Erythropoietin promotes breast tumorigenesis through tumor-initiating cell self-renewal.
The Journal of clinical investigation
Histone deacetylase isoforms regulate innate immune responses by deacetylating mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1.
Journal of leukocyte biology
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone that induces red blood cell production. In its recombinant form, EPO is the one of most prescribed drugs to treat anemia, including that arising in cancer patients. In randomized trials, EPO administration to cancer patients has been associated with decreased survival. Here, we investigated the impact of EPO modulation on tumorigenesis. Using genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer, we found that EPO promoted tumorigenesis by activating JAK/STAT signaling in breast tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and promoted TIC self renewal. We determined that EPO was induced by hypoxia in breast cancer cell lines, but not in human mammary epithelial cells. Additionally, we demonstrated that high levels of endogenous EPO gene expression correlated with shortened relapse-free survival and that pharmacologic JAK2 inhibition was synergistic with chemotherapy for tumor growth inhibition in vivo. These data define an active role for endogenous EPO in breast cancer progression and breast TIC self-renewal and reveal a potential application of EPO pathway inhibition in breast cancer therapy.
View details for DOI 10.1172/JCI69804
View details for PubMedID 24435044
Aldosterone activates endothelial exocytosis
PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
2009; 106 (10): 3782-3787
The MAPK pathway mediates TLR signaling during innate immune responses. We discovered previously that MKP-1 is acetylated, enhancing its interaction with its MAPK substrates and deactivating TLR signaling. As HDACs modulate inflammation by deacetylating histone and nonhistone proteins, we hypothesized that HDACs may regulate LPS-induced inflammation by deacetylating MKP-1. We found that mouse macrophages expressed a subset of HDAC isoforms (HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3), which all interacted with MKP-1. Genetic silencing or pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC1, -2, and -3 increased MKP-1 acetylation in cells. Furthermore, knockdown or pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC1, -2, and -3 decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation of the MAPK member p38. Also, pharmacologic inhibition of HDAC did not decrease MAPK signaling in MKP-1 null cells. Finally, inhibition of HDAC1, -2, and -3 decreased LPS-induced expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS (NOS2), and nitrite synthesis. Taken together, our results show that HDAC1, -2, and -3 deacetylate MKP-1 and that this post-translational modification increases MAPK signaling and innate immune signaling. Thus, HDAC1, -2, and -3 isoforms are potential therapeutic targets in inflammatory diseases.
View details for DOI 10.1189/jlb.1013565
View details for PubMedID 24374966
Although elevated levels of aldosterone are associated with vascular inflammation, the proinflammatory pathways of aldosterone are not completely defined. We now show that aldosterone triggers endothelial cell exocytosis, the first step in leukocyte trafficking. Exogenous aldosterone stimulates endothelial exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies, externalizing P-selectin and releasing von Willebrand factor. Spironolactone, a nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blocker, antagonizes aldosterone-induced endothelial exocytosis. Knockdown of the MR also decreases exocytosis, suggesting that the MR mediates exocytosis. Aldosterone triggers exocytosis within minutes, and this effect is not inhibited by actinomycin D, suggesting a nongenomic effect of aldosterone. Aldosterone treatment of endothelial cells increases leukocyte adherence to endothelial cells in culture. Taken together, our data suggest that aldosterone activates vascular inflammation in part through nongenomic, MR-mediated pathways. Aldosterone antagonism may decrease vascular inflammation and cardiac fibrosis in part by blocking endothelial exocytosis.
View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.0804037106
View details for Web of Science ID 000264036900027
View details for PubMedID 19223584