Steinberg Lab Select Publications


Comprehensive Profiling of Secreted Factors in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Moyamoya Disease Patients. Abhinav K, Lee AG, Pendharkar AV, Bigder M, Bet A, Rosenberg-Hasson Y, Cheng MY, Steinberg GK. Translational Stroke Research. 2023 Feb 6.
DOI: 10.1007/s12975-023-01135-7

Decoding the molecular crosstalk between grafted stem cells and the stroke-injured brain. Ricardo L. Azevedo-Pereira, Nathan C. Manley, Chen Dong, Yue Zhang, Alex G. Lee, Yulia Zatulovskaia, Varun Gupta, Jennifer Vu, Summer Han, Jack E. Berry, Tonya M. Bliss, Gary K. Steinberg. Cell Reports, 2023. DOI:


Brain-wide circuit dynamics of post-stroke recovery induced by optogenetic stimulation. Vahdat S, Pendhardar AV, Chiang T, Harvey S, Uchino H, Cao Z, Kim A, Choy MK, Chen H, Lee HJ, Cheng MY, Lee JH, Steinberg GK. Science Advances. 2021 Aug 11;7(33):eabd9465.
doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abd9465

Unique Subtype of Microglia in Degenerative Thalamus After Cortical Stroke. Cao Z, Harvey SS, Chiang T, Foltz AG, Lee AG, Cheng MY, Steinberg GK. Stroke. 2021 Jan;52(2):687-698.
doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032402


Inflammatory Responses in the Secondary Thalamic Injury After Cortical Ischemic Stroke. Cao Z, Harvey SS, Bliss TM, Cheng MY, Steinberg GK. Front Neurol. 2020 Apr 7;11:236. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2020.00236. eCollection 2020.PMID: 32318016 Free PMC article. Review.

Optogenetic Stimulation Reduces Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression After Stroke. Pendharkar AV, Smerin D, Gonzalez L, Wang EH, Levy S, Wang S, Ishizaka S, Ito M, Uchino H, Chiang T, Cheng MY, Steinberg GK. Transl Stroke Res. 2020 Jul 13. doi: 10.1007/s12975-020-00831-y. Online ahead of print. PMID: 32661768


A Review of Magnetic Particle Imaging and Perspectives on Neuroimaging. Wu LC, Zhang Y, Steinberg G, Qu H, Huang S, Cheng M, Bliss T, Du F, Rao J, Song G, Pisani L, Doyle T, Conolly S, Krishnan K, Grant G, Wintermark M. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2019 Feb;40(2):206-212. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A5896. Epub 2019 Jan 17. Review. PMID: 30655254

Consensus Paper: Experimental Neurostimulation of the Cerebellum. Miterko LN, Baker KB, Beckinghausen J, Bradnam LV, Cheng MY, Cooperrider J, DeLong MR, Gornati SV, Hallett M, Heck DH, Hoebeek FE, Kouzani AZ, Kuo SH, Louis ED, Machado A, Manto M, McCambridge AB, Nitsche MA, Taib NOB, Popa T, Tanaka M, Timmann D, Steinberg GK, Wang EH, Wichmann T, Xie T, Sillitoe RV. Cerebellum. 2019 Dec;18(6):1064-1097. doi: 10.1007/s12311-019-01041-5. PMID: 31165428 Free PMC article. Review.

Multimodal image registration and connectivity analysis for integration of connectomic data from microscopy to MRI. Goubran M, Leuze C, Hsueh B, Aswendt M, Ye L, Tian Q, Cheng MY, Crow A, Steinberg GK, McNab JA, Deisseroth K, Zeineh M. Nat Commun. 2019 Dec 3;10(1):5504. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-13374-0. PMID: 31796741 Free PMC article.


Engineered stem cell mimics to enhance stroke recovery. George PM, Oh B, Dewi R, Hua T, Cai L, Levinson A, Liang X, Krajina BA, Bliss TM, Heilshorn SC, Steinberg GK. Biomaterials. 2018 Sep;178:63-72. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.06.010. Epub 2018 Jun 14. PMID: 29909038

RNA-Sequencing Analysis Revealed a Distinct Motor Cortex Transcriptome in Spontaneously Recovered Mice After Stroke. Ito M, Aswendt M, Lee AG, Ishizaka S, Cao Z, Wang EH, Levy SL, Smerin DL, McNab JA, Zeineh M, Leuze C, Goubran M, Cheng MY, Steinberg GK. Stroke. 2018 Sep;49(9):2191-2199. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.021508. PMID: 30354987

Stem Cell-Based Immunomodulation After Stroke: Effects on Brain Repair Processes. Boshuizen MCS, Steinberg GK. Stroke. 2018 Jun;49(6):1563-1570. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.020465. Epub 2018 May 3. Review. No abstract available. PMID: 29724892


Electrical preconditioning of stem cells with a conductive polymer scaffold enhances stroke recovery. George, P. M., Bliss, T. M., Hua, T., Lee, A., Oh, B., Levinson, A., Mehta, S., Sun, G., Steinberg, G. K. Biomaterials 2017; 142: 31–40

Optogenetic neuronal stimulation of the lateral cerebellar nucleus promotes persistent functional recovery after stroke. Shah AM, Ishizaka S, Cheng MY, Wang EH, Bautista AR, Levy S, Smerin D, Sun G, Steinberg GK. Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 1;7:46612. doi: 10.1038/srep46612

A Focused Review of Clinical and Preclinical Studies of Cell-Based Therapies in Stroke. Sussman ES, Steinberg GK. Neurosurgery. 2017 Sep 1;64(CN_suppl_1):92-96. doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyx329. No abstract available. PMID: 28899062


Enhanced phasic GABA inhibition during the repair phase of stroke: a novel therapeutic target. Brain : a journal of neurology. Hiu T, Farzampour Z, Paz JT, Wang EH, Badgely C, Olson A, Micheva KD, Wang G, Lemmens R, Tran KV, Nishiyama Y, Liang X, Hamilton SA, O'Rourke N, Smith SJ, Huguenard JR, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK.  2016; 139(Pt 2):468-80. PubMed [journal] PMID: 26685158, PMCID: PMC4805083

Optogenetic Approaches to Target Specific Neural Circuits in Post-stroke Recovery. Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics. Cheng MY, Aswendt M, Steinberg GK.  2016; 13(2):325-40. PubMed [journal] PMID: 26701667, PMCID: PMC4824024

Optogenetic modulation in stroke recovery. Pendharkar AV, Levy SL, Ho AL, Sussman ES, Cheng MY, Steinberg GK. Neurosurg Focus. 2016 May;40(5):E6. doi: 10.3171/2016.2.FOCUS163. Review.  

Neurorestoration after stroke. Azad TD, Veeravagu A, Steinberg GK. Neurosurg Focus. 2016 May;40(5):E2. doi: 10.3171/2016.2.FOCUS15637. Review. PMID: 27132523 

Optogenetic Approaches to Target Specific Neural Circuits in Post-stroke Recovery. Cheng MY, Aswendt M, Steinberg GK. Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Apr;13(2):325-40. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0411-5. Review. PMID: 26701667 


Disease Variant Landscape of a Large Multiethnic Population of Moyamoya Patients by Exome Sequencing. Shoemaker LD, Clark MJ, Patwardhan A, Chandratillake G, Garcia S, Chen R, Morgan AA, Leng N, Kirk S, Chen R, Cook DJ, Snyder M, Steinberg GK. G3 (Bethesda). 2015 Nov 3;6(1):41-9. doi: 10.1534/g3.115.020321.

Novel Stroke Therapeutics: Unraveling Stroke Pathophysiology and Its Impact on Clinical Treatments. George, P. M., Steinberg, G. K: Neuron. 2015; 87 (2): 297-309.


Intraarterial transplantation of human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells is more efficacious and safer compared with umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells in a rodent stroke model. Karlupia N, Manley NC, Prasad K, Schäfer R, Steinberg GK.  Stem cell research & therapy. 2014; 5(2):45. PubMed [journal] PMID: 24690461, PMCID: PMC4055161

Evidence that meningeal mast cells can worsen stroke pathology in mice. Arac A, Grimbaldeston MA, Nepomuceno AR, Olayiwola O, Pereira MP, Nishiyama Y, Tsykin A, Goodall GJ, Schlecht U, Vogel H, Tsai M, Galli SJ, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK.  The American journal of pathology. 2014; 184(9):2493-504. PubMed [journal] PMID: 25134760, PMCID: PMC4188278

Optogenetic neuronal stimulation promotes functional recovery after stroke. Cheng MY, Wang EH, Woodson WJ, Wang S, Sun G, Lee AG, Arac A, Fenno LE, Deisseroth K, Steinberg GK. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2014; 111(35):12913-8. PubMed [journal] PMID: 25136109, PMCID: PMC4156770

Optogenetic approaches to study stroke recovery. Cheng MY, Wang EH, Steinberg GK. ACS chemical neuroscience. 2014; 5(12):1144-5. PubMed [journal] PMID: 252596892013


Moderate hypothermia Inhibits brain inflammation and attenuates stroke-induced immunodepression in rats. Gu L, Xiaoxing X, Ito T, Lee J, Xu B, Krams S, Steinberg GK, Zhao H:  CNS Neurosci Ther. 2013 Aug 24. doi: 10.1111/cns.12160.

Immune response profiling identifies autoantibodies specific to moyamoya patients. Sigdel T, Shoemaker L, Chen R, Li L, Butte A, Sarwal M, Steinberg GK: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 8:45, 2013. [doi:10.1186/1750-1172-8-45]

A concerted appeal for international cooperation in preclinical stroke research. Dirnagl U, Hakim A, Macleod M, Fisher M, Howells D, Allan S, Steinberg GK, Planas A, Boltze J, Savitz S, Iadecola C, Meairs S:  Stroke 44(6): 1754-1760, 2013. [doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.000734]

Derivation of injury-responsive dendritic cells for acute brain targeting and therapeutic protein delivery in the stroke-injured rat. Manley NC, Caso JR, Works MG, Cutler AB, Zemlyak I, Sun GH, Munhoz CD, Chang S, Sorrells SF, Ermini FV, Decker JH, Bertrand AA, Dinkel KM, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RL:  PLoS ONE  8(4), 2013.

Imaging in neural stem cell graft-induced structural repair in stroke.  Daadi M, Hu S, Klausner J, Li Z, Sofilos M, Sun G, Wu JC, Steinberg GK: Cell Transplantation 22: 881-892, 2013.


Distinctive effects of T cell subsets in neuronal injury induced by cocultured splenocytes in vitro and by in vivo stroke in mice. Gu L, Xiong X, Zhang H, Xu B, Steinberg GK, Zhao H. Stroke 43(7):1941-1946, 2012.

Dopaminergic neurons from midbrain-specified human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells engrafted in non-human primate model of Parkinson's disease. Daadi MM, Grueter B, Malenka R, Redmond ED, Steinberg GK. PLoS ONE  7(7): 1-11, 2012.  

Takahashi T, Steinberg GK, Zhao H: Lithium treatment reduces brain injury induced by focal ischemia with partial reperfusion and the protective mechanisms dispute the importance of Akt activity. Aging and Disease 3(3):226-233, 2012.

Prokineticin 2 is a novel endangering mediator of cerebral ischemic injury. Cheng MY, Lee AG, Culberson C, Sun G, Talati R, Manley N, Li X, Zhao H, Lyons DM, Zhou Q-Y, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RM:   Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(14):5475-5480, 2012.

Phosphorylated MAPK/ERK1/2 may not always represent its kinase activity in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia with or without ischemic preconditioning. Takahashi T, Steinberg GK, Zhao H.  Neuroscience 3(209): 155-160, 2012.

Tracking stem cells for cellular therapy in stroke. Manley NC, Steinberg GK. Current Pharmaceutical Design 18(25): 3685-3693, 2012.

CD47 is a therapeutic target on human solid tumor cells. Willingham SB, Volkmer J, Gentles AJ, Sahoo D, Dalerba P, Mitra SS, Wang J, Contreras-Trujillo, H, Martin R, Cohen JD, Lovelace P, Scheeren FA, Chao MP, Weiskopf K, Tang C, Volkmer AK, Naik TJ, Storm TA, Mosley AR, Edris B, Schmid SM, Sun CK, Chua MS, Murillo O, Rajendran P, Cha AC, Chin RK, Kim D, Adorno M, Raveh T, Tseng D, Jaiswal S, Enger PO, Steinberg GK, Li G, So SK, Majeti R, Harsh GR, Rijn M, Teng N, Sunwoo JB, Alizade AA, Clarke MF, Weissman IL.  Proc Natl Acad Sci 109(17): 6662-6667, 2012.

Clinical neuroproteomics and biomarkers: From basic research to clinical decision-making. Shoemaker LD, Achrol AS, Sethu P, Steinberg GK, Chang SD. Neurosurgery 70(3): 518-525, 2012.


Systemic augmentation of αB-crystallin, produced endogenously following stroke, provides therapeutic benefit twelve hours post-stroke onset. Arac A, Brownell SE, Rothbard JB, Chen C, Ko RM, Pereira MP, Albers GW, Steinman L, Steinberg GK. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108(32): 13287-13292, 2011.

Limited therapeutic time windows of mild to moderate hypothermia in a focal ischemia model in rat. Zhao H, Steinberg GK. Stroke Research and Treatment 131834:1-7, 2011.

Long-term behavioral assessment of function in an experimental model for ischemic stroke. Encarnacion A,  Horie N, Keren-Gill H, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK, Shamloo M. J Neurosci Methods 196(2):247-257, 2011.

An insult-inducible vector system activated by hypoxia and oxidative stress for neuronal gene therapy.Cheng MY, Lee I-P, Jin M, Sun GH, Zhao H, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RM. Translational Stroke Research  2(1):92-100, 2011.

The CCR2/CCL2 interaction mediates the transendothelial recruitment of stem cells to the injured brain. Andres RH, Choi R, Pendharkar AV, Gaeta X, Wang N, Chua JY, Lee SW, Palmer TD, Steinberg GK, Guzman R.  Stroke  42(10): 2923-2931, 2011.

Human neural stem cells enhance structural plasticity and axonal transport in the ischemic brain. Andres RH, Horie N, Slikker W, Keren-Gill H, Zhan K, Sun GH, Sheikh LA, McMillan EL, Schaar BT, Svendsen CN, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK.  Brain 134(Pt 6): 1777–1789, 2011.

Transplanted stem cell-secreted VEGF effects post-stroke recovery, inflammation, and vascular repair. Horie N, Niizuma K, Pereira MP, Sun GH, Keren-Gill H, Encarnacion A, Shamloo M, Hamilton SA, Jiang K, Huhn S, Palmer T, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK.   Stem Cells 29(2):274-285, 2011.


The Akt pathway is involved in rapid ischemic tolerance in focal ischemia in rats. Xu W, Zhang H, Steinberg G, Zhao H. Translational Stroke Research 1(3):202–209, 2010.

In vivo neural stem cell imaging: current modalities and future directions. Gera A, Steinberg GK, Guzman R.   Regenerative Medicine 5(1): 73-86, 2010.

Human neural stem cell grafts modify microglial response and enhance axonal sprouting in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Daadi  MM, Davis A, Arac A, Li Z, Maag A-L, Bhatnagar R, Jiang K, Sun GH, Wu JC, Steinberg GK. Stroke (41): 516-523, 2010.

Optimizing the success of cell transplantation therapy for stroke. Bliss T, Andres RH, Steinberg GK. Neurobiology of Disease 37(2):275–283, 2010.


Manufacturing neurons from human embryonic stem cells biological and regulatory aspects to develop a safe cellular product for stroke cell therapy. Daadi MM, Steinberg GK. Regenerative Medicine  4(2):251-263, 2009.

Molecular and magnetic resonance imaging of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell grafts in ischemic rat brain. Daadi MM, Li Z, Arac A, Grueter BA, Sofilos M, Malenka RC, Wu JC, Steinberg GK. Molecular Therapy 17(7):1282-91, 2009.

The protective effect of post-ischemic hypothermia on PTEN phosphorylation correlates with free radical inhibition. Lee SM, Zhao H, Maier CM, Steinberg GK. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 29(9):1589-1600, 2009.

Who’s in favor of translational cell therapy for stroke: STEPS forward please? Chopp M, Steinberg G, Kondziolka D, Lu M, Bliss T, Li Y, Hess D, Borlongan C.  Cell Transplantation 18(7):691-3, 2009.

Functional engraftment of the medial ganglionic eminence cells in experimental stroke model. Daadi M, Lee SH, Arac A, Grueter BA, Bhatnagar R, Maag A-L, Schaar B, Malenka RC, Palmer TD, Steinberg GK. Cell Transplantation 18(7):815-26, 2009. 

Netrin-4 enhances angiogenesis and neurological outcome after cerebral ischemia.Hoang S,  Liauw J,  Choi M,  Choi M, Guzman R,  Steinberg GK. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab  29(2):385-397, 2009.

Blocking glucocorticoid and enhancing estrogenic genomic signaling protects against cerebral ischemia. Cheng M, Sun GH, Jin M, Zhao H, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RM. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab  29(1):130–136, 2009.

Positron emission tomography imaging of poststroke angiogenesis. Cai W, Guzman R, Hsu A, Wang Hui, Sun G, Gera A, Choi R, Bliss T, He L, Maag AL, Hori N, Zhao H, Moseley M, Steinberg GK, Chen X. Stroke  40(1): 270-277, 2009.


Mouse model of focal cerebral ischemia using endothelin-1. Horie N, Maag AL, Hamilton SA, Shichinohe H, Bliss TM, Steinberg GK.  J Neurosci Methods 173(2):286-290, 2008.

Activating δPKC antagonizes the protective effect of ERK1/2 inhibition against stroke in rats. Castaneda D, Zhao H, Mochly-Rosen D, Steinberg GK.  Brain Res  1251:256-261, 2008.

The Akt signaling pathway contributes to postconditioning's protection against stroke; the protection is associated with the MAPK and PKC pathways. Gao X, Zhang H, Takahashi T, Hsieh J, Liao J, Steinberg GK, Zhao H. J Neurochem, 105:943-955, 2008.

Thrombospondins 1 and 2 are necessary for synaptic plasticity and spontaneous functional recovery after stroke. Liauw J, Hoang S, Eroglu C, Choi M, Guzman R, Bliss T, Barres B, Steinberg GK. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 28(10):1722-32, 2008.

Inhibiting  caspase-3 activity blocks B-catenin degradation after focal ischemia in rat. Zhang H, Gao X, Ren C, Steinberg GK, Zhao HCA. Neuroreport  19(8):821-4, 2008.

FasL shedding is reduced by hypothermia in experimental stroke. Liu L, Kim JY, Koike M, Yoon YJ, Tang X, Ma H, Steinberg GK, Lee JE, Yenari M.  J Neurochem  106:541-550, 2008.

Hypothermia blocks b-catenin degradation after focal ischemia in rats. Zhang H, Ren C, Gao X, Takahashi T, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK, Zhao H. Brain Res 1198:182-187, 2008.

Dual roles of the MAPK/ERK1/2 cell signaling pathway after stroke. Sawe N, Steinberg GK, Zhao H. J Neurosci Res 86(8):1659 – 1669, 2008.

Adherent expandable human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cells: functional engraftment in experimental stroke model. Daadi M, Maag AL, Steinberg GK. PLoS ONE  3:2: e1644, 2008.

Intravascular cell replacement therapy for stroke. Guzman R, Choi R, Gera A, De Los Angeles A, Andres RH and Steinberg GK. Neurosurg Focus 24(3-4): E15, 2008.

Cell replacement therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage. Andres RH, Guzman R, Ducray AD, Mordasini P, Gera A, Barth A, Widmer HR, Steinberg GK. Neurosurg Focus  24(3-4): E16, 2008.

epsilonPKC confers acute tolerance to cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury. Bright R, Sun GH, Yenari M, Steinberg GK, Mochly-Rosen D.  Neurosci Lett 441(1):120-4, 2008.

Intracarotid injection of FACS-sorted CD49d neural stem cells improves targeted cell delivery and behavior after stroke in a mouse stroke model. Guzman R, De Los Angeles A, Cheshier S, Raymond C, Hoang S, Liauw J, Schaar B, and Steinberg GK. Stroke 39:1300-1306, 2008.


General versus specific action of mild-moderate hypothermia in protecting against cerebral ischemic damage. Zhao H, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RM. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27:1879-1894, 2007.

Viral caspase inhibitor p35, but not crmA, is neuroprotective in the ischemic penumbra following experimental stroke. Sung JH, Zhao H, Roy M, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK. Neuroscience 149:804-812, 2007.

Neural progenitor cells transplanted into the uninjured brain undergo targeted migration after stroke onset. Guzman R, Bliss T, De Los Angeles A, Moseley M, Palmer T, Steinberg GK. J Neurosci Res 86:873-882, 2008.

Limb remote-preconditioning protects against focal ischemia in rats and contradicts the dogma of therapeutic time windows for preconditioning.Ren C, Gao X, Steinberg GK, Zhao H. Neuroscience, 151(4): 1099-1103, 2008.

Long-term monitoring of transplanted human neural stem cells in developmental and pathological contexts with magnetic resonance imaging. Guzman R, Uchida N, Bliss T, He D, Christopherson K, Stellwagen D, Capela A, Greve J, Malenka R, Moseley M, Palmer T, Steinberg GK. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104(24):10211-10216, 2007.

Suppression of δPKC activation after focal cerebral ischemia contributes to the protective effect of hypothermia. Shimohata T, Zhao H, Sung JH, Sun GH, Mochly–Rosen D, Steinberg GK. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27:1463-1475, 2007.

εPKC may contribute to the protective effect of hypothermia in a rat focal cerebral ischemia model. Shimohata T, Zhao H, Steinberg GK. Stroke 28(2): 375-380, 2007.

Conditions of protection by hypothermia and effects on apoptotic pathways in a model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Zhao H, Wang JQ, Shimohata T, Sun GH, Yenari MA, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK. J Neurosurg 107:636-641, 2007.

Cell transplantation therapy for stroke. Bliss TM, Guzman R, Daadi MM, Steinberg GK. Stroke 38:817-826, 2007.

δPKC mediates microcerebrovascular dysfunction in acute ischemia or chronic hypertensive stress in vivo.Bright R, Steinberg GK, Mochly–Rosen D. Brain Research 1144:146-155, 2007.

Gene therapy using SOD1 protects striatal neurons from experimental stroke. Davis AS, Zhao H, Sun GH, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK. Neurosci Lett 411:32-36, 2007.


Phosphoinositide-3-Kinase/Akt survival signal pathways are implicated in neuronal survival after stroke. Zhao H, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK.  Molecular Neurobiology 34(3):249–269, 2006.

Hypothermia blocks ischemic changes in ubiquitin distribution and levels following stroke.Liu JJ, Zhao H, Sung JH, Sun GH, Steinberg GK.  NeuroReport 17:1691-1695, 2006.

Interrupting reperfusion as a stroke therapy: ischemic postconditioning reduces infarct size after focal ischemia in rats. Zhao H, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK.  J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 26:1114–1121, 2006.

Transplantation of hNT neurons into the ischemic cortex: Cell survival and effect of sensorimotor behavior. Bliss TM, Kelly S, Shah AK, Foo WC, Kohli P, Stokes C, Sun GH, Ma M, Masel J, Kleppner JR, Schallert T, Palmer T, Steinberg GK. J Neurosci Res 83:1004–1014, 2006.


Neurogenesis in rats after focal cerebral ischemia is enhanced by indomethacin. Hoehn BD, Palmer T, Steinberg GK. Stroke 36:2718–2724, 2005.

Akt contributes to neuroprotection of hypothermia against cerebral ischemia in rats. Zhao H, Shimohata T, Wang JQ, Sun GH, Schaal DW, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK.  J Neuroscience 25:9794–9806, 2005.

Biphasic cytochrome c release after transient global ischemia and its inhibition by hypothermia. Zhao H, Yenari MA, Cheng D, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK.  J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 25:1119–1129, 2005.

Mild hypothermia decreases GSK3β expression following global cerebral ischemia. Kelly S, Cheng D, Steinberg GK, Yenari MA.  Neurocritical Care 2:212–217, 2005.


Transplanted human fetal neural stem cells survive, migrate and differentiate in ischemic rat cerebral cortex. Kelly S, Bliss TM, Shah AK, Sun GH, Ma M, Foo WC, Masel J, Yenari MA, Weissman IL, Uchida N, Palmer T, Steinberg GK. Proc Natl Acad Sci 101(32): 11839–11844, 2004.

Chaperones, protein protection from hypoxic/ischemic injury. Giffard RG, Xu L, Zhao H, Carrico W, Ouyang Y, Qiao Y, Sapolsky R, Steinberg GK, Hu B, Yenari MA.  J Exp Biol 207:3213–3220, 2004.

Catalase overexpression protects striatal neurons from transient focal cerebral ischemia. Gu W, Zhao H, Yenari MA, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK.  Neuroreport 15:413–416, 2004.

Glycogen synthase kinase 3b inhibitor Chir025 reduces neuronal death resulting from oxygen-glucose deprivation, glutamate excitotoxicity and cerebral ischemia. Kelly S, Zhao H, Sun GH, Cheng D, Qiao Y, Luo J, Martin K, Steinberg GK, Harrison SD, Yenari MA.  Exp Neurol 188:378–386, 2004.

Protein kinase C delta mediates cerebral reperfusion injury in vivo. Bright R, Raval AP, Dembner JM, Perez–Pinzon MA, Steinberg GK, Yenari MA, Mochly–Rosen D. J Neurosci 24:6880–6888, 2004.

Bcl-2 transfection via herpes simplex virus blocks apoptosis-inducing factor translocation after focal ischemia in rat. Zhao H, Yenari M, Cheng D, Barreto–Chang OL, Sapolsky RM, and Steinberg GK. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 24:681–692, 2004.

Mild post-ischemic hypothermia prolongs the time window for gene therapy by inhibiting cytochrome c release. Zhao H, Yenari MA, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK. Stroke 35:572–577, 2004.


Effects of mild hypothermia on superoxide anion production and superoxide dismutase expression following transient focal cerebral ischemia. Maier CM, Sun GH, Cheng D, Yenari MA, Chan PH, Steinberg GK. Neurobiology of Disease 11:28–42, 2002.

Gene transfer of HSP72 protects CA1 neurons from global ischemia: Influence of Bcl-2. Kelly S, Zhang ZJ, Zhao H, X L, Giffard RG, Sapolsky RM, Yenari MA, Steinberg GK.  Ann Neurol 52:160–167, 2002.

Mild hypothermia reduces apoptosis of mouse neurons in vitro early in the cascade. Xu L, Yenari MA, Steinberg GK, Giffard R. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 22:21–28, 2002.

Mild hypothermia attenuates cytochrome C release but does not alter Bcl -2 expression or caspase activation after experimental stroke. Yenari MA, Iwayama S, Cheng D, Sun GH, Fujimura M, Morita–Fujimura Y, Chan PH, Steinberg GK.  J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 22:29–38, 2002.


Mild hypothermia increases Bcl-2 protein expression following global cerebral ischemia. Zhang ZJ, Sobel RA, Cheng D, Steinberg GK, Yenari MA. Molecular Brain Res 95:75–85, 2001.

Overexpression of Hsp72 after induction of experimental stroke protects neurons from ischemic damage.Hoehn B, Ringer TM, Fink SL, Ho DY, Salpolsky RM, Steinberg GK, Yenari MA. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 21:1303–1309, 2001.

Differential neuroprotection from human heat shock protein 70 overexpression in in vitro and in vivo models of ischemia and ischemia-like conditions. Lee JE, Yenari M, Sun GH, Xu L, Emond MR, Cheng D, Steinberg GK, Giffard RG.  Exp Neurol 170 (1): 129–139, 2001.

Calbindin D28K overexpression protects striatal neurons from transient focal cerebral ischemia. Yenari MA, Minami M, Sun GH, Meier TJ, Ho DY, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK. Stroke 32:1028–1035, 2001.

Delayed induction and long-term effects of mild hypothermia in a focal model of transient cerebral ischemia: Neurological outcome and infarct size. Maier CM, Sun GH, Kunis D, Yenari MA, Steinberg GK. J Neurosurg 94:90–96, 2001.


Diffusion- and perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of focal cerebral ischemia and cortical spreading depression under conditions of mild hypothermia. Yenari M, Onley D, Hedehus M, deCrespigny A, Sun G, Moseley ME, Steinberg GK. Brain Res 885:208–219, 2000.


Gene therapy for acute neurological injury.  Sapolsky RJ, Steinberg GK. Neurology 53:1922–1931, 1999.

Neuroprotective potential of heat shock proteins. Yenari MA, Giffard RG, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK. Molecular Medicine Today 5:525–531, 1999.


Optimal depth and duration of mild hypothermia in a focal model of transient cerebral ischemia: Effects on neurologic outcome, infarct size, apoptosis, and inflammation. Maier CM, Ahern K vB, Cheng ML, Lee JE, Yenari MA, Steinberg GK.  Stroke 29:2171–2180, 1998.

Mild hypothermia: an alternative to deep hypothermia for achieving neuroprotection. Bell TE, Kongable GL, Steinberg GK. J Cardiovasc Nursing 13:34–44, 1998.

Gene therapy with HSP72 is neuroprotective in rat models of stroke and epilepsy. Yenari MA, Fink SL, Sun GH, Chang LK, Patel MK, Kunis DM, Onley D, Ho DY, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK.  Annals of Neurology 44:584–591, 1998.

Hu23F2G, an antibody recognizing the leukocyte CD11/CD18 integrin, reduces injury in a rabbit model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Yenari MA, Kunis D, Sun GH, Onley D, Watson L, Cosgrove S, Whitaker S, Steinberg GK.  Exp Neurol 153:223–233, 1998.

Thrombolysis with reteplase, an unglycosylated plasminogen activator variant, in experimental embolic stroke. Yenari MA, Lee LK, Beaulieu C, Sun GH, Kunis D, Chang D, Albers GW, Moseley ME, Steinberg GK. J Stroke & Cerebrovasc Dis 7(3):179–186, 1998.


Diffusion-weighted MRI does not reliably detect hemorrhagic transformation in experimental embolic stroke. Yenari MA, Beaulieu C, Steinberg GK, Moseley, ME. J Neuroimaging 7:227–231, 1997.

Improved perfusion with tPA and hirulog in a rabbit model of embolic stroke. Yenari MA, de Crespigny A, Palmer JT, Roberts S, Schrier SL, Albers GW, Moseley ME, Steinberg GK.  J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 17:401–411, 1997.

Herpes simplex viral vectors expressing Bcl-2 are neuroprotective when delivered following a stroke. Lawrence MS, Sun GH, Ho DY, Kunis DM, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 17:740–744, 1997.

SNX-111, A novel, presynaptic N-type calcium channel antagonist, is neuroprotective against focal cerebral ischemia in rabbits. Pérez–Pinzón MA, Yenari MA, Sun GH, Kunis DM, Steinberg GK. J Neurol Sci 153:25–31, 1997.


Timecourse and treatment response with SNX-111, an N-type calcium channel blocker, in a rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia using diffusion-weighted MRI. Yenari MA, Palmer JT, Sun GH, de Crespigny A, Moseley ME, Steinberg GK.  Brain Research 739:36–45, 1996.

CGS 19755 (Selfotel): A novel neuroprotective agent against CNS injury. Pérez–Pinzón MA, Steinberg GK.  CNS Drug Reviews 2:1–12, 1996.

Overexpression of Bcl-2 with herpes simplex virus vectors protects CNS neurons against neurologic insults in vitro and in vivo. Lawrence MS, Ho DY, Sun GH, Steinberg GK, Sapolsky RM.  J Neurosci 16:486–496, 1996.

Overexpression of the glucose transporter gene with a herpes simplex viral vector protects striatal neurons against stroke. Lawrence MS, Sun GH, Kunis DM, Saydam TC, Dash R, Ho DY, Sapolsky RM, Steinberg GK.  J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 16:181–185, 1996.

Narrow temporal therapeutic window for NMDA antagonist protection against focal cerebral ischemia. Steinberg GK, Panahian N, Pérez–Pinzón MA, Sun G–H, Modi MW, Sepinwall J. Neurobiology of Disease 2:109–118, 1995.


Neuroprotection by the NMDA receptor antagonist CGP 40116: In vivo and in vitro studies. Maier CM, Sun G–H, Kunis DM, Giffard RG, Steinberg GK. J Neurochem 65:652–659, 1995.

Correlation of CGS 19755 neuroprotection against in vitro excitotoxicity and focal cerebral ischemia. Pérez–Pinzón MA, Maier CM, Yoon EJ, Sun G–H, Giffard RG, Steinberg GK. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 15:865–876, 1995.

Thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator is temperature dependent. Yenari MA, Palmer JT, Bracci PM, Steinberg GK. Thrombosis Research 77:475–481, 1995.

Neuroprotection by NMDA antagonists in focal cerebral ischemia is dependent on continued maintenance dosing. Steinberg GK, Yoon EJ, Kunis DM, Sun G–H, Maier CM, Grant GA.  Neuroscience 64:99–107,1995.


Cerebral damage caused by interrupted, repeated arterial occlusion versus uninterrupted occlusion in a focal ischemic model. Steinberg GK, Panahian N, Sun G-H, Maier CM, Kunis D. J Neurosurg 81:554–559,1994.


Neuroprotection by the alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonist dexmedetomidine in a focal model of cerebral ischemia. Maier CM, Steinberg GK, Sun GH, Guo TZ, Maze M. Anesthesiology 79:306–312, 1993.

Profiles of extracellular amino acid changes in focal cerebral ischemia: Effects of mild hypothermia. Lo EH, Steinberg GK, Panahian N, Maidment NT, Newcomb R. Neurol Res 15:281–287, 1993.

Neuroprotection following focal cerebral ischemia by the NMDA and calcium antagonist dextromethorphan has a favorable dose response profile. Steinberg GK, Kunis D, DeLaPaz RL, Poljak A. Neurol Res 15:174–180,1993.


Dextromethorphan alters cerebral blood flow and protects against cerebral injury following focal ischemia. Steinberg GK, Lo EH, Kunis DM, Grant GA, Poljak A, DeLaPaz R.  Neurosci Lett 133:225–228,1991.

Effects of NMDA and calcium channel antagonists on regional cerebral blood flow. Lo EH, Sun G, Steinberg GK. Neurosci Lett 131:17–20,1991.

Protection after transient focal cerebral ischemia by the NMDA antagonist dextrorphan, is dependent upon plasma and brain levels. Steinberg GK, Kunis D, Saleh J, DeLaPaz R. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 11:1015–1024,1991.

High-dose single-fraction brain irradiation: MRI, cerebral blood flow, electrophysiological and histological studies. Lo EH, Frankel KA, Steinberg GK, DeLaPaz RL, Fabrikant JI.  Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 22:47–55,1991.

Effects of dextromethorphan on regional cerebral blood flow in focal cerebral ischemia. Lo EH, Steinberg GK.  J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 11:803–809, 1991.

MRI and PET of delayed heavy-ion radiation injury in the rabbit brain. Lo EH, DeLaPaz RL, Frankel KA, Poljak A, Phillips MH, Brennan KM, Woodruff KH, Valk PE, Steinberg GK, Fabrikant JI.  Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 20:689–696, 1991.

Acute cerebral ischemia in rabbits: Correlation of MRI and histopathology. DeLaPaz R, Shibata D, Steinberg GK, George CP, Zarnegar SR.  AJNR 12:89–95, 1991.


Effect of hyperglycemia on neuronal ischemic changes in a rabbit model of focal cerebral ischemia. Kraft SA, Larson CP, Shuer LM, Steinberg GK, Benson GV, Pearl RG. Stroke 21:447–450, 1990.


Cerebrovascular and metabolic perturbations in delayed heavy- charged-particle radiation injury. Lo EH, Frankel KA, DeLaPaz RL, Poljak A, Woodruff KH, Brennan KM, Phillips MH, Valk PE, Steinberg GK, Fabrikant JI.  Brain Res 504:168–172, 1989.

Protective effect of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate antagonists after focal cerebral ischemia in rabbits. Steinberg GK, Saleh J, Kunis D, DeLaPaz R, Zarnegar SR. Stroke 20:1247–1252, 1989.

Pre-treatment with the NMDA antagonist dextrorphan, reduces cerebral injury following transient focal ischemia in rabbits. Steinberg GK, Saleh J, DeLaPaz R, Kunis D, Zarnegar SR.  Brain Res 497:382–386, 1989.

Hyperglycemia decreases neuronal ischemic changes after middle cerebral artery occlusion in the cat. Zasslow MA, Pearl RG, Shuer LM, Steinberg GK, Lieberson RE, Larson CP.  Stroke 20:519–523, 1989.


Dextromethorphan protects against cerebral injury following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rabbits. Steinberg GK, George CP, DeLaPaz R, Shibata DK, Gross T.  Stroke 19:1112–1118, 1988.

Delayed treatment with dextromethorphan and dextrorphan reduces cerebral damage after transient focal ischemia. Steinberg GK, Saleh J, Kunis D. Neurosci Lett 89:193–197, 1988.

Dextromethorphan reduces neocortical ischemic neuronal damage in vivo. George CP, Goldberg MP, Choi DW, Steinberg GK.  Brain Res 440:375–379, 1988.


Correlation between somatosensory evoked potentials and neuronal ischemic changes following middle cerebral artery occlusion. Steinberg GK, Gelb AW, Lam AM, Manninen PH, Peerless SJ, Rassi–Neto A, Floyd P. Stroke 17:1193–1197, 1986.