Advancing the Science behind Brain Health and Injury



Special Populations

Brain Trauma Evidence-Based Consortium (B-TEC)

Launched in 2014 with funding by the U.S. Department of Defense to Stanford University, and subcontracted to the Brain Trauma Foundation, B-TEC brings together brain injury experts from the Brain Trauma Foundation, Stanford University, Oregon Health and Sciences University, and Portland State University. The Consortium's aim is to develop an evidence-based classification for the spectrum of traumatic brain injury, including concussion, and to model post-injury trajectories and outcomes.

Core Objectives:

1. To establish evidence for concussion subtypes, describing their prevalence in head injured patients, and informating how each subtype recovers. Goals of this work are to lead to targeted management strategies to effect better care.

2. To maximize the utility of scientific effortrs to-date that address the epidemic of concussion and brain trauma, for the purpose of deriving a clinically useful classification system, and evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and outcomes. 

3. To create a consortium among the neurotrauma community that will inspire a commitment to the principles of evidence-based medicine in the design and conduct of brain trauma research.

4. To continue updating the Brain Trauma Foundation traumatic brain injury guidelines.

Key Research Areas:

  • Concussion Subtypes
  • Sports-related Concussion
  • Head Injury in Children
  • Classification of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Pediatric Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Adult In-Hospital Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Pre-Hospital Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Adults and Children
  • Brain Injury Algorithm Development

Founded by Center Director, Dr. Jamshid Ghajar, in 1986, the Brain Trauma Foundation was created to provide ongoing support for research on TBI. In the three decades since its founding, the Foundation continues to focus on conducting innovative clinical research, updating evidence-based guidelines, and working towards improving outcomes for the millions of people who suffer from traumatic brain injuries every year.

Materials for Referring Providers: Post-Concussion Patients

Materials for diagnosis and evaluation of patients who are post-concussion greater than 3 months and less than one year. Includes classification and management of concussion subtypes, evaluation template, materials for patients, and additional resources for referring physicians. 

Access Materials Here

Landmark Research

September 2018

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Among Children
Lumba-Brown, A., Yeates, K.O., Sarmiento. K., Breiding, M.J., Haegerich, T.M., & Gioia, G.A., et al.
Published online September 4, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.2853

September 2018

Diagnosis and Management of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Amoung Children: A Systematic Review
Lumba-Brown, A., Yeates, K.O., Sarmiento. K., Breiding, M.J., Haegerich, T.M., & Gioia, G.A., et al.
JAMA Pediatr. Published online September 4, 2018

July 2018

Association of Visual Tracking Metrics With Post-concussion Symptomatology
Maruta J, Spielman LA, Rajashekar U, Ghajar J.  Front Neurol. 2018 Jul 26;9:611. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2018.00611. eCollection 2018. PMID: 30093880


June 2018

Development of the CIDSS2 Score for Children with Mild Head Trauma without Intracranial Injury
Greenberg JK, Yan Y, Carpenter CR, Lumba-Brown A, Keller MS, Pineda J, Brownson RC, Limbrick D.  J Neurotrauma. 2018 Jun 8. doi: 10.1089/neu.2017.5324.  PMID: 29882466


March 2018

The Effect of Physical Exercise After a Concussion: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Lal A, Kolakowsky-Hayner SA, Ghajar J, Balamane M.  Am J Sports Med. 2018 Mar;46(3):743-752. doi: 10.1177/0363546517706137. Epub 2017 Jun 1.  PMID: 28570092

April 2017

Development and Internal Validation of a Clinical Risk Score for Treating Children With Mild Head Trauma and Intracranial Injury
Greenberg JK, Yan Y, Carpenter CR, Lumba-Brown A, Keller MS, Pineda JA, Brownson RC, Limbrick DD.  JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Apr 1;171(4):342-349. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.4520. PMID: 28192567

March 2017

Frequency Responses to Visual Tracking Stimuli May Be Affected by Concussion
Maruta J, Jaw E, Modera P, Rajashekar U, Spielman LA, Ghajar J. Mil Med. 2017 Mar;182(S1):120-123. doi: 10.7205/MILMED-D-16-00093. PMID: 28291462


January 2017

Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Fourth Edition
Carney N, Totten AM, O'Reilly C, Ullman JS, Hawryluk GW, Bell MJ, Bratton SL, Chesnut R, Harris OA, Kissoon N, Rubiano AM, Shutter L, Tasker RC, Vavilala MS, Wilberger J, Wright DW, Ghajar J. Neurosurgery. 2017 Jan 1;80(1):6-15. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000001432.  PMID: 27654000