Pituitary Adenoma

Pituitary adenomas originate within the “master” or pituitary gland, located at the center of the skull base, between a deep air sinus cavity (sphenoid sinus) and the intracranial space (where the brain sits). They are classified as functioning or non-functioning adenomas based on whether they produce excess hormones or not. They are also categorized according to their size into microadenomas (less than 1cm in diameter), macroadenomas (more than 1 cm), and giant adenomas (more than 4 cm). While most adenomas are slow-growing benign tumors, many will invade into neighboring structures, such as the cavernous sinus, clival bone, and intracranial space, becoming difficult to treat and cure.

The Stanford Pituitary Center is aimed at integration of care in a patient-friendly setting for people with pituitary disorders. This multidisciplinary approach allows for total care, from initial triage through surgical intervention and post-operative follow-up. Our surgical team at Stanford, leaded by Dr. Fernandez-Miranda, has pioneered surgical techniques to improve the remission and resection rates in pituitary surgery, while minimizing complications. Patients with the most complex tumors and from several continents have traveled to Stanford to have their pituitary tumor successfully treated.


Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for Pituitary Tumor Removal

Approach to the Patient Undergoing Pituitary Surgery


Endoscopic Endonasal Approach for Complex Macroadenoma with Subarachnoid Invasion

Endoscopic Endonasal Trans-oculomotor Triangle Approach for Invasive Pituitary Adenoma


Stanford Pituitary Center
Patient Education

Innovations in Pituitary Surgery: Step-wise Anatomically-based Resection of the Medial Wall of the Cavernous Sinus