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Interventional Psychiatry Fellowship Program


Didactic Schedules

Fellows will participate in a weekly didactic course focused on building and enhancing knowledge and competency in the practice of Interventional Psychiatry. This didactic course will be taught by faculty experts and include the following subjects:

  • History and modern use of interventional psychiatry treatments
  • Assessment and management of neuropsychiatric patients undergoing brain stimulation treatments
  • Prescribing and administering electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  • Prescribing and administering transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
  • Prescribing and administering vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)
  • Prescribing and administering deep brain stimulation (DBS)
  • Medications and interventional psychiatry
  • Psychotherapeutic approaches to enhancing treatments in interventional psychiatry
  • Research and special topics in interventional psychiatry

In addition to scheduled didactics, fellows will participate in a TMS-specific training course offered by faculty at Stanford. They will also have the opportunity to participate in didactic courses offered in other departments (e.g., Neurology).

Instructional Methods

Given the nature of Interventional Psychiatry and device-based treatments, the majority of instructional methods will be hands-on. Fellows will work closely with faculty and staff to gain the technical skills necessary to effectively perform procedures used in Interventional Psychiatry. To this end, instructional materials will include manuals, training courses, practice sessions, and direct observation. Fellows will be provided with relevant publications and be provided with technical training materials specific to each device. Fellows may also attend conferences to further achieve competency in Interventional Psychiatry.

Outcome Measures

Fellows will be assessed by direct observation and feedback from faculty supervisors, and fellows will have to take exams to test their knowledge and skills relevant to Interventional Psychiatry. Evaluations will be collected from supervising faculty and members of the treatment team to provide a comprehensive assessment of the outcomes of fellowship training. Furthermore, individual fellows will be evaluated to determine each fellow’s perceived competency in the practice of Interventional Psychiatry.

Assessment strategies

Additional assessment strategies may include evaluation from patients, community psychiatrists, residents, and outside clinicians. Data will be gathered from collaborating providers within and outside of psychiatry to assess the ability for the fellow to gain technical and clinical skills across disciplines (Psychiatry, Neurology, and Neurosurgery).

Sample Interventional Psychiatry Fellowship Rotation Schedule

Faculty Members

Program Director and Clinical Professor


Dr. Bhati is an interventional psychiatrist with expertise in psychiatric diagnosis, psychopharmacology, and neuromodulation. He completed postdoctoral research studying language abnormalities and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) evoked potentials in schizophrenia. He was a principal investigator for the DSM-5 academic field trials, and his research experiences included roles as an investigator in the first controlled clinical trials of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and low-field synchronized TMS for treatment of depression. His current interests include studying magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and augmented reality to target TMS, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for treatment-resistant depression, responsive neurostimulation (RNS) for treatment of impulse and fear-related disorders, and focused ultrasound (FUS) for treatment-resistant obsessive compulsive disorder and depression. Dr. Bhati is also interested in better understanding consciousness and its role in mental illness.
Clinical Associate Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences


Dr. Choi is an interventional and forensic neuropsychiatrist on the Stanford faculty. He received his MD/PhD at UC-San Diego as part of NIH's Medical Scientist Training Program. He received his PhD degree in Neuroscience for work done at the Salk Institute in neural development. Dr Choi is the founding director of Stanford's Forensic Psychiatry Fellowship Program, the first neurolaw-focused forensic fellowship in the world. As a forensic psychiatrist, Dr. Choi specializes in neurolaw, an emerging interdisciplinary field that studies the use and misuse of neuroscience-based evidence in the courtroom. His research interests include the use of functional brain imaging to discern mental states (e.g. lie detection, pain assessment), and the neural basis for moral decision making (e.g. defects in moral reasoning brain centers giving rise to psychopathy). A central question he considers is: how do advances in our knowledge of the neural basis of behavior change perceptions of how offenders should be punished? He has testified as a court-appointed expert, as well as for the prosecution and defense, in many high-profile and complex cases involving psychiatric, neurologic, medical, and medication-related legal claims. Dr. Choi is an active educator, providing seminars to students, attorneys, judges, neuroscientists and clinicians on the importance and relevance of neuroscience and the law. Dr. Choi’s clinical interests include neuromodulatory approaches to treat psychiatric illness, such as the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to treat major depression. He is part of the interventional psychiatry group of Stanford Medicine, conducting clinical work and research to advance the power, precision, and scope of neuromodulation. Dr. Choi is an experienced public speaker, and has given a number of talks to lay and professional audiences on neurolaw, the neuroscience of psychopathy, and the neuroscience of moral decision-making. He is a featured TEDx speaker on the topic "Can Neuroscience Eradicate Psychopathy?"
Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (General Psychiatry and Psychology - Adult)
Clinical Assistant Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences


Dr. Huiqiong Deng is a clinical assistant professor of psychiatry. In addition to a medical degree, she earned a PhD, with a major in rehabilitation science and a minor in neuroscience. Specializing in the treatment of alcohol/substance addiction, interventional and cultural psychiatry, her goal is to help each patient along the journey to achieve optimal health and quality of life. As the co-author of more than a dozen scholarly articles, Dr. Deng’s work has appeared in Psychiatry Research, Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, American Journal on Addictions, Brain Stimulation, and other publications. Dr. Deng has won numerous honors and awards such as the National Institute on Drug Abuse Young Investigator Travel Award, the Ruth Fox Scholarship from the American Society of Addiction Medicine, and College on the Problems of Drug Dependence Travel Award for Early Career Investigators. In addition, she was selected to attend the Annual American Psychiatry Association Research Colloquium for Junior Investigators. Since she joined faculty at Stanford, Dr. Deng has received research grant support by the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Innovator Grant Program.
Clinical Assistant Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences


Dr. Daniel Kim is a board-certified geriatric psychiatrist who serves as medical director of the inpatient geriatric psychiatry service and program director of the geriatric psychiatry fellowship. His primary area of interest is in the education of medical students, residents, and fellows in geriatric psychiatry.
Clinical Associate Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences


Dr. Raj specializes in the treatment of mood disorders with an expertise in neuromodulation and in the psychopharmacological management of bipolar disorder. She is co-chief of the mood disorders section and chief of the bipolar clinic. She is the director of education for interventional psychiatry where she manages resident education in ECT and TMS and development of didactics. She is also co-director of the neuroscience curriculum for the psychiatry residency where she has worked to assess and create a new series of interactive lectures. She currently serves on the Board of Directors and the Education Committee of the Clinical TMS society. She is on the Education Committee of the National Neurosciences Curriculum Initiative.
Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the Stanford University Medical Center, Emerita


Dr. Barbara Sommer specializes in geriatric psychiatry, treating older patients suffering from depression, anxiety, psychosis, and cognitive disorders, often in the context of concomitant medical illnesses. She has practiced in both inpatient and outpatient settings for over thirty years and she has a special interest in the unique primary and side effects of psychiatric medications in older patients also being treated for non-psychiatric disorders. She also is a member of the electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) service.
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (General Psychiatry and Psychology) and, by courtesy, of Radiology (Neuroimaging and Neurointervention


Dr. Williams is an Assistant Professor within the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Director of the Stanford Brain Stimulation Lab. Dr. Williams has a broad background in clinical neuroscience and is triple board-certified in general neurology, general psychiatry, as well as behavioral neurology & neuropsychiatry. In addition, he has specific training and clinical expertise in the development of brain stimulation methodologies. Themes of his work include (a) examining the use of spaced learning theory in the application of neurostimulation techniques, (b) development and mechanistic understanding of rapid-acting antidepressants, and (c) identifying objective biomarkers that predict neuromodulation responses in treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric conditions. He has published papers in high-impact peer-reviewed journals including Brain, American Journal of Psychiatry, and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. Results from his studies have gained widespread attention in journals such as Science and New England Journal of Medicine Journal Watch as well as in the popular press and have been featured in various news sources including Time, Smithsonian, and Newsweek. Dr. Williams received two NARSAD Young Investigator Awards in 2016 and 2018 along with the 2019 Gerald R. Klerman Award. Dr. Williams received the National Institute of Mental Health Biobehavioral Research Award for Innovative New Scientists in 2020.
Clinical Professor, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Stipends and Benefits

Stipends 2022-23

Effective: 9/5/2022 

Year Annual Per Month
I $74,027.20 $6,168.81
II $77,771.20 $6,480.81
III $83,657.60 $6,971.33
IV $88,400.00 $7,366.53
V $93,953.60 $7,829.32
VI $98,092.80 $8,174.24
VII $103,604.80 $8,633.57
VIII $108,326.40 $9,027.03 

For more information, please visit the GME Office site.


Annual educational allowance $2,000*

Paid in November providing, all required HealthStream and EPIC/LINKS modules are completed by house staff's assigned deadline

Cell phone allowance $1,000*

Automatically added to paycheck in July

Food allowance $10 per day (shifts of 12 hours or longer for clinical rotations only at SHC & LPCH)*

Payments made on last paycheck of each month

Meal money is taxable income

Housing stipend $7,200 per year (paid as $600 monthly)*+

Automatically paid on 1st paycheck of each month

Medical, dental, vision, and long-term disability insurance provided

Eligible to participate on house staff's hire date

Moving allowance (new hires only) $3,000*

Automatically added to a paycheck in August

1% annual bonus based on completion of a Quality Improvement Project*

Automatically paid at the end of each academic year in June

Cost of initial CA MD license and renewals

Paid upon reimbursement submission for academic year expense occurrence

Cost of initial DEA and renewals

Paid upon reimbursement submission for academic yearexpense occurrence

Cost of USMLE Part Ill for Interns

Paid upon reimbursement submission for academic year expense occurrence

* Please see House Staff Policies and Procedures for full details.
Subject to appropriate taxes 

Contact Us

Mahendra Bhati, MD
Interventional Psychiatry Program Director

Romola L. Breckenridge
Administrative Program Coordinator
Ph: (650) 736-1743

Mailing Address
Mahendra Bhati, MD
c/o Romola L. Breckenridge
Interventional Psychiatry Fellowship Program
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences
Stanford University School of Medicine
401 Quarry Road, Room 2208
Stanford, CA  94305-5723