Bio

Clinical Focus


  • Anatomic Pathology
  • Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
  • Hematopathology

Academic Appointments


Administrative Appointments


  • Associate Chair for Hematopathology, Stanford (2009 - Present)
  • Program Director, Hematopathology Fellowship, Stanford (2009 - Present)
  • Associate Chair for Faculty Development and Diversity, Stanford (2009 - Present)
  • Co-Director, Immunodiagnosis Laboratory, Stanford (2005 - Present)

Professional Education


  • Medical Education:Mt Sinai School of Medicine (1995) NY
  • Internship:Stanford University School of Medicine (1996) CA
  • Residency:Stanford University School of Medicine (2000) CA
  • Board Certification: Anatomic Pathology, American Board of Pathology (1998)
  • PhD, Mt.Sinai School of Medicine, Molecular Biology (1993)
  • AB, Bryn Mawr College, Biology (1987)

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests


My laboratory studies the tissue expression pattern of proteins that are of potential interest for the diagnosis, prognostic stratification and therapy of patients with lymphoma and leukemia. We are currently investigating prognostic markers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma such that risk groups can be better defined. We are also interested in the immunodiagnostic and molecular characterization of rare and aggressive hematopoietic tumors such as Natural Killer/T-cell lymphomas, histiocytic malignancies and childhood lymphomas.

Clinical Trials


  • Phase I/II Intratumoral DC Immunotherapy With Gemcitabine & XRT in Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer Not Recruiting

    To determine the safety, feasibility and appropriate dendritic cell dose to vaccinate patients with pancreas cancer

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Jenna Rogers, (650) 723 - 4467.

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  • Genome, Proteome and Tissue Microarray in Childhood Acute Leukemia Recruiting

    We will study gene and protein expression in leukemia cells of children diagnosed with acute leukemia. We hope to identify genes or proteins which can help us grade leukemia at diagnosis in order to: (a) develop better means of diagnosis and (b) more accurately choose the best therapy for each patient.

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  • Phase II Fludarabine, Cytoxan and FCCAM in Untreated B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Not Recruiting

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide followed by subcutaneous Campath® in previously untreated CLL patients. Another goal is to prospectively evaluate the influence of pre-treatment CD38 expression, immunoglobulin VH gene mutation status, Zap70 expression, and cytogenetic abnormalities on outcome. In addition, the study hopes to further evaluate treatment efficacy with quantitative assessments of minimal residual disease by flow cytometry for the CLL-specific CD19+/CD5+/CD20+/CD79b+ population.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Nini Estevez, (650) 725 - 4041.

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  • Phase II Study of Atorvastatin Safety and Antitumor Effects in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Not Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to: 1. Determine changes in levels of tumor bioactivity upon treatment with atorvastatin. Secondary objective: 2. Determine validity of tumor bioactivity as a biologic endpoint by correlation with clinical response. 3. Determine whether administration of atorvastatin is tolerable and safe in low grade NHL patients. We do not anticipate any significant toxicity since this dose of atorvastatin has been FDA approved for patients with hypercholesterolemia.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Alice Fan, 650-736-1285.

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  • Phase I Intratumoral Dendritic Cell Immunotherapy in Thermally Ablated Liver Metastases Not Recruiting

    Up to twenty-two patients will be enrolled in this study to receive autologous dendritic cells (DCs) administered intratumorally into liver metastases following radiofrequency thermal ablation of those lesions. Patients will receive two vaccinations of DCs at monthly intervals. A dose escalation study of DCs will be included in this study in an attempt to define the maximum tolerated dose of administered DCs.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Jenna Rogers, (650) 723 - 4467.

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Teaching

2013-14 Courses


Publications

Journal Articles


  • CD137 Ligand Is Expressed in Primary and Secondary Lymphoid Follicles and in B-cell Lymphomas Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Zhao, S., Zhang, H., Xing, Y., Natkunam, Y. 2013; 37 (2): 250-258

    Abstract

    CD137 ligand (4-1BB ligand, TNFSF9, CD137L) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family whose binding to its receptor, CD137 (4-1BB, TNFRSF9), mediates costimulatory and prosurvival signals necessary for T-cell activation and regulation of humoral immune responses. Recent studies have shown that anti-CD137 immunotherapy has promise as a treatment for solid tumors and lymphoid malignancies in preclinical models. Here, we define the tissue expression profile of CD137L, which has not been previously explored. We characterized the expression of CD137L in normal and neoplastic human hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissue and found that CD137L is preferentially expressed in B cells of the primary follicles, mantle zones of the secondary follicles, germinal centers, and in normal endothelial cells. Double immunofluorescence labeling in tissue sections and flow cytometry analysis further showed that CD137L is a potential new marker of memory B cells. Evaluation of over 700 human hematopoietic tumors revealed that the majority of B-cell lymphomas expressed CD137L, which include mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. In contrast, CD137L expression was lacking in Hodgkin lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma. Our findings suggest that CD137L is a novel diagnostic marker of subtypes of non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas and raise the possibility that its expression on tumor cells may be directly targeted for immunomodulatory therapy for lymphoid and other malignancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAS.0b013e318268c6ea

    View details for Web of Science ID 000313576200012

    View details for PubMedID 23095505

  • Germinal centre protein HGAL promotes lymphoid hyperplasia and amyloidosis via BCR-mediated Syk activation NATURE COMMUNICATIONS Romero-Camarero, I., Jiang, X., Natkunam, Y., Lu, X., Vicente-Duenas, C., Gonzalez-Herrero, I., Flores, T., Luis Garcia, J., McNamara, G., Kunder, C., Zhao, S., Segura, V., Fontan, L., Martinez-Climent, J. A., Javier Garcia-Criado, F., Theis, J. D., Dogan, A., Campos-Sanchez, E., Green, M. R., Alizadeh, A. A., Cobaleda, C., Sanchez-Garcia, I., Lossos, I. S. 2013; 4

    Abstract

    The human germinal centre-associated lymphoma gene is specifically expressed in germinal centre B-lymphocytes and germinal centre-derived B-cell lymphomas, but its function is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that human germinal centre-associated lymphoma directly binds to Syk in B cells, increases its kinase activity on B-cell receptor stimulation and leads to enhanced activation of Syk downstream effectors. To further investigate these findings in vivo, human germinal centre-associated lymphoma transgenic mice were generated. Starting from 12 months of age these mice developed polyclonal B-cell lymphoid hyperplasia, hypergammaglobulinemia and systemic reactive amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis, leading to shortened survival. The lymphoid hyperplasia in the human germinal centre-associated lymphoma transgenic mice are likely attributable to enhanced B-cell receptor signalling as shown by increased Syk phosphorylation, ex vivo B-cell proliferation and increased RhoA activation. Overall, our study shows for the first time that the germinal centre protein human germinal centre-associated lymphoma regulates B-cell receptor signalling in B-lymphocytes which, without appropriate control, may lead to B-cell lymphoproliferation.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncomms2334

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316614600008

    View details for PubMedID 23299888

  • CD137 Is Expressed in Follicular Dendritic Cell Tumors and in Classical Hodgkin and T-Cell Lymphomas Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implications AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Anderson, M. W., Zhao, S., Freud, A. G., Czerwinski, D. K., Kohrt, H., Alizadeh, A. A., Houot, R., Azambuja, D., Biasoli, I., Morais, J. C., Spector, N., Molina-Kirsch, H. F., Warnke, R. A., Levy, R., Natkunam, Y. 2012; 181 (3): 795-803

    Abstract

    CD137 (also known as 4-1BB and TNFRSF9) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. Originally identified as a costimulatory molecule expressed by activated T cells and NK cells, CD137 is also expressed by follicular dendritic cells, monocytes, mast cells, granulocytes, and endothelial cells. Anti-CD137 immunotherapy has recently shown promise as a treatment for solid tumors and lymphoid malignancies in preclinical models. We defined the expression of CD137 protein in both normal and neoplastic hematolymphoid tissue. CD137 protein is expressed by follicular dendritic cells in the germinal center and scattered paracortical T cells, but not by normal germinal-center B cells, bone marrow progenitor cells, or maturing thymocytes. CD137 protein is expressed by a select group of hematolymphoid tumors, including classical Hodgkin lymphoma, T-cell and NK/T-cell lymphomas, and follicular dendritic cells neoplasms. CD137 is a novel diagnostic marker of these tumors and suggests a possible target for tumor-directed antibody therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajpath.2012.05.015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000309251100009

    View details for PubMedID 22901750

  • LMO2 (LIM domain only 2) is expressed in a subset of acute myeloid leukaemia and correlates with normal karyotype HISTOPATHOLOGY Patel, J. L., Pournazari, P., Haggstrom, S., Kosari, F., Shabani-Rad, M., Natkunam, Y., Mansoor, A. 2014; 64 (2): 226-233

    Abstract

    LMO2 is a transcription factor that plays a key role in haematopoiesis. Expression of LMO2 has been demonstrated in germinal centre B cells, various B cell lymphomas and T lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukaemia (T-ALL), but has not been studied extensively in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML).We studied LMO2 expression by immunohistochemistry in biopsies from a cohort of AML patients (n = 196) and correlated it with established prognostic factors such as age, bone marrow morphology and cytogenetic findings.Forty per cent (79 of 196) of the samples from AML patients showed moderate/strong expression of LMO2 protein. LMO2 expression showed a significant positive correlation with normal cytogenetics (65% versus 24%, P < 0.0001) and a moderately negative correlation with complex karyotype [rs (98) = -0.218, P < 0.002]. AML associated with core binding factor [(t(8;21)/inv(16)/t(16;16)] had low LMO2 expression compared to diploid karyotype (29% versus 65%; P = 0.013). Expression of LMO2 protein exhibited an insignificant association with age (P = 0.197). Lower expression of LMO2 protein was noted in AML associated with myelodysplasia-related changes, compared to AML subtypes based on FAB classification (M0-M7) (21% versus 44%, P = 0.0187).LMO2 is expressed in a subset of AML patients and is associated with normal karyotype, which is different from T-ALL, where specific translocation (11p13) mediates protein expression.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/his.12242

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328347800005

    View details for PubMedID 24330148

  • Expression of the Activating Receptor, NKp46 (CD335), in Human Natural Killer and T-Cell Neoplasia. American journal of clinical pathology Freud, A. G., Zhao, S., Wei, S., Gitana, G. M., Molina-Kirsch, H. F., Atwater, S. K., Natkunam, Y. 2013; 140 (6): 853-866

    Abstract

    Objectives To evaluate the expression of CD335 (NKp46), an activation receptor that is selectively expressed on natural killer (NK) cells. Methods We assessed CD335's potential utility as a diagnostic marker in 657 cases by flow cytometry and 410 cases by immunohistochemistry. Results We observed that CD335 was highly specific for NK cells in nonneoplastic tissues. Moreover, 61 (90%) of 68 of NK cell neoplasms demonstrated CD335 expression, whereas B-cell, myelomonocytic, and plasma cell neoplasms lacked expression. Notably, 16 (20%) of 82 mature T-cell neoplasms, particularly T-cell large granular lymphocytic leukemia, mycosis fungoides, and ALK+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma, aberrantly expressed CD335. Conclusions Collectively, these data support the diagnostic utility of CD335 in evaluating hematopoietic malignancies and suggest that CD335 could be a useful target for selective immunotherapy in patients with mature NK and T-cell neoplasms.

    View details for DOI 10.1309/AJCPWGG69MCZOWMM

    View details for PubMedID 24225754

  • Molecular and genomic aberrations in Chlamydophila psittaci negative ocular adnexal marginal zone lymphomas AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY Zhu, D., Ikpatt, O. F., Dubovy, S. R., Lossos, C., Natkunam, Y., Chapman-Fredricks, J. R., Fan, Y., Lossos, I. S. 2013; 88 (9): 730-735

    Abstract

    The etiology and pathogenesis of ocular adnexal extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (OAEMZL) are still unknown and the association with Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) has been shown in only some geographic regions. Herein we comprehensively examined the frequency of chromosomal translocations as well as CARD11, MYD88 (L265P) and A20 mutations /deletions in 45 C. psittaci negative OAEMZLs. t(14;18)(q32;q21) IGH-MALT1 and t(11;18)(q21;q21) API2-MALT1 were not detected in any of the analyzed tumors while 3 tumors harbored IGH translocations to an unidentified partner. CARD11 mutations were not found in all the analyzed tumors while MYD88 L265P mutation was detected in 3 (6.7%) tumors. A20 mutations and deletions were each detected in 7(15.6%) and 6(13.3%) of the tumors, respectively. Therefore, the observed genetic aberrations could account for the activation of NF-kB signaling pathway in only a minority of the cases. Further studies are needed to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of OAEMZL.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ajh.23490

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323313500002

    View details for PubMedID 23720088

  • CD30 targeting with brentuximab vedotin: a novel therapeutic approach to primary effusion lymphoma BLOOD Bhatt, S., Ashlock, B. M., Natkunam, Y., Sujoy, V., Chapman, J. R., Ramos, J. C., Mesri, E. A., Lossos, I. S. 2013; 122 (7): 1233-1242

    Abstract

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) characterized by short survival with current therapies, emphasizing the urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches. Brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) is an anti-CD30 monoclonal antibody (cAC10) conjugated by a protease-cleavable linker to a microtubule-disrupting agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE). Brentuximab vedotin is an effective treatment for relapsed CD30-expressing Classical Hodgkin and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Herein, we demonstrated that PEL cell lines and primary tumors express CD30 and thus may serve as potential targets for brentuximab vedotin therapy. In vitro treatment with brentuximab vedotin decreased cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest and triggered apoptosis of PEL cell lines. Furthermore, in vivo brentuximab vedotin promoted tumor regression and prolonged survival of mice bearing previously reported UM-PEL-1 tumors as well as UM-PEL-3 tumors derived from a newly established and characterized KSHV and EBV positive PEL cell line. Overall, our results demonstrate for the first time that brentuximab vedotin may serve as an effective therapy for PEL and provide strong preclinical indications for evaluation of brentuximab vedotin in clinical studies of PEL patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2013-01-481713

    View details for Web of Science ID 000323392900023

    View details for PubMedID 23838350

  • Improvements in observed and relative survival in follicular grade 1-2 lymphoma during 4 decades: the Stanford University experience. Blood Tan, D., Horning, S. J., Hoppe, R. T., Levy, R., Rosenberg, S. A., Sigal, B. M., Warnke, R. A., Natkunam, Y., Han, S. S., Yuen, A., Plevritis, S. K., Advani, R. H. 2013; 122 (6): 981-987

    Abstract

    Recent studies report an improvement in overall survival (OS) of patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). Previously untreated patients with grade 1-2 FL referred from 1960-2003 and treated at Stanford were identified. Four eras were considered: era 1, pre-anthracycline (1960-1975, n=180); era 2, anthracycline (1976-1986, n=426), era 3, aggressive chemotherapy/purine analogs (1987-1996, n=471) and era 4, rituximab (1997-2003, n=257). Clinical characteristics, patterns of care and survival outcomes were assessed. Observed OS was compared with the expected OS calculated from Berkeley Mortality Database life tables derived from population matched by gender and age at time of diagnosis. The median OS was 13.6 years. Age, gender and stage did not differ across the eras. Although primary treatment varied, event free survival after the first treatment did not differ between eras (p=0.17). Median OS improved from approximately 11 years in eras 1 and 2 to 18.4 years in era 3 and has not yet been reached for era 4 (p<0.001) with no suggestion of a plateau in any era. These improvements in OS exceeded improvements in survival in the general population during the same time period. Several factors, including better supportive care and effective therapies for relapsed disease, are likely responsible for this improvement.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2013-03-491514

    View details for PubMedID 23777769

  • Clinicopathological features of aggressive B-cell lymphomas including B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell and Burkitt lymphomas: a study of 44 patients from Argentina. Annals of diagnostic pathology Bürgesser, M. V., Gualco, G., Diller, A., Natkunam, Y., Bacchi, C. E. 2013; 17 (3): 250-255

    Abstract

    Aggressive B-cell lymphomas incorporate a wide spectrum of lymphomas that pose challenges in diagnosis as well as treatment. We evaluated the clinicopathological features of 44 patients with aggressive B-cell lymphomas which were classified into 3 groups based on the World Health Organization 2008 classification as follows: including 30 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 8 cases of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and 6 cases of B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between Burkitt lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (BCLU). Male predominance was observed in BL and BCLU groups and the mean age varied from 29 years in BL, 61 years in DLBCL and 70 years in BCLU. Patients with BCLU presented at more advanced stages and had a higher international prognostic index. By immunohistochemistry, they shared characteristics of both BL (including more frequent expression of SOX11) and DLBCL. FISH analyses showed three cases with more than one rearrangement: one MYC/BCL2 and two BCL2/BCL6, in addition to which one case with BCL2/IGH translocation and another with MYC rearrangement were also detected. The mean follow-up survival time of BCLU was 6.6 months, which was significantly shorter in comparison to DLBCL (31 months) and BL (30 months), respectively. The importance of recognizing this BCLU group relies on its different clinical course, poor prognosis and shorter survival than DLBCL and BL. An accurate diagnosis is critical for risk stratification and to improve therapeutic approaches and outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.anndiagpath.2012.11.001

    View details for PubMedID 23246412

  • Usefulness of HGAL and LMO2 Immunohistochemistry in the Identification of Follicular Lymphomas of the Non-Gastric Gastrointestinal Tract APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY Chapman-Fredricks, J., Younes, S. F., Fan, Y., Sandoval-Sus, J. D., Natkunam, Y., Lossos, I. S. 2013; 21 (3): 200-204

    Abstract

    We studied the sensitivity of 2 relatively new markers of germinal center B-cell origin, namely human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) and Lim-only transcription factor 2 (LMO2), in the identification of follicular lymphomas (FLs) of the nongastric gastrointestinal (GI) tract.We retrospectively reviewed cases of endoscopically derived primary, nongastric GI lymphomas including FL, grade 1 or 2, and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (ENMZL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, classified based on morphologic features and immunohistochemical analysis. HGAL and LMO2 immunohistochemical stains were then prospectively performed in each case. When discrepant immunohistochemical results were obtained, fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed for t(14;18) IGH/BCL2 and IGH rearrangement using a dual color fusion and a dual color break-apart probe, respectively.All but one of the CD10-negative ENMZL cases were negative for both HGAL and LMO2. One case originally classified as ENMZL was positive for both HGAL and LMO2. Fluorescent in situ hybridization did not detect either t(14;18) IGH/BCL2 or IGH rearrangement in this case. It is likely, based on positivity of 2 established germinal center B-cell markers, that this represents a FL which was originally misclassified as an ENMZL based on CD10 negativity. Of the cases of FL (all CD10 and/or BCL-6 positive), 8 (80%) were positive for both HGAL and LMO2.Although HGAL and LMO2 did not demonstrate an increased sensitivity in the identification of FL of the nongastric GI tract in this series, they still were helpful in the reclassification of one of our cases, and may therefore be useful adjuncts in the identification of FL of the nongastric GI tract.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAI.0b013e31826399aa

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317961100004

    View details for PubMedID 22914613

  • Indolent T-Lymphoblastic Proliferation (iT-LBP): A Review of Clinical and Pathologic Features and Distinction from Malignant T-Lymphoblastic Lymphoma ADVANCES IN ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY Ohgami, R. S., Arber, D. A., Zehnder, J. L., Natkunam, Y., Warnke, R. A. 2013; 20 (3): 137-140

    Abstract

    In recent years, a new pathologic entity has emerged: indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation (iT-LBP). iT-LBPs share immunophenotypic similarities with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma; however, T-lymphoblastic proliferations are clinically indolent, and unlike the malignant counterpart, these expansions of nonclonal terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)+ T cells do not require treatment. Here we review the clinical and pathologic features, which are required for an accurate diagnosis of an iT-LBP. We demonstrate specific criteria can be used to accurately diagnose iT-LBP, notably: (1) confluent groups of TdT+ T cells in a biopsy specimen, (2) relative preservation of surrounding normal lymphoid architecture, (3) TdT+ T cells without morphologic atypia, (4) absence of thymic epithelium, (5) nonclonal TdT+ T cells, (6) immunophenotype of developmentally normal immature thymic T cells, and (7) clinical evidence of indolence (follow-up >6 mo without progression).

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAP.0b013e31828d17ec

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317588700001

    View details for PubMedID 23574769

  • The spectrum of lymphoblastic, nodal and extranodal T-cell lymphomas: characteristic features and diagnostic dilemmas HUMAN PATHOLOGY Savage, N. M., Johnson, R. C., Natkunam, Y. 2013; 44 (4): 451-471

    Abstract

    T-cell lymphomas represent a heterogeneous group of neoplasms that encompass considerable clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic variation. The diagnosis of T-cell lymphoma is challenging because of its relative rarity, the lack of an immunophenotypic marker of clonality, and significant morphologic overlap with infectious/inflammatory processes and neoplasms, including Hodgkin and other non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and even mesenchymal or epithelial lesions. In the current World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic tumors, all except 1 subtype (ie, T-lymphoblastic lymphoma) are recognized as mature neoplasms derived from postthymic T cells. In addition to T-lymphoblastic lymphoma, this review will focus on nodal and extranodal T-cell lymphomas and exclude T-cell lymphomas presenting primarily in the skin. Extranodal natural-killer-cell/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, will also be discussed because the derivation of this lymphoma from natural killer and natural killer-like T cells shows morphologic and immunophenotypic features that overlap with other T-cell lymphomas. In this review, we discuss the salient clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features, as well as our approaches to the diagnosis of lymphoblastic, nodal, and extranodal T-cell lymphomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.humpath.2012.02.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317246700001

    View details for PubMedID 22658223

  • Syk-Induced Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Activation in EpsteinBarr Virus Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION Hatton, O., Lambert, S. L., Phillips, L. K., Vaysberg, M., Natkunam, Y., Esquivel, C. O., Krams, S. M., Martinez, O. M. 2013; 13 (4): 883-890

    Abstract

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)-associated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ B cell lymphomas are serious complications of solid organ and bone marrow transplantation. The EBV protein LMP2a, a B cell receptor (BCR) mimic, provides survival signals to virally infected cells through Syk tyrosine kinase. Therefore, we explored whether Syk inhibition is a viable therapeutic strategy for EBV-associated PTLD. We have shown that R406, the active metabolite of the Syk inhibitor fostamatinib, induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest while decreasing downstream phosphatidylinositol-3'-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in EBV+ B cell lymphoma PTLD lines in vitro. However, Syk inhibition did not inhibit or delay the in vivo growth of solid tumors established from EBV-infected B cell lines. Instead, we observed tumor growth in adjacent inguinal lymph nodes exclusively in fostamatinib-treated animals. In contrast, direct inhibition of PI3K/Akt significantly reduced tumor burden in a xenogeneic mouse model of PTLD without evidence of tumor growth in adjacent inguinal lymph nodes. Taken together, our data indicate that Syk activates PI3K/Akt signaling which is required for survival of EBV+ B cell lymphomas. PI3K/Akt signaling may be a promising therapeutic target for PTLD, and other EBV-associated malignancies.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ajt.12137

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316911900011

    View details for PubMedID 23398911

  • Integration of Genomic Medicine into Pathology Residency Training The Stanford Open Curriculum JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTICS Schrijver, I., Natkunam, Y., Galli, S., Boyd, S. D. 2013; 15 (2): 141-148

    Abstract

    Next-generation sequencing methods provide an opportunity for molecular pathology laboratories to perform genomic testing that is far more comprehensive than single-gene analyses. Genome-based test results are expected to develop into an integral component of diagnostic clinical medicine and to provide the basis for individually tailored health care. To achieve these goals, rigorous interpretation of high-quality data must be informed by the medical history and the phenotype of the patient. The discipline of pathology is well positioned to implement genome-based testing and to interpret its results, but new knowledge and skills must be included in the training of pathologists to develop expertise in this area. Pathology residents should be trained in emerging technologies to integrate genomic test results appropriately with more traditional testing, to accelerate clinical studies using genomic data, and to help develop appropriate standards of data quality and evidence-based interpretation of these test results. We have created a genomic pathology curriculum as a first step in helping pathology residents build a foundation for the understanding of genomic medicine and its implications for clinical practice. This curriculum is freely accessible online.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2012.11.003

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315841600001

    View details for PubMedID 23313248

  • Selective Immunophenotyping for Diagnosis of B-cell Neoplasms: Immunohistochemistry and Flow Cytometry Strategies and Results APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY Boyd, S. D., Natkunam, Y., Allen, J. R., Warnke, R. A. 2013; 21 (2): 116-131

    Abstract

    Determining the immunophenotype of hematologic malignancies is now an indispensable part of diagnostic classification, and can help to guide therapy, or to predict clinical outcome. Diagnostic workup should be guided by morphologic findings and evaluate clinically important markers, but ideally should avoid the use of overly broad panels of immunostains that can reveal incidental findings of uncertain significance and give rise to increased costs. Here, we outline our approach to diagnosis of B-cell neoplasms, combining histologic and clinical data with tailored panels of immunophenotyping reagents, in the context of the 2008 World Health Organization classification. We present data from cases seen at our institution from 2004 through 2008 using this approach, to provide a practical reference for findings seen in daily diagnostic practice.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAI.0b013e31825d550a

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315464500004

    View details for PubMedID 22820658

  • FHIT, EGFR, and MSH2: Possible Etiopathologic, Prognostic, and Predictive Role in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients. Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM / official publication of the Society for Applied Immunohistochemistry Younes, S. F., Aiad, H. A., Asaad, N. Y., Natkunam, Y., Mokhtar, N. M. 2013

    Abstract

    The high incidence and mortality of lung carcinoma in Egypt necessitates studying the factors that may be implicated in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) pathogenesis and could affect patient management. The aim was to study FHIT, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and MSH2 protein expression in Egyptian patients with NSCLC. Immunohistochemical staining for FHIT, EGFR, and MSH2 was performed on 64 specimens from NSCLC patients and correlated with prognostic parameters, response to therapy, and overall survival. FHIT loss was observed in 64% of NSCLC patients and was significantly associated with SCC (P=0.003) and poor tumor grade (P=0.043). EGFR overexpression was observed in 47% of NSCLC patients and was significantly associated with SCC (P=0.002). MSH2 was reduced in 23.4% of NSCLC patients and was significantly associated with adenocarcinoma (P=0.024). In a univariate analysis, a significant relationship was seen between the poor overall survival in NSCLC patients and high T-stage (P=0.029), presence of metastasis (P=0.014), advanced-stage grouping (P=0.004), and FHIT loss (P=0.033). Further, FHIT loss was significantly related to disease progression in patients treated with chemotherapy (P=0.038). We conclude that all 3 markers play a role in the development of NSCLC in Egyptian patients. We suggest that FHIT loss be used as a predictor for progression in chemotherapy-treated NSCLC patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAI.0b013e3182988fa5

    View details for PubMedID 24185125

  • Bevacizumab and cyclosphosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone in combination for patients with peripheral T-cell or natural killer cell neoplasms: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study (E2404). Leukemia & lymphoma Ganjoo, K., Hong, F., Horning, S. J., Gascoyne, R. D., Natkunam, Y., Swinnen, L. J., Habermann, T. M., Kahl, B. S., Advani, R. H. 2013

    Abstract

    Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and natural killer (NK) cell lymphoma have poor survival with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Because angiogenesis plays an important role in the biology of PTCL, a fully humanized anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody, bevacizumab (A), was studied in combination with standard cyclosphosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy (ACHOP) to evaluate its potential to improve outcome in these patients. Patients were treated with 6-8 cycles of ACHOP followed by eight doses of maintenance A (15 mg/kg every 21 days). Forty-six patients were enrolled on this phase 2 study from July 2006 through March 2009. Forty-four patients were evaluable for toxicity and 39 were evaluable for response, progression and survival. A total of 324 cycles (range: 2-16, median 7) were administered to 39 evaluable patients and only nine completed all planned treatment. The overall response rate was 90% with 19 (49%) complete response/complete response unconfirmed (CR/CRu) and 16 (41%) a partial response (PR). The 1-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate was 44% at a median follow-up of 3 years. The median PFS and overall survival (OS) rates were 7.7 and 22 months, respectively. Twenty-three patients died (21 from lymphoma, two while in remission). Grade 3 or 4 toxicities included febrile neutropenia (n = 8), anemia (n = 3), thrombocytopenia (n = 5), congestive heart failure (n = 4), venous thrombosis (n = 3), gastrointestinal hemorrhage/perforation (n = 2), infection (n = 8) and fatigue (n = 6). Despite a high overall response rate, the ACHOP regimen failed to result in durable remissions and was associated with significant toxicities. Studies of novel therapeutics are needed for this patient population, whose clinical outcome remains poor.

    View details for PubMedID 23786456

  • LITAF, a BCL6 target gene, regulates autophagy in mature B-cell lymphomas. British journal of haematology Bertolo, C., Roa, S., Sagardoy, A., Mena-Varas, M., Robles, E. F., Martinez-Ferrandis, J. I., Sagaert, X., Tousseyn, T., Orta, A., Lossos, I. S., Amar, S., Natkunam, Y., Briones, J., Melnick, A., Malumbres, R., Martinez-Climent, J. A. 2013

    Abstract

    We have previously reported that LITAF is silenced by promoter hypermethylation in germinal centre-derived B-cell lymphomas, but beyond these data the regulation and function of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) factor (LITAF) in B cells are unknown. Gene expression and immunohistochemical studies revealed that LITAF and BCL6 show opposite expression in tonsil B-cell subpopulations and B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that BCL6 may regulate LITAF expression. Accordingly, BCL6 silencing increased LITAF expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated a direct transcriptional repression of LITAF by BCL6. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments in different B-cell lymphoma cell lines revealed that, in contrast to its function in monocytes, LITAF does not induce lipopolysaccharide-mediated TNF secretion in B cells. However, gene expression microarrays defined a LITAF-related transcriptional signature containing genes regulating autophagy, including MAP1LC3B (LC3B). In addition, immunofluorescence analysis co-localized LITAF with autophagosomes, further suggesting a possible role in autophagy modulation. Accordingly, ectopic LITAF expression in B-cell lymphoma cells enhanced autophagy responses to starvation, which were impaired upon LITAF silencing. Our results indicate that the BCL6-mediated transcriptional repression of LITAF may inhibit autophagy in B cells during the germinal centre reaction, and suggest that the constitutive repression of autophagy responses in BCL6-driven lymphomas may contribute to lymphomagenesis.

    View details for PubMedID 23795761

  • Follicular lymphoma in young adults: a clinicopathological and molecular study of 200 patients. Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc Duarte, I. X., Domeny-Duarte, P., Wludarski, S. C., Natkunam, Y., Bacchi, C. E. 2013

    Abstract

    Follicular lymphoma is clinically heterogenous, and therefore necessitates the identification of prognostic markers to stratify risk groups and optimize clinical management. It is relatively rare in patients younger than 40 years, and the clinicopathologic characteristics and biological behavior in this age group are poorly understood. In the current study, samples from a cohort of 200 patients between 19 and 40 years were evaluated retrospectively with respect to clinical, histologic, and genetic features. These were then correlated with clinical outcome. The median age at presentation was 35 years with a slight female prepoderance (56%). Most of the cases are presented with nodal disease (90%). Concomitant follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were observed in 7 (4%) patients. Immunohistologic studies showed the expression of CD10 (91%), BCL6 (97%), BCL2 (95%), MUM1/IRF4 (12%), MDM2 (17%), and CD23 (25%). BCL2 rearrangement was present in 74%, and BCL6 in 20%. The estimated overall survival of patients was 13 years (mean). The presence of anemia, elevated lactose dehydrogenase, bone marrow involvement, and high-risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index correlated with adverse overall survival. Our findings revealed that follicular lymphoma in young adults demonstrate similarities with that of older adults, including the frequency of presentation at various anatomic sites, grade, and adverse prognostic factors.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 19 April 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.50.

    View details for PubMedID 23599146

  • TdT(+) T-lymphoblastic Populations Are Increased in Castleman Disease, in Castleman Disease in Association With Follicular Dendritic Cell Tumors, and in Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Ohgami, R. S., Zhao, S., Ohgami, J. K., Leavitt, M. O., Zehnder, J. L., West, R. B., Arber, D. A., Natkunam, Y., Warnke, R. A. 2012; 36 (11): 1619-1628

    Abstract

    T-lymphoblastic lymphoma is an aggressive neoplasm requiring prompt clinical treatment. Conversely, indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferation mimics T-lymphoblastic lymphoma but consists of a proliferation of non-neoplastic TdT+ T cells, requiring no treatment. Recently, we identified several cases of indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferations in extrathymic lymphoid tissues: 1 in a patient suffering from Castleman disease (CD) associated with a follicular dendritic cell sarcoma/tumor, 1 in a patient with a history of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), and 1 in association with acinic cell carcinoma. Interestingly, in the case of the patient with a history of AITL, these TdT+ T cells were seen in multiple anatomic sites over the span of 5 years. Here we review these 3 cases and extend our findings by demonstrating that TdT+ T-lymphoblastic populations are increased in lymph nodes of patients with CD (P=0.011), CD in association with follicular dendritic cell tumors, and AITL (P<0.01) compared with other T-cell or B-cell lymphomas or reactive lymph nodes. Finally, analysis of 352 nonhematolymphoid tumors including carcinomas, melanomas, and sarcomas demonstrates that TdT+ T cells are not increased in these tumors. Our studies not only present several detailed cases of indolent T-lymphoblastic proliferations, but also correlate these populations with specific hematologic diseases.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAS.0b013e318264e223

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310059600004

    View details for PubMedID 23060347

  • The contribution of HGAL/GCET2 in immunohistological algorithms: a comparative study in 424 cases of nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma MODERN PATHOLOGY Gualco, G., Bacchi, L. M., Domeny-Duarte, P., Natkunam, Y., Bacchi, C. E. 2012; 25 (11): 1439-1445

    Abstract

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma can be subclassified into at least two molecular subgroups by gene expression profiling: germinal center B-cell like and activated B-cell like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Several immunohistological algorithms have been proposed as surrogates to gene expression profiling at the level of protein expression, but their reliability has been an issue of controversy. Furthermore, the proportion of misclassified cases of germinal center B-cell subgroup by immunohistochemistry, in all reported algorithms, is higher compared with germinal center B-cell cases defined by gene expression profiling. We analyzed 424 cases of nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with the panel of markers included in the three previously described algorithms: Hans, Choi, and Tally. To test whether the sensitivity of detecting germinal center B-cell cases could be improved, the germinal center B-cell marker HGAL/GCET2 was also added to all three algorithms. Our results show that the inclusion of HGAL/GCET2 significantly increased the detection of germinal center B-cell cases in all three algorithms (P<0.001). The proportions of germinal center B-cell cases in the original algorithms were 27%, 34%, and 19% for Hans, Choi, and Tally, respectively. In the modified algorithms, with the inclusion of HGAL/GCET2, the frequencies of germinal center B-cell cases were increased to 38%, 48%, and 35%, respectively. Therefore, HGAL/GCET2 protein expression may function as a marker for germinal center B-cell type diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Consideration should be given to the inclusion of HGAL/GCET2 analysis in algorithms to better predict the cell of origin. These findings bear further validation, from comparison to gene expression profiles and from clinical/therapeutic data.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/modpathol.2012.119

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310795400001

    View details for PubMedID 22743653

  • Cyclin D3 coordinates the cell cycle during differentiation to regulate erythrocyte size and number GENES & DEVELOPMENT Sankaran, V. G., Ludwig, L. S., Sicinska, E., Xu, J., Bauer, D. E., Eng, J. C., Patterson, H. C., Metcalf, R. A., Natkunam, Y., Orkin, S. H., Sicinski, P., Lander, E. S., Lodish, H. F. 2012; 26 (18): 2075-2087

    Abstract

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a genetic variant of moderate effect size at 6p21.1 associated with erythrocyte traits in humans. We show that this variant affects an erythroid-specific enhancer of CCND3. A Ccnd3 knockout mouse phenocopies these erythroid phenotypes, with a dramatic increase in erythrocyte size and a concomitant decrease in erythrocyte number. By examining human and mouse primary erythroid cells, we demonstrate that the CCND3 gene product cyclin D3 regulates the number of cell divisions that erythroid precursors undergo during terminal differentiation, thereby controlling erythrocyte size and number. We illustrate how cell type-specific specialization can occur for general cell cycle components-a finding resulting from the biological follow-up of unbiased human genetic studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1101/gad.197020.112

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308975900009

    View details for PubMedID 22929040

  • Identification of LMO2 transcriptome and interactome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma BLOOD Cubedo, E., Gentles, A. J., Huang, C., Natkunam, Y., Bhatt, S., Lu, X., Jiang, X., Romero-Camarero, I., Freud, A., Zhao, S., Bacchi, C. E., Martinez-Climent, J. A., Sanchez-Garcia, I., Melnick, A., Lossos, I. S. 2012; 119 (23): 5478-5491

    Abstract

    LMO2 regulates gene expression by facilitating the formation of multipartite DNA-binding complexes. In B cells, LMO2 is specifically up-regulated in the germinal center (GC) and is expressed in GC-derived non-Hodgkin lymphomas. LMO2 is one of the most powerful prognostic indicators in diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) patients. However, its function in GC B cells and DLBCL is currently unknown. In this study, we characterized the LMO2 transcriptome and transcriptional complex in DLBCL cells. LMO2 regulates genes implicated in kinetochore function, chromosome assembly, and mitosis. Overexpression of LMO2 in DLBCL cell lines results in centrosome amplification. In DLBCL, the LMO2 complex contains some of the traditional partners, such as LDB1, E2A, HEB, Lyl1, ETO2, and SP1, but not TAL1 or GATA proteins. Furthermore, we identified novel LMO2 interacting partners: ELK1, nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc1), and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor1 (LEF1) proteins. Reporter assays revealed that LMO2 increases transcriptional activity of NFATc1 and decreases transcriptional activity of LEF1 proteins. Overall, our studies identified a novel LMO2 transcriptome and interactome in DLBCL and provides a platform for future elucidation of LMO2 function in GC B cells and DLBCL pathogenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2012-01-403154

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307391400022

    View details for PubMedID 22517897

  • LIM domain only 2 protein expression, LMO2 germline genetic variation, and overall survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the pre-rituximab era LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA Cerhan, J. R., Natkunam, Y., Morton, L. M., Maurer, M. J., Asmann, Y., Habermann, T. M., Vasef, M. A., Cozen, W., Lynch, C. F., Allmer, C., Slager, S. L., Lossos, I. S., Chanock, S. J., Rothman, N., Hartge, P., Dogan, A., Wang, S. S. 2012; 53 (6): 1105-1112

    Abstract

    Both LMO2 (LIM domain only 2) mRNA and protein expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been associated with superior survival. However, a role for germline genetic variation in LMO2 has not been previously reported. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for LMO2 was conducted on tumor tissue from diagnostic biopsies, and 20 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from LMO2 were genotyped from germline DNA. LMO2 IHC positivity was associated with superior survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31-0.97). Four LMO2 SNPs (rs10836127, rs941940, rs750781, rs1885524) were associated with survival after adjusting for LMO2 IHC and clinical factors (p < 0.05), and one of these SNPs (rs941940) was also associated with IHC positivity (p = 0.02). Compared to a model with clinical factors only (c-statistic = 0.676), adding the four SNPs (c-statistic = 0.751) or LMO2 IHC (c-statistic = 0.691) increased the predictive ability of the model, while inclusion of all three factors (c-statistic = 0.754) did not meaningfully add predictive ability above a model with clinical factors and the four SNPs. In conclusion, germline genetic variation in LMO2 was associated with DLBCL prognosis and provided slightly stronger predictive ability relative to LMO2 IHC status.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/10428194.2011.638717

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304311500016

    View details for PubMedID 22066713

  • IgG4-Related Systemic Sclerosing Disease of the Ocular Adnexa A Potential Mimic of Ocular Lymphoma AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Karamchandani, J. R., Younes, S. F., Warnke, R. A., Natkunam, Y. 2012; 137 (5): 699-711

    Abstract

    IgG4-related sclerosing disease has been described in the orbit and ocular adnexa. Of 164 biopsies of the ocular region for suspected lymphoma, we identified 6 cases of IgG4 disease, 4 of which were previously unrecognized. All 6 cases demonstrated increased plasma cells in a background of sclerosis and increased absolute numbers of IgG4-expressing cells. Our results confirm the difficulty in diagnosing IgG4-related sclerosing disease in the ocular region. Based on the findings, we suggest that specimens from biopsies of the eye and ocular adnexa for which a definitive diagnosis of lymphoma is not established undergo further workup for IgG and IgG4, particularly if increased plasma cells and sclerosis are present. When IgG4-expressing plasma cells account for greater than 50% of IgG-expressing plasma cells, a diagnosis of IgG4 disease should be considered. Timely recognition would benefit patients by allowing appropriate management with corticosteroid therapy and avoiding more aggressive or unnecessary therapeutic options.

    View details for DOI 10.1309/AJCPE1G8DRHXRPIH

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303141300002

    View details for PubMedID 22523207

  • The spectrum of B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a description of 10 cases MODERN PATHOLOGY Gualco, G., Natkunam, Y., Bacchi, C. E. 2012; 25 (5): 661-674

    Abstract

    B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma, is a diagnostic provisional category in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2008 classification of lymphomas. This category was designed as a measure to accommodate borderline cases that cannot be reliably classified into a single distinct disease entity after all available morphological, immunophenotypical and molecular studies have been performed. Typically, these cases share features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma, or include characteristics of both lymphomas. The rarity of such cases poses a tremendous challenge to both pathologists and oncologists because its differential diagnosis has direct implications for management strategies. In this study, we present 10 cases of B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma and have organized the criteria described by the WHO into four patterns along with detailed clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic characterization and outcome data. Our findings show a male preponderance, median age of 37 years and a mediastinal presentation in 80% of cases. All cases expressed at least two markers associated with B-cell lineage and good response to combination chemotherapy currently employed for non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/modpathol.2011.200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303617400003

    View details for PubMedID 22222636

  • Aggressive EBV-associated Lymphoproliferative Disorder: A Prodrome to Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma? APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY Batra, R., Medeiros, B. C., Zehnder, J. L., Warnke, R. A., Natkunam, Y. 2012; 20 (3): 325-330

    Abstract

    A 19-year-old male patient presented with intermittent high fever and left cervical lymphadenopathy. The lymph node biopsy findings were interpreted as "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorder consistent with infectious mononucleosis." No molecular studies were performed at that time. The patient was followed without treatment. Five months later, the patient again presented with fever, lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly. The lymph node biopsy showed features of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Molecular studies on this lymph node biopsy showed a clonal EBV population, although polymerase chain reaction studies failed to reveal a clonal B-cell or T-cell population. A concurrent bone marrow biopsy showed features consistent with hemophagocytic syndrome. He had elevated ferritin, soluble interleukin-2 receptors and persistent EBV viremia. The patient responded to Rituxan for a short period with undetectable EBV levels. Subsequent right cervical lymph node, liver, and jejunal biopsies showed involvement by diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and the patient expired soon thereafter.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303140100012

    View details for PubMedID 22505014

  • Expression of the CD2AP adaptor molecule in normal, reactive and neoplastic human tissue. Pathologica Rizvi, H., Paterson, J. C., Tedoldi, S., Ramsay, A., Calaminici, M., Natkunam, Y., Lonardi, S., Tan, S., Campbell, L., Hansmann, M., Jones, D., Dikic, I., Shaw, A. S., Pileri, S. A., Stein, H., Mason, D. Y., Facchetti, F., Marafioti, T. 2012; 104 (2): 56-64

    Abstract

    To study the expression of CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), an adaptor protein involved in T-cell signalling and renal function, in normal, reactive and neoplastic human lymphoid tissues.We used immunohistochemical techniques to evaluate monoclonal antibodies against CD2AP on over 400 formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks retrieved from the host institutions of three authors. The samples tested included normal, reactive and neoplastic lymphoid tissue. In lymphoid tissues, strong CD2AP staining was observed in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), weak and variable in mantle zone B cells and moderate in rare germinal center cells. CD2AP labeled cortical and rare medullary thymocytes and isolated mononuclear cells in bone marrow trephines. Furthermore, epithelial and endothelial cells expressed CD2AP. Among neoplasms, the greatest number of CD2AP-positive cases were found in diffuse large B cell (21/94), NK T-cell lymphomas (7/67), "blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms" (9/10) and some types of solid tumor.Our finding that mature peripheral T cells are CD2AP-negative but immature cortical thymocytes are positive may prove useful for diagnostic purposes. Moreover, our results demonstrate that CD2AP represents a useful marker of normal and neoplastic pDC and may be used in a diagnostic panel in reactive or neoplastic lymphoid proliferations.

    View details for PubMedID 22953501

  • Lack of association of tumor-associated macrophages with clinical outcome in patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY Azambuja, D., Natkunam, Y., Biasoli, I., Lossos, I. S., ANDERSON, M. W., Morais, J. C., Spector, N. 2012; 23 (3): 736-742

    Abstract

    A recent study demonstrated that an increased number of CD68+ macrophages were correlated with primary treatment failure, shortened progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL).The aim of the present study was to verify the relationship between the number of CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages with clinical outcomes in a cohort of 265 well-characterized patients with cHL treated uniformly with the standard doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine chemotherapy regimen. Two pairs of hematopathologists carried out independent pathological evaluations of tissue microarray slides.There were no associations between clinical characteristics and the expression of CD68 or CD163. However, higher levels of CD68 and CD163 expression were correlated with the presence of Epstein-Barr virus-positive Hodgkin tumor cells (P = 0.01 and 0.037, respectively). The expression of CD68 or CD163 was not associated with either the PFS or the DSS.CD68 and CD163 expression require further evaluation before their use can be recommended for prognostic stratification of patients with cHL.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/annonc/mdr157

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300733300029

    View details for PubMedID 21602260

  • Immunostaining to identify molecular subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a population-based epidemiologic study in the pre-rituximab era. International journal of molecular epidemiology and genetics Morton, L. M., Cerhan, J. R., Hartge, P., Vasef, M. A., Neppalli, V. T., Natkunam, Y., Dogan, A., Dave, B. J., Jain, S., Levy, R., Lossos, I. S., Cozen, W., Davis, S., Schenk, M. J., Maurer, M. J., Lynch, C. F., Rothman, N., Chatterjee, N., Yu, K., Staudt, L. M., Weisenburger, D. D., Wang, S. S. 2011; 2 (3): 245-252

    Abstract

    Gene expression profiling studies have distinguished diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) by cell of origin, with distinct pathogenetic mechanisms and prognosis. We attempted to identify DLBCL molecular subtypes in an epidemiologic study of 214 DLBCL patients diagnosed during 1998-2000 with archival tissues to investigate etiology. Immunohistochemical staining for CD10, BCL6, LMO2, MUM1/IRF4, and BCL2 and fluorescence in situ hybridization for t(14;18) were conducted, with ?93% blinded duplicate agreement. CD10, LMO2, and BCL2 expression was similar to previous reports (32%, 44%, and 44% of DLBCLs, respectively), but BCL6 and MUM1/IRF4 expression was lower than expected (29% and 5%, respectively). We classified 112/214 (52%) cases as germinal center B-cell-like DLBCL (GCB-DLBCL; Hans et al., Blood 2004; CD10+ or CD10-/BCL6+/MUM1-), with no difference in prognosis compared with non-GCB-DLBCL (Cox regression, P=0.48). Comparing other GCB correlates, LMO2 expression and t(14;18) were more common but not exclusive to GCB-DLBCL as defined in our study, whereas BCL2 expression did not differ between DLBCL molecular subtypes. We could not confidently identify patients with GCB-DLBCL using these immunohistochemistry-based markers on archival tissues.

    View details for PubMedID 21915363

  • Prediction of survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma based on the expression of 2 genes reflecting tumor and microenvironment BLOOD Alizadeh, A. A., Gentles, A. J., Alencar, A. J., Liu, C. L., Kohrt, H. E., Houot, R., Goldstein, M. J., Zhao, S., Natkunam, Y., Advani, R. H., Gascoyne, R. D., Briones, J., Tibshirani, R. J., Myklebust, J. H., Plevritis, S. K., Lossos, I. S., Levy, R. 2011; 118 (5): 1350-1358

    Abstract

    Several gene-expression signatures predict survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but the lack of practical methods for genome-scale analysis has limited translation to clinical practice. We built and validated a simple model using one gene expressed by tumor cells and another expressed by host immune cells, assessing added prognostic value to the clinical International Prognostic Index (IPI). LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) was validated as an independent predictor of survival and the "germinal center B cell-like" subtype. Expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9 (TNFRSF9) from the DLBCL microenvironment was the best gene in bivariate combination with LMO2. Study of TNFRSF9 tissue expression in 95 patients with DLBCL showed expression limited to infiltrating T cells. A model integrating these 2 genes was independent of "cell-of-origin" classification, "stromal signatures," IPI, and added to the predictive power of the IPI. A composite score integrating these genes with IPI performed well in 3 independent cohorts of 545 DLBCL patients, as well as in a simple assay of routine formalin-fixed specimens from a new validation cohort of 147 patients with DLBCL. We conclude that the measurement of a single gene expressed by tumor cells (LMO2) and a single gene expressed by the immune microenvironment (TNFRSF9) powerfully predicts overall survival in patients with DLBCL.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2011-03-345272

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293510000028

    View details for PubMedID 21670469

  • Clinicopathologic and Molecular Features of 122 Brazilian Cases of Nodal and Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type, With EBV Subtyping Analysis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Gualco, G., Domeny-Duarte, P., Chioato, L., Barber, G., Natkunam, Y., Bacchi, C. E. 2011; 35 (8): 1195-1203

    Abstract

    Extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (NK/TCL) is more prevalent in Asia and in some areas of South and Central America, but it is rarely seen in the United States and Europe. In this study, a series of 122 cases of NK/TCL from Brazil was analyzed with respect to clinicopathologic features. Clinical characteristics and geographic distribution were evaluated in 97 cases of nasal/nasopharyngeal region and 23 cases in extranasal sites including 6 nodal cases. Clinical staging and follow-up information was available in a subset of 21 patients. All cases harbored Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 95% and 85% expressed cytoplasmic CD3 and CD56, respectively, and all cases were positive for at least 1 marker for cytotoxic granules. The global distribution of EBV subtypes showed predominance of strain subtype A, 89%, and subtype B, 11%. No dual infections were detected. TCR-? TCR-gene rearrangement was observed in 7 cases; all of them extranodal. Three of TCR-?(+) cases showed EBV subtype A. Two TCR-?(+)/CD56(+) cases showed EBV subtype B. Geographic distribution of NK/TCL showed higher frequency in the southeast and northeast regions of Brazil. Striking differences among geographic regions were seen with the vast majority of EBV subtype B (86%) occurring in the south and southeast regions.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAS.0b013e31821ec4b5

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292728200014

    View details for PubMedID 21716086

  • MicroRNAs Are Independent Predictors of Outcome in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Patients Treated with R-CHOP CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Alencar, A. J., Malumbres, R., Kozloski, G. A., Advani, R., Talreja, N., Chinichian, S., Briones, J., Natkunam, Y., Sehn, L. H., Gascoyne, R. D., Tibshirani, R., Lossos, I. S. 2011; 17 (12): 4125-4135

    Abstract

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) heterogeneity has prompted investigations for new biomarkers that can accurately predict survival. A previously reported 6-gene model combined with the International Prognostic Index (IPI) could predict patients' outcome. However, even these predictors are not capable of unambiguously identifying outcome, suggesting that additional biomarkers might improve their predictive power.We studied expression of 11 microRNAs (miRNA) that had previously been reported to have variable expression in DLBCL tumors. We measured the expression of each miRNA by quantitative real-time PCR analyses in 176 samples from uniformly treated DLBCL patients and correlated the results to survival.In a univariate analysis, the expression of miR-18a correlated with overall survival (OS), whereas the expression of miR-181a and miR-222 correlated with progression-free survival (PFS). A multivariate Cox regression analysis including the IPI, the 6-gene model-derived mortality predictor score and expression of the miR-18a, miR-181a, and miR-222, revealed that all variables were independent predictors of survival except the expression of miR-222 for OS and the expression of miR-18a for PFS.The expression of specific miRNAs may be useful for DLBCL survival prediction and their role in the pathogenesis of this disease should be examined further.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-0224

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291644700029

    View details for PubMedID 21525173

  • LMO2 protein expression predicts survival in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA Baecklund, E., Backlin, C., Mansouri, M., Klareskog, L., Askling, J., Iliadou, A. N., Enblad, G., Lossos, I. S., Natkunam, Y., Rosenquist, R. 2011; 52 (6): 1146-1149

    View details for DOI 10.3109/10428194.2011.559801

    View details for Web of Science ID 000290869100033

    View details for PubMedID 21375434

  • HGAL Protein Expression Persists in Disorders of Germinal Center Dissolution Potential Role of HGAL in the Germinal Center Microenvironment APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY Temmins, C., Zhao, S., Lossos, I. S., Natkunam, Y. 2011; 19 (3): 266-272

    Abstract

    Human Germinal Center-associated Lymphoma (HGAL) is a germinal center (GC) B-cell marker associated with a favorable outcome in diffuse large B-cell and classic Hodgkin lymphomas (CHL). To test its potential role in GC function, 75 cases involving GC disruption including 23 progressive transformation of germinal centers (PTGC), 25 follicle lysis and 27 Castleman disease (CD) were studied. HGAL protein expression uniformly correlated with GC B-cells in all except a subset of hyaline-vascular CD that showed severe regression of GCs. HGAL staining highlighted dismantled GCs in PTGC, in contrast to weak or absent CD10 and BCL6 staining. In follicle lysis, HGAL staining was comparable to that of CD10, BCL6, and CD21 in highlighting lysed follicles. Our findings show that HGAL protein expression effectively discriminates clusters of GC B-cells in disrupted follicles. Its persistence in disrupted GCs, suggests that it may be necessary for GC maintenance and supports its proposed role of confining B-cells to the GC microenvironment.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAI.0b013e3181f89a4d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289279800011

    View details for PubMedID 21475040

  • The Efficacy of HGAL and LMO2 in the Separation of Lymphomas Derived From Small B Cells in Nodal and Extranodal Sites, Including the Bone Marrow AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Younes, S. F., Beck, A. H., Ohgami, R. S., Lossos, I. S., Levy, R., Warnke, R. A., Natkunam, Y. 2011; 135 (5): 697-708

    Abstract

    We studied the efficacy of 2 germinal center B-cell markers, HGAL and LMO2, in the separation of lymphomas derived from small B cells, particularly follicular lymphoma (FL) and marginal zone lymphoma occurring in nodal, extranodal, splenic, and bone marrow sites using immunohistochemical analysis for CD10, BCL6, BCL2, HGAL, and LMO2. Our results showed that HGAL and LMO2 are sensitive and specific markers for detecting FL in nodal and extranodal sites. In contrast, all markers were down-regulated in FL infiltrates in the bone marrow. CD10 and HGAL were expressed in a subset of FLs in the bone marrow and were highly correlated with each other and with CD21, a marker of follicular dendritic cells. We conclude that HGAL and LMO2 should be considered in immunohistochemical panels used for the routine workup of lymphomas derived from small B cells. In the bone marrow, staining for HGAL or CD10 can be helpful in making a diagnosis of FL, although they are absent in a subset of cases.

    View details for DOI 10.1309/AJCP7Z2BIBUNQPLZ

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289743400007

    View details for PubMedID 21502424

  • T-cell lymphomas: a tale of heterogeneity masking clarity LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA Natkunam, Y. 2011; 52 (1): 1-2

    View details for DOI 10.3109/10428194.2010.536602

    View details for Web of Science ID 000286901600001

    View details for PubMedID 21133725

  • Programmed death 1 expression in variant immunoarchitectural patterns of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: comparison with CD57 and lymphomas in the differential diagnosis HUMAN PATHOLOGY Churchill, H. R., Roncador, G., Warnke, R. A., Natkunam, Y. 2010; 41 (12): 1726-1734

    Abstract

    Recent studies have exploited an antibody directed against programmed death 1 expressed by follicular helper T-cells in the diagnosis of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. We had previously described clinically relevant, variant immunoarchitectural patterns of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and, in this study, sought to address the diagnostic utility of programmed death 1 in comparison with CD57 in variant nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Immunohistologic staining for programmed death 1 was carried out on biopsies of 67 patients with variant nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Thirty-four additional cases of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with associated diffuse areas, de novo T-cell and histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma, and lymphocyte-rich classic Hodgkin lymphoma were also studied. Our results show that programmed death 1 positivity was found in the majority of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma cases with a classic nodular architecture (87%) as compared with 50% for CD57 and was particularly helpful in identifying extranodular large atypical cells. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with diffuse areas showed a gradual decrease in programmed death 1 reactivity from nodular to diffuse areas, although a significant proportion (40%-50%) of cases retained programmed death 1 positivity also in diffuse areas. In addition, T-cell and histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma and lymphocyte-rich classic Hodgkin lymphoma displayed programmed death 1 positivity in a significant subset of cases (33%-40%). In conclusion, our study supports the utility of programmed death 1 in the diagnosis of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and shows greater sensitivity of staining of programmed death 1 as compared with CD57 across all variants of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Loss of programmed death 1 reactivity did not correlate with diffuse areas, progression, or the ability to differentiate nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma from T-cell and histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma. These findings suggest the need for continued vigilance in the diagnosis of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and its immunoarchitectural variants as well as related lymphomas in their differential diagnosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.humpath.2010.05.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284975800009

    View details for PubMedID 20825974

  • Oral and Extraoral Plasmablastic Lymphoma Similarities and Differences in Clinicopathologic Characteristics AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Hansra, D., Montague, N., Stefanovic, A., Akunyili, I., Harzand, A., Natkunam, Y., De La Ossa, M., Byrne, G. E., Lossos, I. S. 2010; 134 (5): 710-719

    Abstract

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL), initially characterized as an aggressive lymphoma arising in the jaw and oral mucosa in HIV-infected patients, was recently reported to occur with extraoral manifestations, heterogeneous histologic findings, and variable association with immunodeficiency states. We reviewed clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic features of 13 cases of PBL to determine whether these different subtypes represent distinct morphologic and clinical entities. Two distinct subtypes of PBL were identified and classified as oral and extraoral PBL. The oral PBLs were strongly associated with HIV infection and commonly demonstrated plasmablastic morphologic features without plasmacytic differentiation. Extraoral PBLs tended to occur in patients with underlying non-HIV-related immunosuppression and universally demonstrated plasmacytic differentiation. The patients with oral PBL demonstrated better overall survival compared with patients with extraoral PBL (P = .02). Our findings suggest that PBL with oral and extraoral manifestation represent 2 distinct clinicopathologic entities.

    View details for DOI 10.1309/AJCPJH6KEUSECQLU

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283106600003

    View details for PubMedID 20959653

  • Immunoarchitectural Patterns in Follicular Lymphoma: Efficacy of HGAL and LMO2 in the Detection of the Interfollicular and Diffuse Components AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Younes, S. F., Beck, A. H., Lossos, I. S., Levy, R., Warnke, R. A., Natkunam, Y. 2010; 34 (9): 1266-1276

    Abstract

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) can exhibit variant histologic patterns that can lead to confusion with other B-cell lymphomas and reactive conditions. Diagnostic markers such as CD10 and BCL2 may be difficult to interpret in variant FL patterns, and are often diminished or absent in the interfollicular and diffuse components. We evaluated 2 recently characterized germinal center B-cell markers, human germinal center associated lymphoma (HGAL), and LIM-only transcription factor 2 (LMO2), in 127 FL patient biopsies (94 nodal, 33 extranodal), and correlated the findings with histologic pattern, cellular composition, grade, and additional immunostains (CD20, CD3, CD21, CD10, BCL2, and BCL6). Architectural patterns included predominantly follicular (75%) and follicular and diffuse components (25%); 10 cases showed marginal zone differentiation and 3 were floral variants. Eighty-nine cases were low grade (38 grade 1; 51 grade 2) and 38 were grade 3 (29 grade 3A and 9 grade 3B). HGAL had the highest overall sensitivity of detecting FL and was superior in detecting the interfollicular and diffuse components compared with BCL2, LMO2, CD10, and BCL6. All 28 cases that lacked CD10, expressed HGAL, and the majority also expressed LMO2. Our results show that HGAL and LMO2 are sensitive markers for FL diagnosis. The addition of HGAL and LMO2 to the immunohistologic panel is beneficial in the work-up of nodal and extranodal B-cell lymphomas and the efficacy of HGAL in detecting the follicular, interfollicular and diffuse components of FL is of particular value in the setting of variant immunoarchitectural patterns.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/PAS.0b013e3181e9343d

    View details for Web of Science ID 000281579800005

    View details for PubMedID 20697248

  • Expression of LMO2 Is Associated With t(14;18)/IGH-BCL2 Fusion but Not BCL6 Translocations in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Durnick, D. K., Law, M. E., Maurer, M. J., Natkunam, Y., Levy, R., Lossos, I. S., Kurtin, P. J., McPhail, E. D. 2010; 134 (2): 278-281

    Abstract

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) can be separated for prognostic purposes using gene expression profiling (GEP) into 2 subgroups: germinal center B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell phenotypes. However, GEP is impractical for routine clinical use, and immunophenotyping is an imperfect surrogate. Therefore, we studied the relationship between expression of the purported germinal center marker LMO2 and the presence of IGH-BCL2 fusions, BCL6 translocations, and LMO2 translocations. In addition, we investigated the usefulness of LMO2 expression as a marker of GCB subtype in DLBCL. Immunohistochemical and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were successfully performed on 101 cases of de novo DLBCL that had been incorporated into a tissue microarray. There was a statistically significant association between IGH-BCL2 fusion and LMO2 protein expression (P = .02) but not between BCL6 translocations and LMO2 expression. LMO2 translocations were not identified. Although uncommon, all cases that had both IGH-BCL2 fusion and BCL6 translocations expressed LMO2. The findings suggest LMO2 as a potential marker for the GCB phenotype.

    View details for DOI 10.1309/AJCPATUP1D0HGCUG

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280067600015

    View details for PubMedID 20660332

  • Efficacy of bortezomib in a direct xenograft model of primary effusion lymphoma PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Sarosiek, K. A., Cavallin, L. E., Bhatt, S., Toomey, N. L., Natkunam, Y., Blasini, W., Gentles, A. J., Ramos, J. C., Mesri, E. A., Lossos, I. S. 2010; 107 (29): 13069-13074

    Abstract

    Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma most commonly diagnosed in HIV-positive patients and universally associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Chemotherapy treatment of PEL yields only short-term remissions in the vast majority of patients, but efforts to develop superior therapeutic approaches have been impeded by lack of animal models that accurately mimic human disease. To address this issue, we developed a direct xenograft model, UM-PEL-1, by transferring freshly isolated human PEL cells into the peritoneal cavities of NOD/SCID mice without in vitro cell growth to avoid the changes in KSHV gene expression evident in cultured cells. We used this model to show that bortezomib induces PEL remission and extends overall survival of mice bearing lymphomatous effusions. The proapoptotic effects of bortezomib are not mediated by inhibition of the prosurvival NF-kappaB pathway or by induction of a terminal unfolded protein response. Transcriptome analysis by genomic arrays revealed that bortezomib down-regulated cell-cycle progression, DNA replication, and Myc-target genes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that in vivo treatment with either bortezomib or doxorubicin induces KSHV lytic reactivation. These reactivations were temporally distinct, and this difference may help elucidate the therapeutic window for use of antivirals concurrently with chemotherapy. Our findings show that this direct xenograft model can be used for testing novel PEL therapeutic strategies and also can provide a rational basis for evaluation of bortezomib in clinical trials.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1002985107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280144500066

    View details for PubMedID 20615981

  • Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Endothelial Cells Engraft Into the Ischemic Hindlimb and Restore Perfusion ARTERIOSCLEROSIS THROMBOSIS AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY Huang, N. F., Niiyama, H., Peter, C., De, A., Natkunam, Y., Fleissner, F., Li, Z., Rollins, M. D., Wu, J. C., Gambhir, S. S., Cooke, J. P. 2010; 30 (5): 984-U224

    Abstract

    We examined the effect of delivery modality on the survival, localization, and functional effects of exogenously administered embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or endothelial cells derived from them (ESC-ECs) in the ischemic hindlimb.Murine ESCs or ESC-ECs were stably transduced with a construct for bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and fluorescent detection. In a syngeneic murine model of limb ischemia, ESCs or ESC-ECs were delivered by intramuscular (IM), intrafemoral artery (IA), or intrafemoral vein injections (n=5 in each group). For 2 weeks, cell survival and localization were tracked by BLI and confirmed by immunohistochemistry, and functional improvement was assessed by laser Doppler perfusion. BLI showed that ESCs localized to the ischemic limb after IM or IA, but not after intrafemoral vein administration. Regardless of the route of administration, ESCs were detected outside the hindlimb circulation in the spleen or lungs. ESCs did not improve limb perfusion and generated teratomas. In contrast, ESC-ECs delivered by all 3 modalities localized to the ischemic limb, as assessed by BLI. Most surprisingly, ESC-EC injected intrafemoral vein eventually localized to the ischemic limb after initially lodging in the pulmonary circulation. Immunohistochemical studies confirmed the engraftment of ESC-ECs into the limb vasculature after 2 weeks. Notably, ESC-ECs were not detected in the spleen or lungs after 2 weeks, regardless of route of administration. Furthermore, ESC-ECs significantly improved limb perfusion and neovascularization compared with the parental ESCs or the vehicle control group.In contrast to parental ESCs, ESC-ECs preferentially localized in the ischemic hindlimb by IA, IM, and intrafemoral vein delivery. ESC-ECs engrafted into the ischemic microvasculature, enhanced neovascularization, and improved limb perfusion.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.202796

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276677700015

    View details for PubMedID 20167654

  • C-C Chemokine Receptor 1 Expression in Human Hematolymphoid Neoplasia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Anderson, M. W., Zhao, S., Ai, W. Z., Tibshirani, R., Levy, R., Lossos, I. S., Natkunam, Y. 2010; 133 (3): 473-483

    Abstract

    Chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds to members of the C-C chemokine family. Recently, CCL3 (MIP-1alpha), a high-affinity CCR1 ligand, was identified as part of a model that independently predicts survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the role of chemokine signaling in the pathogenesis of human lymphomas is unclear. In normal human hematopoietic tissues, we found CCR1 expression in intraepithelial B cells of human tonsil and granulocytic/monocytic cells in the bone marrow. Immunohistochemical analysis of 944 cases of hematolymphoid neoplasia identified CCR1 expression in a subset of B- and T-cell lymphomas, plasma cell myeloma, acute myeloid leukemia, and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. CCR1 expression correlated with the non-germinal center subtype of DLBCL but did not predict overall survival in follicular lymphoma. These data suggest that CCR1 may be useful for lymphoma classification and support a role for chemokine signaling in the pathogenesis of hematolymphoid neoplasia.

    View details for DOI 10.1309/AJCP1TA3FLOQTMHF

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274687800016

    View details for PubMedID 20154287

  • The inducible T-cell co-stimulator molecule is expressed on subsets of T cells and is a new marker of lymphomas of T follicular helper cell-derivation HAEMATOLOGICA-THE HEMATOLOGY JOURNAL Marafioti, T., Paterson, J. C., Ballabio, E., Chott, A., Natkunam, Y., Rodriguez-Justo, M., Plonquet, A., Rodriguez-Pinilla, S. M., Klapper, W., Hansmann, M., Pileri, S. A., Isaacson, P. G., Stein, H., Piris, M. A., Mason, D. Y., Gaulardll, P. 2010; 95 (3): 432-439

    Abstract

    T follicular helper (T(FH)) cells reside in the light zone of germinal centers and are considered the cell of origin of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. Recently, CXCL13, PD-1 and SAP were described as useful markers for T(FH) cells and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma but also reported in some peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified.In the present study the expression pattern of ICOS protein was investigated by immunohistochemistry-based techniques in routine sections of normal lymphoid tissues and 633 human lymphomas.Cells strongly positive for ICOS were restricted to the light zone of germinal centers and co-expressed T(FH)-associated molecules. In addition, weak to moderate ICOS expression was observed in a small proportion of FOXP3-positive cells. In lymphomas, ICOS expression was confined to angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (85/86), peripheral T-cell lymphomas of follicular variant (18/18) and a proportion of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified (24/56) that also expressed other T(FH)-associated molecules.ICOS is a useful molecule for identifying T(FH) cells and its restricted expression to angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and a proportion of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, not otherwise specified (showing a T(FH)-like profile) suggests its inclusion in the antibody panel for diagnosing T(FH)-derived lymphomas. Our findings provide further evidence that the histological spectrum of T(FH)-derived lymphomas is broader than previously assumed.

    View details for DOI 10.3324/haematol.2009.010991

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276292100015

    View details for PubMedID 20207847

  • Characterization of D-cyclin proteins in hematolymphoid neoplasms: lack of specificity of cyclin-D2 and D3 expression in lymphoma subtypes MODERN PATHOLOGY Metcalf, R. A., Zhao, S., Anderson, M. W., Lu, Z. S., Galperin, I., Marinelli, R. J., Cherry, A. M., Lossos, I. S., Natkunam, Y. 2010; 23 (3): 420-433

    Abstract

    D-cyclin proteins play a central role in cell-cycle regulation and are involved in the pathogenesis of lymphomas. In mantle-cell lymphoma, the t(11;14) translocation leads to overexpression of cyclin-D1, in addition to which cyclin-D1-negative mantle-cell lymphoma that overexpress cyclin-D2 or D3 have also been described. Although cyclin-D2 and D3 have been implicated in the prognosis of specific lymphoma subtypes, a thorough characterization of D-cyclin protein expression in human hematolymphoid neoplasia has not been reported. To evaluate the tissue expression patterns of D-cyclins, particularly D2 and D3, in normal and neoplastic hematolymphoid tissues, we optimized the commercially available antibodies for D-cyclins for use on paraffin-embedded tissue and stained tissue microarrays of over 700 patient samples. Our results show that cyclin-D2 and D3 proteins are expressed in many more lymphoma subtypes than cyclin-D1. Cyclin-D1, D2 and D3 were expressed in 100, 22 and 6% of mantle-cell lymphomas and 2, 49 and 20% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies confirmed the presence of the CCND1/IGH translocation in the majority of mantle-cell lymphoma, but not in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that expressed cyclin-D1 protein. In addition, a subset of follicular, marginal zone, lymphoplasmacytic, lymphoblastic, classical Hodgkin, mature T-cell and natural killer cell lymphomas and acute myeloid leukemias also expressed cyclin-D2 and D3. These data support the hypothesis that dysregulation of cell-cycle control by D-cyclins contribute to the pathogenesis of hematolymphoid neoplasia, and suggest a potential role for these proteins in the prognostic and therapeutic aspects of these diseases. For diagnostic purposes, however, the expression of D-cyclin proteins should be interpreted with caution in the subclassification of lymphoma types.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/modpathol.2009.173

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275108600009

    View details for PubMedID 20062012

  • PD-1 Expression in T-cell Lymphomas and Reactive Lymphoid Entities: Potential Overlap in Staining Patterns Between Lymphoma and Viral Lymphadenitis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Krishnan, C., Warnke, R. A., Arber, D. A., Natkunam, Y. 2010; 34 (2): 178-189

    Abstract

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a heterogeneous group that often requires the use of ancillary testing for accurate diagnosis. This is particularly applicable to the diagnosis of angiommunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unclassified (PTCLU), because of their histologic and immunophenotypic overlap with reactive lymphoid proliferations. Recently, immunohistochemistry for programmed death-1 (PD-1), a marker of follicular helper T cells, was shown to be sensitive in the detection of AITL and PTCLU. The sensitivity of this marker in reactive entities, however, has not been adequately evaluated. We confirm that PD-1 staining is a highly sensitive marker in the diagnosis of peripheral T-cell lymphomas: increased extrafollicular PD-1-positive cells were seen in 93% (76/82) of AITL, 62% (16/26) of PTCLU, and 11% (2/18) of anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. The majority of reactive lymphadenopathies including Cat-scratch disease, Kikuchi lymphadenitis, Castleman disease, and reactive follicular hyperplasia showed no PD-1 staining outside follicles. Some reactive lymph nodes, showed increased extrafollicular PD-1-positive cells in a pattern similar to AITL and PTCLU, and include progressive transformation of germinal centers, viral lymphadenitis (Epstein-Barr virusand human immunodeficiency virus) and Rosai-Dorfman disease. This study shows that PD-1-positive cells may be increased in a number of settings other than T-cell lymphomas. We conclude that staining for PD-1 in reactive and atypical lymphadenopathies should be interpreted with caution and in the context of other ancillary immunophenotypic and molecular studies before a diagnosis of AITL or PTCLU is entertained.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274219800005

    View details for PubMedID 20087161

  • CD81 protein is expressed at high levels in normal germinal center B cells and in subtypes of human lymphomas HUMAN PATHOLOGY Luo, R. F., Zhao, S., Tibshirani, R., Myklebust, J. H., Sanyal, M., Fernandez, R., Gratzinger, D., Marinelli, R. J., Lu, Z. S., Wong, A., Levy, R., Levy, S., Natkunam, Y. 2010; 41 (2): 271-280

    Abstract

    CD81 is a tetraspanin cell surface protein that regulates CD19 expression in B lymphocytes and enables hepatitis C virus infection of human cells. Immunohistologic analysis in normal hematopoietic tissue showed strong staining for CD81 in normal germinal center B cells, a cell type in which its increased expression has not been previously recognized. High-dimensional flow cytometry analysis of normal hematopoietic tissue confirmed that among B- and T-cell subsets, germinal center B cells showed the highest level of CD81 expression. In more than 800 neoplastic tissue samples, its expression was also found in most non-Hodgkin lymphomas. Staining for CD81 was rarely seen in multiple myeloma, Hodgkin lymphoma, or myeloid leukemia. In hierarchical cluster analysis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, staining for CD81 was most similar to other germinal center B cell-associated markers, particularly LMO2. By flow cytometry, CD81 was expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells independent of the presence or absence of CD10, another germinal center B-cell marker. The detection of CD81 in routine biopsy samples and its differential expression in lymphoma subtypes, particularly diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, warrant further study to assess CD81 expression and its role in the risk stratification of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.humpath.2009.07.022

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276493600015

    View details for PubMedID 20004001

  • Lymphoma cell VEGFR2 expression detected by immunohistochemistry predicts poor overall survival in diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy (R-CHOP) BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Gratzinger, D., Advani, R., Zhao, S., Talreja, N., Tibshirani, R. J., Shyam, R., Horning, S., Sehn, L. H., Farinha, P., Briones, J., Lossos, I. S., Gascoyne, R. D., Natkunam, Y. 2010; 148 (2): 235-244

    Abstract

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is clinically and biologically heterogeneous. In most cases of DLBCL, lymphoma cells co-express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGFR1 and VEGFR2, suggesting autocrine in addition to angiogenic effects. We enumerated microvessel density and scored lymphoma cell expression of VEGF, VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and phosphorylated VEGFR2 in 162 de novo DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin and prednisone)-like regimens. VEGFR2 expression correlated with shorter overall survival (OS) independent of International Prognostic Index (IPI) (P = 0.0028). Phosphorylated VEGFR2 (detected in 13% of cases) correlated with shorter progression-free survival (PFS, P = 0.044) and trended toward shorter OS on univariate analysis. VEGFR1 was not predictive of survival on univariate analysis, but it did correlate with better OS on multivariate analysis with VEGF, VEGFR2 and IPI (P = 0.036); in patients with weak VEGFR2, lack of VEGFR1 coexpression was significantly correlated with poor OS independent of IPI (P = 0.01). These results are concordant with our prior finding of an association of VEGFR1 with longer OS in DLBCL treated with chemotherapy alone. We postulate that VEGFR1 may oppose autocrine VEGFR2 signalling in DLBCL by competing for VEGF binding. In contrast to our prior results with chemotherapy alone, microvessel density was not prognostic of PFS or OS with R-CHOP-like therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2009.07942.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272884100006

    View details for PubMedID 19821819

  • Building "tissue" microarrays from suspension cells. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Zhao, S., Natkunam, Y. 2010; 664: 93-101

    Abstract

    Tissue microarray (TMA) is a highly efficient method that allows for large-scale measurement of -expression of RNA or protein in multiple tissue sections simultaneously. Most TMAs are made from paraffin--embedded tissues. In this chapter, we detail a method that enables construction of TMAs from small volumes of cells in suspension. A TMA is built using pellets of 1 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(7) spun cells after fixation, processing, and embedding. The entire procedure is carried out in a microcentrifuge tube and yields excellent preservation of cytomorphology and immunoreactivity from both fresh and frozen suspension cells. It is particularly useful for the study of hematopoietic neoplasms presenting in the blood and bone marrow, fine needle aspirates, and body fluids as well as cultured cells. In addition, this versatile method may facilitate the exploration of gene expression profiling and protein expression in clinical trials where regular tissue biopsies are not available.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/978-1-60761-806-5_10

    View details for PubMedID 20690056

  • Microtubule-associated Protein-2 is a Sensitive Marker of Primary and Metastatic Neuroblastoma AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Krishnan, C., Higgins, J. P., West, R. B., Natkunam, Y., Heerema-McKenney, A., Arber, D. A. 2009; 33 (11): 1695-1704

    Abstract

    Microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) is a protein expressed in high levels in cells derived from the neural crest. To the best of our knowledge, MAP-2 expression has not been thoroughly evaluated in tissues outside of the central nervous tissue. We examined the diagnostic utility of MAP-2 as a marker of neuroblastoma and attempted to characterize the expression of this protein in other tumors in the morphologic differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma.MAP-2 showed significant cytoplasmic reactivity in 95% of primary and 100% of metastatic neuroblastomas. Included within this set of tumors were 3 undifferentiated neuroblastomas, all of which showed strong staining. MAP-2 did not show significant staining in the majority of other small round blue cell tumors within the morphologic differential. Additionally, MAP-2 showed comparable sensitivity in staining primary neuroblastomas as compared with synaptophysin, chromogranin, CD56, and beta-catenin. In contrast to other markers of neuroblastoma, MAP-2 did not show significant cross reactivity to native bone marrow precursors, thus eliminating a potential source of confusion. In normal tissues, MAP-2 staining was essentially restricted to organs derived from the neural crest (adrenal medulla, endocrine organs). Variant patterns of staining were seen in exocrine organs, monocyte/macrophages and solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma family of tumors. Rarely, high-grade adult sarcomas exhibiting strong cytoplasmic MAP-2 staining were seen.MAP-2 is a sensitive and specific marker of neuroblastoma, both in the primary tumor and bone marrow biopsy settings. We think that MAP-2, in conjunction with synaptophysin, is a very powerful immunohistochemical marker in differentiating neuroblastoma from its morphologic mimics.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271795800016

    View details for PubMedID 19701075

  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Positively Regulates the Oncogenic Activity of MCT-1 in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma CANCER RESEARCH Dai, B., Zhao, X. F., Hagner, P., Shapiro, P., Mazan-Mamczarz, K., Zhao, S., Natkunam, Y., Gartenhaus, R. B. 2009; 69 (19): 7835-7843

    Abstract

    The MCT-1 oncogene was originally identified from lymphoma cell lines. Herein we establish that MCT-1 is highly expressed in 85% of human diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and that knocking down MCT-1 by a specific short hairpin RNA in DLBCL cells induces apoptosis, supporting a critical role for MCT-1 in DLBCL cell survival. However, the mechanism underlying MCT-1 regulation is largely unknown. We find that MCT-1 is phosphorylated and up-regulated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Furthermore, by using a small inhibitory molecule targeting ERK, we interrupted MCT-1 phosphorylation and stability. Significantly, cells with distinct levels of MCT-1 protein displayed differential sensitivity to ERK inhibitor-induced apoptosis. Treatment with the ERK inhibitor showed marked in vivo antitumor activity in a human DLBCL xenograft model. Our findings establish a functional molecular interaction between MCT-1 and the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and suggest that the activation of MCT-1 function by its upstream kinase ERK plays an important role in lymphomagenesis.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-1606

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270487600044

    View details for PubMedID 19789340

  • Characterization of c-Maf Transcription Factor in Normal and Neoplastic Hematolymphoid Tissue and Its Relevance in Plasma Cell Neoplasia AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Natkunam, Y., Tedoldi, S., Paterson, J. C., Zhao, S., Rodriguez-Justo, M., Beck, A. H., Siebert, R., Mason, D. Y., Marafloti, T. 2009; 132 (3): 361-371

    Abstract

    c-Maf, a leucine zipper-containing transcription factor, is involved in the t(14;16)(q32;q23) translocation found in 5% of myelomas. A causal role for c-Maf in myeloma pathogenesis has been proposed, but data on c-Maf protein expression are lacking. We therefore studied the expression of c-Maf protein by immunohistochemical analysis in myelomas and in a wide variety of hematopoietic tissue. c-Maf protein was detected in a small minority (4.3%) of myelomas, including a t(14;16)(q32;q22-23)/IgH-Maf+ case, suggesting that c-Maf protein is not expressed in the absence of c-Maf rearrangement. In contrast, c-Maf was strongly expressed in hairy cell leukemia (4/4) and in a significant proportion of T-cell (24/42 [57%]) and NK/T-cell (49/97 [51%]) lymphomas, which is in keeping with prior gene expression profiling and transgenic mouse studies. Up-regulation of c-Maf protein occurs in a small subset of myelomas, in hairy cell leukemia, and in T- and NK-cell neoplasms. Its detection may be of particular value in the differential diagnosis of small cell lymphomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1309/AJCPEAGDKLWDMB1O

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269157600006

    View details for PubMedID 19687312

  • Immunoarchitectural Patterns in Nodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma A Study of 51 Cases AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Salama, M. E., Lossos, I. S., Warnke, R. A., Natkunam, Y. 2009; 132 (1): 39-49

    Abstract

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) represents a rare and heterogeneous group that lacks markers specific for the diagnosis. We evaluated morphologic and immunoarchitectural features of 51 NMZLs, and the following immunostains were performed: CD20, CD21, CD23, CD5, CD3, CD43, CD10, Ki-67, BCL1, BCL2, BCL6, HGAL, and LMO2. Four immunoarchitectural patterns were evident: diffuse (38 [75%]), well-formed nodular/follicular (5 [10%]), interfollicular (7 [14%]), and perifollicular (1 [2%]). Additional features included a monocytoid component (36 [71%]), admixed large cells (20 [39%]), plasma cells (24 [47%]), compartmentalizing stromal sclerosis (13 [25%]), and prominent blood vessel sclerosis (10 [20%]). CD21 highlighted disrupted follicular dendritic cell meshwork in 35 (71%) of 49 cases, and CD43 coexpression was present in 10 (24%) of 42 cases. A panel of germinal center-associated markers was helpful in eliminating cases of diffuse follicle center lymphoma. Our results highlight the histologic and immunoarchitectural spectrum of NMZL and the usefulness of immunohistochemical analysis for CD43, CD23, CD21, BCL6, HGAL, and LMO2 in the diagnosis of NMZL.

    View details for DOI 10.1309/AJCPZQ1GXBBNG8OG

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267206400007

    View details for PubMedID 19864232

  • Nanofluidic proteomic assay for serial analysis of oncoprotein activation in clinical specimens NATURE MEDICINE Fan, A. C., Deb-Basu, D., Orban, M. W., Gotlib, J. R., Natkunam, Y., O'Neill, R., Padua, R., Xu, L., Taketa, D., Shirer, A. E., Beer, S., Yee, A. X., Voehringer, D. W., Felsher, D. W. 2009; 15 (5): 566-571

    Abstract

    Current methods of protein detection are insensitive to detecting subtle changes in oncoprotein activation that underlie key cancer signaling processes. The requirement for large numbers of cells precludes serial tumor sampling for assessing a response to therapeutics. Therefore, we have developed a nanofluidic proteomic immunoassay (NIA) to quantify total and low-abundance protein isoforms in nanoliter volumes. Our method can quantify amounts of MYC oncoprotein and B cell lymphoma protein-2 (BCL2) in Burkitt's and follicular lymphoma; identify changes in activation of extracellular signal-related kinases-1 (ERK1) and ERK2, mitogen-activated kinase-1 (MEK), signal transducer and activator of transcription protein-3 (STAT3) and STAT5, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and caspase-3 in imatinib-treated chronic myelogeneous leukemia (CML) cells; measure an unanticipated change in the phosphorylation of an ERK2 isomer in individuals with CML who responded to imatinib; and detect a decrease in STAT3 and STAT5 phosphorylation in individuals with lymphoma who were treated with atorvastatin. Therefore, we have described a new and highly sensitive method for determining oncoprotein expression and phosphorylation in clinical specimens for the development of new therapeutics for cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nm.1903

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265889300036

    View details for PubMedID 19363496

  • Low Stage Follicular Lymphoma: Biologic and Clinical Characterization According to Nodal or Extranodal Primary Origin AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Weinberg, O. K., Ma, L., Seo, K., Beck, A. H., Pai, R. K., Morales, A., Kim, Y., Sundram, U., Tan, D., Horning, S. J., Hoppe, R. T., Natkunam, Y., Arber, D. A. 2009; 33 (4): 591-598

    Abstract

    Studies suggest that primary extranodal follicular lymphoma (FL) is not infrequent but it remains poorly characterized with variable histologic, molecular, and clinical outcome findings. We compared 27 extranodal FL to 44 nodal FL using morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular genetic techniques and evaluated the clinical outcome of these 2 similarly staged groups. Eight cases of primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma were also studied. In comparison to nodal FL, a greater number of extranodal FL contained a diffuse growth pattern (P=0.004) and lacked CD10 expression (P=0.014). Fifty-four percent of extranodal and 42% of nodal FL cases showed evidence of t(14;18), with minor breakpoints (icr, 3'BCL2, 5'mcr) more commonly found in extranodal cases (P=0.003). Outcome data showed no significant differences in overall survival (P=0.565) and progression-free survival (P=0.627) among extranodal, nodal, and primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma cases. Analysis of all cases by t(14;18) status indicate that the translocation-negative group is characterized by a diffuse growth pattern (P=0.043) and lower BCL2 expression (P=0.018). The t(14;18)-positive group showed significantly better overall survival (P=0.019) and disease-specific survival (P=0.006) in comparison with the t(14;18)-negative group. In low stage FL, the status of t(14;18) seems to be more predictive of outcome than origin from an extranodal versus nodal site.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264818800014

    View details for PubMedID 19065102

  • Lack of Utility of CD20 Immunohistochemistry in Staging Bone Marrow Biopsies for Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY Baiyee, D., Warnke, R., Natkunam, Y. 2009; 17 (2): 93-95

    Abstract

    The utility of CD20 immunohistochemistry in the evaluation of staging bone marrow biopsies of newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients has not been extensively studied. We used 113 routinely processed bone marrow biopsies to study the extent and pattern of involvement by lymphoma and CD20 staining. Twelve (10.6%) of 113 cases had involvement by morphology, and 5 (41.7%) of these showed histologic discordance between the primary site and the bone marrow. All cases with morphologic evidence of bone marrow involvement showed staining for CD20. Four (3.5%) of 113 cases had non-neoplastic aggregates that stained for CD20. One case (0.9%) showed a small benign lymphoid aggregate by immunohistochemistry that was not evident by morphology. Our results demonstrate that CD20 staining did not detect any examples of bone marrow involvement by DLBCL that were not evident by morphology. We conclude that immunohistochemistry for CD20 adds no increase in the sensitivity of detection of bone marrow infiltration by DLBCL.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263734200001

    View details for PubMedID 19521275

  • The Transcription Factor LMO2 Is a Robust Marker of Vascular Endothelium and Vascular Neoplasms and Selected Other Entities AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Gratzinger, D., Zhao, S., West, R., Rouse, R. V., Vogel, H., Gil, E. C., Levy, R., Lossos, I. S., Natkunam, Y. 2009; 131 (2): 264-278

    Abstract

    The transcription factor LMO2 is involved in vascular and hematopoietic development and hematolymphoid neoplasia. We have demonstrated that LMO2 is expressed nearly ubiquitously in native and neoplastic vasculature, including lymphatics. LMO2 reactivity is otherwise virtually absent in nonhematolymphoid tissues except in breast myoepithelium, prostatic basal cells, and secretory phase endometrial glands. Vasculature is LMO2- in adult and fetal heart, brain of older adults, hepatic sinusoids, and hepatocellular carcinoma. LMO2 is uniformly expressed in benign vascular and lymphatic neoplasms and in most malignant vascular neoplasms with the exception of epithelioid vascular neoplasms of pleura and bone. Among nonvascular neoplasms, LMO2 reactivity is present in giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, juvenile xanthogranuloma, a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, small round blue cell tumors, and myoepithelial-derived neoplasms. The restricted expression pattern, nuclear localization, and crisp staining of LMO2 in paraffin blocks make it an attractive candidate for the diagnostic immunohistochemistry laboratory.

    View details for DOI 10.1309/AJCP5FP3NAXAXRJE

    View details for Web of Science ID 000262540200013

    View details for PubMedID 19141387

  • Gray zones around diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Conclusions based on the workshop of the XIV meeting of the European Association for Hematopathology and the Society of Hematopathology in Bordeaux, France. Journal of hematopathology Quintanilla-Martinez, L., De Jong, D., de Mascarel, A., Hsi, E. D., Kluin, P., Natkunam, Y., Parrens, M., Pileri, S., Ott, G. 2009; 2 (4): 211-236

    Abstract

    The term "gray-zone" lymphoma has been used to denote a group of lymphomas with overlapping histological, biological, and clinical features between various types of lymphomas. It has been used in the context of Hodgkin lymphomas (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), including classical HL (CHL), and primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma, cases with overlapping features between nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B cell lymphoma, CHL, and Epstein-Barr-virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders, and peripheral T cell lymphomas simulating CHL. A second group of gray-zone lymphomas includes B cell NHL with intermediate features between diffuse large B cell lymphoma and classical Burkitt lymphoma. In order to review controversial issues in gray-zone lymphomas, a joint Workshop of the European Association for Hematopathology and the Society for Hematopathology was held in Bordeaux, France, in September 2008. The panel members reviewed and discussed 145 submitted cases and reached consensus diagnoses. This Workshop summary is focused on the most controversial aspects of gray-zone lymphomas and describes the panel's proposals regarding diagnostic criteria, terminology, and new prognostic and diagnostic parameters.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s12308-009-0053-9

    View details for PubMedID 20309430

  • Human germinal center-associated lymphoma protein expression is associated with improved failure-free survival in Brazilian patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA Azambuja, D., Lossos, I. S., Biasoli, I., Morais, J. C., Britto, L., Scheliga, A., Pulcheri, W., Natkunam, Y., Spector, N. 2009; 50 (11): 1830-1836

    Abstract

    The human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) gene has prognostic value in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and expression of its cognate protein is germinal center-specific. A previous study had suggested that HGAL protein expression might also be related to the outcome in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The aim of this study was to confirm the prognostic impact of HGAL protein expression in an independent, well-characterized cohort of 232 patients with classic HL treated uniformly with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD). Tissue microarray analysis showed HGAL staining in 188 specimens (81%). Failure-free survival (FFS) was superior in patients with early-stage disease, low-risk IPS, and HGAL-positive patients. The estimated 5-year FFS for HGAL-positive and HGAL-negative patients was 82% and 67%, respectively (p = 0.03). In the multivariate analysis, advanced stage and absence of HGAL staining were independent predictors of a worse FFS. This study confirms and validates recent findings of a correlation between HGAL expression and outcome in classical HL.

    View details for DOI 10.3109/10428190903242628

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272145000021

    View details for PubMedID 19883310

  • PTP1B is a negative regulator of interleukin 4-induced STAT6 signaling BLOOD Lu, X., Malumbres, R., Shields, B., Jiang, X., Sarosiek, K. A., Natkunam, Y., Tiganis, T., Lossos, I. S. 2008; 112 (10): 4098-4108

    Abstract

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme shown to negatively regulate multiple tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent signaling pathways. PTP1B can modulate cytokine signaling pathways by dephosphorylating JAK2, TYK2, and STAT5a/b. Herein, we report that phosphorylated STAT6 may serve as a cytoplasmic substrate for PTP1B. Overexpression of PTP1B led to STAT6 dephosphorylation and the suppression of STAT6 transcriptional activity, whereas PTP1B knockdown or deficiency augmented IL-4-induced STAT6 signaling. Pretreatment of these cells with the PTK inhibitor staurosporine led to sustained STAT6 phosphorylation consistent with STAT6 serving as a direct substrate of PTP1B. Furthermore, PTP1B-D181A "substrate-trapping" mutants formed stable complexes with phosphorylated STAT6 in a cellular context and endogenous PTP1B and STAT6 interacted in an interleukin 4 (IL-4)-inducible manner. We delineate a new negative regulatory loop of IL-4-JAK-STAT6 signaling. We demonstrate that IL-4 induces PTP1B mRNA expression in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent manner and enhances PTP1B protein stability to suppress IL-4-induced STAT6 signaling. Finally, we show that PTP1B expression may be preferentially elevated in activated B cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. These observations identify a novel regulatory loop for the regulation of IL-4-induced STAT6 signaling that may have important implications in both neoplastic and inflammatory processes.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-03-148726

    View details for Web of Science ID 000260691300030

    View details for PubMedID 18716132

  • Immunohistochemical characterization of nasal-type extranodal NK/T-Cell lymphoma using a tissue microarray AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Schwartz, E. J., Molina-Kirsch, H., Zhao, S., Marinelli, R. J., Warnke, R. A., Natkunam, Y. 2008; 130 (3): 343-351

    Abstract

    Nasal-type extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma is an uncommon malignancy. By using a tissue microarray, we characterized 84 cases of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma with regard to expression of 18 immunohistochemical markers and the presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) RNA. In our series, CD2 was positive in 69 (93%) of 74 cases, CD3 in 68 (84%) of 81, CD5 in 22 (27%) of 81, CD20 in 0 (0%) of 82, CD29 in 75 (91%) of 82, CD30 in 29 (35%) of 84, CD43 in 81 (96%) of 84, CD54 in 58 (72%) of 81, CD56 in 46 (58%) of 79, CD62L in 23 (28%) of 83, CD183 in 66 (80%) of 83, BCL2 in 33 (39%) of 84, cutaneous lymphocyte antigen in 21 (25%) of 84, granzyme B in 70 (83%) of 84, Ki-67 in 59 (71%) of 83, linker for activation of T cells in 60 (71%) of 84, perforin in 66 (86%) of 77, TIA1 in 76 (90%) of 84, and EBV in 73 (87%) of 84. Hierarchical cluster analysis separated primary cutaneous cases from cases manifesting in other sites based on lower expression of the cell adhesion molecule CD54.

    View details for DOI 10.1309/V561QTM6854W4WAV

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258538900003

    View details for PubMedID 18701406

  • Tissue microarrays from bone marrow aspirates for high-throughput assessment of immunohistologic markers in pediatric acute leukemia PEDIATRIC AND DEVELOPMENTAL PATHOLOGY Hazard, F. K., Zhao, S., Schiffman, J. D., Lacayo, N. J., Dahl, G. V., Natkunam, Y. 2008; 11 (4): 283-290

    Abstract

    Gene expression profiling studies have been employed to investigate prognostic subgroups in pediatric acute leukemia. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) are useful for high-throughput analysis of protein expression of target genes in acute leukemia samples and for validation of gene microarray analysis. Using cryopreserved samples of pediatric acute leukemia bone marrow aspirates, we constructed TMA from as few as 1 million cells. Bone marrow core biopsies from the same patients were included on the same TMA for comparison. A panel of 15 immunohistochemical markers typically used for diagnosis as well as those targeting recently characterized, prognostically relevant molecules of interest in pediatric acute leukemia was used to evaluate protein expression. Staining results confirm that suspension cells from bone marrow aspirates can be effectively used to derive protein expression data from multiple cases simultaneously with comparable efficacy to that of biopsy tissue. This method allows for new markers of diagnostic, prognostic, or therapeutic importance to be screened on large numbers of study patients. Furthermore, this technique may facilitate the inclusion of small samples, aspirates, and body fluids in large-scale studies of protein expression in clinical trials and protocols in which tissue biopsies are often unavailable.

    View details for DOI 10.2350/07-04-0253.1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259353300005

    View details for PubMedID 17990919

  • Paraffin-based 6-gene model predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP BLOOD Malumbres, R., Chen, J., Tibshirani, R., Johnson, N. A., Sehn, L. H., Natkunam, Y., Briones, J., Advani, R., Connors, J. M., Byrne, G. E., Levy, R., Gascoyne, R. D., Lossos, I. S. 2008; 111 (12): 5509-5514

    Abstract

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by variable clinical outcomes. Outcome prediction at the time of diagnosis is of paramount importance. Previously, we constructed a 6-gene model for outcome prediction of DLBCL patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapies. However, the standard therapy has evolved into rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP). Herein, we evaluated the predictive power of a paraffin-based 6-gene model in R-CHOP-treated DLBCL patients. RNA was successfully extracted from 132 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. Expression of the 6 genes comprising the model was measured and the mortality predictor score was calculated for each patient. The mortality predictor score divided patients into low-risk (below median) and high-risk (above median) subgroups with significantly different overall survival (OS; P = .002) and progression-free survival (PFS; P = .038). The model also predicted OS and PFS when the mortality predictor score was considered as a continuous variable (P = .002 and .010, respectively) and was independent of the IPI for prediction of OS (P = .008). These findings demonstrate that the prognostic value of the 6-gene model remains significant in the era of R-CHOP treatment and that the model can be applied to routine FFPE tissue from initial diagnostic biopsies.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2008-02-136374

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256786500021

    View details for PubMedID 18445689

  • Expression of HGAL in primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas: evidence for germinal center derivation of primary cutaneous follicular lymphoma MODERN PATHOLOGY Xie, X., Sundram, U., Natkunam, Y., Kohler, S., Hoppe, R. T., Kim, Y. H., Cook, J. R., Hammel, J., Swerdlow, S. H., Guitart, J., Smith, M. D., Bosler, D., Listinsky, C., Lossos, I. S., Hsi, E. D. 2008; 21 (6): 653-659

    Abstract

    The classification of primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma (PCLBCL) is based on standard morphology, immunohistochemistry, and clinical presentation. There are two major subtypes in the current WHO-EORTC classification: follicle center lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type (DLBCL-LT). The goals of this study were to examine a series of DLBCLs to determine (1) whether the immunohistochemical paradigm of germinal center B-cell and non-germinal center B-cell types of systemic DLBCL could be applied to PCLBCL; (2) whether application of the newly described germinal center B-cell marker, human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) also discriminates between these types as a further support for germinal center B-cell origin for primary cutaneous center lymphoma; and (3) whether any of these biologic markers were of prognostic significance. To this end, 32 cases of diffuse PCLBCL (22 primary cutaneous follicular center lymphomas and 10 DLBCL-LT) were classified based on the WHO-EORTC criteria and studied for expression of CD20, BCL2, BCL6, CD10, MUM-1, and HGAL by immunohistochemistry. Results were correlated with clinical features. HGAL and BCL6 expression and germinal center B-cell phenotype were associated with primary cutaneous follicular center lymphoma. The combination of HGAL and BCL6 positivity had the highest sensitivity (88%) and specificity (100%) for predicting subtype compared to either marker alone. Both HGAL and BCL6 were associated with the germinal center B-cell phenotype. The correlation of HGAL expression with the germinal center B-cell phenotype demonstrates the role of this marker in the classification of cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas. BCL6 expression was the only immunohistochemical marker associated with overall survival. Characterizing PCLBCLs with markers of B-cell maturation stage is a useful framework for studying, classifying, and clinically stratifying these lymphomas.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/modpathol.2008.30

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256112900002

    View details for PubMedID 18264083

  • Expression of the human germinal-centre-associated lymphoma protein in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas in patients with rheumatoid arthritis BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Baecklund, E., Natkunam, Y., Backlin, C., Iliadou, A., Askling, J., Ekbom, A., Feltelius, N., Klareskog, L., Enblad, G., Lossos, I. S., Levy, R., Sundstroem, C., Rosenquist, R. 2008; 141 (1): 69-72

    Abstract

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) can be subdivided into germinal centre (GC)-like and non-GC-like subtypes by CD10, BCL6 and MUM1/IRF4 status. We previously reported that patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at increased risk of non-GC DLBCL. This study examined a new GC-marker, human germinal-centre-associated lymphoma (HGAL) protein, in RA-DLBCL. Of 111, 38 (34%) DLBCL were HGAL-positive and showed less disseminated disease and a tendency toward improved overall survival compared to HGAL-negative cases. This supports that a majority of RA-DLBCL are of non-GC origin, indicating a specific role for activated peripheral B cells in the pathogenesis of RA-DLBCL.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2008.07011.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253757400008

    View details for PubMedID 18324968

  • LMO2 protein expression predicts survival in patients with diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy with and without rituximab JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Natkunam, Y., Farinha, P., Hsi, E. D., Hans, C. P., Tibshirani, R., Sehn, L. H., Connors, J. M., Gratzinger, D., Rosado, M., Zhao, S., Pohlman, B., Wongchaowart, N., Bast, M., Avigdor, A., Schiby, G., Nagler, A., Byrne, G. E., Levy, R., Gascoyne, R. D., Lossos, I. S. 2008; 26 (3): 447-454

    Abstract

    The heterogeneity of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has prompted the search for new markers that can accurately separate prognostic risk groups. We previously showed in a multivariate model that LMO2 mRNA was a strong predictor of superior outcome in DLBCL patients. Here, we tested the prognostic impact of LMO2 protein expression in DLBCL patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy with or without rituximab.DLBCL patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy alone (263 patients) or with the addition of rituximab (80 patients) were studied using immunohistochemistry for LMO2 on tissue microarrays of original biopsies. Staining results were correlated with outcome.In anthracycline-treated patients, LMO2 protein expression was significantly correlated with improved overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in univariate analyses (OS, P = .018; PFS, P = .010) and was a significant predictor independent of the clinical International Prognostic Index (IPI) in multivariate analysis. Similarly, in patients treated with the combination of anthracycline-containing regimens and rituximab, LMO2 protein expression was also significantly correlated with improved OS and PFS (OS, P = .005; PFS, P = .009) and was a significant predictor independent of the IPI in multivariate analysis.We conclude that LMO2 protein expression is a prognostic marker in DLBCL patients treated with anthracycline-based regimens alone or in combination with rituximab. After further validation, immunohistologic analysis of LMO2 protein expression may become a practical assay for newly diagnosed DLBCL patients to optimize their clinical management.

    View details for DOI 10.1200/JCO.2007.13.0690

    View details for Web of Science ID 000254177200020

    View details for PubMedID 18086797

  • Prognostic significance of VEGF, VEGF receptors, and microvessel density in diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy LABORATORY INVESTIGATION Gratzinger, D., Zhao, S., Tibshirani, R. J., Hsi, E. D., Hans, C. P., Pohlman, B., Bast, M., Avigdor, A., Schiby, G., Nagler, A., Byrne, G. E., Lossos, I. S., Natkunam, Y. 2008; 88 (1): 38-47

    Abstract

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated signaling has at least two potential roles in diffuse large B cell lymphoma: potentiation of angiogenesis, and potentiation of lymphoma cell proliferation and/or survival induced by autocrine vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-mediated signaling. We have recently shown that diffuse large B cell lymphomas expressing high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor protein also express high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. We have now assessed a larger multi-institutional cohort of patients with de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with anthracycline-based therapy to address whether tumor vascularity, or expression of vascular endothelial growth factor protein and its receptors, contribute to patient outcomes. Our results show that increased tumor vascularity is associated with poor overall survival (P=0.047), and is independent of the international prognostic index. High expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 by lymphoma cells by contrast is associated with improved overall survival (P=0.044). The combination of high vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 protein expression by lymphoma cells identifies a subgroup of patients with improved overall (P=0.003) and progression-free (P=0.026) survival; these findings are also independent of the international prognostic index. The prognostic significance of overexpression of this ligand-receptor pair suggests that autocrine signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 may represent a survival or proliferation pathway in diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Dependence on autocrine vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1-mediated signaling may render a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas susceptible to anthracycline-based therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/labinvest.3700697

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251820600004

    View details for PubMedID 17998899

  • The Stanford Tissue Microarray Database NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH Marinelli, R. J., Montgomery, K., Liu, C. L., Shah, N. H., Prapong, W., Nitzberg, M., Zachariah, Z. K., Sherlock, G. J., Natkunam, Y., West, R. B., van de Rijn, M., Brown, P. O., Ball, C. A. 2008; 36: D871-D877

    Abstract

    The Stanford Tissue Microarray Database (TMAD; http://tma.stanford.edu) is a public resource for disseminating annotated tissue images and associated expression data. Stanford University pathologists, researchers and their collaborators worldwide use TMAD for designing, viewing, scoring and analyzing their tissue microarrays. The use of tissue microarrays allows hundreds of human tissue cores to be simultaneously probed by antibodies to detect protein abundance (Immunohistochemistry; IHC), or by labeled nucleic acids (in situ hybridization; ISH) to detect transcript abundance. TMAD archives multi-wavelength fluorescence and bright-field images of tissue microarrays for scoring and analysis. As of July 2007, TMAD contained 205 161 images archiving 349 distinct probes on 1488 tissue microarray slides. Of these, 31 306 images for 68 probes on 125 slides have been released to the public. To date, 12 publications have been based on these raw public data. TMAD incorporates the NCI Thesaurus ontology for searching tissues in the cancer domain. Image processing researchers can extract images and scores for training and testing classification algorithms. The production server uses the Apache HTTP Server, Oracle Database and Perl application code. Source code is available to interested researchers under a no-cost license.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/nar/gkm861

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252545400154

    View details for PubMedID 17989087

  • Selective loss of B-cell phenotype in lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Tedoldi, S., Mottok, A., Ying, J., Paterson, J. C., Cui, Y., Facchetti, F., van Krieken, J. H., Ponzoni, M., Oezkal, S., Masir, N., Natkunam, Y., Pileri, S. A., Hansmann, M., Mason, D. Y., Tao, Q., Marafioti, T. 2007; 213 (4): 429-440

    Abstract

    The neoplastic Reed-Sternberg cells characteristic of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) are of B-cell origin but they almost always show striking loss of a range of B-cell-associated molecules. In contrast, the neoplastic cells found in lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (LPHL) (L&H cells) are traditionally thought of as possessing the full repertoire of features associated with germinal centre B cells (eg BCL-6 expression, 'ongoing' Ig gene mutation). In the present paper, we report an extensive phenotypic analysis of L&H cells which revealed down-regulation of a number of markers associated with the B-cell lineage (eg CD19, CD37) and with the germinal centre maturation stage (eg PAG, LCK). The promoter methylation status of three of these down-regulated genes (CD10, CD19, and LCK) was further studied in microdissected L&H cells, and this revealed that their promoters were unmethylated. In contrast, these genes showed promoter methylation in cell lines derived from CHL. Further investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the deregulation of these molecules in L&H cells may provide new insights into the genetic abnormalities underlying LPHL.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/path.2242

    View details for Web of Science ID 000251292800010

    View details for PubMedID 17935142

  • The utility of PAX5 immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms MODERN PATHOLOGY Jensen, K. C., Higgins, J. P., Montgomery, K., Kaygusuz, G., van de Rijn, M., Natkunam, Y. 2007; 20 (8): 871-877

    Abstract

    PAX5 is a B-cell transcription factor whose expression at the protein level is reliably detected by immunohistochemistry in routine biopsies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether PAX5 immunohistochemistry has diagnostic benefit as a B-cell marker in the work-up of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms. Twenty-five cases previously diagnosed as undifferentiated malignant neoplasms were selected. In addition, 59 hematolymphoid and 884 non-hematolymphoid malignancies were studied such that the specificity of PAX5 immunohistochemistry could be addressed. Two of the 25 (8%) undifferentiated neoplasms showed diffuse staining for PAX5, which indicated a B-cell derivation for these neoplasms that was not appreciated at the time of initial diagnosis. PAX5 staining was detected in the vast majority of hematolymphoid tumors of B-cell derivation but only in 5 of 884 (less than 1%) non-hematolymphoid tumors. Our results further show that PAX5 may be the only detectable marker of B lineage in lymphomas that lack or show equivocal CD45RB and CD20 expression. We conclude that the addition of PAX5 to a panel of immunohistologic markers used in the interrogation of undifferentiated neoplasms is of diagnostic benefit. Its expression can also facilitate the diagnosis of classical and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with atypical morphologic and immunohistologic features. Lastly, we have shown that the lack of its expression at the protein level in many epithelial and mesenchymal neoplasms renders PAX5 expression an extremely specific marker of the B lineage.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000248219700008

    View details for PubMedID 17529924

  • International standardized approach for flow cytometric residual disease monitoring in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia LEUKEMIA Rawstron, A. C., Villamor, N., Ritgen, M., Boettcher, S., Ghia, P., Zehnder, J. L., Lozanski, G., Colomer, D., Moreno, C., Geuna, M., Evans, P. A., Natkunam, Y., Coutre, S. E., Avery, E. D., Rassenti, L. Z., Kipps, T. J., Caligaris-Cappio, F., Kneba, M., Byrd, J. C., Hallek, M. J., Montserrat, E., Hillmen, P. 2007; 21 (5): 956-964

    Abstract

    The eradication of minimal residual disease (MRD) in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) predicts for improved outcome. However, the wide variety of MRD techniques makes it difficult to interpret and compare different clinical trials. Our aim was to develop a standardized flow cytometric CLL-MRD assay and compare it to real-time quantitative allele-specific oligonucleotide (RQ-ASO) Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IgH) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis of 728 paired blood and marrow samples demonstrated high concordance (87%) for patients off-therapy. Blood analysis was equally or more sensitive than marrow in 92% of samples but marrow analysis was necessary to detect MRD within 3 months of alemtuzumab therapy. Assessment of 50 CLL-specific antibody combinations identified three (CD5/CD19 with CD20/CD38, CD81/CD22 and CD79b/CD43) with low inter-laboratory variation and false-detection rates. Experienced operators demonstrated an accuracy of 95.7% (specificity 98.8%, sensitivity 91.1%) in 141 samples with 0.01-0.1% CLL. There was close correlation and 95% concordance with RQ-ASO IgH-PCR for detection of CLL above 0.01%. The proposed flow cytometry approach is applicable to all sample types and therapeutic regimes, and sufficiently rapid and sensitive to guide therapy to an MRD-negativity in real time. These techniques may be used as a tool for assessing response and comparing the efficacy of different therapeutic approaches.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.leu.2404584

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245999900014

    View details for PubMedID 17361231

  • Oncogenic regulators and substrates of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome are frequently overexpressed in malignant tumors AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Lehman, N. L., Tibshirani, R., Hsu, J. Y., Natkunam, Y., Harris, B. T., West, R. B., Masek, M. A., Montgomery, K., van de Rijn, M., Jackson, P. K. 2007; 170 (5): 1793-1805

    Abstract

    The fidelity of cell division is dependent on the accumulation and ordered destruction of critical protein regulators. By triggering the appropriately timed, ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of the mitotic regulatory proteins securin, cyclin B, aurora A kinase, and polo-like kinase 1, the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase plays an essential role in maintaining genomic stability. Misexpression of these APC/C substrates, individually, has been implicated in genomic instability and cancer. However, no comprehensive survey of the extent of their misregulation in tumors has been performed. Here, we analyzed more than 1600 benign and malignant tumors by immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays and found frequent overexpression of securin, polo-like kinase 1, aurora A, and Skp2 in malignant tumors. Positive and negative APC/C regulators, Cdh1 and Emi1, respectively, were also more strongly expressed in malignant versus benign tumors. Clustering and statistical analysis supports the finding that malignant tumors generally show broad misregulation of mitotic APC/C substrates not seen in benign tumors, suggesting that a "mitotic profile" in tumors may result from misregulation of the APC/C destruction pathway. This profile of misregulated mitotic APC/C substrates and regulators in malignant tumors suggests that analysis of this pathway may be diagnostically useful and represent a potentially important therapeutic target.

    View details for DOI 10.2353/ajpath.2007.060767

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246050400033

    View details for PubMedID 17456782

  • Mast cell tryptase and microphthalmia transcription factor effectively discriminate cutaneous mast cell disease from myeloid leukemia cutis JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY Sundram, U. N., Natkunam, Y. 2007; 34 (4): 289-295

    Abstract

    Cutaneous mast cell disorders are uncommon, but a subset, especially mastocytoma and mast cell leukemia, can histologically mimic myeloid leukemia cutis. Our objective was to employ a panel of cytochemical and immunohistochemical markers to determine which ones would be most useful in separating these two entities.We stained 17 cases of cutaneous mast cell disease and 20 cases of myeloid leukemia cutis with Giemsa, toluidine blue, or pinacyanol erythrosinate (PE), as well as with antibodies against mast cell tryptase, microphthalmia transcription factor (MiTF), CD117 (c-kit), myeloperoxidase, CD43, CD25, CD2, and CD68.Mast cell tryptase and MiTF emerged as highly sensitive and specific markers for mast cell disease in this context, as both antibodies stained all cases of mast cell diseases but none of myeloid leukemia cutis. Although CD117 stained all cases of mast cell disease, it also stained 2 of 18 cases of myeloid leukemia cutis. PE appeared to be specific for mast cell disease, as 11 of 12 cases stained with this marker, compared with 0 of 18 cases of myeloid leukemia cutis.Our results show that mast cell tryptase and MiTF are equally effective in distinguishing mast cell disease from myeloid leukemia cutis.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1600-0560.2006.00602.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245099700001

    View details for PubMedID 17381798

  • Microvessel density and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtypes AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Gratzinger, D., Zhao, S., Marinelli, R. J., Kapp, A. V., Tibshirani, R. J., Hammer, A. S., Hamilton-Dutoit, S., Natkunam, Y. 2007; 170 (4): 1362-1369

    Abstract

    Angiogenesis is known to play a major role in neoplasia, including hematolymphoid neoplasia. We assessed the relationships among angiogenesis and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptors in the context of clinically and biologically relevant subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma using immunohistochemical evaluation of tissue microarrays. We found that diffuse large B-cell lymphoma specimens showing higher local vascular endothelial growth factor expression showed correspondingly higher microvessel density, implying that lymphoma cells induce local tumor angiogenesis. In addition, local vascular endothelial growth factor expression was higher in those specimens showing higher expression of the receptors of the growth factor, suggesting an autocrine growth-promoting feedback loop. The germinal center-like and nongerminal center-like subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma were biologically and prognostically distinct. Interestingly, only in the more clinically aggressive nongerminal center-like subtype were microvessel densities significantly higher in specimens showing higher vascular endothelial growth factor expression; the same was true for the finding of higher vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 expression in conjunction with higher vascular endothelial growth factor expression. These differences may have important implications for the responsiveness of the two diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtypes to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor and anti-angiogenic therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.2353/ajpath.2007.060901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000245233000022

    View details for PubMedID 17392174

  • The oncoprotein LMO2 is expressed in normal germinal-center B cells and in human B-cell lymphomas BLOOD Natkunam, Y., Zhao, S., Mason, D. Y., Chen, J., Taidi, B., Jones, M., Hammer, A. S., Dutoit, S. H., Lossos, I. S., Levy, R. 2007; 109 (4): 1636-1642

    Abstract

    We previously developed a multivariate model based on the RNA expression of 6 genes (LMO2, BCL6, FN1, CCND2, SCYA3, and BCL2) that predicts survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients. Since LMO2 emerged as the strongest predictor of superior outcome, we generated a monoclonal anti-LMO2 antibody in order to study its tissue expression pattern. Immunohistologic analysis of over 1200 normal and neoplastic tissue and cell lines showed that LMO2 protein is expressed as a nuclear marker in normal germinal-center (GC) B cells and GC-derived B-cell lines and in a subset of GC-derived B-cell lymphomas. LMO2 was also expressed in erythroid and myeloid precursors and in megakaryocytes and also in lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukemias. It was rarely expressed in mature T, natural killer (NK), and plasma cell neoplasms and was absent from nonhematolymphoid tissues except for endothelial cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis of immunohistologic data in DLBCL demonstrated that the expression profile of the LMO2 protein was similar to that of other GC-associated proteins (HGAL, BCL6, and CD10) but different from that of non-GC proteins (MUM1/IRF4 and BCL2). Our results warrant inclusion of LMO2 in multivariate analyses to construct a clinically applicable immunohistologic algorithm for predicting survival in patients with DLBCL.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2006-08-039024

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244219400043

    View details for PubMedID 17038524

  • Expression of the RNA-binding protein VICKZ in normal hematopoietic tissues and neoplasms HAEMATOLOGICA-THE HEMATOLOGY JOURNAL Natkunam, Y., Vainer, G., Chen, J., Zhao, S., Marinelli, R. J., Hammer, A. S., Hamilton-Dutoit, S., Pikarsky, E., Amir, G., Levy, R., Yisraeli, J. K., Lossos, I. S. 2007; 92 (2): 176-183

    Abstract

    VICKZ family members are RNA-binding regulatory proteins expressed during embryogenesis but not usually found in normal adult tissue. The presence of VICKZ in normal germinal centers (GC) prompted us to characterize the expression pattern of this protein in lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues.We generated a pan-VICKZ antibody that recognized all three isoforms of VICKZ protein and screened 889 patients' samples by immunohistologic methods. We also analyzed the expression of VICKZ in normal hematopoiesis tissue by staining samples of tonsils, lymph nodesVICKZ protein expression was documented for the first time in normal human GC and in follicular (126/165), mediastinal large B-cell (9/10), Burkitt (2/2), diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL, 155/200), lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's (12/13), classical Hodgkin's (101/108), and anaplastic large cell (6/8) lymphomas and in lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. Since DLBCL may derive from GC or non-GC B cells we performed hierarchical cluster analysis for VICKZ, HGAL, BCL6, CD10, MUM1/IRF4 and BCL2 which showed that VICKZ is expressed in both subtypes. In addition, VICKZ mRNA isoforms were differentially expressed in lymphoma subtypes and over 40% of DLBCL expressed hVICKZ2, an isoform not usually present in normal GC B cells.We show that in normal lymphoid tissues VICKZ is expressed in GC lymphocytes but in lymphoid neoplasms its expression is not limited to GC-derived lymphoma subtypes. However, VICKZ exhibits differential expression in lymphoma subtypes and thus may be a marker of potential value in the diagnosis and study of hematopoietic neoplasia. The aberrant expression of its isoforms in DLBCL raises the possibility that these isoforms may be associated with different functions and suggests that further study of their role in normal and neoplastic lymphoid cells is warranted.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000244233600006

    View details for PubMedID 17296566

  • Expression of the human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) protein identifies a subset of classic Hodgkin lymphoma of germinal center derivation and improved survival BLOOD Natkunam, Y., Hsi, E. D., Aoun, P., Zhao, S., Elson, P., Pohlman, B., Naushad, H., Bast, M., Levy, R., Lossos, I. S. 2007; 109 (1): 298-305

    Abstract

    The human germinal-center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) gene and its cognate protein are expressed in a germinal center (GC)-specific manner. Its expression in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) prompted us to address whether HGAL expression could distinguish biologically distinct subgroups of cHL. Tissue microarrays from 145 patients treated with curative intent showed HGAL staining in 75% and was closely correlated with MUM1/IRF4 (92%) expression. BCL6 (26%), CD10 (0%), BCL2 (31%), Blimp1 (0.02%), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) (20%) showed no specific correlation; neither did phospho-STAT6, a key mediator of IL-4 and IL-13 signaling that induces HGAL and is implicated in cHL pathogenesis. In our study cohort, the 5-year overall survival (OS) correlated with young age (less than 45 years, P < .001), low stage (stage I and II, P = .04), and low International Prognostic Score (P = .002). In univariate analysis, HGAL expression was associated with improved OS (P = .01) and failure-free survival (FFS) (P = .05) but was not independent of other factors in multivariate analysis of OS or FFS. The expression of the GC-specific marker HGAL in a subset of cHL suggests that these cHLs retain characteristics of GC-derived lymphomas. The association with improved OS in univariate but not multivariate analysis suggests that HGAL expression is related to known clinical parameters of improved survival.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2006-04-014977

    View details for Web of Science ID 000243153900050

    View details for PubMedID 16954503

  • The biology of the germinal center. Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program Natkunam, Y. 2007: 210-215

    Abstract

    The immune system requires the production of high affinity antibodies of different subclasses to accomplish its many effector functions. Specific steps in B-cell ontogeny that occur within germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs create much of the diversity in the immune system. This process also provides the raw material for the genesis of B-cell lymphomas as misdirection of the molecular machinery that regulate these steps can cause chromosomal translocations, prevent apoptosis and promote proliferation of abnormal clones. Many recent avenues of investigation have elucidated that the germinal center is a dynamic microenvironment where B-cells undergo repeated rounds of mutation and selection. Gene expression studies have further shown that malignancies derived from germinal center B-cells elaborate specific gene expression signatures that derive from neoplastic cells as well as elements of the host response such as T-cells and macrophages. This review will examine the current understanding of B-cell development in the germinal center and the key molecules involved in this process. Interactions between lymphoma cells and their cellular partners and models in the growth and development of follicular lymphoma will be presented.

    View details for PubMedID 18024632

  • Low CD27 expression in plasma cell dyscrasias correlates with high-risk disease: An immunohistochemical analysis AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Morgan, T. K., Zhao, S., Chang, K. L., Haddix, T. L., Domanay, E., Cornbleet, P. J., Arber, D. A., Natkunam, Y. 2006; 126 (4): 545-551

    Abstract

    Genome-wide expression studies using complementary DNA microarrays recently suggested a number of intriguing candidate genes for distinguishing plasma cell dyscrasias. Our objective was to test select markers using immunohistochemical analysis and a tissue microarray from paraffin-embedded bone marrow core biopsy specimens obtained from 8 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, 17 with plasmacytoma, 160 with multiple myeloma, and 15 with plasma cell leukemia (PCL). We immunostained serial sections for CD138, CD27, CD56, p27, Ki-67, CD3, and CD20. Each core was scored in duplicate by observers blinded to phenotype and reported as the average percentage of CD138+ cells. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine significance between groups. PCL showed significantly less immunostaining for CD27 (P < .01) and p27 (P < .05) compared with plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma. Low CD27 expression also was associated with plasmacytoma progression to multiple myeloma (P <.05). Our results support the hypothesis that low CD27 expression correlates with high-risk disease, including primary PCL and decreased progression-free survival in solitary plasmacytoma.

    View details for DOI 10.1309/ELGMGX81C2UTP55R

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240638900007

    View details for PubMedID 16938662

  • EBV can protect latently infected B cell lymphomas from death receptor-induced apoptosis JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Snow, A. L., Lambert, S. L., Natkunam, Y., Esquivel, C. O., Krams, S. M., Martinez, O. M. 2006; 177 (5): 3283-3293

    Abstract

    The relationship between EBV infection and sensitivity to death receptor (DR)-induced apoptosis is poorly understood. Using EBV- and EBV+ BJAB cells, we provide the first evidence that EBV can protect latently infected B cell lymphomas from apoptosis triggered through Fas or TRAIL receptors. Caspase 8 activation was impaired and cellular FLIP recruitment was enriched in death-inducing signaling complexes formed in EBV-infected BJAB cells relative to parent BJAB cells. Furthermore, latent membrane protein 1 expression alone could reduce caspase activation and confer partial resistance to DR apoptosis in BJAB cells. This protective effect was dependent on C-terminal activating region 2-driven NF-kappaB activation, which in turn up-regulated cellular FLIP expression in latent membrane protein 1+ BJAB cells. Thus, the ability of latent EBV to block DR apoptosis may help to ensure the survival of host cells during B cell differentiation, and contribute to the development of B cell lymphomas, especially in immunocompromised individuals.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240002800065

    View details for PubMedID 16920969

  • Jaw I/LRMP, a germinal centre-associated marker for the immunohistological study of B-cell lymphomas JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Tedoldi, S., Paterson, J. C., Cordell, J., Tan, S., Jones, M., Manek, S., Dei Tos, A. P., Roberton, H., Masir, N., Natkunam, Y., Pileri, S. A., Facchetti, F., Hansmann, M., Mason, D. Y., Marafioti, T. 2006; 209 (4): 454-463

    Abstract

    Jaw1, also known as lymphoid-restricted membrane protein (LRMP), is an endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein. High levels of Jaw1/LRMP mRNA have been found in germinal centre B-cells and in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of 'germinal centre' subtype. This paper documents Jaw1/LRMP expression at the protein level in human tissues by immunohistochemical and western blotting analysis using an antibody reactive with paraffin-embedded tissues. Jaw1/LRMP was highly expressed in germinal centre B-cells (in keeping with gene expression data), in 'monocytoid B-cells', and in splenic marginal zone B-cells. It was absent, or present at only low levels, in mature T-cells, although cortical thymocytes were weakly positive. Among lymphoid neoplasms, Jaw1/LRMP was found in germinal centre-derived lymphomas (follicle centre lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma, lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease) but not in T-cell neoplasms (with the exception of a single T lymphoblastic lymphoma). Classical Hodgkin's disease and myeloma lacked Jaw1/LRMP but many cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (but not mantle zone lymphoma) were Jaw1/LRMP-positive. Approximately half of the marginal zone lymphomas were Jaw1/LRMP-positive. In diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, Jaw1/LRMP was found in three-quarters (24/32) of the cases classified phenotypically as being of 'germinal centre' type, but it was also expressed in almost half (13/28) of the 'non-germinal centre' cases. A similar proportion of 'non-germinal centre' cases were positive for the protein products of two other genes expressed highly in germinal centre cells (HGAL/GCET2 and PAG). The fact that all three of these proteins are expressed in a significant proportion of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas assigned to the 'non-germinal centre' category indicates that the immunophenotypic categorization of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma according to cellular origin may be more complicated than currently understood. Finally, the expression of Jaw1/LRMP in other types of lymphoma and in non-lymphoid tissues/tumours may be of interest in differential diagnosis and research.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/path.2002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239669600005

    View details for PubMedID 16739114

  • Prognostic immunohistologic markers in human tumors: why are so few used in clinical practice? LABORATORY INVESTIGATION Natkunam, Y., Mason, D. Y. 2006; 86 (8): 742-747

    Abstract

    Technological advances in gene cloning and genome-wide analyses have greatly increased the number of new tumor markers that can be detected by immunohistologic techniques. While many of these have been evaluated with respect to prognosis, there is a striking discrepancy between the number of markers reported to confer prognostic information and those that are used in clinical practice. We argue that lessons learned from epidemiological studies are applicable to studies of immunohistologic markers; in particular, advances in both fields can be vitiated by non-causal associations. We suggest that the most valuable immunohistologic markers are those that reflect genetic abnormalities, that are linked to the cell of origin, or that reflect tumor infiltrating cells or stromal reactions. It should also be appreciated that a marker that is genuinely predictive of prognosis may nevertheless not find any application in clinical practice if it becomes obsolete through the introduction of newer therapies or because there is no choice of alternative treatment strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/labinvest.3700447

    View details for Web of Science ID 000239201300001

    View details for PubMedID 16855595

  • The differential expression of LCK and BAFF-receptor and their role in apoptosis in human lymphomas HAEMATOLOGICA-THE HEMATOLOGY JOURNAL Paterson, J. C., Tedoldi, S., Craxton, A., Jones, M., Hansmann, M., Collins, G., Roberton, H., Natkunam, Y., Pileri, S., Campo, E., Clark, E. A., Mason, D. Y., Marafioti, T. 2006; 91 (6): 772-780

    Abstract

    We explored the expression of LCK and BAFF-R (B-cell activating factor receptor) both of which are known to play a role in signaling and apoptosis, in routine tissue biopsies. It was hypothesized that their expression patterns might yield information on apoptosis as it occurs in normal and reactive lymphoid cells, and also be of value for the detection of lymphoma subtypes.Both molecules were studied in paraffin-embedded tissue sections and cell lines by immunoperoxidase staining, and were also studied by western blotting. Human tonsillar B-cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry for LCK expression.LCK was detected for the first time in germinal centers and, at lower levels, in mantle zone B cells. The presence of LCK in B cells was confirmed by western blotting. Cross-linking surface IgM reduced LCK expression whereas cross-linking surface CD40 appeared to have the opposite effect. BAFF-R was present on mantle zone B cells but absent or weakly expressed in germinal center cells. Most lymphomas of germinal center origin (e.g. follicular lymphoma) and also many mantle cell lymphomas, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and most T-cell neoplasms expressed LCK. In contrast, BAFF-R was expressed in a variety of B-cell lymphomas, but often absent in grade 3 follicular lymphomas and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). Both LCK-positive and BAFF-R-positive DLBCL tended to be of germinal-center phenotype.The reciprocal expression pattern of LCK and BAFF-R in germinal center and mantle zone B cells may reflect their opposing roles in apoptosis. Their detection in lymphoma tissue biopsies may therefore be of clinical relevance in predicting response to treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238322400017

    View details for PubMedID 16769579

  • CD10 expression in peripheral T-cell lymphomas complicated by a proliferation of large B-cells MODERN PATHOLOGY Reichard, K. K., Schwartz, E. J., Higgins, J. P., Narasimhan, B., Warnke, R. A., Natkunam, Y. 2006; 19 (3): 337-343

    Abstract

    CD10 expression by the neoplastic T cells in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma was recently described. As cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, fail to show similar CD10 expression, this feature helps discriminate between these two entities, particularly in cases exhibiting morphologic overlap. Given these findings, we studied CD10 expression in a subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma known as peripheral T-cell lymphoma complicated by a proliferation of large B cells and compared it with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with a large B-cell proliferation. A total of 33 cases were identified including peripheral T-cell lymphoma complicated by a proliferation of large B cells (10), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (10) and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with a large B-cell proliferation (13). Diagnoses were established by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, immunohistochemistry and/or molecular findings (polymerase chain reaction for T-cell receptor-gamma gene rearrangement). Two of 10 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma complicated by a proliferation of large B cells showed aberrant CD10 expression (20%) compared to 9/10 cases of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (90%) and 8/13 of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with a large B-cell proliferation (62%). One case each of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with a large B-cell proliferation showed a rare, but not unequivocal, CD10+ atypical cell. Four cases of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with a large B-cell proliferation were CD10 negative. Of the 2 CD10+ peripheral T-cell lymphoma complicated by a proliferation of large B cells, one had no H&E or IHC features of angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and showed only a rare positive cell. The second case, a lung biopsy, exhibited diffuse CD10 tumor cell positivity. The predominant staining pattern in the CD10+ cases was characterized by scattered, mostly individual, morphologically neoplastic cells. A rare case showed clusters of positive cells. Our data indicate that only 20% of cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma complicated by a proliferation of large B cells show CD10 expression by the neoplastic T cells in contrast to angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with a large B-cell proliferation which exhibit CD10 staining in 90 and 62% of cases, respectively. This finding does not reach statistical significance with a P-value of 0.57 (Fisher's exact test). As these entities appear to be biologically distinct and may portend different overall survivals, CD10 expression may serve as an additional discriminating criterion.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/modpathol.3800536

    View details for Web of Science ID 000235592800001

    View details for PubMedID 16400325

  • Loss of CD19 expression in B-cell neoplasms HISTOPATHOLOGY Masir, N., Marafioti, T., Jones, M., Natkunam, Y., Rudiger, T., Hansmann, M. L., Mason, D. Y. 2006; 48 (3): 239-246

    Abstract

    To investigate whether an antibody against an intracellular epitope can detect CD19 in routine biopsy specimens and thus to document in detail its expression in human lymphomas.A polyclonal antibody to the C terminus of CD19 was used to immunostain paraffin-embedded samples of normal and neoplastic lymphoid tissues. CD19 was widely expressed in normal B cells and in extramedullary plasma cells. It was found in most B-cell neoplasms, but expression in follicular lymphoma was weak (33/69) or negative (four cases). Similarly, CD19 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas was weak (28/56) or negative (eight cases). In T-cell-rich B-cell lymphomas, CD19 was also weak (4/10) or negative (three cases). CD19 was often absent in post-transplant B lymphoproliferative disease, classical Hodgkin's disease and plasma cell neoplasms. An unexpected finding was the frequent absence of CD19 in the neoplastic cells in lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's disease.CD19 can now be detected in routine biopsy specimens. In contrast to the classical pan-B marker CD20, CD19 is not always strongly expressed in B-cell neoplasms. Furthermore, the lymphocytic and histiocytic (L&H) cells of lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's disease (which express most B-cell-associated markers) commonly lack CD19.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2559.2005.02317.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234799900003

    View details for PubMedID 16430470

  • Transmembrane adaptor molecules: a new category of lymphoid-cell markers BLOOD Tedoldi, S., Paterson, J. C., Hansmann, M. L., Natkunam, Y., Rudiger, T., Angelisova, P., Du, M. Q., Roberton, H., Roncador, G., Sanchez, L., Pozzobon, M., Masir, N., Barry, R., Pileri, S., Mason, D. Y., Marafioti, T., HOREJSI, V. 2006; 107 (1): 213-221

    Abstract

    Transmembrane adaptor proteins (of which 7 have been identified so far) are involved in receptor signaling in immune cells. They have only a short extracellular region, with most of the molecule comprising a substantial intracytoplasmic region carrying multiple tyrosine residues that can be phosphorylated by Src- or Syk-family kinases. In this paper, we report an immunohistologic study of 6 of these molecules in normal and neoplastic human tissue sections and show that they are restricted to subpopulations of lymphoid cells, being present in either T cells (LAT, LIME, and TRIM), B cells (NTAL), or subsets of both cell types (PAG and SIT). Their expression in neoplastic lymphoid cells broadly reflects that of normal lymphoid tissue, including the positivity of plasma cells and myeloma/plasmacytoma for LIME, NTAL, PAG, and SIT. However, this study also revealed some reactions that may be of diagnostic/prognostic value. For example, lymphocytic lymphoma and mantle-cell lymphoma showed similar profiles but differed clearly from follicle-center lymphoma, whereas PAG tended to be selectively expressed in germinal center-derived subsets of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. These molecules represent a potentially important addition to the panel of immunophenotypic markers detectable in routine biopsies that can be used in hematopathologic studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2005-06-2273

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234235200040

    View details for PubMedID 16160011

  • Utility of syndecan-1 (CD138) expression in the diagnosis of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms - A tissue microarray study of 1,754 cases APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY Kambham, N., Kong, C., Longacre, T. A., Natkunam, Y. 2005; 13 (4): 304-310

    Abstract

    Syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate-rich membrane glycoprotein, is expressed in plasma cells and is considered a reliable marker of plasmacytic differentiation. However, it has not been widely tested in non-hematolymphoid tissues, and thus its utility in the setting of an undifferentiated malignant neoplasm has not been evaluated. The authors conducted an extensive study of CD138 staining in over 1,700 normal, benign, and malignant non-hematolymphoid tissues, using five tissue microarrays. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with two commercially available CD138 monoclonal antibodies directed against syndecan-1 (Serotec, Oxford, UK, and DAKO, Carpenteria, CA). In addition to the specific membrane staining, many normal tissues and epithelial tumors showed strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. A small subset of mesenchymal neoplasms also showed membrane and cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. In squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, renal cell carcinoma, and prostate adenocarcinoma, the intensity of CD138 staining inversely correlated with the histologic grade of the carcinoma. However, statistically significant staining differences and their correlation with histologic grades differed depending on whether the Serotec or the DAKO antibody was used. These results indicate that CD138 immunoreactivity is widespread in normal and neoplastic epithelial tissues, as well as a variety of undifferentiated epithelial and mesenchymal processes. The authors conclude that the expression of syndecan-1, although relatively specific to plasma cells within the hematolymphoid system, should be interpreted with extreme caution in the setting of an undifferentiated neoplasm. Furthermore, the two commercially available monoclonal CD138 antibodies tested in this study showed significant differences in their immunoreactivity in different tumor types.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233572700002

    View details for PubMedID 16280658

  • Follicular dendritic cell immunohistochemical markers in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY Troxell, M. L., Schwartz, E. J., van de Ruin, M., Ross, D. T., Warnke, R. A., Higgins, J. P., Natkunam, Y. 2005; 13 (4): 297-303

    Abstract

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma is characterized by a paracortical proliferation of medium to large neoplastic T cells, often with clear cytoplasm, in a background of arborizing high endothelial venules, many surrounded by follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). IHC staining may be applied to highlight these extrafollicular FDCs, traditionally using CD21, or CD23. Several alternative FDC markers have been described, including CNA.42, cystatin A/acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor (ACPI, involved in antigen presentation), and fascin (an actin binding protein). The authors stained a collection of 45 angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas with CD21, CD23, CNA.42, cystatin A, and fascin for direct comparison of FDC staining characteristics in this setting. CD21 highlighted the expected dendritic network of cell processes, within residual follicles and outside of follicles, often adjacent to proliferating vessels. CD23 exhibited similar staining quality but was less sensitive than CD21. CNA.42 showed only diffuse weak labeling of FDCs. Cystatin A stained the cytoplasm of follicular dendritic cells within and outside of follicles; however, staining was often not sharply localized to dendritic cell processes, and scoring was further complicated by reactivity with other cell types in over half of the cases. Likewise, fascin stained a variety of cell types, including strong staining of interdigitating dendritic-like cells, moderate staining of endothelial cells, and only weak staining of follicular dendritic cells within and outside of follicles. Thus, CD21 remains the most reliable marker of follicular dendritic cells in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233572700001

    View details for PubMedID 16280657

  • TMA-combiner, a simple software tool to permit analysis of replicate cores on tissue microarrays MODERN PATHOLOGY Liu, C. L., Montgomery, K. D., Natkunam, Y., West, R. B., Nielsen, T. O., Cheang, M. C., Turbin, D. A., Marinelli, R. J., van de Rijn, M., Higgins, J. P. 2005; 18 (12): 1641-1648

    Abstract

    We have previously published a suite of software tools that facilitates the reformulation of tissue microarray (TMA) data so that it may be analyzed using techniques originally devised for analysis of cDNA microarray data. However, current microarray data often feature multiple scores for a given tissue sample and antibody combination. Furthermore, an efficient and systematic method for combining scores that takes into account the differing staining properties of tissue epitopes has not been described. We thus present the TMA-Combiner, a new Microsoft Excel-based macro that permits analysis of data for which tissues may have two or more scores per antibody, and permits combination of data from multiple different tissue microarrays. It accomplishes this by rendering one score per tissue per antibody from two or more scores, using one of multiple user-selectable combination rules developed to account for the differing staining properties of tissue epitopes. This greatly facilitates analysis of tissue microarrays, particularly for users with large repositories of data, and may facilitate discovery of biological trends and help refine diagnostic accuracy of tissue markers in clinical samples.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/modpathol.3800491

    View details for Web of Science ID 000233372100016

    View details for PubMedID 16258508

  • Cytologic diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma. Cancer Troxell, M. L., Bangs, C. D., Cherry, A. M., Natkunam, Y., Kong, C. S. 2005; 105 (5): 310-318

    Abstract

    The diagnosis and classification of lymphoma require correlation of morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular-cytogenetic studies. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a valuable diagnostic technique that allows material to be collected for these ancillary studies, and for morphologic evaluation.The authors report a series of seven cases clinically or morphologically suspicious for Burkitt lymphoma. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies (FISH) for c-myc were performed on FNAB material and correlated with cytologic and immunophenotypic data.Six of seven specimens were positive for c-myc rearrangement by FISH. However, only three of these cases represented Burkitt lymphoma, with one additional case of atypical Burkitt lymphoma. The other cases included diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, monomorphic posttransplant B-cell lymphoma, and an aggressive B-cell lymphoma, with the latter case negative for c-myc rearrangement by FISH. Of 2 non-Burkitt lymphoma specimens tested, 1 was positive for the immunoglobulin H/bcl-2 rearrangement, in addition to the c-myc rearrangement, suggesting transformation from a lower grade lymphoma.These cases illustrated the value of FNAB in the diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma, as well as the importance of obtaining material for, and integrating results of, ancillary studies for the final diagnosis.

    View details for PubMedID 15986398

  • Treatment of verruca vulgaris with topical cidofovir in an immunlocompromised patient: a case report and review of the literature TRANSPLANT INFECTIOUS DISEASE Cha, S., Johnston, L., Natkunam, Y., Brown, J. 2005; 7 (3-4): 158-161

    Abstract

    Lesions caused by verrucus vulgaris are commonly refractory to therapy and may become large, painful, or disfiguring in immunocompromised patients. Cidofovir is a potent nucleoside analog antiviral agent shown to have in vitro and in vivo activity against a broad spectrum of DNA viruses. We report a successful use of topical cidofovir to treat verruca vulgaris lesions in a highly immunocompromised patient, who was not considered a candidate for conventional therapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236936200012

    View details for PubMedID 16390407

  • Low levels of Her2/neu expressed by Ewing's family tumor cell lines can redirect cytokine-induced killer cells CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Verneris, M. R., Arshi, A., Edinger, M., Kornacker, M., Natkunam, Y., Karami, M., Cao, Y. A., Marina, N., Contag, C. H., Negrin, R. S. 2005; 11 (12): 4561-4570

    Abstract

    To identify novel treatments for pediatric solid tumors and/or for malignancies with low-level Her2/neu expression.Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting and immunohistochemistry, Her2/neu expression was determined on cell lines derived vfrom Ewing's family tumors (EFT) and neuroblastoma. Sensitivity to trastuzumab treatment was investigated using an in vitro proliferation assay. Cytotoxicity against EFT cell lines was done with either freshly isolated or ex vivo activated and expanded T cells (cytokine-induced killer cells, CIK cells), with or without addition of a CD3xHer2/neu bispecific antibody. The effects of either trastuzumab, CIK cells alone, or CD3xHer2/neu bispecific antibody redirected CIK cells was determined using a SCID/hu model of EFTs and serial, noninvasive bioluminescent imaging.EFT cell lines express 5- to 10-fold lower levels of her2/neu than either breast (BT-474) or ovarian (SK-OV-3) cell lines. Treatment of EFT cell lines with trastuzumab did not induce growth inhibition either in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, Her2/neu could be used to redirect CIK cell to mediate cytotoxicity against EFTs both in vitro and in vivo (using two different treatment schemas).CD3xHer2/neu bispecific antibody and CIK cells may be a suitable approach to treat malignancies with low-level Her2/neu expression not responsive to trastuzumab.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229725900037

    View details for PubMedID 15958642

  • Expression of the human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) protein, a new marker of germinal center B-cell derivation BLOOD Natkunam, Y., Lossos, L. S., Taidi, B., Zhao, S. C., Lu, X. Q., Ding, F. Y., Hammer, A. S., Marafioti, T., Byrne, G. E., Levy, S., Warnke, R. A., Levy, R. 2005; 105 (10): 3979-3986

    Abstract

    We identified the human germinal center-associated lymphoma (HGAL) in gene-expression profiling studies of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The expression of HGAL correlated with survival in patients with DLBCL. The HGAL gene is the human homolog of M17, a mouse gene expressed specifically in normal germinal center (GC) B cells. We generated a monoclonal antibody against the HGAL protein and show that HGAL is expressed in the cytoplasm of GC lymphocytes and in lymphomas of GC derivation. Among 727 lymphomas tested by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, HGAL staining was found in follicular lymphomas (103 of 107), Burkitt lymphomas (40 of 40), mediastinal large B lymphomas (7 of 8), and in DLBCLs (103 of 151). Most marginal zone lymphomas lacked HGAL staining. Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphomas (12 of 17) and, surprisingly, classical Hodgkin lymphomas (78 of 107) were found to be positive. Hierarchical clustering of comparative immunohistologic results in DLBCLs demonstrates that the expression of HGAL is similar to 2 other GC-associated proteins, BCL6 and CD10, but different from 2 markers associated with a non-GC phenotype, MUM1/IRF4 and BCL2. The restricted expression and GC specificity of HGAL protein suggest that it may have an important role in the diagnosis of specific lymphomas, and, potentially in the identification of subtypes associated with different prognoses.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2004-08-3112

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229009000042

    View details for PubMedID 15677569

  • Expression pattern of intracellular leukocyte-associated proteins in primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma LEUKEMIA Marafioti, T., Pozzobon, M., Hansmann, M. L., Gaulard, P., Barth, T. F., Copie-Bergman, C., Roberton, H., Ventura, R., Martin-Subero, J. I., Gascoyne, R. D., Pileri, S. A., Siebert, R., Hsi, E. D., Natkunam, Y., Moller, P., Mason, D. Y. 2005; 19 (5): 856-861

    Abstract

    Two microarray studies of mediastinal B cell lymphoma have shown that this disease has a distinct gene expression profile, and also that this is closest to the pattern seen in classical Hodgkin's disease. We reported previously an immunohistologic study in which the loss of intracellular B cell-associated signaling molecules in Reed-Sternberg cells was demonstrated, and in this study we have investigated the expression of the same components in more than 60 mediastinal B cell lymphomas. We report that these signaling molecules are frequently present, and in particular that Syk, BLNK and PLC-gamma2 (absent from Reed-Sternberg cells) are present in the majority of mediastinal B cell lymphomas. The overall pattern of B cell signaling molecules in this disease is therefore closer to that of diffuse large B cell lymphoma than to Hodgkin's disease, and is consistent with a common cell of origin as an explanation of the similar gene expression profiles.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/sj.leu.2403702

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228692500024

    View details for PubMedID 15744341

  • Expression of CD163 (hemoglobin scavenger receptor) in normal tissues, lymphomas, carcinomas, and sarcomas is largely restricted to the monocyte/macrophage lineage AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Nguyen, T. D., Schwartz, E. J., West, R. B., Warnke, R. A., Arber, D. A., Natkunam, Y. 2005; 29 (5): 617-624

    Abstract

    CD163, a hemoglobin scavenger receptor, is expressed in monocytes and macrophages. We tested the expression of the CD163 protein in 1,105 human malignancies and normal tissues using tissue microarrays and conventional paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Besides staining nonneoplastic monocytes and histiocytes (tissue macrophages), membranous/cytoplasmic staining for CD163 was primarily limited to neoplasms with monocytic/histiocytic differentiation. CD163 reactivity was not observed in normal tissues, lymphomas, carcinomas, and in a majority of mesenchymal neoplasms, including follicular dendritic cell tumors (0 of 4), although it stained admixed histiocytes. Staining for CD163 was seen in Rosai-Dorfman disease (5 of 6), histiocytic sarcoma (3 of 4), littoral cell angioma (6 of 6), and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (3 of 5). A subset of atypical fibrous histiocytomas (9 of 16), benign fibrous histiocytomas (6 of 9), and atypical fibroxanthomas (1 of 3) also showed CD163 staining. Our studies also confirm earlier work showing that CD163 is expressed in acute myeloid leukemia with monocytic differentiation (AML, FAB subtype M5) (2 of 6), as well as a majority of giant cell tenosynovial tumors (7 of 8). Its limited range of expression and tissue specificity indicate that CD163 may have significant diagnostic utility in separating specific tumors with monocytic and histiocytic derivation from other entities in their differential diagnosis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000228707200007

    View details for PubMedID 15832085

  • Expression of the bcl-6 and MUM1/IRF4 proteins correlate with overall and disease-specific survival in patients with primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphoma: a tissue microarray study JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY Sundram, U., Kim, Y., Mraz-Gernhard, S., Hoppe, R., Natkunam, Y., Kohler, S. 2005; 32 (3): 227-234

    Abstract

    Systemic B-cell lymphomas have been studied using microarrays, which has led to a better understanding of their molecular characteristics. Initial microarray studies of these lymphomas have implicated several genes as important predictors of outcome. In this study, we used a tissue microarray (TMA) to characterize primary cutaneous large B-cell lymphomas (PCLBCL).We studied 14 patients for whom clinical follow up was available, including four patients whose lesions were limited to the leg on presentation. Immunohistochemical staining with CD20, CD44, CD21, CD5, CD10, bcl-2, bcl-6, Ki67, p53, and multiple myeloma 1 (MUM1) was examined.Our results identify two subgroups of lymphomas. The first group showed staining with bcl-6 and had an overall survival of 176 months (p = 0.003). The majority of this group was negative for MUM1. The second group lacked staining with bcl-6 and had an overall survival of 26 months, with a majority of these cases staining with MUM1. Three of four patients with PCLBCL of the leg showed no staining with bcl-6.Our study demonstrates the utility of TMAs in the analysis of PCLBCL and that expression of bcl-6 and MUM1 correlates with survival.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226857100005

    View details for PubMedID 15701085

  • A novel method for making "tissue" microarrays from small numbers of suspension cells APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY Montgomery, K., Zhao, S. C., van de Rijn, M., Natkunam, Y. 2005; 13 (1): 80-84

    Abstract

    Tissue microarrays (TMAs) are a highly efficient method for large-scale protein expression studies. To date most TMAs have been constructed using paraffin-embedded specimens. The authors developed a method that allows construction of TMAs from small numbers of cells in suspension. Spun pellets of 1x10 to 1x10 cells are directly processed and embedded in paraffin in an Eppendorf tube. Cylindrical cores of 0.6 mm are taken from these tubes and embedded in a recipient paraffin block to create a TMA. This relatively simple but versatile method enables very small numbers of cells in suspension to be analyzed using the TMA technology and allows for the study of hematolymphoid and related disorders of the blood and bone marrow for which solid tissue samples cannot be readily obtained. With the increasing trend toward obtaining small samples for screening and diagnostic purposes, this method provides a means to manipulate small volume samples for high-throughput immunohistochemical analysis. This method is also amenable for use for cultured cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227276000013

    View details for PubMedID 15722798

  • The NFATc1 transcription factor is widely expressed in white cells and translocates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in a subset of human lymphomas BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Marafiot, T., Pozzobon, M., Hansmann, M. L., Ventura, R., Pileri, S. A., Roberton, H., Gesk, S., Gaulard, P., Barth, T. F., Du, M. Q., Leoncini, L., Moller, P., Natkunam, Y., Siebert, R., Mason, D. Y. 2005; 128 (3): 333-342

    Abstract

    Stimulation of lymphoid cells via their surface receptors triggers signalling pathways that terminate in the nucleus, where they induce alterations in gene transcription. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factors, involved in a major Ca2+-dependent signalling pathway, normally reside in the cytoplasm but re-locate to the nucleus when activation of the pathway (e.g. following ligation of antigen receptors) leads to their dephosphorylation. This study found that one member of the NFAT family (NFATc1/NFAT2) can be detected in routine biopsy samples, where it is seen in essentially all lymphoid cells, but is absent from the great majority of non-haematopoietic cells. An immunohistological evaluation of NFATc1 in almost 300 lymphomas showed that most neoplastic lymphoid cells also express NFATc1 as a cytoplasmic constituent, although it is absent in classical Hodgkin's disease and plasma cell proliferations. Of particular interest was the finding that NFATc1 was relocated to the nucleus in a minority of lymphoid neoplasms (usually diffuse large B-cell lymphomas or Burkitt lymphoma), presumably reflecting activation of the NFAT pathway. It would be of interest to correlate this feature with patterns of gene expression and also with prognosis, since it may identify a subset of human lymphoma that is distinct in its molecular and clinical features.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2004.05313.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226513100007

    View details for PubMedID 15667535

  • Expression pattern of FCRL (FREB, FcRX) in normal and neoplastic human B cells BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Masir, N., Jones, M., Pozzobon, M., Marafioti, T., Volkova, O. Y., Mechetina, L. V., Hansmann, M. L., Natkunam, Y., Taranin, A. V., Mason, D. Y. 2004; 127 (3): 335-343

    Abstract

    FCRL (also known as FREB and FcRX) is a recently described member of the family of Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G (IgG). In the present study we analysed its expression in normal and neoplastic lymphoid tissue using immunohistochemical techniques. FCRL was preferentially expressed in a proportion of germinal centre cells and, more weakly, in mantle zone B cells. In addition, strong labelling was observed in marginal zone B cells in the spleen, representing one of the few markers for this cell type. The majority of cases of small B-cell lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's disease were positive for FCRL. However, the number of positive cells varied widely, and in consequence we could not define a cut-off that distinguished subsets of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Our results also showed that FCRL tended to be negative in T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma and in classical Hodgkin's disease. FCRL may therefore represent a novel marker for normal B cells (e.g. splenic marginal zone cells) and may also be useful as a potential marker of B-cell neoplasms.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2004.05193.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224484800012

    View details for PubMedID 15491296

  • Immunophenotypic and genotypic characterization of progression in follicular lymphomas APPLIED IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR MORPHOLOGY Natkunam, Y., Soslow, R., Matolcsy, A. A., Dolezal, M., Bhargava, V., Knowles, D. M., Warnke, R. 2004; 12 (2): 97-104

    Abstract

    Progression of follicular lymphomas (FLs) is often accompanied by a spectrum of histologic changes and an aggressive clinical course. Although molecular alterations have been implicated in this event, the underlying factors are largely unknown. We studied the expression of selected tumor suppressor genes (P53 and retinoblastoma [RB]), oncogenes (MYC and BCL2), and a transferrin-receptor related protein (Trump) in sequential biopsies in 16 patients. Eleven patients progressed from grade I or II FL to aggressive B-cell lymphomas with diffuse morphology, whereas 5 patients presented with diffuse aggressive lymphomas and recurred with indolent lymphomas. Immunoreactivity for P53 correlated with higher histologic grade in lymphomas progressing from indolent to aggressive; however, only 1 patient who presented with aggressive lymphoma demonstrated a P53 gene mutation. Neither P53 immunoreactivity nor genotypic alterations correlated with presentation with an aggressive histology and relapse with FL. Growth fraction, as assessed by Ki-67 staining, and Trump expression correlated with histologic grade. Immunoreactivity for RB, BCL2, and MYC was seldom associated with progression. Eight of 9 cases tested exhibited identical immunoglobulin heavy and light chain rearrangements or identical BCL2 gene rearrangements in the sequential lymphomas. We conclude that P53 and Trump protein expression and proliferation activity correlate with histologic grade, but not with recurrence or progression of FL. Our results further indicate that progression of FL to diffuse aggressive lymphomas and presentation of an aggressive B-cell lymphoma followed by FL are clonally related.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221718400001

    View details for PubMedID 15354733

  • Intracellular signalling molecules as immunohistochemical markers of normal and neoplastic human leucocytes in routine biopsy samples BRITISH JOURNAL OF HAEMATOLOGY Pozzobon, M., Marafioti, T., Hansmann, M. L., Natkunam, Y., Mason, D. Y. 2004; 124 (4): 519-533

    Abstract

    We have investigated whether intracellular signal transduction molecules can be used as immunohistological markers of normal and neoplastic human leucocytes in routine tissue sections. We obtained selective labelling of white cells for eight such molecules (the 'linker' molecules SLP-76 and BLNK, the Src family kinases Lyn, Fyn, Syk and Hck, and the phospholipases PLC-gamma1 and PLC-gamma2). Antibodies to SLP-76 and PLC-gamma1 selectively labelled T cells, and antibodies to BLNK, Lyn, Fyn, Syk and PLC-gamma2 labelled B cells (although Fyn immunostaining was restricted to mantle zone B cells). Antibodies to the Syk and Hck kinases labelled probable thymocyte precursors at the periphery of the thymic cortex. In addition to lymphoid cells, several other leucocyte types were immunostained (e.g. SLP-76, Lyn, Syk and Hck were found in megakaryocytes, myeloid cells and/or macrophages, and PLC-gamma2 was detected in arterial endothelium). SLP-76 and PLC-gamma1 were found in most T-cell lymphomas studied, and some B-cell lymphomas were also positive for PLC-gamma1 (e.g. diffuse large cell and Burkitt's lymphoma). The five B cell-associated markers were found in most B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, although some diffuse large B-cell lymphomas were negative (e.g. for Lyn) and anti-Fyn tended not to stain small B-cell neoplasms. The observation that a range of leucocyte signalling molecules can be detected in routine biopsies offers new possibilities for studying normal and neoplastic human white cells in diagnostic tissue samples.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2141.2004.04802.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188539200014

    View details for PubMedID 14984504

  • Atypical cellular disorders. Hematology / the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program McClain, K. L., Natkunam, Y., Swerdlow, S. H. 2004: 283-296

    Abstract

    Some immunologic diseases are characterized by profound loss or primary dysfunction of a given population of cells. The atypical cellular disorders discussed here all bear some similarities in that abnormal proliferations of lymphocytes and macrophages or dendritic cells result in lymphadenopathy, skin rashes, bone lesions and infiltrations of nearly any other organ system. What are the similarities and the differences between Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) or Rosai-Dorfman disease, and Castleman's disease (CD)? Studies on LCH have some advantages since it was described before the others, and organized clinical trials have been done since the 1980s. The understanding of SHML benefited from a registry maintained by Drs. Rosai and Dorfman. CD was described fifty years ago and for one subtype has the most clearly defined etiology (HHV-8 infection) of the three atypical cellular disorders discussed here. In Section I, Dr. Kenneth McClain examines the unanswered question of whether LCH is a malignant clonal disorder or an inflammatory response triggered by aberrant cytokine expression or a virus. Advocates of the malignant proliferation theory rest their case primarily on the following two points: Clonality of the CD1a+ Langerhans cells was demonstrated by analysis of the human androgen receptor in patients with single bone lesions (Low Risk) or multisystem disease including spleen, liver, bone marrow, or lung (High Risk). Although no consistent chromosomal abnormalities have been reported, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) has been defined by comparative genomic hybridization. Those in the "inflammatory response" camp note that non-clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in adult pulmonary LCH also have LOH by the same method. The pathologic cells have not been successfully grown in culture or immune-deficient mice and don't have a "malignant" morphology. While the basic scientific arguments continue, important advances in the treatment of LCH have been made by international collaborations of the Histiocyte Society. Risk groups have been clearly defined and the response to therapy after the initial 6 weeks is known to be the strongest prognostic variable for outcome. In Section II, Dr. Yasodha Natkunam reviews the features of SHML, which most often presents as painless cervical lymphadenopathy, although many patients can have extranodal involvement as well. These sites include the skin, respiratory tract, bone, lung, gastrointestinal tract, and brain. The diagnosis rests on finding intact lymphocytes in the cytoplasm of activated macrophages as well as accumulation of mature plasma cells. Hemolytic or non-hemolytic anemias, hypergammaglobulinemia, and elevated erythrocyte sedimentatin rate (ESR) are often found with SHML. An intriguing finding of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 viral proteins in SHML has been reported in several patients, but needs further study. SHML associated with lymphoproliferations triggered by defects in apoptosis are discussed since this mechanism may provide a clue to the etiology. Therapy for SHML varies greatly in reported case series. Many patients have spontaneous regression or resolution after surgical removal of isolated node groups. Others with systemic involvement may benefit from chemotherapy, but no clinical trials have been done. In Section III, Dr. Steven Swerdlow clarifies key features of the four types of CD. Localized cases are divided into the hyaline vascular type and plasma cell type. Both are usually cured by surgical excision and have symptoms mainly of a mass lesion, although the latter often also has constitutional symptoms. The two types are distinguished largely by the nature of the follicles and the number of interfollicular plasma cells. Interleukin (IL)-6 expression is increased in the plasma cell type. Multicentric CD of the plasmablastic type is most often found in HIV-positive patients with coincident HHV-8 infection. Many have lymphomas or Kaposi sarcomas. Other cases of multicentric CD are also most like the plasma cell type, however, with disseminated disease and constitutional symptoms. A wide variety of anti-neoplastic drugs, radiation therapy, anti-IL-6 and rituximab or atlizumab have been used with varying success in patients with multicentric CD. Clinical trials are needed for SHML and CD and registration of adult and pediatric patients on current LCH trials are encouraged.

    View details for PubMedID 15561688

  • Characterization of variant patterns of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma with immunohistologic and clinical correlation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Fan, Z., Natkunam, Y., Bair, E., Tibshirani, R., Warnke, R. A. 2003; 27 (10): 1346-1356

    Abstract

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) has traditionally been recognized as having two morphologic patterns, nodular and diffuse, and the current WHO definition of NLPHL requires at least a partial nodular pattern. Variant patterns have not been well documented. We analyzed retrospectively the morphologic and immunophenotypic patterns of NLPHL from 118 patients (total of 137 biopsy samples). Histology plus antibodies directed against CD20, CD3, and CD21 were used to evaluate the immunoarchitecture. We identified six distinct immunoarchitectural patterns in our cases of NLPHL: "classic" (B-cell-rich) nodular, serpiginous/interconnected nodular, nodular with prominent extranodular L&H cells, T-cell-rich nodular, diffuse with a T-cell-rich background (T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma [TCRBCL]-like), and a (diffuse) B-cell-rich pattern. Small germinal centers within neoplastic nodules were found in approximately 15% of cases, a finding not previously emphasized in NLPHL. Prominent sclerosis was identified in approximately 20% of cases and was frequently seen in recurrent disease. Clinical follow-up was obtained on 56 patients, including 26 patients who had not had recurrence of disease and 30 patients who had recurrence. The follow-up period was 5 months to 16 years (median 2.5 years). The presence of a diffuse (TCRBCL-like) pattern was significantly more common in patients with recurrent disease than those without recurrence. Furthermore, the presence of a diffuse pattern (TCRBCL-like) was shown to be an independent predictor of recurrent disease (P = 0.00324). In addition, there is a tendency for progression to an increasingly more diffuse pattern over time. Analysis of sequential biopsies from patients with recurrent disease suggests that the presence of prominent extranodular L&H cells might represent early evolution to a diffuse (TCRBCL-like) pattern. We also report three patients who presented initially with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and later developed NLPHL.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185584800007

    View details for PubMedID 14508396

  • Plasmablastic lymphoma presenting in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient: a case report ANNALS OF HEMATOLOGY Nguyen, D. D., Loo, B. W., Tillman, G., Natkunam, Y., Cao, T. M., Vaughan, W., Dorfman, R. F., Goffinet, D. R., Jacobs, C. D., Advani, R. H. 2003; 82 (8): 521-525

    Abstract

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL), an aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that carries a poor prognosis, previously has been identified almost exclusively in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We present a case of a 42-year-old HIV-negative patient presenting with an isolated nasal cavity mass, the typical presentation for PBL. The patient was given systemic chemotherapy, central nervous system prophylaxis, and consolidative locoregional radiotherapy and achieved a complete clinical response. This case suggests PBL should be considered in HIV-negative patients with characteristic findings.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00277-003-0684-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184757100013

    View details for PubMedID 12783213

  • Expression of the B-cell proliferation marker MUM1 by melanocytic lesions and comparison with S100, gp100 (HMB45), and MelanA MODERN PATHOLOGY Sundram, U., Harvell, J. D., Rouse, R. V., Natkunam, Y. 2003; 16 (8): 802-810

    Abstract

    The diagnosis of malignant melanoma remains one of the most difficult to render in surgical pathology, partially because of its extreme histologic variability. Limits in the sensitivity and/or specificity of the currently available melanocytic markers such as anti-S100, HMB45, and anti-MelanA further complicate this problem. Previous work has demonstrated that the B-cell proliferation/differentiation marker MUM1/IRF4 is detected in malignant melanoma and hematolymphoid malignancies, but not in any other neoplasm tested (including colonic, lung, breast, and ovarian carcinomas). In the current study, we have examined MUM1 protein expression in 61 melanocytic lesions and compared the diagnostic usefulness of this marker with that of anti-S100, HMB45, and anti-MelanA. The results indicate that MUM1 is positive in 33/36 (92%) cases of melanoma (21/22 [95%] conventional primary melanomas and 12/14 [86%] metastatic melanomas). In comparison, positivity was seen with anti-S100 in 36/36 cases (100%, 22 primary and 14 metastatic), HMB45 in 28 cases (78%, 17 primary and 11 metastatic), and anti-MelanA in 27 cases (75%, 19 primary and 8 metastatic). Although negative in schwannomas, neurofibromas, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, MUM1 is detected in only one in eight cases of spindle cell and desmoplastic melanomas. With the exception of desmoplastic and spindle cell melanomas, MUM1 appears to be a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical stain for melanocytic lesions and may prove to be a useful addition to the current panel of melanoma markers.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.MP.0000081726.49886.CF

    View details for Web of Science ID 000185084000010

    View details for PubMedID 12920225

  • Rapamycin inhibits the interleukin 10 signal transduction pathway and the growth of Epstein Barr virus B-cell lymphomas CANCER RESEARCH Nepomuceno, R. R., Balatoni, C. E., Natkunam, Y., Snow, A. L., Krams, S. M., Martinez, O. M. 2003; 63 (15): 4472-4480

    Abstract

    EBV-infected B-cell lymphomas are a potentially life-threatening complication in bone marrow and solid organ transplant recipients. Immunosuppressive drugs required to prevent allograft rejection also impair anti-EBV T-cell immunity, thereby increasing the risk of EBV-associated disease. Here we demonstrate that the immunosuppressant rapamycin (RAPA) has a strong antiproliferative effect in vitro on B-cell lines derived from organ transplant recipients with EBV-associated posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). Furthermore, RAPA significantly inhibits or delays the growth of solid tumors established from EBV-infected B-cell lines in a xenogeneic mouse model of PTLD. RAPA acts via cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and, most importantly, inhibition of interleukin 10 secretion, a necessary autocrine growth factor. The reduced interleukin 10 production is accompanied by corresponding decreases in the constitutive activation of the growth-promoting transcription factors signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 3. Thus, RAPA can limit B-cell lymphoma growth while simultaneously providing immunosuppression to prevent graft rejection in patients who are otherwise at risk for EBV-associated PTLD. Moreover, these findings may have application to other EBV-associated malignancies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184562500028

    View details for PubMedID 12907620

  • Rituximab in lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease: results of a phase 2 trial BLOOD Ekstrand, B. C., Lucas, J. B., Horwitz, S. M., Fan, Z., Breslin, S., Hoppe, R. T., Natkunam, Y., Bartlett, N. L., Horning, S. J. 2003; 101 (11): 4285-4289

    Abstract

    Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease (LPHD) is a unique clinical entity characterized by indolent nodal disease that tends to relapse after standard radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The malignant cells of LPHD are CD20+ and therefore rituximab may have activity with fewer late effects than standard therapy. In this phase 2 trial, 22 patients with CD20+ LPHD received 4 weekly doses of rituximab at 375 mg/m2. Ten patients had previously been treated for Hodgkin disease, while 12 patients had untreated disease. All 22 patients responded to rituximab (overall response rate, 100%) with complete response (CR) in 9 (41%), unconfirmed complete response in 1 (5%), and partial response in 12 (54%). Acute treatment-related adverse events were minimal. With a median follow-up of 13 months, 9 patients had relapsed, and estimated median freedom from progression was 10.2 months. Progressive disease was biopsied in 5 patients: 3 had recurrent LPHD, while 2 patients had transformation to large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (LCL). All 3 patients with recurrent LPHD were retreated with rituximab, with a second CR seen in 1 patient and stable disease in 2. Rituximab induced prompt tumor reduction in each of 22 LPHD patients with minimal acute toxicity; however, based on the relatively short response duration seen in our trial and the concerns about transformation, rituximab should be considered investigational treatment for LPHD. Further clinical trials are warranted to determine the optimal dosing schedule of rituximab, the potential for combination treatment, and the possible relationship of rituximab treatment to the development of LCL.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2002-08-2644

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183072800018

    View details for PubMedID 12586628

  • Software tools for high-throughput analysis and archiving of immunohistochemistry staining data obtained with tissue microarrays AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Liu, C. L., Prapong, W., Natkunam, Y., Alizadeh, A., Montgomery, K., Gilks, C. B., van de Rijn, M. 2002; 161 (5): 1557-1565

    Abstract

    The creation of tissue microarrays (TMAs) allows for the rapid immunohistochemical analysis of thousands of tissue samples, with numerous different antibodies per sample. This technical development has created a need for tools to aid in the analysis and archival storage of the large amounts of data generated. We have developed a comprehensive system for high-throughput analysis and storage of TMA immunostaining data, using a combination of commercially available systems and novel software applications developed in our laboratory specifically for this purpose. Staining results are recorded directly into an Excel worksheet and are reformatted by a novel program (TMA-Deconvoluter) into a format suitable for hierarchical clustering analysis or other statistical analysis. Hierarchical clustering analysis is a powerful means of assessing relatedness within groups of tumors, based on their immunostaining with a panel of antibodies. Other analyses, such as generation of survival curves, construction of Cox regression models, or assessment of intra- or interobserver variation, can also be done readily on the reformatted data. Finally, the immunoprofile of a specific case can be rapidly retrieved from the archives and reviewed through the use of Stainfinder, a novel web-based program that creates a direct link between the clustered data and a digital image database. An on-line demonstration of this system is available at http://genome-www.stanford.edu/TMA/explore.shtml.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179197000006

    View details for PubMedID 12414504

  • The usefulness of immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of follicular lymphoma in bone marrow biopsy specimens AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY West, R. B., Warnke, R. A., Natkunam, Y. 2002; 117 (4): 636-643

    Abstract

    We used a panel of paraffin antibodies to determine whether neoplastic and nonneoplastic lymphoid aggregates in the bone marrow can be distinguished reliably. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded bone marrow core biopsy specimens with lymphoid aggregates were stained using primary antibodies directed against bcl-2, bcl-6, CD5, CD10, CD20, and CD23. We studied 61 cases (26 follicular lymphoma and 35 benign or atypical aggregates). We found that no single stain is sufficient for identification of neoplastic lymphoid aggregates. However, this distinction was made possible by using a panel of antibodies. Under the conditions we tested, the most useful antibodies were CD10, bcl-2, CD5, and CD20. Most benign or atypical aggregates do not express CD10 and CD23. In addition, nonneoplastic aggregates had a large population of T cells. bcl-2 was useful in an architectural context for distinguishing neoplastic aggregates. bcl-6 often was expressed in both neoplastic and nonneoplastic aggregates and, thus, poorly discriminated between these processes. We studied the expression of CD10 and bcl-6 in selected lymph nodes in some cases.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174715000018

    View details for PubMedID 11939740

  • Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with endothelial bcl-2 expression in transplant liver allografts TRANSPLANTATION Millan, M. T., Natkunam, Y., Clarke-Katzenberg, R., Desai, D., Prapong, W., So, S. K., Esquivel, C. O., Sibley, R., Ferran, C., Martinez, O. M. 2002; 73 (3): 465-469

    Abstract

    In liver transplant recipients with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) disease, we reported a low rate of acute rejection after stopping or markedly lowering immunosuppression. This observation led to the hypothesis that EBV, as a means of viral persistence, induces expression of antiapoptotic factors and these factors, in turn, confer protection to the transplanted organ. Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic factor induced by EBV in various host cells, is not normally expressed in the liver. We questioned whether bcl-2 is expressed in the transplanted liver and whether its expression is modified by EBV.Retrospective liver biopsy specimen from liver transplant patients diagnosed with EBV (n=12) were examined for the presence of bcl-2 by immunohistochemistry and compared with EBV (-) transplant (n=15), and nontransplant (n=13) livers.The most significant finding was the presence of endothelial bcl-2 expression in the majority of EBV (+) transplant samples examined (67%) and its relative absence in the other two groups (P<0.005). There was also bcl-2 expression in the hepatocytes and lymphocytes of the majority of transplant liver samples, irrespective of EBV status.We have identified a strong association between EBV infection and endothelial bcl-2 expression in transplant livers. We also found that transplantation, in itself, was associated with bcl-2 expression in the hepatocytes and lymphocytes of liver allografts.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174115400023

    View details for PubMedID 11884946

  • Large atypical cells of lymphomatoid papulosis are CD56-negative: a study of 18 cases JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY Harvell, J. D., Vaseghi, M., Natkunam, Y., Kohler, S., Kim, Y. 2002; 29 (2): 88-92

    Abstract

    Histologically, diffuse dermal infiltrates of large atypical lymphocytes can be seen in lesions as indolent as type C lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) to ones as aggressive as NK/T-cell lymphoma. While lesions of lymphomatoid papulosis are definitionally positive for CD30, their ability to express CD56 has not been formally studied. The objective of the current study was to determine whether or not the large atypical cells of LyP express the natural killer cell marker, CD56.Biopsies from 18 patients with LyP were studied with monoclonal antibodies to CD30, CD56, CD8, and TIA-1. These included four type C LyP lesions. Clinical information was obtained by chart review and included extent of LyP lesions, presence/absence of disease at follow-up, and any associated hematologic malignancies,.None of the biopsies exhibited CD56 positivity within the large atypical cells of LyP. While some biopsies demonstrated CD56-positive, small, presumably reactive, lymphocytes within the infiltrate, their presence did not correlate with extent of disease, persistence of disease, or propensity for an associated non-LyP hematologic malignancy.The large atypical cells of types A and C LyP do not exhibit positivity for CD56, and thus a panel of antibodies that includes CD30 and CD56 can readily distinguish between the benign end of the spectrum of CD30-positive lymphoproliferations and aggressive NK/T-cell lymphoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174804900004

    View details for PubMedID 12150138

  • Apoptosis stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP2) expression differs in diffuse large B-cell and follicular center lymphoma: Correlation with clinical outcome LEUKEMIA & LYMPHOMA Lossos, I. S., Natkunam, Y., Levy, R., Lopez, C. D. 2002; 43 (12): 2309-2317

    Abstract

    ASPP2 interacts with the tumor suppressor protein p53, promotes damage-induced apoptosis, and can specifically stimulate p53 apoptotic function. Thus, ASPP2 may function as a tumor suppressor and/or play a role in the cellular response to cytotoxic injury. To explore the role of ASPP2 in human cancer, we determined ASPP2 expression in two lymphoma subtypes with differing clinical outcomes: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and follicular center lymphoma (FCL). A real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to detect ASPP2 mRNA. Sixty-one DLBCL and twenty-three FCL cases were analyzed and normalized ASPP2 levels were expressed relative to an mRNA standard. We found that ASPP2 mean expression strongly correlated with lymphoma subtype: DLBCL = 11.74 and FCL = 4.99 (p = 0.029, unpaired 2-tailed t-test). Importantly, ASPP2 expression was variable in DLBCL but not FCL (DLBCL-range, 0.04-94.6; FCL-range, 1.2-15.0). In these DLBCL cases, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was an independent predictor of survival with median survival in the high LDH group of 24 months and median survival not achieved in the normal-low LDH group (p = 0.014, Log-Rank Test). Mean ASPP2 levels trended toward an inverse correlation with LDH levels: High LDH, ASPP2 = 6.2; Normal-low LDH, ASPP2 = 18.2 (p = 0.074, unpaired 2-tailed t-test). In the DLBCL cases with ASPP2 levels > 7.8, only 10% (1/10) had a high LDH, in contrast to cases with ASPP2 levels < 7.8 in which 59% (26/44) had a high LDH (p = 0.011, Fisher Exact Test). Thus, low ASPP2 mRNA levels may correlate with poor clinical outcome in lymphoma which is consistent with the hypothesis that ASPP2 may play a role in tumor formation and/or sensitivity to cytotoxic agents. Larger studies as well as analysis of different tumor types are warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/1042819021000040017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178910400009

    View details for PubMedID 12613517

  • Durable remission in recurrent T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma with the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab CLINICAL LYMPHOMA Natkunam, Y., Stanton, T. S., Warnke, R. A., Horning, S. J. 2001; 2 (3): 185-187

    Abstract

    A diagnostic continuum exists between lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease, T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma (TCRBCL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. While TCRBCLs are uncommon, their clinical and morphologic presentation can mimic other Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas from which they must be distinguished for diagnosis and treatment. We present an unusual case of a 30-year-old man with recurrent TCRBCL arising from lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's disease with remarkable response to treatment with the anti-CD20 antibody, rituximab.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173328300009

    View details for PubMedID 11779297

  • Modified cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone therapy for posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease in pediatric patients undergoing solid organ transplantation JOURNAL OF PEDIATRIC HEMATOLOGY ONCOLOGY Suryanarayan, K., Natkunam, Y., Berry, G., Bangs, C. D., Cherry, A., Dahl, G. 2001; 23 (7): 452-455

    Abstract

    The authors report the use of a cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP)-based chemotherapy regimen in treating six children with posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) that developed after solid organ transplantation.The chemotherapy regimen consisted of a 29-day induction with CHOP and then as many as 15 cycles of maintenance therapy using methotrexate and cytarabine alternating with vincristine, adriamycin, mercaptopurine, and prednisone.All patients attained remission. One patient died of sepsis while in remission. Four of the five remaining patients have been followed-up in remission for as long as 8 years without losing the graft. One of the patients experienced relapse after completing therapy and subsequently died with disease.The authors conclude that pediatric patients with PTLD after solid organ transplantation that fails conservative management can be treated successfully with CHOP-based chemotherapy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171516000011

    View details for PubMedID 11878581

  • A unique AML1 (CBF2A) rearrangement, t(1;21)(p32;q22), observed in a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia CANCER GENETICS AND CYTOGENETICS Cherry, A. M., Bangs, C. D., Jones, P., Hall, S., Natkunam, Y. 2001; 129 (2): 155-160

    Abstract

    The AML1 (CBFA2) gene is the most frequent target of chromosomal rearrangements observed in human acute leukemia. These rearrangements include the commonly reported t(8;21)(q22;q22) or AML1/ETO fusion in AML-M2, the t(3;21)(q26;q22) or AML1 fusion with one of three genes, MDS1, EAP or EVI1, in therapy-related AML and MDS, as well as in blast crisis in CML and the t(12;21)(p13;q22) or TEL/AML1 fusion in B-cell ALL. In addition to the t(3;21), other AML1 translocations have also been reported in therapy-related MDS and AML, particularly after treatment with topoisomerase II inhibitors. AML1 gene rearrangements have also been observed less frequently with numerous other chromosomal partners. Here, we describe a patient with AML-M4 and a previously unreported rearrangement involving the AML1 locus and an unknown locus on the short arm of chromosome 1 at 1p32.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171105500011

    View details for PubMedID 11566347

  • Expression of a single gene, BCL-6, strongly predicts survival in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma BLOOD Lossos, I. S., Jones, C. D., Warnke, R., Natkunam, Y., Kaizer, H., Zehnder, J. L., Tibshirani, R., Levy, R. 2001; 98 (4): 945-951

    Abstract

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is characterized by a marked degree of morphologic and clinical heterogeneity. Establishment of parameters that can predict outcome could help to identify patients who may benefit from risk-adjusted therapies. BCL-6 is a proto-oncogene commonly implicated in DLBCL pathogenesis. A real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was established for accurate and reproducible determination of BCL-6 mRNA expression. The method was applied to evaluate the prognostic significance of BCL-6 expression in DLBCL. BCL-6 mRNA expression was assessed in tumor specimens obtained at the time of diagnosis from 22 patients with primary DLBCL. All patients were subsequently treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens. These patients could be divided into 2 DLBCL subgroups, one with high BCL-6 gene expression whose median overall survival (OS) time was 171 months and the other with low BCL-6 gene expression whose median OS was 24 months (P =.007). BCL-6 gene expression also predicted OS in an independent validation set of 39 patients with primary DLBCL (P =.01). BCL-6 protein expression, assessed by immunohistochemistry, also predicted longer OS in patients with DLBCL. BCL-6 gene expression was an independent survival predicting factor in multivariate analysis together with the elements of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) (P =.038). By contrast, the aggregate IPI score did not add further prognostic information to the patients' stratification by BCL-6 gene expression. High BCL-6 mRNA expression should be considered a new favorable prognostic factor in DLBCL and should be used in the stratification and the design of risk-adjusted therapies for patients with DLBCL. (Blood. 2001;98:945-951)

    View details for Web of Science ID 000170364100008

    View details for PubMedID 11493437

  • Analysis of MUM1/IRF4 protein expression using tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry MODERN PATHOLOGY Natkunam, Y., Warnke, R. A., Montgomery, K., Falini, B., van de Rijn, M. 2001; 14 (7): 686-694

    Abstract

    The gene encoding MUM1 was characterized as a possible translocation partner in chromosomal abnormalities involving a significant number of multiple myelomas. The overexpression of the MUM1 protein as a result of translocation t(6;14) (p25;q32) identified MUM1 as a putative regulatory molecule involved in B-cell differentiation and tumorigenesis. The expression of MUM1 protein in multiple myelomas supports this hypothesis. In the current study, using tissue microarray technology, we have tested the expression of the MUM1 protein in 1335 human malignancies and normal tissues. Our data show that the MUM1 protein is expressed in a wide spectrum of hematolymphoid neoplasms and in malignant melanomas but is absent in other human tumors. In addition, in tissue microarrays as well as in conventional paraffin sections, MUM1 staining was found to lack specificity in detecting plasmacytic differentiation as compared with two markers, CD138/Syndecan and VS38, commonly used in paraffin immunohistochemistry for detection of plasma cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000169927200008

    View details for PubMedID 11455001

  • Natural killer/natural killer-like T-Cell lymphoma, CD56+, presenting in the skin: An increasingly recognized entity with an aggressive course JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY Mraz-Gernhard, S., Natkunam, Y., Hoppe, R. T., Leboit, P., Kohler, S., Kim, Y. H. 2001; 19 (8): 2179-2188

    Abstract

    To describe and identify the clinical and pathologic features of prognostic significance for natural killer (NK) and NK-like T-cell (NK/T-cell) lymphoma presenting in the skin.This study was a retrospective review of 30 patients with CD56+ lymphomas initially presenting with cutaneous lesions, with analysis of clinical and histopathologic parameters.The median survival for all patients was 15 months. Those with extracutaneous manifestations at presentation (11 patients) had a shorter median survival of 7.6 months as compared with those without extracutaneous involvement (17 patients), who had a more favorable median survival of 44.9 months (P =.0001). Age, gender, extent of cutaneous involvement, and initial response to therapy had no statistically significant effect on survival. Seven patients (24%) had detectable Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) within neoplastic cells. The patients with tumor cells that coexpress CD30 (seven patients) have not yet reached a median survival after 35 months of follow-up as compared with those with CD30- tumor cells (20 patients), who had a median survival of 9.6 months (P <.02). Routine histopathologic characteristics had no prognostic significance nor did the presence of CD3epsilon, EBV, or multidrug resistance.NK/T-cell lymphoma is an aggressive neoplasm; however, a subset with a more favorable outcome is identified in this study. The presence of extracutaneous disease at presentation is the most important clinical variable and portends a poor prognosis. The extent of initial skin involvement does not reliably predict outcome. Patients from the United States with NK/T-cell lymphoma presenting in the skin have a low incidence of demonstrable EBV in their tumor cells. Patients with coexpression of CD30 in CD56 lymphomas tend to have a more favorable outcome.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168178300009

    View details for PubMedID 11304770

  • Natural killer cell precursor acute lymphoma/leukemia presenting in an infant ARCHIVES OF PATHOLOGY & LABORATORY MEDICINE Natkunam, Y., Cherry, A. M., Cornbleet, P. J. 2001; 125 (3): 413-418

    Abstract

    Lymphoma/leukemia derived from immature natural killer (NK) cells occur most commonly in adults and are characterized by blastic cytologic features and an aggressive outcome. Predilection for extranodal sites and absence of the Epstein-Barr virus associated with mature NK cell malignancies further distinguish this entity. We present a NK precursor acute lymphoma presenting with multiple masses in an infant without circulating blasts or marrow replacement by disease. The diagnostic difficulty arose from several factors, including young age, presentation with multiple masses, blastic cytologic features mistaken for a small, round, blue cell tumor, and the absence of lineage-specific markers. The CD56+, CD34+, CD33+, MPO-, cytoplasmic CD3+, CD45-, CD7-, HLA-DR-, and TdT- immunophenotype of this neoplasm overlaps with previously reported cases of myeloid/NK precursor acute leukemia and blastic NK cell lymphoma/leukemia. This case emphasizes the need for a strong index of suspicion to recognize this rare entity and to distinguish it from solid tumors and other hematolymphoid neoplasms that occur in infancy.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167405000023

    View details for PubMedID 11231495

  • Angiocentric lymphomas (lymphomatous vasculitis) SEMINARS IN DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGY Natkunam, Y., Warnke, R. A. 2001; 18 (1): 67-77

    Abstract

    Angiocentric lymphomas are a heterogeneous spectrum of hematolymphoid malignancies that share a particular histologic characteristic, namely, an angiocentric or perivascular growth pattern. They include a variety of T-, B-, and natural killer-cell derived lymphomas that digress in many clinicopathologic features, immunophenotype, and prognosis. The term angiocentric lymphomas was initially used to refer to natural killer and natural killer-like T-cell lymphomas that show a prominent angiocentric growth pattern. With better immunophenotypic and molecular characterization together with evolving knowledge regarding their biology and pathogenesis, these lymphomas have now been reclassified. Apart from morphology, many features pertinent to the diagnosis of natural killer and natural killer-like T-cell lymphomas are shared by other peripheral T-cell and B-cell lymphomas, and by a subset of leukemias. The salient clinicopathologic features of natural killer and natural killer-like T-cell lymphomas together with the inherent difficulty of their identification and an integrated approach to their diagnosis are outlined in this article.

    View details for DOI 10.1053/sdia.2001.22141

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167281300008

    View details for PubMedID 11296995

  • Co-expression of CD56 and CD30 in lymphomas with primary presentation in the skin: clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical and molecular analyses of seven cases JOURNAL OF CUTANEOUS PATHOLOGY Natkunam, Y., Warnke, R. A., Haghighi, B., Su, L. D., Le Boit, P. E., Kim, Y. H., Kohler, S. 2000; 27 (8): 392-399

    Abstract

    Natural killer and natural killer-like T-cell lymphomas presenting in the skin usually demonstrate aggressive behavior, an angiocentric distribution and a characteristic immunophenotype. In contrast, primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorders form a heterogeneous spectrum including anaplastic large cell lymphomas, the majority of which display a good prognosis. Lymphomas with co-expression of CD56 and CD30 are extremely rare and the significance of this co-expression is unknown.Seven retrospectively identified cases of lymphomas with co-expression of CD56 and CD30 presenting in the skin comprise this study. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus and T-cell receptor gene rearrangement studies were performed on paraffin sections.This subset of cutaneous lymphomas showed a variable clinical course that ranged from resolution without treatment, treatment-failure and recurrence, to death from disease. Histologic, immunophenotypic and molecular studies were of limited utility in predicting prognosis.Cutaneous lymphomas co-expressing CD56 and CD30 share many clinicopathologic features with natural killer and natural killer-like T-cell lymphomas or anaplastic large cell lymphomas, two entities with widely disparate clinical behavior. It is important to recognize that these lymphomas may behave more aggressively than primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphomas do. Longer follow-up and further investigations on larger numbers of cases are necessary to fully characterize this rare subset of cutaneous lymphomas.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088444100003

    View details for PubMedID 10955685

  • Blastic/blastoid transformation of follicular lymphoma - Immunohistologic and molecular analyses of five cases AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Natkunam, Y., Warnke, R. A., Zehnder, J. L., Jones, C. D., Milatovich-Cherry, A., Cornbleet, P. J. 2000; 24 (4): 525-534

    Abstract

    Progression of follicular lymphoma to a higher-grade malignancy frequently heralds a poor prognosis. Clinical transformation is variably accompanied by a spectrum of histologic changes characterized by alteration in growth and cytology. Although several cytogenetic events and potential oncogenes have been documented in this progression, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. We present five patients with an unusual histologic transformation of follicular lymphoma manifested by blastic/blastoid morphology. This transformation is histologically distinct from other types of transformation of follicular lymphoma. All five cases exhibited the t(14;18) translocation and expressed the BCL-2 protein. In addition, two of the five patients showed increased levels of the p53 protein within neoplastic cells implicating a possible role for this oncogene in blastic/blastoid transformation. The lack of BCL-1 and myeloid antigens by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry studies served to distinguish blastic/blastoid transformation of follicular lymphoma from its morphologic mimics. This distinction is clinically important because lymphoblastic and myeloid leukemias require significantly different therapeutic modalities and show better prognosis. Moreover, the lack of Epstein-Barr virus-specific mRNA suggests that this virus is unlikely to participate in blastic/blastoid transformation of follicular lymphoma.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000086211700006

    View details for PubMedID 10757399

  • Utility of paraffin section immunohistochemistry for C-KIT (CD117) in the differential diagnosis of systemic mast cell disease involving the bone marrow AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Natkunam, Y., Rouse, R. V. 2000; 24 (1): 81-91

    Abstract

    Systemic mast cell disease is characterized by an abnormal infiltration of mast cells involving several parenchymal organs and the bone marrow. Its spectrum of clinical and histologic presentation is highly variable and is not necessarily correlated with prognosis. Mast cell disorders presenting as atypical infiltrates in the bone marrow may simulate or be associated with other hematolymphoid malignancies, from which they must be distinguished. The paucity of reliable histochemical and immunohistochemical markers for the detection of mast cells in paraffin sections further confounds this diagnosis. The authors have employed immunohistochemistry for the C-KIT encoded tyrosine kinase receptor protein, CD117, for detection of mast cells on paraffin sections of 89 bone marrow specimens including systemic mast cell disease and other disorders. CD117 staining was found in all cases of mast cell disorders (seven of seven), and in one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis. None of the other myeloid disorders tested (0 of 16), or any of the cases of Hodgkin's disease (0 of 12), B-cell lymphomas (0 of 32), T-cell lymphomas (0 of 3), or histiocytic proliferations (0 of 3) showed staining for CD117. CD117 expression is effective in the separation of mast cell disease from disorders that may simulate it histologically.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084643300010

    View details for PubMedID 10632491

  • Immunoblot analysis of CD34 expression in histologically diverse neoplasms AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY Natkunam, Y., Rouse, R. V., Zhu, S., Fisher, C., van de Rijn, M. 2000; 156 (1): 21-27

    Abstract

    CD34 is a heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein of approximately 110 kd whose function is essentially uncharacterized. First identified in a myeloid leukemia cell line, immunohistological reactivity with anti-CD34 antibodies is also encountered in a histologically diverse subset of nonhematolymphoid neoplasms including angiosarcoma, solitary fibrous tumors, epithelioid sarcomas, spindle cell lipomas, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and myofibroblastomas. Immunohistological reactivity for CD34 in hematopoietic stem cells and endothelial cells has been shown to correspond to the expression of the CD34 protein. With the exception of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, CD34 protein expression has not been investigated in other CD34 immunohistologically reactive nonhematolymphoid neoplasms. We undertook this study to examine whether the observed reactivity for anti-CD34 antibodies in apparently unrelated tumors is due to the expression of the same protein or whether shared epitopes elaborated by other proteins could account for this reactivity. Immunoblot analyses with anti-CD34 antibodies of six different CD34 immunohistologically reactive lesions show the same approximately 110-kd molecular weight protein. In addition, two cases of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans show double bands at approximately 110 kd. Laser-capture microdissection of CD34 immunohistologically reactive epithelioid sarcoma and nonreactive epidermal cells illustrates that this reactivity is specific to tumor cells. These results show that the observed immunohistological reactivity with anti-CD34 antibodies is due to the expression of the CD34 protein and not to shared epitopes on unrelated proteins.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000084773300005

    View details for PubMedID 10623649

  • Aggressive cutaneous NK and NK-like T-cell lymphomas - Clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analyses of 12 cases AMERICAN JOURNAL OF SURGICAL PATHOLOGY Natkunam, Y., SMOLLER, B. R., Zehnder, J. L., Dorfman, R. F., Warnke, R. A. 1999; 23 (5): 571-581

    Abstract

    Natural killer (NK) and NK-like T-cell lymphomas are rare hematolymphoid malignancies that predominate in the upper aerodigestive system. They also involve other extranodal sites, including the skin. Primary cutaneous manifestations of NK and NK-like T-cell lymphomas are uncommon, and the clinicopathologic features are poorly understood. We have studied 12 patients of varied ethnic backgrounds with CD56-positive lymphomas in the skin. Six patients subsequently progressed to disseminated disease. These lymphomas showed the following immunophenotype: CD56+, CD43+, TCRb-, CD3-/+, CD20-, CD30-/+, CD4-, and CD8-. Two cases exhibited T-cell receptor gene rearrangements supporting a T-cell origin for these lymphomas, whereas the remaining 10 cases were likely derived from NK cells. Our results show inconsistent association of these lymphomas with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the multidrug resistance phenotype, and expression of P53. In addition, we found a previously unreported correlation between lymphomas harboring EBV mRNA and the expression of the multidrug resistance phenotype. These lymphomas were aggressive and were associated with rapid clinical progression, treatment failure, multiple relapses, and an average survival of 15 months from the time of diagnosis. Our results indicate the importance of recognizing this disease as a distinct subset of aggressive cutaneous lymphomas that may be diagnosed on the basis of morphology, immunophenotype, and gene rearrangement studies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000080178200012

    View details for PubMedID 10328090

  • Aggressive natural killer-like T-cell malignancy with leukemic presentation following solid organ transplantation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PATHOLOGY Natkunam, Y., Warnke, R. A., Zehnder, J. L., Cornbleet, P. J. 1999; 111 (5): 663-671

    Abstract

    NK-like T-cell malignancies are part of a spectrum of lymphoproliferative diseases that complicate immunosuppression associated with solid organ transplantation. We describe 2 patients with long-standing immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation. Both patients had systemic symptoms that included fever, myalgia, and weight loss. Organ involvement and lymphadenopathy were not initially observed. Unique to these 2 cases are the initial leukemic symptoms, which led to further characterization and identification of NK-like T-cell malignancies. Both patients exhibited an anomalous T/NK phenotype, CD56 positivity, and atypical blastic architecture of the large granular lymphocytes. Clonal rearrangement of T-cell receptor genes was detected in both patients. In 1 patient, a cytogenetic abnormality involving 8q24 was demonstrated. The disease course in both patients was aggressive, with involvement of multiple sites and rapid demise. This study emphasizes the importance of including NK-like T-cell malignancies in the differential diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders associated with immunosuppression and recognizing that an aggressive clinical course may follow leukemic presentation of disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000079920500011

    View details for PubMedID 10230357

  • Epstein-Barr virus strain type and latent membrane protein 1 gene deletions in lymphomas in patients with rheumatic diseases ARTHRITIS AND RHEUMATISM Natkunam, Y., ElenitobaJohnson, K. S., Kingma, D. W., Kamel, O. W. 1997; 40 (6): 1152-1156

    Abstract

    Recent studies have shown that immunomodulatory therapy for the treatment of rheumatic diseases can be associated with the development of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. The present study was undertaken to determine the strain type of EBV in lymphoproliferative disorders that occur in patients with rheumatic disease and to investigate EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) gene deletions that occur in these lymphoproliferative disorders.Ten EBV-associated lymphoid neoplasms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis or dermatomyositis were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to determine EBV strain type and to investigate for the presence of a previously characterized 30-basepair deletion in the LMP-1 gene.The results indicated that lymphoproliferative disorders in these patients can harbor EBV strain type A or B, with a predominance of type A infection (80%). It was also shown that both wild-type and mutated LMP-1 genes can be found in these neoplasms, with the deleted form of the LMP-1 gene occurring in one-third of cases in this series.LMP-1 deletions associated with certain aggressive lymphoid neoplasms are not required for the genesis of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients with rheumatic disease. The relative frequencies of type A and type B EBV strains in these lymphoproliferative disorders show similarities to the frequencies in patients with post-solid organ transplantation immunosuppression-associated lymphoproliferative disorders.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1997XC37600020

    View details for PubMedID 9182927

  • SIMULTANEOUS ACTIVATION OF IG AND OCT-2 SYNTHESIS AND REDUCTION OF SURFACE MHC CLASS-II EXPRESSION BY IL-6 JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Natkunam, Y., Zhang, X. K., Liu, Z. Y., CHENKIANG, S. 1994; 153 (8): 3476-3484

    Abstract

    Terminal differentiation of B cells to plasma cells in vivo is characterized by secretion of Ig and extinction of MHC class II expression on the cell surface. We show that IL-6 signaling leads to marked increases in the synthesis and secretion of Ig in clonal human B cell lines and newly isolated polyclonal B lymphocytes in vitro. The IL-6-induced cells resemble plasma cells in ultrastructure and in reduced expression of surface MHC class II. Enhanced Ig synthesis is a result of coordinated transcriptional activation of Ig genes without promoter or isotype specificity, and differential accumulation of the mRNA encoding the secreted form of Ig heavy chain. It is saturable and subject to negative control when IL-6 stimulation is prolonged. Coordinate with temporal changes in Ig synthesis, the DNA-binding activity and the synthesis of the B cell-enriched transcription factor Oct-2 are regulated. Thus, differentiation of B cells with IL-6 in vitro recapitulates the hallmarks of terminal B differentiation in vivo; Oct-2 may have a role in this process.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994PM58100012

    View details for PubMedID 7930570

  • NUCLEAR SIGNALING BY INTERLEUKIN-6 CURRENT OPINION IN IMMUNOLOGY CHENKIANG, S., Hsu, W., Natkunam, Y., Zhang, X. K. 1993; 5 (1): 124-128

    Abstract

    The molecular analysis of the regulation of nuclear proteins induced by interleukin-6 has provided new insights into this largely unknown signal transduction pathway. Transcription factors of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein and AP-1 families, as well as the octamer-binding proteins and the tumor suppressor gene product pRB, are regulated by interleukin-6 in a cell type specific manner, suggesting that they may play a role in the nuclear signaling by interleukin-6.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KN29300020

    View details for PubMedID 8452668

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