Director of Oculoplastics Research, Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford School of Medicine (2017 - Present)


  • Functional Oculofacial Abstracts. Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery Ali, M. J., Bernardini, F. P., Savar, A., Wu, A. Y., Tawfik, H. A. 2023; 39 (6): 653-654

    View details for DOI 10.1097/IOP.0000000000002534

    View details for PubMedID 37922050

  • Demographic and socioeconomic disparities in receipt of ophthalmology consultation for facial trauma. BMJ open ophthalmology Gervasio, K. A., Camarena, J., Hampton, J., Chopra, N., Kalosza, B., Shumate, L., Wu, A. Y. 2023; 8 (1)


    OBJECTIVE: Functional outcomes following facial and ocular trauma are time-sensitive and require prompt evaluation to minimise long-term vision loss, yet few studies have systematically evaluated disparities in the management of these cases. This study investigates whether a patient's race/ethnicity, primary language, insurance status, gender or age affects receipt of ophthalmology consultation for facial trauma.METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients from the Elmhurst City Hospital Trauma Registry in Queens, New York who were seen for facial trauma including open globe injuries and orbital fractures between January 2014 and May 2016.RESULTS: Of the 264 patients included, 43% reported as Hispanic, 23% white, 11% Asian, 8% black and 15% other/unknown. After controlling for confounding variables by multivariable logistic regression, neither race/ethnicity, gender, nor primary language were significantly associated with the likelihood of receiving an ophthalmology consult. However, patients with private insurance had 2.57 times greater odds of receiving an ophthalmology consultation than those with Medicaid or state corrections insurance (95%CI 1.37 to 4.95). As age increased, the likelihood of receiving an ophthalmology consultation decreased (p=0.009); patients 60 years of age and older had one-third the odds of ophthalmology consultation as younger patients (OR 0.33; 95%CI 0.16 to 0.68).CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that lack of ophthalmology consultation in patients with facial trauma is linked to age and underinsurance. Extra attention must be paid during primary assessments to ensure elderly patients and those with public insurance have equitable access to timely and appropriate care for facial trauma.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjophth-2023-001259

    View details for PubMedID 37797981

  • Ocular Symptoms in Adolescents and Young Adults With Electronic Cigarette, Cigarette, and Dual Use. JAMA ophthalmology Nguyen, A. X., Gaiha, S. M., Chung, S., Halpern-Felsher, B., Wu, A. Y. 2023


    Despite increasing use of cigarettes and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and related health effects among youth, few studies have reported their effects on eyes.To examine the frequency and severity of ocular symptoms (ocular discomfort, pain, burning, itching, redness, dryness, glare, blurriness, strain, and headaches) in young e-cigarette and cigarette users.In an observational cross-sectional study, a survey conducted in May 6 to 14, 2020, asked participants about use (ever, past 30 days, and past 7 days) of e-cigarettes and cigarettes. The participants included US individuals aged 13 to 24 years.Associations between vision-related outcomes (general vision, severity/frequency of ocular symptoms) and tobacco use were analyzed using weighted multivariable logistic regressions, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, contact lens use, and other combustible use.There were 2168 never users, 2183 ever users, 1092 past 30-day users, and 919 past 7-day users of e-cigarettes; 55.9% of e-cigarette ever users also used cigarettes (dual users). Of the 4351 respondents, 63.8% identified as female, and mean (SD) age was 19.1 (2.9) years. Between 1.1% and 3.9% of ever dual users reported severe to very severe ocular symptoms; between 0.9% and 4.3% reported daily symptoms, which was higher than the proportion of symptoms in e-cigarette- or cigarette-only users. Past 7-day dual users had more severe itching (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.37; 95% CI, 1.36-4.13; P = .002), redness (AOR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.50-4.46; P = .001), dryness (AOR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.64-5.08; P < .001), glare (AOR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.50-4.35; P = .001), blurriness (AOR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.36-4.50; P = .003), headaches (AOR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.34-4.00; P = .003); and more frequent pain (AOR, 3.45; 95% CI, 2.09-5.68; P < .001), burning (AOR, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.86-5.09; P < .001), and redness (AOR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.69-4.36; P < .001) than all other participants. Past 30-day dual users had more severe dryness (AOR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.61-4.36; P < .001) and more frequent pain (AOR, 3.33; 95% CI, 2.12-5.21; P < .001) than all other participants. Ever dual users experienced more severe dryness (AOR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.05-2.43; P = .03) and blurriness (AOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.21-2.64; P = .003) and more frequent pain (AOR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.13-2.53; P = .01) and blurriness (AOR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.13-2.36; P = .009) than never users.In this cross-sectional US study, adolescents and young adult users of both e-cigarettes and cigarettes had a higher likelihood of experiencing severe and frequent ocular symptoms, with past 7-day users reporting more symptoms than past 30-day users or ever users. These findings provide additional reasons for users of e-cigarettes and cigarettes to reduce their tobacco use to possibly prevent or minimize ocular symptoms.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2023.3852

    View details for PubMedID 37651129

  • Corneal and Limbal Alkali Injury Induction Using a Punch-Trephine Technique in a Mouse Model. Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE Shadmani, A., Dhowre, H. S., Ercal, O., Meng, X. Q., Wu, A. Y. 2023


    The cornea is critical for vision, and corneal healing after trauma is fundamental in maintaining its transparency and function. Through the study of corneal injury models, researchers aim to enhance their understanding of how the cornea heals and develop strategies to prevent and manage corneal opacities. Chemical injury is one of the most popular injury models that has extensively been studied on mice. Most previous investigators have used a flat paper soaked in sodium hydroxide to induce corneal injury. However, inducing corneal and limbal injury using flat filter paper is unreliable, since the mouse cornea is highly curved. Here, we present a new instrument, a modified biopsy punch, that enables the researchers to create a well-circumscribed, localized, and evenly distributed alkali injury to the murine cornea and limbus. This punch-trephine method enables researchers to induce an accurate and reproducible chemical burn to the entire murine cornea and limbus while leaving other structures, such as the eyelids, unaffected by the chemical. Moreover, this study introduces an enucleation technique that preserves the medial caruncle as a landmark for identifying the nasal side of the globe. The bulbar and palpebral conjunctiva, and lacrimal gland are also kept intact using this technique. Ophthalmologic examinations were performed via slit lamp biomicroscope and fluorescein staining on days 0, 1, 2, 6, 8, and 14 post-injury. Clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical findings confirmed limbal stem cell deficiency and ocular surface regeneration failure in all experimental mice. The presented alkali corneal injury model is ideal for studying limbal stem cell deficiency, corneal inflammation, and fibrosis. This method is also suitable for investigating pre-clinical and clinical efficacies of topical ophthalmologic medications on the murine corneal surface.

    View details for DOI 10.3791/65609

    View details for PubMedID 37590514

  • American Academy of Ophthalmology Clinical Practice Guidelines and Financial Disclosures-Where Is the Money Going?-Reply. JAMA ophthalmology Nguyen, A. X., Joly-Chevrier, M., Wu, A. Y. 2023

    View details for DOI 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2023.3110

    View details for PubMedID 37471067

  • Accuracy of Digital Image Analysis for Diagnosing IgG4 Related Ophthalmic Disease Charoenkijkajorn, C., Gill, H., Glory, B., Shi, W., Homer, N., Men, C., Kossler, A., Wu, A., Lin, J. ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC. 2023
  • Quantitative Characterization of Mechanical and Chemical-Induced Corneal Injury and Lacrimal Gland Response in Mouse Model Shadmani, A., Wu, A., Ercal, O. ASSOC RESEARCH VISION OPHTHALMOLOGY INC. 2023
  • Orbital floor fractures in Taiwan: A 10-year nationwide population-based study. Taiwan journal of ophthalmology Lin, Y. C., Yim, C. K., Wu, A. Y., Hwang, D. K. 2023; 13 (2): 203-209


    To characterize the epidemiology, associated complications, and risk factors of orbital floor fractures in a nationwide longitudinal health insurance database.Claims data from a million randomly selected registered residents from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were analyzed between 2001 and 2011 as part of a retrospective cohort review. Patients were identified using the International Classification of Disease-9 diagnosis codes for orbital floor fracture (closed: 802.6; open: 802.7). The cases were categorized as surgical or nonsurgical based on the procedure codes and compared statistically.From 2001 to 2011, 663 patients were diagnosed with orbital floor fractures out of a total population at risk of 9,836,431 person-years (average incidence: 6.78 persons/100,000/year) with overall increasing incidence. Surgical treatments were performed in 213 (32%) patients. Patients who received surgical treatment were younger than those who did not (mean age 25.3 ± 13.6 years vs. 34.2 ± 18.6 years, P < 0.001). The diagnosis with diplopia was a significantly associated factor for surgical treatment (2.2% in nonsurgery group vs. 6.6% in surgery group, P = 0.007). Male gender (adjusted hazard ratios [aHR] = 2.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.79-2.49) and low monthly income (aHR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.16-2.67) were the risk factors for orbital floor fracture.The incidence of orbital floor fractures increased in the Taiwanese population between 2001 and 2011. Men and low income patients were at increased risk of orbital floor fracture. More research is necessary to clarify what factors are driving the escalating incidence of orbital fractures in this national population.

    View details for DOI 10.4103/tjo.TJO-D-23-00005

    View details for PubMedID 37484620

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC10361428

Other Lab Members

Kim JY, Park J, Kim DH, Gardner B, Jenkins S, McGahan PJ, Chen JL. Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Tibial Tunnel First Graft Sizing Technique. Arthrosc Tech. 2021 Nov 29;10(12):e2797-e2803. doi:10.1016/j.eats.2021.08.017

Kim JY, Park HY, Del Sol SR, Bryant S, Gardner B, Chakrabarti MO, Perinovic S, McGahan PJ, Chen JL. Arthroscopic Single Portal, Single Anchor Knotless Subscapularis Repair with Concomitant Tenodesis of the Long Head of the Biceps Tendon. Arthrosc Tech. 2021 Mar 22;10(4):e1117-e1123. doi: 10.1016/j.eats.2021.01.002. PMID: 33981559; PMCID: PMC8085439.

Kim JY, Park HY, Bryant S, Gardner B, Chakrabarti M, McGahan P, Chen JL. Combined Coracoclavicular and Acromioclavicular Joint Reconstruction with Allograft Using a Cerclage Tensioning System. Arthrosc Tech. 2021 Jan 16;10(2):e317-e323. doi: 10.1016/j.eats.2020.10.013. PMID: 33680762; PMCID: PMC7917031.

Kim JY, Bryant S, Gardner B, Park HY, Tse W, Chakrabarti M, McGahan P, Chen JL. Distal Clavicle Excision for Acromioclavicular Joint Osteoarthritis Using a Fluoroscopic Kirschner Wire Guide. Arthrosc Tech. 2021 Jan 16;10(2):e359-e365. doi: 10.1016/j.eats.2020.10.010. PMID: 33680767; PMCID: PMC7917026.

Park HY, Gardner B, Kim JY, Bryant S, Chakrabarti M, McGahan P, Chen JL. Four-Strand Hamstring Diamond Braid Technique for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Arthrosc Tech. 2021 Mar 22;10(4):e1173-e1177. doi: 10.1016/j.eats.2021.01.011. PMID: 33981567; PMCID: PMC8085571.

Bryant SA, Trang G, Nash HM, Gardner BB, Kim JY, Park HY, Chakrabarti M, McGahan P, Chen JL. Mini-Open Achilles Repair With a Flat Braided Suture in a Low-Profile Configuration. Arthrosc Tech. 2021 Jan 16;10(2):e451-e455. doi: 10.1016/j.eats.2020.10.019. PMID: 33680778; PMCID: PMC791708

Nguyen AX, Ratan S, Biyani A, Trinh XV, Saleh S, Sun Y, Wu AY. Gender of Award Recipients in Major Ophthalmology Societies. Am J Ophthalmol. 2021 Nov;231:120-133. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2021.05.021. Epub 2021 Jun 6. PMID: 34102152; PMCID: PMC8608693.

Nguyen AX, Yoffe L, Li A, Trinh XV, Kurian J, Moss HE, Wu AY. Gender Gap in Neurology Research Authorship (1946-2020). Front Neurol. 2021 Aug 23;12:715428. 

Sanyam Ratan, Anne Xuan-Lan Nguyen, Ankita Biyani, Xuan-Vi Trinh, Yang Sun, Solin Saleh, Albert Y. Wu; Gender Gap in the Award Recipients of the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2021;62(8):65.