A Transcriptional Circuit Filters Oscillating Circadian Hormonal Inputs to Regulate Fat Cell Differentiation.
2018; 27 (4): 854–68.e8
Glucocorticoid and other adipogenic hormones are secreted in mammals in circadian oscillations. Loss of this circadian oscillation pattern correlates with obesity in humans, raising the intriguing question of how hormone secretion dynamics affect adipocyte differentiation. Using live, single-cell imaging of the key adipogenic transcription factors CEBPB and PPARG, endogenously tagged with fluorescent proteins, we show that pulsatile circadian hormone stimuli are rejected by the adipocyte differentiation control system. In striking contrast, equally strong persistent signals trigger maximal differentiation. We identify the mechanism of how hormone oscillations are filtered as a combination of slow and fast positive feedback centered on PPARG. Furthermore, we confirm in mice that flattening of daily glucocorticoid oscillations significantly increases the mass of subcutaneous and visceral fat pads. Together, our study provides a molecular mechanism for why stress, Cushing's disease, and other conditions for which glucocorticoid secretion loses its pulsatility may lead to obesity.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.03.012
View details for PubMedID 29617644
Comparative genetic screens in human cells reveal new regulatory mechanisms in WNT signaling
The comprehensive understanding of cellular signaling pathways remains a challenge due to multiple layers of regulation that may become evident only when the pathway is probed at different levels or critical nodes are eliminated. To discover regulatory mechanisms in canonical WNT signaling, we conducted a systematic forward genetic analysis through reporter-based screens in haploid human cells. Comparison of screens for negative, attenuating and positive regulators of WNT signaling, mediators of R-spondin-dependent signaling and suppressors of constitutive signaling induced by loss of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli or casein kinase 1α uncovered new regulatory features at most levels of the pathway. These include a requirement for the transcription factor AP-4, a role for the DAX domain of AXIN2 in controlling β-catenin transcriptional activity, a contribution of glycophosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and glypicans to R-spondin-potentiated WNT signaling, and two different mechanisms that regulate signaling when distinct components of the β-catenin destruction complex are lost. The conceptual and methodological framework we describe should enable the comprehensive understanding of other signaling systems.
View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.21459
View details for Web of Science ID 000393384400001
View details for PubMedID 27996937
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5257257
Chromatin-Remodeling Complex SWI/SNF Controls Multidrug Resistance by Transcriptionally Regulating the Drug Efflux Pump ABCB1
2016; 76 (19): 5810-5821
Anthracyclines are among the most effective yet most toxic drugs used in the oncology clinic. The nucleosome-remodeling SWI/SNF complex, a potent tumor suppressor, is thought to promote sensitivity to anthracyclines by recruiting topoisomerase IIa (TOP2A) to DNA and increasing double-strand breaks. In this study, we discovered a novel mechanism through which SWI/SNF influences resistance to the widely used anthracycline doxorubicin based on the use of a forward genetic screen in haploid human cells, followed by a rigorous single and double-mutant epistasis analysis using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated engineering. Doxorubicin resistance conferred by loss of the SMARCB1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex was caused by transcriptional upregulation of a single gene, encoding the multidrug resistance pump ABCB1. Remarkably, both ABCB1 upregulation and doxorubicin resistance caused by SMARCB1 loss were dependent on the function of SMARCA4, a catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. We propose that residual SWI/SNF complexes lacking SMARCB1 are vital determinants of drug sensitivity, not just to TOP2A-targeted agents, but to the much broader range of cancer drugs effluxed by ABCB1. Cancer Res; 76(19); 5810-21. ©2016 AACR.
View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-0716
View details for Web of Science ID 000385625500025
View details for PubMedID 27503929
View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5050136