics is an emerging cross-disciplinary field that is providing an exciting new contextual framework for researchers to study addictive processes. New initiatives to study addiction under a behavioral economic rubric have yielded variable terminology and differing methods and theoretical approaches that are consistent with the multidimensional nature of addiction. The present article is intended to provide an integrative overview of the behavioral economic nomenclature and to describe relevant theoretical models, principles and concepts. Additionally, we present measures derived from behavioral economic theories that quantify demand for substances and assess decision making processes surrounding substance use. The sensitivity of these measures to different contextual elements (e.g., drug use status, acute drug effects, deprivation) is also addressed. The review concludes with discussion of the validity of these approaches and their potential for clinical application and highlights areas that warrant further research. Overall, behavioral economics offers a compelling framework to help explicate complex addictive processes and it is likely to provide a translational platform for clinical intervention.

    View details for PubMedID 23062106

  • Examining Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol Use in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis JOURNAL OF STUDIES ON ALCOHOL AND DRUGS Newcomb, M. E., Heinz, A. J., Mustanski, B. 2012; 73 (5): 783-793

    Abstract

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth are at increased risk for alcohol misuse, but little is known about the psychosocial and demographic factors that are associated with these differences over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate change in alcohol use across development. We aimed to describe group/demographic differences in alcohol use, the effects of psychosocial variables on drinking within persons (i.e., psychological distress, sexual orientation-based victimization, and perceived family support), and the interactions between demographic differences and longitudinal psychosocial variables in predicting rates of alcohol use.The current study used data from the longest running longitudinal study of LGBT youth. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine both demographic differences and psychosocial predictors of alcohol use in an ethnically diverse sample of 246 LGBT youth (ages 16-20 years at baseline) across five time points over 2.5 years.Drinking increased significantly over time in a linear fashion, although it tended to increase more rapidly among male LGBT youth compared with females. Analyses of group differences revealed lower average rates of drinking for African American and female LGBT youth, and there were no differences between bisexual youth and gay/lesbian youth. Psychological distress and sexual orientation-based victimization were associated with increased alcohol use at each wave of data collection for female LGBT youth only. Perceived family support at each wave was negatively associated with alcohol use for all LGBT youth.Findings indicate that there is significant heterogeneity in the etiological pathways that lead to alcohol use in LGBT youth and that correlates of drinking are similar to those found in general populations. These crucial findings indicate that existing alcohol interventions also may be effective for LGBT youth and open up a wider array of prevention and treatment options for this at-risk population.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309037600009

    View details for PubMedID 22846242

  • Cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms of alcohol-related aggression NATURE REVIEWS NEUROSCIENCE Heinz, A. J., Beck, A., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Sterzer, P., Heinz, A. 2011; 12 (7): 400-413

    Abstract

    Alcohol-related violence is a serious and common social problem. Moreover, violent behaviour is much more common in alcohol-dependent individuals. Animal experiments and human studies have provided insights into the acute effect of alcohol on aggressive behaviour and into common factors underlying acute and chronic alcohol intake and aggression. These studies have shown that environmental factors, such as early-life stress, interact with genetic variations in serotonin-related genes that affect serotonergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. This leads to increased amygdala activity and impaired prefrontal function that, together, predispose to both increased alcohol intake and impulsive aggression. In addition, acute and chronic alcohol intake can further impair executive control and thereby facilitate aggressive behaviour.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nrn3042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291937900011

    View details for PubMedID 21633380

  • A comprehensive examination of hookah smoking in college students: Use patterns and contexts, social norms and attitudes, harm perception, psychological correlates and co-occurring substance use. Addictive behaviors Heinz, A. J., Giedgowd, G. E., Crane, N. A., Veilleux, J. C., Conrad, M., Braun, A. R., Olejarska, N. A., Kassel, J. D. 2013; 38 (11): 2751-2760

    Abstract

    The practice of waterpipe smoking (hookah) has rapidly increased in popularity among young adults yet burgeoning research suggests that its use is associated with nicotine dependence and other negative smoking-related health consequences. Moreover, descriptive studies indicate that consumers may hold the belief that hookah smoking is safer than smoking cigarettes. The current study extended previous work by conducting a comprehensive assessment of patterns and contexts of hookah use, psychological correlates of use, co-occurring substance use as well as social norms and health perceptions surrounding the practice. Participants were 143 ethnically diverse undergraduate students at a large urban US university. Approximately half of the sample (48%) reported life-time use of hookah and 22% reported use within the past 30days. Relative to cigarette smoking, hookah smoking was associated with less perceived harm and addiction potential and higher social approval. Participants who reported life-time hookah use, as compared to those who did not, perceived less associated harm, had a greater number of friends who had tried and approved of hookah, were more likely to use cigarettes, marijuana, and alcohol and in higher frequencies and quantities and were at higher risk for problem tobacco and alcohol use. Among participants who were not current smokers, those with hookah experience were more likely to endorse intent to try a cigarette soon. Hookah users did not differ from non-users on measures of trait anxiety, depression and impulsivity though they were more likely to drink alcohol for coping, social and enhancement purposes than non-users. Implications are discussed for public health initiatives to educate young adults about the potential consequences of hookah smoking.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.07.009

    View details for PubMedID 23934006

  • The combined effects of alcohol, caffeine, and expectancies on subjective experience, impulsivity, and risk-taking. Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology Heinz, A. J., De Wit, H., Lilje, T. C., Kassel, J. D. 2013; 21 (3): 222-234

    Abstract

    Caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) consumption is a rapidly growing phenomenon among young adults and is associated with a variety of health-risk behaviors. The current study examined whether either caffeinated alcohol or the expectation of receiving caffeinated alcohol altered affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes hypothesized to contribute to risk behavior. Young adult social drinkers (N = 146) participated in a single session where they received alcohol (peak Breath Alcohol Content = .088g/dL, SD = .019; equivalent to about four standard drinks) and were randomly assigned to one of four further conditions: 1) no caffeine, no caffeine expectancy, 2) caffeine and caffeine expectancy, 3) no caffeine but caffeine expectancy, 4) caffeine but no caffeine expectancy. Participants' habitual CAB consumption was positively correlated with measures of impulsivity and risky behavior, independently of study drugs. Administration of caffeine (mean dose = 220 mg, SD = 38; equivalent to about 2.75 Red Bulls) in the study reduced subjective ratings of intoxication and reversed the decrease in desire to continue drinking, regardless of expectancy. Caffeine also reduced the effect of alcohol on inhibitory reaction time (RT) (faster incorrect responses). Participants not expecting caffeine were less attentive after alcohol, whereas participants expecting caffeine were not, regardless of caffeine administration. Alcohol decreased response accuracy in all participants except those who both expected and received caffeine. Findings suggest that CABs may elevate risk for continued drinking by reducing perceived intoxication, and by maintaining the desire to continue drinking. Simply expecting to consume caffeine may reduce the effects of alcohol on inattention, and either expecting or consuming caffeine may protect against other alcohol-related performance decrements. Caffeine, when combined with alcohol, has both beneficial and detrimental effects on mechanisms known to contribute to risky behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0032337

    View details for PubMedID 23750693

  • A comprehensive examination of hookah smoking in college students: Use patterns and contexts, social norms and attitudes, harm perception, psychological correlates and co-occurring substance use Addictive Behaviors Heinz, A. J., Giedgowd, G. E., Craine, N. A., Conrad, M., Braun, A. R., et al 2013; 38 (11): 2751–2760
  • The separate and combined effects of alcohol and nicotine on anticipatory anxiety: A multidimensional analysis ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS Braun, A. R., Heinz, A. J., Veilleux, J. C., Conrad, M., Weber, S., Wardle, M., Greenstein, J., Evatt, D., Drobes, D., Kassel, J. D. 2012; 37 (4): 485-491

    Abstract

    Individuals who smoke cigarettes are significantly more likely to smoke more when they drink alcohol. Indeed, smoking and drinking appear strongly linked, at both between- and within-person levels of analyses. Anecdotal evidence further suggests that alcohol consumption in combination with smoking cigarettes reduces anxiety, yet the mechanisms by which this may occur are not well understood. The current study assessed the separate and combined effects of alcohol and nicotine on self-reported and psychophysiological (startle eyeblink magnitude) indices of anxiety. Results indicated that alcohol provided anxiolytic benefits alone and in combination with nicotine, as evidenced by significant reductions in startle eyeblink magnitude. According to self-reported anxiety, alcohol and nicotine exerted a conjoint effect on diminishing increases in anxiety subsequent to a speech stressor. These data highlight the importance of studying both the separate and combined effects of these two widely used substances, as well as the advantages of employing a multimodal assessment of emotional response.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.12.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000301691400019

    View details for PubMedID 22260966

  • Predictors and Sequelae of Smoking Topography Over the Course of a Single Cigarette in Adolescent Light Smokers JOURNAL OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH Veilleux, J. C., Kassel, J. D., Heinz, A. J., Braun, A., Wardle, M. C., Greenstein, J., Evatt, D. P., Conrad, M. 2011; 48 (2): 176-181

    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to determine whether adolescent smokers, who varied in their smoking histories and symptoms of nicotine dependence, exhibit any decrease in puff volume and duration similar to that typically seen in dependent adolescent and adult smokers. Moreover, we examined whether puffing trajectories were moderated by individual difference factors, as well as whether puffing topography over the course of smoking a single cigarette was predictive of an escalation in dependence symptoms.We assessed smoking topography (puff number, duration, volume, maximum flow rate [velocity], and inter-puff interval) over the course of smoking a single cigarette in a sample of 78 adolescent light smokers, using hierarchical linear modeling. We examined moderators (anxiety, depression, nicotine dependence) of the topographic trajectories, as well as whether smoking topography predicted any change in dependence over a 2-year period.Puff volume and puff duration decreased over the course of smoking the cigarette, whereas puff velocity and inter-puff interval increased. Slopes for puff volume and duration were moderated by anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, individuals with a less "typical" topography pattern (exhibited stable or increasing volume and duration over the course of smoking the cigarette) demonstrated a heightened dependence escalation in the subsequent 2 years.Our findings suggest that adolescent light smokers self-regulate nicotine during the course of smoking a single cigarette, similar to that reported in dependent adolescent and adult smokers. However, single cigarette self-regulation was influenced by certain affective factors. Implications of these findings and future directions for adolescent smoking research are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.06.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286454000011

    View details for PubMedID 21257117

  • Adolescents' expectancies for smoking to regulate affect predict smoking behavior and nicotine dependence over time DRUG AND ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE Heinz, A. J., Kassel, J. D., Berbaum, M., Merrnelstein, R. 2010; 111 (1-2): 128-135

    Abstract

    Mounting evidence suggests that individuals smoke, in part, to regulate affective experience (e.g., tension reduction, mood enhancement). Implicit in such motives is the expectancy or belief that smoking will decrease negative affect and increase positive affect. The contribution of cognitively-driven expectancies to the initiation and continuation of smoking during adolescence remains largely uninvestigated. The current study examined the influence of negative affect relief expectancies (NAREs) for smoking on smoking behavior and nicotine dependence using longitudinal data from a study on the emotional and social contexts of youth smoking.Participants were 568 adolescents with smoking experience (mean age 15.67, 56.7% female). Three separate mixed regression models were estimated to determine the relative contribution of NAREs to smoking behavior and nicotine dependence measured at 4 time points over 2 years.NAREs for smoking influenced all smoking outcomes at baseline and predicted increases in smoking behavior and nicotine dependence over time, even after controlling for anxious and depressive symptoms and baseline nicotine dependence.Outcome expectancies for affect management emerged as an important risk factor for smoking escalation and the development of nicotine dependence during adolescence. The present findings highlight the potential importance of cognitively-driven expectancies as a risk factor for smoking escalation during this critical developmental period.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.04.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282476700019

    View details for PubMedID 20547013

  • The Separate and Combined Effects of Nicotine and Alcohol on Working Memory Capacity in Nonabstinent Smokers EXPERIMENTAL AND CLINICAL PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY Greenstein, J. E., Kassel, J. D., Wardle, M. C., Veilleux, J. C., Evatt, D. P., Heinz, A. J., Roesch, L. L., Braun, A. R., Yates, M. C. 2010; 18 (2): 120-128

    Abstract

    Research indicates that nicotine and alcohol are often used on the same occasion. However, the reasons for their concurrent use are not well understood. We hypothesized that one reason smokers use tobacco when they drink alcohol is to compensate for alcohol's negative effects on processing capacity with nicotine's enhancement of processing capacity. As such, the present study tested this theory by using an independent groups design to examine the separate and combined acute effects of alcohol and nicotine on working memory (WM) capacity. Nonabstinent daily smokers (n = 127) performed the counting span task (CSPAN) after consuming either an alcohol (men: 0.8 g/kg; women: 0.7 g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoking either nicotinized (1.14 mg nicotine, 15.9 mg tar) or denicotinized (.06 mg nicotine, 17.9 mg tar) cigarettes. Analyses revealed that smokers who smoked the nicotinized cigarettes performed significantly worse on the CSPAN task than smokers who smoked the denicotinized cigarettes. Although there was no main effect of alcohol on WM performance, women exhibited better WM performance than men after consuming alcohol whereas men performed better than women on the WM task after consuming the placebo beverage. Findings also revealed no interaction between the two substances on WM performance. Taken together, results suggest that nicotine impairs nonabstinent smokers' verbal WM capacity and that gender moderates the effects of alcohol on WM. Furthermore, the present findings failed to support the notion that nicotine compensates for alcohol-related decrements in working memory capacity.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0018782

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276573900002

    View details for PubMedID 20384423

  • A review of opioid dependence treatment: Pharmacological and psychosocial interventions to treat opioid addiction CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW Veilleux, J. C., Colvin, P. J., Anderson, J., York, C., Heinz, A. J. 2010; 30 (2): 155-166

    Abstract

    Opioid dependence is a problem of national concern, especially with dramatically increased rates of abuse and dependence of prescription opioids. The current article provides an up-to-date review of the literature on opioid dependence treatment, with a focus on conclusions drawn by experts in the field (e.g., Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses) and methodologically rigorous studies (e.g., randomized controlled trials). We describe the major classes of drug treatments available, including opioid agonist (e.g., methadone, buprenorphine, LAAM), antagonist (e.g., naltrexone) and non-opioid pharmacotherapies (e.g., alpha2 adrenergic agonists). These treatments are discussed in the context of detoxification and long term treatment options such as abstinence-based and maintenance strategies. We review the state of the literature as to prevention of opioid overdose and discuss the widespread problem of comorbidity among opioid-dependent populations. We also focus prominently on evidence for inclusion of psychosocial approaches in treatment regimens, either as stand-alone or in conjunction with psychopharmacological options.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.10.006

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274319600002

    View details for PubMedID 19926374

  • A Focus-Group Study on Spirituality and Substance-User Treatment SUBSTANCE USE & MISUSE Heinz, A. J., Disney, E. R., Epstein, D. H., Glezen, L. A., Clark, P. I., Preston, K. L. 2010; 45 (1-2): 134-153

    Abstract

    Focus groups were conducted in 2005-2006 with 25 urban methadone-maintained outpatients to examine beliefs about the role of spirituality in addiction and its appropriateness in formal treatment. Thematic analyses suggested that spirituality and religious practices suffered in complex ways during active addiction, but went "hand in hand" with recovery. Participants agreed that integration of a voluntary spiritual discussion group into formal treatment would be preferable to currently available alternatives. One limitation was that all participants identified as strongly spiritual. Studies of more diverse samples will help guide the development and evaluation of spiritually based interventions in formal treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/10826080903035130

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274226700009

    View details for PubMedID 20025443

  • Caffeine Expectancy: Instrument Development in the Rasch Measurement Framework PSYCHOLOGY OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS Heinz, A. J., Kassel, J. D., Smith, E. V. 2009; 23 (3): 500-511

    Abstract

    Although caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world, the mechanisms associated with consumption are not well understood. Nonetheless, outcome expectancies for caffeine use are thought to underlie caffeine's reinforcing properties. To date, however, there is no available, sufficient measure by which to assess caffeine expectancy. Therefore, the current study sought to develop such a measure employing Rasch measurement models. Unlike traditional measurement development techniques, Rasch analyses afford dynamic and interactive control of the analysis process and generate helpful information to guide instrument construction. A 5-stage developmental process is described, ultimately yielding a 37-item Caffeine Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ) comprised of 4 factors representing "withdrawal symptoms," "positive effects," "acute negative effects," and "mood effects." Initial evaluation of the CEQ yielded sufficient evidence for various aspects of validity. Although additional research with more heterogeneous samples is required to further assess the measure's reliability and validity, the CEQ demonstrates potential with regard to its utility in experimental laboratory research and clinical application.

    View details for DOI 10.1037/a0016654

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270068800011

    View details for PubMedID 19769434

  • Marriage and relationship closeness as predictors of cocaine and heroin use ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS Heinz, A. J., Wu, J., Witkiewitz, K., Epstein, D. H., Preston, K. L. 2009; 34 (3): 258-263

    Abstract

    Marriage has been cited as a protective factor against drug use, but the relationship between marriage and drug use has not been explored longitudinally during addiction treatment. The current study assessed individual trajectories of substance use during treatment as a function of marital status and perceived closeness of the marital relationship. A parallel-process growth model was used to (1) estimate the rate of change in percentage of cocaine-positive and heroin-positive urine samples, and (2) examine the relationship between marital status and drug use trajectories over 35 weeks, during and after treatment. Percent days of use for both drugs were lowest for married participants across all time points. Among married participants, reporting a close relationship with one's partner predicted less cocaine and heroin use. These findings suggest that being married and having a close relationship with one's spouse are associated with better outcomes over time. The causal nature of the association is suggested by previous research that has demonstrated the effectiveness of couples therapy as an adjunct to methadone maintenance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.10.020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263130200004

    View details for PubMedID 19008050

  • The role of cognitive structure in college student problem drinking ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS Heinz, A. J., Veilleux, J. C., Kassel, J. D. 2009; 34 (2): 212-218

    Abstract

    Although motivational models of alcohol use often invoke constructs relevant to affective distress (e.g., depressive symptoms), to date, no study has assessed the potential role of cognitive structures (enduring cognitive belief systems) in promoting problematic drinking behavior. Thus, the current study evaluated the relationship between cognitive structure, specifically dysfunctional attitudes and automatic negative thoughts, and problem-related drinking, while controlling for the influence of alcohol consumption, drinking motives related to affect management, demographic variables, and depressive symptoms. Participants were 182 male and female (80%) college undergraduates, who completed a battery of self-report questionnaires on two occasions, separated by 8 weeks. Initial correlational analyses indicated strong (positive) associations among the cognitive structure variables, depressive symptoms, and problem drinking behavior. Findings from set-wise hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that dysfunctional attitudes measured at Time 1 (T1) predicted problem drinking eight weeks later at Time 2 (T2) even after controlling for age and sex, alcohol consumption (T2), depressive symptoms (T2), and drinking motives linked to affect regulation (T1). These findings highlight the potential importance of cognitive structure as a risk factor for problem drinking, above and beyond the risk posed by more traditionally studied variables.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.10.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262197200012

    View details for PubMedID 18986770

  • Effect of tobacco deprivation on the attentional blink in rapid serial visual presentation HUMAN PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY-CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL Heinz, A., Waters, A. J., Taylor, R. C., Myers, C. S., Moolchan, E. T., Heishman, S. J. 2007; 22 (2): 89-96

    Abstract

    When two targets are imbedded in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), identification of the second target (T2) is impaired if it occurs within 500 ms of the first target (T1). This attentional blink (AB) is thought to involve interference of resources in processing T1 and T2. The deleterious effect of tobacco deprivation on attention has been documented, but no studies have examined the AB. Nonsmokers (n=30), 12-h tobacco-deprived smokers (n=30), and nondeprived smokers (n=30) were randomly assigned to perform the RSVP with one of three stimulus-duration conditions (96, 113, or 130 ms). Participants completed 48 RSVP trials. Each trial consisted of 16 individually presented words (T1, T2, and 14 distractors), and T2 lagged T1 at serial positions 1-8. Participants verbalized T1 and T2 in order immediately after each trial. Identification of T2 (for correct T1 trials) was impaired at early versus late lag positions, which was especially pronounced in the most difficult (96 ms) condition. There was no evidence for group differences on the AB; however, deprived smokers were worse identifying T1 in the 113-ms condition. These results suggest that the AB is influenced by stimulus duration, but not by 12 h of tobacco deprivation.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hup.826

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245440800004

    View details for PubMedID 17266171

  • Spiritual/religious experiences and in-treatment outcome in an inner-city program for heroin and cocaine dependence JOURNAL OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS Heinz, A., Epstein, D. H., Preston, K. L. 2007; 39 (1): 41-49

    Abstract

    Although spirituality is an integral component of some of the most popular approaches to substance abuse treatment, there is little empirical evidence for a causal relationship between spirituality and treatment success. In the present study, 169 (121 male) opiate- or cocaine-abusing treatment seekers completed the Index of Spiritual Experience (INSPIRIT), a questionnaire that assesses both spirituality and religiosity. Responses were analyzed in terms of demographic variables and in-treatment outcome, which was determined by treatment retention and drug screens from observed biweekly urine collections. Religious/spiritual beliefs were common in these participants and were associated with in-treatment outcome: total INSPIRIT score was weakly correlated (r = .16, p < .04) with number of subsequent cocaine-negative urines, and participants reporting that they frequently spent time on religious/spiritual activities showed significantly better outcomes in terms of subsequent drug use and treatment retention. Women and African Americans were more likely than men and non-African Americans to report religious and spiritual beliefs or experiences on several individual items, and African Americans had higher INSPIRIT scores than Caucasians. The results suggest that spiritual and religious experience plays a role in substance abuse recovery and that demographic characteristics should be considered in the design of spiritually oriented behavioral interventions for addiction.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246057000005

    View details for PubMedID 17523584

  • Heroin and cocaine craving and use during treatment: Measurement validation and potential relationships JOURNAL OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT Heinz, A. J., Epstein, D. H., Schroeder, J. R., Singleton, E. G., Heishman, S. J., Preston, K. L. 2006; 31 (4): 355-364

    Abstract

    Although commonly assessed with unidimensional scales, craving has been suggested to be multifaceted and to have a complex relationship with drug use and relapse. This study assessed the consistency and predictive validity of unidimensional and multidimensional craving scales. At the beginning of a 12-week outpatient treatment trial, opiate users (n = 101) and cocaine users (n = 72) completed unidimensional visual analog scales (VASs) assessing "want," "need," and "craving" and multidimensional 14- and 45-item versions of the Cocaine Craving Questionnaire (CCQ) or Heroin Craving Questionnaire (HCQ). Spearman correlations between the VASs and the first-order factors from the 45-item CCQ/HCQ were .20-.40, suggesting that the two types of assessment were not redundant. Treatment dropout and in-treatment drug use were more frequently predicted by scores on the 14- or 45-item CCQ than by VAS ratings. Results suggest that the CCQ/HCQ and the 14-item CCQ provide information that unidimensional VASs do not.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jsat.2006.05.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242056000005

    View details for PubMedID 17084789

  • Alcohol and aggression without consumption - Alcohol cues, aggressive thoughts, and hostile perception bias PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE Bartholow, B. D., Heinz, A. 2006; 17 (1): 30-37

    Abstract

    Researchers and the lay public have long known of a link between alcohol and aggression. However, whether this link results from alcohol's pharmacological effects or is merely an artifact of the belief that alcohol has been consumed (i.e., placebo effect) has been debated. The current experiments examined the propensity for alcohol-related cues to elicit aggressive thoughts and hostile perceptions in the absence of alcohol or placebo consumption. In Experiment 1, participants made faster lexical decisions concerning aggression-related words following alcohol-related primes compared with neutral primes. In Experiment 2, participants who first were exposed to alcohol advertisements subsequently rated the behavior of a target person as more hostile than participants who initially viewed control advertisements. Furthermore, this effect was largest among participants who most strongly associated alcohol and aggression. Findings are discussed in terms of semantic network theory and links in memory between alcohol and its anticipated effects.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234090200006

    View details for PubMedID 16371141

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