Doctor of Philosophy, Hamamatsu Univ Sch Of Medicine (2009)
David Clark, Postdoctoral Faculty Sponsor
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that rats that had recovered from mild proximal tubule (PT) injury induced by a sub-toxic dose of uranyl acetate (UA) showed partial resistance to a subsequent nephrotoxic dose of UA in association with reduced renal dysfunction and accelerated PT proliferation. We demonstrated that this resistance may involve hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling. Here, we examined whether primary cultured tubular cells derived from this model had acquired sensitivity to HGF. METHODS: Tubular cells were isolated by collagenase digestion from rat kidneys after recovery from UA-induced mild PT injury and were cultured for 48 h. Their survival and proliferation were examined using the MTS assay/5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling or MTS assay, respectively, and their migration was assayed using wound-healing and cell scattering assays, with/without HGF. HGF/c-Met signaling was assayed using phospho-specific antibodies. RESULTS: HGF-stimulated cultured tubular cells from UA-treated rats showed better survival after UA exposure and higher proliferation and migration than cells from vehicle-treated rats. Furthermore, HGF induced higher phosphorylation of c-Met (Tyr1234/1235) and of its major downstream signals (AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) with maintained dephosphorylation of Ser985 as a negative regulator of HGF/c-Met signaling in the tubular cells of UA-treated rats compared to those of vehicle-treated rats. Immunohistochemically, dephosphorylated Ser985 was confirmed in PT cells in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that elevated sensitivity to HGF, via dephosphorylated Ser985 of c-Met of tubular cells that had recovered from mild tubular injury, may be associated with cytoprotection, accelerated proliferation and migration.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10157-012-0757-5
View details for PubMedID 23250664
Large interindividual differences in clinical responses to opioids and the variable susceptibility to abuse of this class of drugs make their use problematic. We lack a full understanding of the factors responsible for these differences. Dietary factors including methyl donor content have been noted to alter multiple physiological and behavioral characteristics of laboratory animals. The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of dietary methyl donor content on opioid responses in mice.Groups of male C57BL/6J mice were treated with high and low methyl donor diets either in the perinatal period or after weaning. Analgesic responses to morphine, as well as tolerance, opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and physical dependence were assessed.Mice fed high and low methyl donor diets showed equal weight gain over the course of the experiments. Exposure to a high methyl donor diet in the perinatal period enhanced physical dependence. Dietary methyl donor content also altered analgesic responses to low doses of morphine when the dietary treatments were given to the mice after weaning. Opioid-induced hyperalgesia was unaltered by dietary methyl donor content.High and low methyl donor diet treatment has selective effects on opioid responses depending on the timing of exposure. These findings suggest that examination of DNA methylation patterns in specific brain regions linked to opioid analgesia and dependence may provide specific explanations for dietary effects on opioid responses.
View details for DOI 10.2147/JPR.S42561
View details for PubMedID 23576880
BACKGROUND:: The regulation of gene expression in nociceptive pathways contributes to the induction and maintenance of pain sensitization. Histone acetylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling chromatin structure and gene expression. Chemokine CC motif receptor 2 (CXCR2) is a proinflammatory receptor implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain and is known to be regulated by histone acetylation in some settings. The authors sought to investigate the role of histone acetylation on spinal CXCR2 signaling after incision. METHODS:: Groups of 5-8 mice underwent hind paw incision. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and anacardic acid were used to inhibit histone deacetylase and histone acetyltransferase, respectively. Behavioral measures of thermal and mechanical sensitization as well as hyperalgesic priming were used. Both message RNA quantification and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis were used to study the regulation of CXCR2 and ligand expression. Finally, the selective CXCR2 antagonist SB225002 was administered intrathecally to reveal the function of spinal CXCR2 receptors after hind paw incision. RESULTS:: Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid significantly exacerbated mechanical sensitization after incision. Conversely, anacardic acid reduced incisional sensitization and also attenuated incision-induced hyperalgesic priming. Overall, acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9 was increased in spinal cord tissues after incision, and enhanced association of acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9 with the promoter regions of CXCR2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine (CXCL1) was observed as well. Blocking CXCR2 reversed mechanical hypersensitivity after hind paw incision. CONCLUSIONS:: Histone modification is an important epigenetic mechanism regulating incision-induced nociceptive sensitization. The spinal CXCR2 signaling pathway is one epigenetically regulated pathway controlling early and latent sensitization after incision.
View details for PubMedID 23756451
After incision keratinocytes in the epidermis become activated to produce a range of pain-related mediators. microRNA 203 (miR-203) is known to be involved in keratinocyte growth, differentiation, and skin inflammation. We hypothesized that one or more of these mediators might be under the control of miR-203.The expression of miR-203 and its target gene, phospholipase A2 activating protein (PLAA), were examined after hind paw incision in mice. We investigated the local effect of intraplantar PLAA peptide injection in normal mice and the effects of a selective secretory phospholipase A2 inhibitor (HK064) on PLAA or incision-induced mechanical allodynia. Last, we investigated the role of substance P signaling in regulating miR-203 and PLAA expression in vitro and in vivo.Levels of miR-203 were strongly down-regulated in keratinocytes after incision. Informatics-based approaches identified PLAA as a likely candidate for regulation by miR-203. PLAA caused mechanical allodynia and conditioned place aversion but not thermal sensitization. HK064 reduced mechanical allodynia after incision and after intraplantar injection of PLAA. Using preprotachykinin gene knockout mice or with neurokinin-1 selective antagonist LY303870 treatment, we observed that substance P-mediated signaling was also required for miR-203 and PLAA regulation after incision. Finally, using the rat epidermal keratinocyte cell line, we observed that a miR-203 mimic molecule could block the substance P-induced increase in PLAA expression observed under control conditions.miR-203 may regulate expression of the novel nociceptive mediator PLAA after incision. Furthermore, the regulation of miR-203 and PLAA levels is reliant upon intact substance P signaling.
View details for Web of Science ID 000307947700022
View details for PubMedID 22846677
Patients with complex regional pain syndrome have increased tryptase in the skin of the affected extremity indicating mast cell (MC) accumulation and degranulation, processes known to be mediated by substance P (SP). The dysregulation of SP release from primary afferent neurons is characteristic of complex regional pain syndrome. The authors hypothesized that SP acting through the neurokinin-1 receptor results in mast cell accumulation, degranulation, and nociceptive sensitization in a rat model of complex regional pain syndrome.Groups of 6-10 rats underwent tibia fracture and hind limb casting for 4 weeks, and the hind paw skin was harvested for histologic and immunohistochemical analysis. The effects of a selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist (LY303870) and of direct SP intraplantar injection were measured. Dermal MC degranulation induced by sciatic nerve stimulation and the effects of LY303870 on this process were investigated. Finally, the antinociceptive effects of acute and chronic treatment with a MC degranulator (48/80) were tested.The authors observed that fracture caused MC accumulation, activation, and degranulation, which were inhibited by LY303870; the percentage of MCs in close proximity to peptidergic nerve fibers increased after fracture; electrical stimulation caused MC activation and degranulation, which was blocked by LY303870; intraplantar SP-induced MC degranulation and acute administration of 48/80 caused MC degranulation and enhanced postfracture nociception, but MC-depleted animals showed less sensitization.These results indicate that facilitated peptidergic neuron-MC signaling after fracture can cause MC accumulation, activation, and degranulation in the injured limb, resulting in nociceptive sensitization.
View details for Web of Science ID 000301997900017
View details for PubMedID 22343473
The complement system is an important part of innate immunity. Complement activation generates a set of effector molecules with diverse biological functions. C5a is a crucial terminal component of the complement cascade. Several reports suggest that C5a can support nociceptive sensitization and inflammation in various models, including models of incisional pain. However, information concerning the differential effects of C5a on specific modalities of nociception, the role of C5a in supporting neutrophil infiltration, secondary nociceptive mediator generation, and the location of the relevant populations of C5a receptors supporting incisional sensitization are needed. In these studies we utilized C5a receptor-null mice (C5aR(-/-)) and matched controls to study nociceptive changes after hind paw incision. Heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia were measured for 4 days after incision. We also followed hind paw edema, wound area neutrophil infiltration using the myeloperoxidase assay, and interleukin-1? and nerve growth factor levels using both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemical techniques. The main findings were: (1) Heat vs mechanical nociceptive sensitization after incision were differentially reduced in C5aR(-/-) mice, with thermal sensitization affected throughout the postincisional period but mechanical sensitization affected only at later time points; (2) Edema developed after incision in wild-type mice but only slightly and transiently in C5aR(-/-) mice, and (3) Deletion of C5aR blocked interleukin-1? and nerve growth factor production near the wound site. These findings demonstrate that the complement system component C5a is a novel biomarker and mediator associated with postsurgical nociceptive processing. C5aR may provide a novel target for the control of pain and inflammation after surgery.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.pain.2011.10.032
View details for Web of Science ID 000299319800018
View details for PubMedID 22137294
Rats that recovered from mild proximal tubule (PT) injury without renal dysfunction by subtoxic insult, developed partial resistance to subsequent nephrotoxic insult. This partial resistance was associated with reduced renal dysfunction and accelerated PT cell proliferation compared with vehicle treatment as the first insult. Here we assessed the role and potential mechanisms of accelerated PT proliferation in this acquired resistance model.Rats at 14 days after recovering from prior mild renal damage induced by 0.2 mg/kg uranyl acetate (UA) (subtoxic dose) were rechallenged with 4 mg/kg UA (nephrotoxic dose) to establish the acquired resistance model. Cell cycle was inhibited by colchicine to examine the contribution of accelerated PT cell proliferation evaluated by in vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling on acquired resistance to subsequent nephrotoxic insult. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met axis and other related factors of cell cycle were analyzed.The acquired resistance to rechallenge injury with nephrotoxic dose of UA in rats recovered from mild renal injury was associated with an earlier increase in BrdU-positive PT cells, accelerated upregulation of HGF mRNA, c-Met mRNA/protein, cyclin D1, phospho-Rb and an earlier phenotypic change of PT cells. Colchicine inhibited PT cell proliferation, reduced the upregulated cyclin D1 and phospho-Rb in the kidney, completely abolishing acquired resistance.Cell cycle progression with upregulated renal HGF/c-Met axis may contribute to the accelerated recovery from acute renal failure in rats that recovered from prior mild renal damage, followed by nephrotoxic insult, resulting in partial acquired resistance.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10157-011-0453-x
View details for Web of Science ID 000297799900007
View details for PubMedID 21505952
In our previous study, we demonstrated that local injection of complement C5a and C3a produce mechanical and heat hyperalgesia, and that C5a and C3a activate and sensitize cutaneous nociceptors in normal skin, suggesting a contribution of complement fragments to acute pain. Other studies also have shown that the complement system can be activated by surgical incision, and the systemic blockade of C5a receptor (C5aR) reduces incision-induced pain and inflammation. In this study, we further examined the possible contribution of wound area C5a to incisional pain.Using of a hind paw incisional model, the effects of a selective C5aR antagonist, PMX53, on nociceptive behaviors were measured after incision in vivo. mRNA levels of C5 and C5aR in skin, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cord, and C5a protein levels in the skin were quantified after incision. The responses of nociceptors to C5a were also evaluated using the in vitro skin-nerve preparation.Local administration of PMX53 suppressed heat hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia induced by C5a injection or after hind paw incision in vivo. mRNA levels of C5 and C5aR in the skin, but not DRG and spinal cord, were dramatically increased after incision. C5a protein in the skin was also increased after incision. In vitro C5a did not increase the prevalence of fibers with ongoing activity in afferents from incised versus control, unincised skin. C5a sensitized C-fiber afferent responses to heat; however, this was less evident in afferents adjacent to the incision. PMX53 blocked sensitization of C-fiber afferents to heat by C5a but did not by itself influence ongoing activity or heat sensitivity in afferents innervating control or incised skin. The magnitude of mechanical responses was also not affected by C5a in any nociceptive fibers innervating incised or unincised skin.This study demonstrates that high locally generated C5a levels are present in wounds for at least 72 hours after incision. In skin, C5a contributes to hypersensitivity after incision, but increased responsiveness of cutaneous nociceptors to C5a was not evident in incised skin. Thus, high local concentrations of C5a produced in wounds likely contribute to postoperative pain.
View details for DOI 10.1186/1742-2094-8-80
View details for Web of Science ID 000292970000001
View details for PubMedID 21736743
Posttranslational modification of proteins could regulate their multiple biological functions. Transforming growth factor-? receptor I and II (ALK5 and TGF-?RII), which are glycoproteins, play important roles in the renal tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we examined the role of core fucosylation of TGF-?RII and ALK5, which is regulated by ?-1,6 fucosyltransferase (Fut8), in the process of EMT of cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells. The typical cell model of EMT induced by TGF-?1 was constructed to address the role of core fucosylation in EMT. Core fucosylation was found to be essential for both TGF-?RII and ALK5 to fulfill their functions, and blocking it with Fut8 small interfering RNA greatly reduced the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 protein, caused the inactivation of TGF-?/Smad2/3 signaling, and resulted in remission of EMT. More importantly, even with high levels of expressions of TGF-?1, TGF-?RII, and ALK5, blocking core fucosylation also could attenuate the EMT of HK-2 cells. Thus blocking core fucosylation of TGF-?RII and ALK5 may attenuate EMT independently of the expression of these proteins. This study may provide new insight into the role of glycosylation in renal interstitial fibrosis. Furthermore, core fucosylation may be a novel potential therapeutic target for treatment of renal tubular EMT.
View details for DOI 10.1152/ajprenal.00426.2010
View details for Web of Science ID 000289095300024
View details for PubMedID 21228108
Animals recovered from acute renal failure are resistant to subsequent insult. We investigated whether rats recovered from mild proximal tubule (PT) injury without renal dysfunction (subclinical renal damage) acquire the same resistance. Rats 14 days after recovering from subclinical renal damage, which was induced by 0.2 mg/kg of uranyl acetate (UA) (sub-toxic dose), were rechallenged with 4 mg/kg of UA (nephrotoxic dose). Fate of PT cells and renal function were examined in response to nephrotoxic dose of UA. All divided cells after sub-toxic dose of UA insult were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for 14 days then the number of PT cells with or without BrdU-labeling was counted following nephrotoxic dose of UA insult. Rats recovered from subclinical renal damage gained resistance to nephrotoxic dose of UA with reduced renal dysfunction, less severity of peak damage (necrotic and TUNEL+ apoptotic cells) and accelerated PT cell proliferation, but with earlier peak of PT damage. The decrease in number of PT cells in the early phase of rechallenge injury with nephrotoxic UA was more in rats pretreated with sub-toxic dose of UA than vehicle pretreated rats. The exaggerated loss of PT cells was mainly caused by the exaggerated loss of BrdU+ divided cells. In contrast, accelerated cell proliferation in rats recovered from sub-toxic dose of UA was observed mainly in BrdU- non-divided cells. The findings suggest that rats recovered from subclinical renal damage showed partial acquired resistance to nephrotoxic insult. Accelerated recovery with increased proliferative activity of non-divided PT cells after subclinical renal damage may mainly contribute to acquired resistance.
View details for DOI 10.1016/j.taap.2009.11.018
View details for Web of Science ID 000274489700013
View details for PubMedID 19931553
This study examined the possible role of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) expression in the survival and regeneration of proximal tubule (PT) cells after acute tubular injury. Rats were injected with a low (0.2 mg/kg) or high (4 mg/kg) dose of uranyl acetate (UA) to induce renal injury. Renal tissues were immunostained for HSP27, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and stained by the TUNEL method. Low-dose UA induced focal PT depletion in the proximal three-quarters of the S3 segment. Here, cells became sporadically positive for cytoplasmic HSP27 in association with FAK+, and almost all BrdU+ early regenerating cells were positive for HSP27 from days 2 to 3. High-dose UA induced severe PT depletion in the proximal three-quarters of S3, and a small number of PT cells became positive for HSP27 as early as day 2. BrdU+, early regenerating cells were restricted to the distal quarter of S3 from days 2 to 3, with or without HSP27 staining and with FAK. In both groups, HSP+ PT cells and BrdU+ cells peaked in number at day 5. The PT cells showed reduced HSP27 accumulation by day 7 as they differentiated, but remained immunopositive for FAK. TUNEL+ apoptotic cells were immunonegative for both HSP27 and FAK. Cytoplasmic HSP27 accumulation in PT cells seems to contribute to PT survival and transition from PT cell proliferation to differentiation. When PT cells are severely impaired, distinct cells in the distal areas of S3 could undergo cell cycle progression without HSP27 accumulation.
View details for DOI 10.3109/08860220903367569
View details for Web of Science ID 000277745400020
View details for PubMedID 20113277
We examined whether dedifferentiation is necessary for cell division of proximal tubule (PT) cells after acute PT injury.Rats were injected with a low (0.2 mg/kg) or high (4 mg/kg) dose of uranyl acetate (UA) to induce acute PT injury. Proliferating PT cells were labelled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) before sacrifice. Renal tissues were examined by double labelling of BrdU and megalin, aquaporin 1 (AQP1), Na(+)-K(+)ATPase or vimentin, and by immunoelectron microscopy for BrdU+ cells.Under normal conditions, BrdU+ PT cells were positive for the PT phenotype (megalin-, AQP1- and Na(+)-K(+)ATPase positive and vimentine negative, a mesenchymal marker). Low-dose UA induced focal PT injury, and BrdU+ initially proliferating PT cells were found in the proximal three quarters of the S3 segment of nephron as early as 12 h, which maintained the PT phenotype and were vimentin negative. Proliferating PT cells showed low expression of the PT cell protein phenotype from Day 2 to Day 5 with vimentin expression from Day 2. High-dose UA induced severe PT injury in the proximal three quarters of the S3 segment by Day 5. BrdU+ initially proliferating PT cells, which were found in distal areas of the S3 segment as early as Day 2, showed low expression of the PT protein phenotype but were vimentin positive. Immunoelectron microscopy showed mature PT morphology for BrdU+ PT cells in control rats. BrdU+ initially proliferating PT cells showed a relatively mature phenotype after low-dose UA in- sult but an immature phenotype after high-dose UA insult.PT cells can initiate cell division without de- differentiation after mild PT injury by low-dose UA insult.
View details for DOI 10.1093/ndt/gfp199
View details for Web of Science ID 000269208500012
View details for PubMedID 19395729
Systemically podocytic infolding into the GBM which causes nonargyrophilic holes in the GBM in association with intra-GBM microstructures has been considered as a new pathological entity. However, its pathomechanisms are largely unknown.We analyzed intra-GBM microstructures in an SLE patient with glomerulopathy associated with podocytic infolding by immunoelectron microscopy for vimentin (a marker for both podocyte and endothelium) and C5b-9 and by 3D reconstruction of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images by computer tomography method.Immunofluorescent study showed immunoglobulin deposition in a diffuse, capillary pattern; however, electron-dense deposits like stage 3 membranous nephropathy could be found only in some capillary loops by TEM in spite of the systemic existence of podocytic infolding and the intra-GBM microstructures. Three-dimensional reconstructed images of the TEM images revealed that some of the intra-GBM microstructures made connections with the podocyte. The clustered microstructures underneath the podocyte and their surroundings looked as a whole like the degraded part of podocyte in 3D reconstructed images. Immunoelectron microscopy showed that vimentin was positive in most intra-GBM microstructures. C5b-9 was positive along the entire epithelial side of the GBM and in some microstructures, suggesting that the podocytes may be attacked by C5b-9 and that the microstructures may contain C5b-9 bound cellular membranes.Intra-GBM microstructures may be originated mainly from the podocyte. Podotyte and GBM injuries caused by C5b-9 attack to podocytes might contribute in part to podocytic infolding and intra-GBM microstructures in this case.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s10157-008-0095-9
View details for Web of Science ID 000262825900004
View details for PubMedID 18839062
The clinical use of cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloro-platinum II, CDDP) is highly limited by its nephrotoxicity. Although N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a thiol-containing antioxidant, has been documented to be effective in attenuating renal injury induced by CDDP, the precise mechanisms involved in its renoprotection have not been completely clarified.We investigated the effects of NAC on oxidative stress and oxidation-associated signals, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), NF-kappaB and TNF-alpha, in CDDP-induced acute renal failure (ARF) rats, in comparison to the effects of melatonin (MT), one of the physiological TNF-alpha inhibitors, and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a NF-kappaB inhibitor.NAC blocked oxidative stress, p38 MAPK activation, caspase-3 cleavage, tissue apoptosis, renal dysfunction and morphological damage induced by CDDP. CDDP-triggered NF-kappaB translocation into the nucleus and TNF-alpha mRNA increase in the kidney were also inhibited in NAC-treated rats. MT downregulated the TNF-alpha mRNA level, and PDTC inhibited the increases in both NF-kappaB translocation and TNF-alpha mRNA. Neither MT nor PDTC were capable of interfering with oxidative stress, p38 MAPK phosphorylation, caspase-3 cleavage, tissue apoptosis and kidney injury induced by CDDP.These data suggest that oxidative stress and p38 MAPK-mediated apoptotic cell death pathways are involved, at least in part, in the pathogenesis of CDDP-induced ARF, and negative regulation of p38 MAPK activation through inhibition of oxidative stress appears to play a central role in the beneficial effects of NAC.
View details for DOI 10.1093/ndt/gfn090
View details for Web of Science ID 000257413600018
View details for PubMedID 18385389
Caveolin-1, a principal component of caveolae, modulates growth signaling, endocytosis, and intracellular transport. We examined the expression of caveolin-1alpha and its relation to cell cycle and caveolin-interacting growth factor receptors in regenerating proximal tubules (PTs) after gentamicin-induced acute renal failure in rats. Caveolin-1alpha appeared in regenerating PTs as early as day 4 after last gentamicin, peaked at days 6 to 8, and showed cytoplasmic pattern after day 8. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed caveolin-1alpha-positive caveolae on the cell membrane and in cytoplasms in regenerating PTs at days 4 to 8 and caveolin-positivity confined to cytoplasms after day 10. The number of PT cells with proliferation markers peaked at day 6 and decreased afterwards as expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors increased. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were colocalized with caveolin-1alpha in proliferating PTs as early as day 4. Phosphorylated EGFR increased at day 8 and afterwards when caveolins dissociated from EGFR or decreased. In case of PDGFR-beta, phosphorylation seemed to be associated with the increase and association of caveolins to the receptors. Our results suggest that transient expression of caveolin-1alpha in early regenerating PTs might contribute to the regenerating process of PTs through modulating growth factor receptors.
View details for DOI 10.1007/s00428-007-0417-4
View details for Web of Science ID 000247433800009
View details for PubMedID 17464513